Overblog
Suivre ce blog
Administration Créer mon blog
5 avril 2015 7 05 /04 /avril /2015 04:02

http://www.all-laptopfan.com/,http://www.all-keyboard.com/,http://www.laptopbattery-shop.co.uk/

In December 2013, two suicide bombers stormed the headquarters of TV station Salaheddin and killed five journalists, after accusing the station of "distorting the image of Iraq's Sunni community". Reporters Without Borders reported that on 7 September 2014, ISIL seized and on 11 October publicly beheaded Raad al-Azzawi, a TV Salaheddin cameraman from the village of Samra, east of Tikrit.355 SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan

As of October 2014, according to the Journalistic Freedoms Observatory, ISIL is holding nine journalists and has nine others under close observation in Mosul and Salahuddin province.354HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

During 2013 and part of 2014, an ISIL unit nicknamed the Beatles acquired and held 12 Western journalists hostage, along with aid workers and other foreign hostages, totalling 23 or 24 known hostages. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

A Polish journalist Marcin Suder was captured in July 2013 but escaped four months later.356 The unit executed American journalists James Foley and Steven Sotloff and released beheading videos. Eight of the other journalists were released for ransom: Danish journalist Daniel Rye Ottosen, HP 519004-001 Laptop Keyboard

French journalists Didier François, Edouard Elias, Nicolas Hénin, and Pierre Torres, and Spanish journalists Marc Marginedas, Javier Espinosa, and Ricardo García Vilanova. HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

The unit continues to hold hostage British journalist John Cantlie and a female aid worker.357

Cyber-security group the Citizen Lab released a report finding a possible link between ISIL and a digital attack on the Syrian citizen media group Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently (RSS). Supporters of the media group received an emailed link to an image of supposed airstrikes, HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

but clicking on the link introduced malware to the user's computer that sends details of the user's IP address and system each time it restarts. That information has been enough to allow ISIL to locate RSS supporters. "The group has been targeted for kidnappings, house raids, and at least one alleged targeted killing. At the time of that writing, ISIL was allegedly holding several citizen journalists in Raqqa," according to the Citizen Lab report. DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

On 8 January 2015, ISIL members in Libya claimed to have executed Tunisian journalists Sofiene Chourabi and Nadhir Ktari who disappeared in September 2014.359Also in January 2015, Japanese journalist Kenji Goto Jogo was captured after travelling to Raqqah and displayed on video with another Japanese citizen with a demand for $200 million ransom. DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard

An unknown number of Syrians and Iraqis, several Lebanese soldiers, at least ten Kurds, two American journalists, one American and two British aid workers, and three Libyans have been beheaded by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. ISIL uses beheadings to intimidate local populations and has released a series of propaganda videos aimed at Western countries.360 French Macaron Pillow,Creative Cushion - Matty's

They also engage in public and mass executions, sometimes forcing prisoners to dig their own graves before shooting lines of prisoners and pushing them in.361362 ISIL was reported to have beheaded about 100 foreign fighters as deserters who tried to leaveRaqqa.UNESCO's Director-General Irina Bokova has warned that ISIL is destroying Iraq's cultural heritage, in what she has called "cultural cleansing". "SONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery

We don't have time to lose because extremists are trying to erase the identity, because they know that if there is no identity, there is no memory, there is no history", she said. Referring to the ancient cultures of Christians, Yazidis and other minorities, she said, "This is a way to destroy identity. You deprive them of their culture, you deprive them of their history, their heritage, and that is why it goes hand in hand with genocide. SONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery

Along with the physical persecution they want to eliminate – to delete – the memory of these different cultures. ... we think this is appalling, and this is not acceptable."364 Saad Eskander, head of Iraq's National Archives said, "For the first time you have cultural cleansing... For the Yazidis, religion is oral, nothing is written. By destroying their places of worship ... you are killing cultural memory. It is the same with the Christians – it really is a threat beyond belief."SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery

To finance its activities, ISIL is stealing artefacts from Syria366 and Iraq and sending them to Europe to be sold. It is estimated that ISIL raises US$200 million a year from cultural looting. UNESCO has asked for United Nations Security Councilcontrols on the sale of antiquities, similar to those imposed after the 2003 Iraq War. SONY VAIO PCG-21212V battery

UNESCO is working with Interpol, national customs authorities, museums, and major auction houses in attempts to prevent looted items from being sold.365 ISIL occupied Mosul Museum, the second most important museum in Iraq, as it was about to reopen after years of rebuilding following the Iraq War, saying that the statues were against Islam and threatening to destroy the museum's contents.367368SONY VAIO PCG-21213V battery

ISIL considers worshipping at graves tantamount to idolatry, and seeks to purify the community of unbelievers. It has used bulldozers to crush buildings and archaeological sites.368 Bernard Haykel has described al-Baghdadi's creed as "a kind of untamed Wahhabism", saying, "For Al Qaeda, violence is a means to an ends; for ISIS, it is an end in itself".170 SONY VAIO PCG-21214V battery

The destruction by ISIL in July 2014 of the tomb and shrine of the prophet Yunus—Jonah in Christianity—the 13th-century mosque of Imam Yahya Abu al-Qassimin, the 14th-century shrine of prophet Jerjis—St George to Christians—and the attempted destruction of the Hadba minaret at the 12th-century Great Mosque of Al-Nuri have been described as "an unchecked outburst of extreme Wahhabism".369Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

"There were explosions that destroyed buildings dating back to the Assyrian era", said National Museum of Iraq director Qais Rashid, referring to the destruction of the shrine of Yunus. He cited another case where "Daesh (ISIL) gathered over 1,500 manuscripts from convents and other holy places and burnt all of them in the middle of the city square".370 Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery

In March 2015, ISIL reportedly bulldozed the 13th-century BC Assyrian city of Nimrud, believing its sculptures to be idolatrous. UNESCO head Irina Bokova deemed this to be a war crime.371

There is also the fear that warfare waged on any side will harm cultural heritage. "The worst thing about wars is that they do not distinguish between the past and the future", SONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery

Mosul calligrapher and conservationist Abdallah Ismail told a local correspondent for the German-funded publication Niqash.org. He suggested that ISIL was "taking the pulse" of the local population to see how it would react to their appetite for destruction. Philippe Lalliot, France's ambassador to UNESCO gave this perspective: "When people die in their tens of thousands, must we be concerned about cultural cleansing? Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery

Yes, definitely yes ... It's because culture is a powerful incentive for dialogue that the most extreme and the most fanatical groups strive to annihilate it."370 According to the London Charter and several Hague Conventions, the deliberate destruction of historical sites and places of worship, unless such destruction is a necessity during war, is a war crime. SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan

According to media reports, ISIL has established a system for harvesting and selling human organs from fighters, captives, and hostages, including minority children in Mosul and other areas. ISIL is using imported teams of doctors who are not allowed to interact with local medical staff.

ISIL has received severe criticism from other Muslims, especially religious scholars and theologians. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

In late August 2014, the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al ash-Sheikh, condemned the Islamic State and al-Qaeda saying, "Extremist and militant ideas and terrorism which spread decay on Earth, destroying human civilisation, are not in any way part of Islam, but are enemy number one of Islam, and Muslims are their first victims".377 DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

In late September 2014, 126 Sunni imams and Islamic scholars—primarily Sufi378—from around the Muslim world signed an open letter to the Islamic State's leader al-Baghdadi, explicitly rejecting and refuting his group's interpretations of Islamic scriptures, the Qur'an and hadith, used by it to justify its actions.379380 "You have misinterpreted Islam into a religion of harshness, brutality, torture and murder ... HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

this is a great wrong and an offence to Islam, to Muslims and to the entire world", the letter states.381 It rebukes the Islamic State for its killing of prisoners, describing the killings as "heinous war crimes" and its persecution of the Yazidis of Iraq as "abominable". Referring to the "self-described 'Islamic State'", HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

the letter censures the group for carrying out killings and acts of brutality under the guise of jihad—holy struggle—saying that its "sacrifice" without legitimate cause, goals and intention "is not jihad at all, but rather, warmongering and criminality".381382 It also accuses the group of instigating fitna—sedition—by instituting slavery under its rule in contravention of theanti-slavery consensus of the Islamic scholarly community.381 DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

Other scholars have described the group as not Sunnis, but Khawarij.

The group's declaration of a caliphate has been criticised and its legitimacy disputed by Middle Eastern governments, other jihadist groups,384 and Sunni Muslim theologians and historians. Qatar-based TV broadcaster and theologian Yusuf al-Qaradawistated: "Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

The declaration issued by the Islamic State is void under sharia and has dangerous consequences for the Sunnis in Iraq and for the revolt in Syria", adding that the title of caliph can "only be given by the entire Muslim nation", not by a single group.Two days after the beheading of Hervé Gourdel, hundreds of Muslims gathered in the Grand Mosque of Paris to show solidarity against the beheading. HP Pavilion DV9233EU Laptop Keyboard

The protest was led by the leader of the French Council of the Muslim Faith, Dalil Boubakeur, and was joined by thousands of other Muslims around the country under the slogan "Not in my name".386387 French president François Hollande said Gourdel's beheading was "cowardly" and "cruel", and confirmed that airstrikes would continue against ISIL in Iraq. DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard

Hollande also called for three days of national mourning, with flags flown at half-mast throughout the country and said that security would be increased throughout Paris.

The group has attracted widespread criticism internationally for its extremism, from governments and international bodies such as the United Nations and Amnesty International. Compaq Presario CQ57 Laptop Keyboard

On 24 September 2014, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon stated: "As Muslim leaders around the world have said, groups like ISIL – or Da’ish – have nothing to do with Islam, and they certainly do not represent a state. They should more fittingly be called the 'Un-Islamic Non-State'."388 The group was described as a cult in a Huffington Post column by notable cult authority Steven Hassan. HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard

The declaration of a new caliphate in June 2014 and the name "Islamic State" have been criticised and ridiculed by Muslim scholars and rival Islamists inside and outside the territory it controls.61626364 In a speech in September 2014, President Obama said that ISIL is not "Islamic" on the basis that no religion condones the killing of innocents and that no government recognises the group as a state,68 DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

and many object to using the name "Islamic State" owing to the far-reaching religious and political claims to authority which that name implies. The United Nations Security Council, the United States, Canada, Turkey, Australia, Russia, the United Kingdom  and other countries generally call the group "ISIL", while much of the Arab world uses the Arabic acronym "Dāʻish". DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

France's Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said "This is a terrorist group and not a state. I do not recommend using the term Islamic State because it blurs the lines between Islam, Muslims, and Islamists. The Arabs call it 'Daesh' and I will be calling them the 'Daesh cutthroats.'"394 Retired general John Allen, the US envoy to co-ordinate the coalition, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2774 Keyboard

US military Lieutenant General James Terry, head of operations against the group, and Secretary of State John Kerry have all shifted toward the term DAESH by December 2014.

In late August 2014, a leading Islamic educational institution, Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah in Egypt, advised Muslims to stop calling the group "Islamic State" and instead refer to it as "Al-Qaeda Separatists in Iraq and Syria" or "QSIS", SONY Vaio VGN-AW Laptop Keyboard

because of the militant group's "un-Islamic character".396397 When addressing the United Nations Security Council in September 2014, Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott summarised the widespread objections to the name "Islamic State" thus: "To use this term Islamic State is to dignify a death cult; a death cult that, in declaring itself a caliphate, has declared war on the world".398 The group is very sensitive about its name. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

"They will cut your tongue out even if you call them ISIS – you have to say 'Islamic State'", said a woman in ISIL-controlled Mosul.In mid-October 2014, representatives of the Islamic Society of Britain, the Association of British Muslims and the UK's Association of Muslim Lawyers proposed that "'Un-Islamic State' (UIS) could be an accurate and fair alternative name to describe this group and its agenda", further stating, Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

"We need to work together and make sure that these fanatics don't get the propaganda that they feed off."400401 The "Islamic State" is mocked on social media websites such as Twitter and YouTube, with the use of hashtags, mock recruiting ads, fake news articles and YouTube videos.402 One parody, by a Palestinian TV satire show, portrays ISIL as "buffoon-like hypocrites", and has had more than half a million views on YouTube. HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard

In mid-February 2015, Graeme Wood, a lecturer in political science at Yale University said in the Atlantic, "Muslims who call the Islamic State un-Islamic are typically, as the Princeton scholar Bernard Haykel, the leading expert on the group’s theology, told me, “embarrassed and politically correct, with a cotton-candy view of their own religion” that neglects “what their religion has historically and legally required.” HP G72-227WM Laptop Keyboard

Many denials of the Islamic State’s religious nature, he said, are rooted in an “interfaith-Christian-nonsense tradition.”34 Wood further states, "The reality is that the Islamic State is Islamic. Very Islamic. Yes, it has attracted psychopaths and adventure seekers, drawn largely from the disaffected populations of the Middle East and Europe. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

But the religion preached by its most ardent followers derives from coherent and even learned interpretations of Islam."Mehdi Hasan, a political journalist said in the New Statesman, "Whether Sunni or Shia, Salafi or Sufi, conservative or liberal, Muslims – and Muslim leaders – have almost unanimously condemned and denounced Isis not merely as un-Islamic but actively anti-Islamic." HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

404 The British Historian, Tom Holland, writing for the New Statesman said, "Islamic State, in its conceit that it has trampled down the weeds and briars of tradition and penetrated to the truth of God’s dictates, is recognisably Salafist. When Islamic State fighters smash the statues of pagan gods, they are following the example of the Prophet; when they proclaim themselves the shock troops of a would-be global empire, HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

they are following the example of the warriors of the original caliphate; when they execute enemy combatants, and impose discriminatory taxes on Christians, and take the women of defeated opponents as slaves, they are doing nothing that the first Muslims did not glory in. Such behaviour is certainly not synonymous with Islam; but if not Islamic, then it is hard to know what else it is."405FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard

Hassan Hassan, an analyst at the Delma Institute, wrote in The Guardian that because the Islamic State "bases its teachings on religious texts that mainstream Muslim clerics do not want to deal with head on, new recruits leave the camp feeling that they have stumbled on the true message of Islam.Former Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom, David Miliband concluded the 2003 invasion of Iraq caused the creation of ISIL.407Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

By 2014, ISIL was increasingly being viewed as a militia rather than as a terrorist group.408 As major Iraqi cities fell to ISIL in June 2014, Jessica Lewis, a former US army intelligence officer at the Institute for the Study of War, described ISIL as "not a terrorism problem anymore", but rather "an army on the move in Iraq and Syria, and they are taking terrain. They have shadow governments in and around Baghdad, and they have an aspirational goal to govern. HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

I don't know whether they want to control Baghdad, or if they want to destroy the functions of the Iraqi state, but either way the outcome will be disastrous for Iraq." Lewis has called ISIL "an advanced military leadership". She said, "They have incredible command and control and they have a sophisticated reporting mechanism from the field that can relay tactics and directives up and down the line.  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

They are well-financed, and they have big sources of manpower, not just the foreign fighters, but also prisoner escapees."408

While officialswhich? fear that ISIL may either inspire attacks in the United States by sympathisers or by those returning after joining ISIL, US intelligence agencies find there is no immediate threat or specific plots. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Former US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel sees an "imminent threat to every interest we have", but former top counterterrorism adviser Daniel Benjamin has derided such alarmist talk as a "farce" that panics the public.Some news commentators, such as international newspaper columnist Gwynne Dyer,410 and samples of American public opinion, such as surveys by NPR,have advocated a strong but measured response to ISIL's recent provocative acts.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Conspiracy theorists in the Arab world have advanced rumours that the US is secretly behind the existence and emboldening of ISIL, as part of an attempt to further destabilise the Middle East. After such rumours became widespread, the US embassy in Lebanon issued an official statement denying the allegations, calling them a complete fabrication.412  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

Otherswhich? are convinced that ISIL leader al-Baghdadi is an Israeli Mossad agent and actor called Simon Elliot. The rumours claim that NSA documents leaked by Edward Snowden reveal this connection. Snowden's lawyer has called the story "a hoax."ISIL's expanding claims to territory have brought it into armed conflict with many governments, militias and other armed groups.  HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

International rejection of ISIL as a terrorist entity and rejection of its claim to even exist have placed it in conflict with countries around the world.Turkey has been accused of supporting or colluding with ISIL, especially by Syrian Kurds. According to journalist Patrick Cockburn, there is "strong evidence for a degree of collaboration" between the Turkish intelligence services and ISIL, although the "exact nature of the relationship ... remains cloudy".4COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

93David L. Phillips of Columbia University's Institute for the Study of Human Rights, who compiled a list of allegations and claims accusing Turkey of assisting ISIL, writes that these allegations "range from military cooperation and weapons transfers to logistical support, financial assistance, and the provision of medical services".494HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

Several ISIL fighters and commanders have claimed Turkey supports ISIL.495496497 Within Turkey itself, ISIL is believed to have caused increasing political polarisation between secularists and Islamists.498

Turkey has been further criticised for allowing individuals from outside the region to enter its territory and join ISIL in Syria.499500 HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

With many Islamist fighters passing through Turkey to fight in Syria, Turkey has been accused of becoming a transit country for such fighters and has been labelled the "Gateway to Jihad".501 Turkish border patrol officers are reported to have deliberately overlooked those entering Syria upon the payment of a small bribe.501 A report by Sky News exposed documents showing that passports of foreign Islamists wanting to join ISIL by crossing into Syria had been stamped by the Turkish government.502 DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

An ISIL commander stated that "most of the fighters who joined us in the beginning of the war came via Turkey, and so did our equipment and supplies",497503 adding that ISIL fighters received treatment in Turkish hospitals.

Although Saudi Arabia's government rejected these claims,504 the Iraqi President Nouri al-Maliki accused Saudi Arabia of funding ISIL.505 SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

Some media outlets likeNBC, BBC, and The New York Times and the US-based think tank Washington Institute for Near East Policy have written of individual Saudi donations to the group, and the Saudi state's decade long sponsorship of Salafism around the world, but have concluded that there is no evidence of direct Saudi state support for ISIL.  Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

During the Syrian Civil War, multiple parties in the conflict have accused the Syrian government of collusion with Isil to some degree. Several sources have claimed that Isil prisoners were strategically released from Syrian prisons at the beginning of the Syrian Civil War in 2011.511 The Syrian government has bought oil directly from ISIS,512HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

and in March 2015 a European Union report brought to light that the Syrian government and ISIL jointly run a HESCO gas plant in Tabqa, central Syria; the facility continues to supply government-held areas, and electricity continues to be supplied to ISIL-held areas from government-run power plants.513HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

United States Secretary of State John Kerry has stated that the Syrian government has tactically avoided Isis forces in order to weaken moderate opposition such as the Free Syrian Army,514 as well as "even purposely ceding some territory to them ISIS in order to make them more of a problem so he can make the argument that he is somehow the protector against them".515 ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

A IHS Jane's Terrorism and Insurgency Center database analysis confirmed that only 6% of Syrian government forces attacks were targeted at ISIL in Jan 1–Nov 21, 2014, while in the same period only 13% of all ISIS attacks targeted government forces.510 The National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces has stated that the Syrian government has operatives inside ISIS,516 as has the leadership ofAhrar ash-Sham.51ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

7 ISIS members captured by the FSA have claimed that they were directed to commit attacks by Syrian government operatives.

Rand Paul, the junior Senator from Kentucky, accused the US government of allying with ISIL in the Syrian Civil War by arming their allies and fighting their enemies in that country.519520   LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

Abu Yusaf, a commander of the ISIL, said in August 2014 that many of the Free Syrian Army members who had been trained by United States' and Turkish and Arab military officers were now actually joining ISIL.521 In September 2014, some US-backed Syrian rebels and ISIL signed a "non-aggression" agreement.A UN report estimated a total of 15,000 fighters from over 80 countries in ISIL's ranks as of November 2014.52 Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

4 US intelligence estimated an increase to around 20,000 foreign fighters in February 2015, including 3,400 from Western countries.Statistics gathered by nation indicate up to: 3,000 from Tunisia,526527 2,500 from Saudi Arabia,526527 1,700 from Russia,5281,500 from Jordan,527 1,500 from Morocco,527 1,200 from France,527 1,000 from Turkey,529 900 from Lebanon,527COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

650 from Germany,530 600 from the United Kingdom,526527 600 from Libya,527 500 from Uzbekistan,527 500 from Pakistan,527 440 from Belgium,527 360 from Turkmenistan,527 360 from Egypt,527 350 from Serbia,531 330 from Bosnia,527 300 from China,532 300 from Kosovo,533 300 from Sweden,534 250 from Australia,535 250 from Kazakhstan,527 Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

250 from the Netherlands,527 200 from Austria,536 200 from Algeria,527 190 from Tajikistan,527 180 from the United States,525 150 from Norway,537 150 from Denmark,527 140 from Albania,531 130 from Canada,538 120 from Israel/Palestine,527 110 from Yemen,527 100 from Sudan,527 100 from Kyrgyzstan,527 100 from Spain,539 80 from Italy,527 HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

70 from Somalia,527 70 from Kuwait,527 70 from Finland,527 50 from Ukraine,527 40 from Switzerland,527 30 from Ireland,527 and 18 from India.ISIL relies mostly on captured weapons. Major sources are Saddam Hussein's Iraqi stockpiles from the 2003–11 Iraq insurgency541 and weapons from government and opposition forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War and during the post-US withdrawal Iraqi insurgency. HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

The captured weapons, including armour, guns, surface-to-air missiles, and even some aircraft, enabled rapid territorial growth and facilitated the capture of additional equipment.

The group has a long history of using truck and car bombs, suicide bombers, and IEDs, and has used chemical weapons in Iraq and Syria. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

ISIL captured nuclear materials from Mosul University in July 2014, but is unlikely to be able to turn them into weapons.ISIL is known for its extensive and effective use of propaganda.545546 It uses a version of the Muslim Black Standard flag and developed an emblem which has clear symbolic meaning in the Muslim world.547SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

In November 2006, shortly after the group's rebranding as the "Islamic State of Iraq", the group established the al-Furqan Institute for Media Production, which produces CDs, DVDs, posters, pamphlets, and web-related propaganda products.548 ISIL's main media outlet is the I'tisaam Media Foundation,549 which was formed in March 2013 and distributes through the Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF).550 DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

When ISIL announced it's expansion to other countries in November 2014 it established media departments for the new branches, and it's media apparatus ensured that the new branches follow the same models it uses in Iraq and Syria.In 2014, ISIL established the al-Hayat Media Centre, which targets a Western audience and produces material in English, German, Russian and French.5HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard

Also in 2014, ISIL launched the Ajnad Media Foundation, which releases jihadist audio chants.554 In December 2014, FBI Director James Comey stated that ISIL's "propaganda is unusually slick. They are broadcasting... in something like 23 languages".From July 2014, al-Hayat began publishing a digital magazine called Dabiq, in a number of different languages including English. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

According to the magazine, its name is taken from the town of Dabiq in northern Syria, which is mentioned in a hadith aboutArmageddon.ISIL's use of social media has been described by one expert as "probably more sophisticated than that of most US companies".545557 It regularly takes advantage of social media, particularly Twitter, to distribute its message by organising hashtag campaigns, encouraging Tweets on popular hashtags, LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

and utilising software applications that enable ISIL propaganda to be distributed automatically via its supporters' accounts.558559 Another comment is that "ISIS puts more emphasis on social media than other jihadi groups... They have a very coordinated social media presence."560 In August 2014, Twitter administrators shut down a number of accounts associated with ISIL. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

ISIL recreated and publicised new accounts the next day, which were also shut down by Twitter administrators.561 The group has attempted to branch out into alternative social media sites, such as Quitter, Friendica and Diaspora; Quitter and Friendica, however, almost immediately worked to remove ISIL's presence from their sites.562HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard

In a switch from its former practices, ISIL's media arm imposed a social media blackout on 27 September 2014, fearing that tweets and posts would give away military positions.563 ISIL has also attempted to present a more "rational argument" in its series of "press release/discussions" performed by hostage/captive John Cantlie and posted on YouTube.  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

In one "Cantlie presentation", various current and former US officials were quoted, such as US PresidentBarack Obama and former CIA Officer Michael Scheuer.

In 2014, the RAND Corporation carried out a study of 200 documents — personal letters, expense reports and membership rosters — which had been captured fromIslamic State of Iraq (al-Qaeda in Iraq).565 HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard

It found that from 2005 until 2010, outside donations amounted to only 5% of the group's operating budgets, with the rest being raised within Iraq.565 In the time period studied, cells were required to send up to 20% of the income generated from kidnapping, extortion rackets and other activities to the next level of the group's leadership. Higher-ranking commanders would then redistribute the funds to provincial or local cells that were in difficulties or needed money to conduct attacks.56Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

5 The records show that the Islamic State of Iraq was dependent on members from Mosul for cash, which the leadership used to provide additional funds to struggling militants in Diyala, Salahuddin and Baghdad.565

In mid-2014, Iraqi intelligence obtained information from an ISIL operative which revealed that the organisation had assets worth US$2 billion,566 making it the richest jihadist group in the world.567 SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

About three-quarters of this sum is said to be represented by assets seized after the group captured Mosul in June 2014; this includes possibly up to US$429 million looted from Mosul's central bank, along with additional millions and a large quantity of gold bullion stolen from a number of other banks in Mosul.568569 However, doubt was later cast on whether ISIL was able to retrieve anywhere near that sum from the central bank,570 and even on whether the bank robberies had actually occurred.571Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

Exporting oil from oilfields captured by ISIL brings in tens of millions of dollars.179572 One US Treasury official has estimated that ISIL earns US$1 million a day from the export of oil. Much of the oil is sold illegally in Turkey.573 Dubai-based energy analysts have put the combined oil revenue from ISIL's Iraqi-Syrian production as high as US$3 million per day.574 ISIL also extracts wealth through taxation and extortion.573HP G71-340US CPU Fan

Today, the majority of the group's funding comes from the production and sale of energy. It controls around 300 oil wells in Iraq alone. At its peak, it operated 350 oil wells in Iraq, but lost 45 to foreign airstrikes. It has captured 60% of Syria's total production capacity. About one fifth of its total capacity is in operation. ISIL earned US$2.5 million a day by selling 50,000–60,000 barrels of oil daily.573575Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

Foreign sales rely on a long-standing black market to export via Turkey. Many of the smugglers and corrupt Turkish border guards who helped Saddam Hussein to evade sanctions are helping ISIL to export oil and import cash.575576577 Energy sales include selling electric power from captured power plants in northern Syria; some of this electricity is reportedly sold back to the Syrian government.578HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Sales of artifacts may be the second largest source of funding for ISIL, according to an article in Newsweek. More than a third of Iraq's important sites are under ISIL's control. It looted the 9th century BC grand palace of the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II at Kalhu. Tablets, manuscripts and cuneiforms were sold, worth hundreds of millions of dollars.  HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

Stolen artefacts are smuggled into Turkey and Jordan. Abdulamir al-Hamdani, an archaeologist from SUNY Stony Brook, has said that ISIL is "looting... the very roots of humanity, artifacts from the oldest civilizations in the world".The group routinely practices extortion, by demanding money from truck drivers and threatening to blow up businesses, for example.  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

Robbing banks and gold shops has been another source of income.247 The Iraq government indirectly finances ISIS, as they continue to pay the salaries of the thousands of government employees who continue to work in areas controlled by ISIS, which then confiscates as much as half of those Iraqi government employees' pay.

ISIL is widely reported as receiving funding from private donors in the Gulf states,58HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

and the governments of Iraq and Iran have repeatedly accused Saudi Arabia and Qatar of financing and supporting the group. Ahead of the conference of the US-led anti-ISIL coalition held in Paris in September 2014, France's foreign minister acknowledged that a number of countries at the table had "very probably" financed ISIL's advances.582

Although Iran and Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki have accused Saudi Arabia and Qatar of funding the group,5HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

there is reportedly no evidence that this is the case.123586587588 However, according to The Atlantic, ISIL may have been a major part of Saudi Arabian Bandar bin Sultan's covert-ops strategy in Syria.589

Unregistered charity organisations are used as fronts to pass funds to ISIL. As they use aliases on Facebook'sWhatsApp and Kik, the individuals and organisations are untraceable.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Donations transferred to fund ISIL's operations are disguised as "humanitarian charity". Saudi Arabia has imposed a blanket ban on unauthorised donations destined for Syria as the only means of stopping such funding.575

Since 2012, ISIL has produced annual reports giving numerical information on its operations, somewhat in the style of corporate reports, seemingly in a bid to encourage potential donors.545590HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

On 11 November 2014, ISIL announced its intent to mint its own gold, silver, and copper coins, based on the coinage used by the Umayyad Caliphate in the 7th century. Following the announcement, the group began buying up gold, silver, and copper in markets throughout northern and western Iraq, according to precious metal traders in the area. Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

Members of the group also reportedly began stripping the insulation off electrical power cables to obtain the copper wiring.591592 The announcement included designs of the proposed coins, which displayed imagery including a map of the world, a sword and shield, the Al-Aqsa Mosque, and a crescent moon. Economics experts, such as Professor Steven H. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

Hanke of Johns Hopkins University, were sceptical of the plans.592593 See also Modern gold dinar. Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan,HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

Published by batterys
commenter cet article
2 avril 2015 4 02 /04 /avril /2015 06:58

http://www.all-laptopfan.com/,http://www.all-keyboard.com/,http://www.laptopbattery-shop.co.uk/

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant , also known asIslamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS /ˈaɪsɪs/) or Islamic State,is an Islamic extremist rebel group controlling territory in Syria, Iraq, and Libya, with operations or affiliates inLebanon, Nigeria, Egypt, and other areas of the Middle East, North Africa, West Africa,South Asia, andSoutheast Asia.SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan

The group is known in Arabic as ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fīl-ʿIrāq wash-Shām, leading to the Arabic acronym Da'ish or DAESH . On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be aworldwide caliphate with Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi being named its caliph and also renamed itself Islamic StateDELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

The new name and the idea of a caliphate has been widely criticised and condemned, with the UN, various governments and mainstream Muslim groups refusing to acknowledge it.As caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide and that "the legality of all emirates, groups, states, and organisations, becomes null by the expansion of the khilāfah's (caliphate's) authority and arrival of its troops to their areas".HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

Many Islamic and non-Islamic communities judge the group unrepresentative of Islam. Political scientist Graeme Wood comments on IS that "the religion preached by its most ardent followers derives from coherent and even learned interpretations of Islam".HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated as a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Syria, Egypt, India, and Russia.DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL.The group originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which was renamed Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn—commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)—when the group pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. As Jama'at and later AQI, beginning in August 2003, the group participated in the Iraqi insurgency, which had followed the March 2003 invasion of Iraq.DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard

In January 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council, which in October 2006, proclaimed the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). ISI gained a significant presence in the Al Anbar Governorate, Diyala Governorate and Baghdad Governorate. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

Under the leadership of al-Baghdadi, ISI sent delegates into Syria in August 2011 after the Syrian Civil War had begun in March 2011. This group named itself Jabhat an-Nurah li-Ahli ash-Shām or al-Nusra Front, and established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor and Aleppo. SONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery

In April 2013, al-Baghdadi announced the merger of his ISI with al-Nusra Front, and announced that the name of the reunited group was now Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). However, both al-Julani and al-Zawahiri, the leaders of al-Nusra and of al-Qaeda, rejected the merger. After an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda cut all ties with ISIL on 3 February 2014—citing its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence".SONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery

On 29 June 2014, the group renamed itself: "Islamic State".ISIL is known for its well-funded web and social media propaganda, which includes Internet videos of the beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists and aid workers, as well as the deliberate destruction of cultural heritage sites. SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery

The group gained notoriety after it drove the Iraqi government forces out of key western cities in Iraq. In Syria, it conducted ground attacks against both government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. It gained those territories after an offensive, initiated in early 2014, which senior US military commanders and members of the US House Committee on Foreign Affairs saw as a re-emergence of Sunni insurgents and al-Qaeda militants. SONY VAIO PCG-21212V battery

This territorial loss implied a failure of US foreign policy, and almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi government that prompted renewal of US military action in Iraq.Current advances by Iraqi forces into ISIL-controlled territory are focused on Tikrit.The group has had various names since it was established.42 SONY VAIO PCG-21213V battery

The group was founded in 1999 by Jordanian radical Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, under the name Jamāʻat al-Tawīd wa-al-Jihād, "The Organisation of Monotheism and Jihad" (JTJ).In October 2004, al-Zarqawi swore loyalty to Osama bin Laden and changed the group's name to Tanīm Qāʻidat al-Jihād fī Bilād al-Rāfidayn, "The Organisation of Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia", SONY VAIO PCG-21214V battery

commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq. (AQI). Although the group has never called itself al-Qaeda in Iraq, this has been its informal name over the years.In January 2006, AQI merged with several other Iraqi insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council.Al-Zarqawi was killed in June 2006. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

On 12 October 2006, the Mujahideen Shura Council merged with several more insurgent factions, and on 13 October the establishment of the Dawlah al-ʻIraq al-Islāmiyah, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), was announced.The leaders of this group were Abu Abdullah al-Rashid al-Baghdadi and Abu Ayyub al-Masri. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery

After they were killed in a U.S.–Iraqi operation in April 2010, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadibecame the new leader of the group.On 8 April 2013, having expanded into Syria, the group adopted the name Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, which more fully translates as Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant or Islamic State of Iraq and Syria.These names are translations of the Arabic name al-Dawlah al-Islāmīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-ShāmSONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery

al-Shām being a description of the Levant or Greater Syria.The translated names are commonly abbreviated as ISIL or ISIS, with a debate over which of these acronyms should be used.The Washington Post concluded that the distinction between the two "is not so great".The name Daʿish is often used by ISIL's Arabic-speaking detractors. Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery

It is based on the Arabic letters Dāl, alif, ʻayn, and shīn, which form the acronym(داعش) of ISIL's Arabic name al-Dawlah al-Islamīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-Shām.5354 There are many spellings of this acronym, with DAESH gaining acceptance. ISIL considers the name Da'ish derogatory, because it sounds similar to the Arabic words Daes, "SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan

one who crushes something underfoot", and Dahes, "one who sows discord".ISIL also reportedly uses flogging as a punishment for those who use the name in ISIL-controlled areas.On 14 May 2014, the United States Department of State announced its decision to use "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" (ISIL) as the group's primary name.However, in late 2014, top U.S. officials shifted toward DAESH, since it was the preferred term used by Arab partners.SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

On 29 June 2014, the group renamed itself the Islamic State (IS) and declared it was a worldwide "caliphate". "Accordingly, the 'Iraq and Shām' in the name of the Islamic State is henceforth removed from all official deliberations and communications, and the official name is the Islamic State from the date of this declaration." DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

This name and the idea of a caliphate has been widely criticised, with the UN, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups refusing to use it.Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Jordanian Salafi Jihadist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and his militant group Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad, founded in 1999, achieved notoriety in the early stages of the Iraqi insurgency for the suicide attacks on Shia Islamic mosques, HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

civilians, Iraqi government institutions and Italian soldiers partaking in the U.S.-led 'Multi-National Force'. Al-Zarqawi's group officially pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network in October 2004, changing its name to Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidaynد "Organisation of Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia"), also known as Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI). HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

Attacks by the group on civilians, Iraqi Government and security forces, foreign diplomats and soldiers, and American convoys continued with roughly the same intensity. In a letter to al-Zarqawi in July 2005, al-Qaeda's deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri outlined a four-stage plan to expand the Iraq War. DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

The plan included expelling U.S. forces from Iraq, establishing an Islamic authority as a caliphate, spreading the conflict to Iraq's secular neighbours, and clashing with Israel, which the letter says "was established only to challenge any new Islamic entity".Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

In January 2006, AQI joined hands with several smaller Iraqi insurgent groups under an umbrella organisation called the Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC). This was claimed by Brian Fishman in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science to be little more than a media exercise and an attempt to give the group a more Iraqi flavour and perhaps to distance al-Qaeda from some of al-Zarqawi's tactical errors, HP Pavilion DV9233EU Laptop Keyboard

more notably the 2005 bombings by AQI of three hotels in Amman. On 7 June 2006, a U.S. air-strike killed al-Zarqawi, who was succeeded as leader of the group by the Egyptian militant Abu Ayyub al-Masri.On 12 October 2006, MSC united with three smaller groups and six Sunni Islamic tribes to form the "Mutayibeen Coalition". DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard

It swore by Allah "...to rid Sunnis from the oppression of the rejectionists (Shi'ite Muslims) and the crusader occupiers, ... to restore rights even at the price of our own lives... to make Allah's word supreme in the world, and to restore the glory of Islam...".A day later, MSC declared the establishment of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), which should comprise Iraq's six mostly Sunni Arab governorates,with Abu Omar al-Baghdadi being announced as its Emir. Compaq Presario CQ57 Laptop Keyboard

Al-Masri was given the title of Minister of War within the ISI's ten-member cabinet.According to a study compiled by U.S. intelligence agencies in early 2007, the ISI – also known as AQI – planned to seize power in the central and western areas of the country and turn it into a Sunni Islamic state.HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard

The group built in strength and at its height enjoyed a significant presence in the Iraqi governorates of Al Anbar, Diyala and Baghdad, and claimed Baqubah as a capital city.The U.S. troops surge of 2007 supplied the U.S. military with more manpower for operations targeting the group, resulting in dozens of high-level AQI members being captured or killed.DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

Between July and October 2007, al-Qaeda in Iraq or ISI seemed to have lost their secure military bases in Anbar province and theBaghdad area.During 2008, a series of U.S. and Iraqi offensives managed to drive out the AQI-aligned insurgents from their former safe havens, such as the Diyala and Al Anbar governorates, to the area of the northern city of Mosul, the latest major battleground against ISI.DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

By 2008, the ISI was describing itself as being in a state of "extraordinary crisis".Its violent attempts to govern its territory led to a backlashfrom Sunni Iraqis and other insurgent groups and a temporary decline in the group, which was attributable to a number of factors,notably the Anbar Awakening.In late 2009, the commander of the U.S. forces in Iraq, General Ray Odierno, stated that the ISI "has transformed significantly in the last two years. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2774 Laptop Keyboard

What once was dominated by foreign individuals has now become more and more dominated by Iraqi citizens". On 18 April 2010, the ISI's two top leaders, Abu Ayyub al-Masri andAbu Omar al-Baghdadi, were killed in a joint U.S.-Iraqi raid near Tikrit. In a press conference in June 2010, General Odierno reported that 80% of the ISI's top 42 leaders, including recruiters and financiers, had been killed or captured, with only eight remaining at large. SONY Vaio VGN-AW Laptop Keyboard

He said that they had been cut off from al-Qaeda's leadership in Pakistan.On 16 May 2010, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was appointed as the new leader of the Islamic State of Iraq.Al-Baghdadi replenished the group's leadership, many of whom had been killed or captured, by appointing former Ba'athist military and intelligence officers who had served during the Saddam Hussein regime.Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

These men, nearly all of whom had spent time imprisoned by the U.S. military, came to make up about one-third of Baghdadi's top 25 commanders. One of them was a former Colonel, Samir al-Khlifawi, also known as Haji Bakr, who became the overall military commander in charge of overseeing the group's operations.Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

In July 2012, al-Baghdadi released an audio statement online announcing that the group was returning to the former strongholds from which U.S. troops and theirSunni allies had driven them in 2007 and 2008.99 He also declared the start of a new offensive in Iraq called Breaking the Walls, aimed at freeing members of the group held in Iraqi prisons.HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard

Violence in Iraq had begun to escalate in June 2012, primarily by AQI's car bomb attacks, and by July 2013, monthly fatalities had exceeded 1,000 for the first time since April 2008.In March 2011, protests began in Syria against the government of Bashar al-Assad. In the following months, violence between demonstrators and security forces led to a gradual militarisation of the conflict.HP G72-227WM Laptop Keyboard

In August 2011, al-Baghdadi began sending Syrian and Iraqi ISI members experienced in guerilla warfare across the border into Syria to establish an organisation inside the country. Led by a Syrian known as Abu Muhammad al-Julani, this group began to recruit fighters and establish cells throughout the country.On 23 January 2012, the group announced its formation as Jabhat al-Nusra li Ahl as-Sham—Jabhat al-Nusra—more commonly known as the al-Nusra Front. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

Al-Nusra grew rapidly into a capable fighting force, with popular support among Syrians opposed to the Assad government.On 8 April 2013, al-Baghdadi released an audio statement in which he announced that the al-Nusra Front had been established, financed, and supported by the Islamic State of Iraq, and that the two groups were merging under the name "Islamic State of Iraq and Al-Sham". HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

Al-Jawlani issued a statement denying the merger, and complaining that neither he nor anyone else in al-Nusra's leadership had been consulted about it.In June 2013, Al Jazeera reported that it had obtained a letter written by al-Qaeda's leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, addressed to both leaders, in which he ruled against the merger, and appointed an emissary to oversee relations between them to put an end to tensions.HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

6 The same month, al-Baghdadi released an audio message rejecting al-Zawahiri's ruling and declaring that the merger was going ahead.The ISIL campaign to free imprisoned ISIL members culminated in July 2013, with the group carrying out simultaneous raids on Taji and Abu Ghraib prison, freeing more than 500 prisoners, many of them veterans of the Iraqi insurgency. FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard

In October 2013, al-Zawahiri ordered the disbanding of ISIL, putting al-Nusra Front in charge of jihadist efforts in Syria,but al-Baghdadi contested al-Zawahiri's ruling on the basis of Islamic jurisprudence, and his group continued to operate in Syria. In February 2014, after an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda disavowed any relations with ISIL.Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

According to journalist Sarah Birke, there are "significant differences" between the al-Nusra Front and ISIL. While al-Nusra actively calls for the overthrow of the Assad government, ISIL "tends to be more focused on establishing its own rule on conquered territory". ISIL is "far more ruthless" in building an Islamic state, "carrying out sectarian attacks and imposing sharia law immediately". HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

While al-Nusra has a "large contingent of foreign fighters", it is seen as a home-grown group by many Syrians; by contrast, ISIL fighters have been described as "foreign 'occupiers'" by many Syrian refugees.110 It has a strong presence in central and northern Syria, where it has instituted sharia in a number of towns.Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

The group reportedly controlled the four border towns of Atmeh, al-Bab, Azaz and Jarablus, allowing it to control the entrance and exit from Syria into Turkey.Foreign fighters in Syria include Russian-speaking jihadists who were part of Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar (JMA).In November 2013, the JMA's Chechen leader Abu Omar al-Shishani swore an oath of allegiance to al-Baghdadi;DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

the group then split between those who followed al-Shishani in joining ISIL and those who continued to operate independently in the JMA under new leadership.In January 2014, rebels affiliated with the Islamic Front and the U.S.-trained Free Syrian Army launched an offensive against ISIL militants in and around the city of Aleppo in Syria.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

In May 2014, Ayman al-Zawahiri ordered al-Nusra Front to stop its attacks on its rival, ISIL.In June 2014, after continued fighting between the two groups, al-Nusra's branch in the Syrian town of Al-Bukamal pledged allegiance to ISIL. In mid-June 2014, ISIL captured the Trabil crossing on the Jordan–Iraq border,the only border crossing between the two countries. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

ISIL has received some public support in Jordan, albeit limited, partly owing to state repression there,but ISIL has undertaken a recruitment drive in Saudi Arabia,where tribes in the north are linked to those in western Iraq and eastern Syria.

On 29 June 2014, the organisation proclaimed a Worldwide Caliphate. HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi—known by his supporters as Amir al-Mu'minin, Caliph Ibrahim—was named its Caliph, and the group renamed itself the "Islamic State". As a "Caliphate," it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslimsworldwide.The concept of a Caliphate and the name "Islamic State" has been rejected by governments and Muslim leaders worldwide. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

In June and July 2014, Jordan and Saudi Arabia moved troops to their borders with Iraq, after Iraq lost control of, or withdrew from, strategic crossing points that had then come under the control of ISIL, or tribes that supported ISIL. There was speculation that Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki had ordered a withdrawal of troops from the Iraq–Saudi crossings in order "to increase pressure on Saudi Arabia and bring the threat of ISIS over-running its borders as well".HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

In July 2014, ISIL recruited more than 6,300 fighters, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, some of whom were thought to have previously fought for the Free Syrian Army.Also, on 23 July 2014, Abu Sayyaf leader Isnilon Hapilon swore loyalty to al-Baghdadi in a video, along with the rest of the organisation, giving ISIL a presence in the Philippines.  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

In September 2014, the group began kidnapping people for ransoming, in the name of ISIL.On 3 August 2014, ISIL captured the cities of Zumar, Sinjar, and Wana in northern Iraq.The need for food and water for thousands of Yazidis, who fled up a mountain out of fear of approaching hostile ISIL militants, and the threat of genocide to Yazidis and others as announced by ISIL,  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

in addition to protecting Americans in Iraq and supporting Iraq in its fight against the group, were reasons for the U.S. to launch a humanitarian mission on 7 August 2014, to aid the Yazidis stranded on Mount Sinjar and to start an aerial bombing campaign in Iraq on 8 August. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

On 11 October 2014, ISIL dispatched 10,000 militants from Syria and Mosul to capture the Iraqi capital city of Baghdad, and Iraqi Army forces and Anbar tribesmen threatened to abandon their weapons if the U.S. did not send in ground troops to halt ISIL's advance.On 13 October, ISIL fighters advanced to within 25 kilometres—15.5 miles—of Baghdad Airport.Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

At the end of October 2014, 800 radical militants gained control of the Libyan city of Derna and pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, thus making Derna the first city outside Syria and Iraq to be a part of the "Islamic State Caliphate." On 2 November 2014, according to the Associated Press, in response to the coalition airstrikes, representatives from Ahrar ash-Sham attended a meeting with the al-Nusra Front, HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

the Khorasan Group, ISIL, and Jund al-Aqsa, which sought to unite these hard-line groups against the U.S.-led coalition and moderate Syrian rebel groups.However, by 14 November 2014, it was revealed that the negotiations had failed. On 10 November 2014, a major faction of the Egyptian militant groupAnsar Bait al-Maqdis also pledged its allegiance to ISIL. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

In mid-January 2015, a Yemeni official said that ISIL had "dozens" of members in Yemen, and that they were coming into direct competition with al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula with their recruitment drive.In January 2015, Afghan officials confirmed that ISIL had a military presence in Afghanistan, recruiting over 135 militants by late January. ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

However, by the end of January 2015, 65 of the militants were either captured or killed by the Taliban, and ISIL's top Afghan recruiter, Mullah Abdul Rauf, was killed in a U.S. drone strike in February 2015.In late January 2015, it was revealed that ISIL members infiltrated the European Union and disguised themselves as civilian refugees who were emigrating from the war zones of Iraq and the Levant.ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

An ISIL representative said that ISIL had successfully smuggled 4,000 fighters, and that the smuggled fighters were planning attacks in Europe in retaliation for the airstrikes carried out against ISIL targets in Iraq and Syria. However, experts believe that the claim of 4,000 was exaggerated to boost their stature and spread fear, although they acknowledged that some Western countries were aware of the smuggling. LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

In early February 2015, ISIL militants in Libya managed to capture part of the countryside to the west of Sabha, and later, an area encompassing the cities ofSirte, Nofolia, and a military base to the south of both cities.In February 2015, it was reported that the majority of Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen had dissented from al-Qaeda and pledged allegiance to ISIL. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

On 16 February 2015, Egypt began conducting airstrikes in Libya, in retaliation against ISIL's beheading of 21 Egyptian Christians. By the end of that day, 64 ISIL militants in Libya had been killed by the airstrikes, including 50 militants in Derna.By early March 2015, ISIL had captured additional territory in Libya, including a city to the west of Derna, COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

additional areas near Sirte, a stretch of land in southern Libya, some areas near Benghazi, and an area to the east of Tripoli.On 7 March 2015, Boko Haram swore formal allegiance to ISIL, giving ISIL an official presence in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon.On 13 March 2015, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan swore allegiance to ISIL. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

On 30 March 2015, Ansar al-Sharia in Libya and its leader, Abdullah Al-Libi, pledged allegiance to ISIL.From at least since 2004, a significant goal of the group has been the foundation of an Islamic state. Specifically, ISIL has sought to establish itself as a Caliphate, an Islamic state led by a group of religious authorities under a supreme leader—the Caliph—who is believed to be the successor to Muhammad. HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

In June 2014, ISIL published a document in which it claimed to have traced the lineage of its leader al-Baghdadi back to Muhammad,and upon proclaiming a new Caliphate on 29 June, the group appointed al-Baghdadi as its caliph. As Caliph, he demands the allegiance of all devout Muslims worldwide, according to Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh).HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

When the Caliphate was proclaimed, ISIL stated: "The legality of all emirates, groups, states and organisations becomes null by the expansion of the khilafah's caliphate's authority and arrival of its troops to their areas."155 This was a rejection of the political divisions in the Middle East that were established by Western powers during World War I in the Sykes–Picot Agreement. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

In late 2014, a member of ISIL claimed that they would humiliate U.S. soldiers in Syria and raise the "flag of Allah" over the White House.The same member also threatened to "liberate" Istanbul if Turkey did not open a dam that has been limiting the flow of water to Syria and Iraq.Recruits are encouraged to "set out in jihad" if they "desire what God had promised."SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

Speaking to Westerners, one fighter from Belgium said, "God willing, the Caliphate has been established and we are going to invade you as you invaded us. We will capture your women as you captured our women. We will orphan your children as you orphaned our children."ISIL is a Salafi group.It follows an extreme interpretation of Islam, promotes religious violence, and regards those who do not agree with its interpretations as infidels or apostates.DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

ISIL has demonstrated that ideology and adherence to Islamic beliefs and laws are secondary to its criminal financial enterprises supporting the group's activities.According to Hayder al Khoei, ISIL's philosophy is represented by the symbolism in the Black Standard variant of the legendary battle flag of Muhammad that it has adopted: HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard

the flag shows the Seal of Muhammad within a white circle, with the phrase above it, "There is no God but Allah". Such symbolism has been said to point to ISIL's belief that it represents the restoration of the caliphate of early Islam, with all the political, religious and eschatological ramifications that this would imply.Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

Saudi Arabia was criticised by Noam Chomsky in October 2014 of having "long been the major source of funding for ISIS as well as providing its ideological roots" (i.e. Salafism or Wahhabism).According to Owen Jones at The Guardian, "Salafists across the Middle East receive ideological and material backing from within the kingdom" of Saudi Arabia, and America knows this, LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

with Hillary Clinton having called Saudi donors "the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide".Some people in Saudi Arabia applaud ISIL for fighting Iranian Shi'ite"fire" with Sunni "fire".According to some observers, ISIL emerged from the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, the first post-Ottoman Islamist group dating back to the late 1920s in Egypt.DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

It adheres to global jihadist principles and follows the hard-line ideology of al-Qaeda and many other modern-day jihadist groups.However, other sources trace the group's roots not to the Islamism of the Muslim Brotherhood and the more mainstream jihadism of al-Qaeda, but to Wahhabism. The New York Times wrote: HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard

For their guiding principles, the leaders of the Islamic State ... are open and clear about their almost exclusive commitment to the Wahhabi movement of Sunni Islam. The group circulates images of Wahhabi religious textbooks from Saudi Arabia in the schools it controls. Videos from the group’s territory have shown Wahhabi texts plastered on the sides of an official missionary van. SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

ISIL aims to return to the early days of Islam, rejecting all innovations in the religion, which it believes corrupts its original spirit. It condemns later caliphates and the Ottoman Empire for deviating from what it calls pure Islam, and seeks to revive the original Wahhabi project of the restoration of the caliphate governed by strict Salafist doctrine. HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard

Following Salafi-Wahhabi tradition, ISIL condemns the followers of secular law as disbelievers, putting the current Saudi government in that category.Salafists such as ISIL believe that only a legitimate authority can undertake the leadership of jihad, and that the first priority over other areas of combat, such as fighting non-Muslim countries, is the purification of Islamic society.Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

For example, ISIL regards the Palestinian Sunni group Hamas as apostates who have no legitimate authority to lead jihad and it regards fighting Hamas as the first step toward confrontation with Israel.One difference between ISIL and other Islamist and jihadist movements is its emphasis on eschatology and apocalypticism, and its belief that the arrival of theMahdi is imminent.SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

ISIL believes it will defeat the army of "Rome" at the town of Dabiq in fulfilment of prophecy.According to The New York Times, "All of the most influential jihadist theorists are criticizing the Islamic State as deviant, calling its self-proclaimed caliphate null and void" and have denounced it for its beheading of journalists and aid workers.Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

ISIL is widely denounced by a broad range of Islamic clerics, including al-Qaeda-oriented and Saudi clerics.Sunni critics, including Salafi and jihadist muftis such as Adnan al-Aroor and Abu Basir al-Tartusi, say that ISIL and related terrorist groups are not Sunnis, but modern-day Khawarij—Muslims who have stepped outside the mainstream of Islam—serving an imperial anti-Islamic agenda. HP G71-340US CPU Fan

Other critics of ISIL's brand of Sunni Islam include Salafists who previously publicly supported jihadist groups such as al-Qaeda, for example the Saudi government official Saleh Al-Fawzan, known for his extremist views, who claims that ISIL is a creation of "Zionists, Crusaders and Safavids", and the Jordanian-Palestinian writer Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

the former spiritual mentor to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who was released from prison in Jordan in June 2014 and accuses ISIL of driving a wedge between Muslims.In Iraq and Syria, ISIL uses many of the existing Governorate boundaries to subdivide its claimed territory; it calls these divisions wilayah or provinces.HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

As of February 2015, it claims a total 24 provincial divisions divided between Iraq, Syria, Libya, Egypt (Sinai Peninsula), Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Algeria, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Of these countries, it controls territoryin Iraq, Syria, Sinai, and eastern Libya.ISIL also has members in Morocco, Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Israel and Palestine, but it does not control territory in these areas. HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

ISIL divides Libya into three historical provinces, claiming authority over Cyrenaica in the east, Fezzan in the desert south, andTripolitania in the west, around the capital.On 5 October 2014, the Shura Council of Islamic Youth and other militants in Libya were absorbed and designated the Cyrenaica Province of ISIL. There are 800 fighters reported to be operating within Libya.  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

The Libyan branch of ISIL has been the most active and successful out of all the ISIL branches outside of Iraq and Syria. They appear to be active mainly in the eastern urban centres of Derna and Benghazi. ISIL forces in Libya have also seized control of the city of Derna.On 4 January 2015, ISIL forces in Libya seized control of the eastern countryside of Sabha, executing 14 Libyan soldiers in the process. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

On 30 March 2015, Ansar al-Sharia in Libya and its leader, Abdullah Al-Libi, pledged allegiance to ISIL, boosting the group's membership there to 1,300–8,000 fighters.On 10 November 2014, many members of the group Ansar Bait al-Maqdis took an oath of allegiance to al-Baghdadi, the leader of ISIL. ISIL supporters from the group describe themselves as "Sinai Province" (Arabic: ولاية سيناء‎ Wilayat Sinai). HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

A faction of the Sinai group also operates in the Gaza Strip, which has renamed itself to the Islamic State in Gaza.When Ansar Bait al-Maqdis was dissolved, a large Sinai-based part of the group pledging allegiance to ISIL assumed the designation Sinai Province of ISIL.They are estimated to have 1,000–2,000 fighters.

Members of Jund al-Khilafah swore allegiance to ISIL in September 2014. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

ISIL in Algeria gained notoriety when it beheaded French tourist Herve Gourdel in September 2014. Since then, the group has largely been silent, with reports that its leader Khalid Abu-Sulayman was killed by Algerian forces in December 2014.

In November 2014, Jundallah,Tehreek-e-Khilafat, and Jamaat-ul-Ahrar pledged allegiance to ISIL, giving the organization an active presence in Pakistan. HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

However, on 12 March 2015, Jamaat-ul-Ahrar left ISIL and rejoined Tehrik-i-Taliban.On 29 January 2015, Hafiz Saeed Khan and Abdul Rauf swore an oath of allegiance to al-Baghdadi, the leader of ISIL. Khan was named as the Wāli (Governor) of the Wilayat (Province) and Rauf as his deputy. The province includes Afghanistan, Pakistan, and "other nearby lands".Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

On 9 February 2015, Mullah Abdul Rauf was killed by a NATO airstrike.202 On 18 March 2015, Hafiz Wahidi, ISIL's replacement deputy Emir in Afghanistan, was killed by the Afghan Armed Forces, along with 9 other ISIL militants who were accompanying him.On 13 March 2015, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan swore allegiance to ISIL. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

On 13 November 2014, unidentified militants in Yemen pledged allegiance to ISIL, who were designated as part of the Sanaa Province in Yemen, which was named after the Yemeni capital city of Sana'a. By December 2014, it was revealed that ISIL already had an active presence inside of Yemen, with their recruitment drive bringing them into direct competition with al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

By February 2015, the majority of the non-AQAP members of Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen had pledged allegiance to ISIL, boosting the groups's presence to hundreds of fighters.The group is headed and run by al-Baghdadi, with a cabinet of advisers. There are two deputy leaders, Abu Muslim al-Turkmani (KIA) for Iraq andAbu Ali al-Anbari for Syria, and 12 local governors in Iraq and Syria. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

Beneath the leaders are councils on finance, leadership, military matters, legal matters—including decisions on executions—foreign fighters' assistance, security, intelligence and media. In addition, a Shuracouncil has the task of ensuring that all decisions made by the governors and councils comply with the group's interpretation of sharia. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

The majority of the ISIL's leadership is dominated by Iraqis, especially among former members of Saddam Hussein's regime. It has been reported that Iraqis and Syrians have been given greater precedence over other nationalities within ISIL.The Wall Street Journal estimated in September 2014 that eight million Iraqis and Syrians live in areas controlled by ISIL. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

Ar-Raqqah in Syria is the de facto headquarters, and is said to be a test case of ISIL governance.As of September 2014, governance in Ar-Raqqah has been under the total control of ISIL where it has rebuilt the structure of modern government in less than a year. Former government workers from the Assad government maintained their jobs after pledging allegiance to ISIL. Institutions, restored and restructured, provided their respective services. ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

The Ar-Raqqah dam continues to provide electricity and water. Foreign expertise supplements Syrian officials in running civilian institutions. Only the police and soldiers are ISIL fighters, who receive confiscated lodging previously owned by non-Sunnis and others who fled. Welfare services are provided, price controls established, and taxes imposed on the wealthy.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

ISIL runs a soft power programme in the areas under its control in Iraq and Syria, which includes social services, religious lectures and da'wah—proselytising—to local populations. It also performs public services such as repairing roads and maintaining the electricity supply.British security expert Frank Gardner has concluded that ISIL's prospects of maintaining control and rule are greater in 2014 than they were in 2006. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Despite being as brutal as before, ISIL has become "well entrenched" among the population and is not likely to be dislodged by ineffective Syrian or Iraqi forces. It has replaced corrupt governance with functioning locally controlled authorities, services have been restored and there are adequate supplies of water and oil. With Western-backed intervention being unlikely, Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

the group will "continue to hold their ground" and rule an area "the size of Pennsylvania for the foreseeable future", he said.Further solidifying ISIL rule is the control of wheat production, which is roughly 40% of Iraq's production. ISIL has maintained food production, crucial to governance and popular support. SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

Although the Isil attracts extremists from different parts of the world by promoting the image of holy war, not all of them end up in combatant roles. There have been several cases of new recruits who expected to be mujihadeen that returned from Syria disappointed by the everyday jobs that had been assigned to them, like drawing water or cleaning toilets, or by the ban imposed on use of mobile phones during military training sessions.220 Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

ISIL also publishes material directed to women. Although women are not allowed to take up arms, media groups encourage them to play supportive roles within ISIL: providing first aid, cooking, nursing and sewing, to become "good wives of jihad".The United Nations Security Council in its Resolution 1267 (1999) described Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda associates as operators of a network of terrorist training camps.SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan

The UN's Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee first listed ISIL in its Sanctions List under the name "Al-Qaida in Iraq" on 18 October 2004, as an entity/group associated with al-Qaeda. On 2 June 2014, the group was added to its listing under the name "Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant". The European Unionadopted the UN Sanctions List in 2002.SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

Many world leaders and government spokespeople have called ISIL a terrorist group or banned it, without their countries having formally designated it as such. Some examples:

The Government of Germany banned ISIL in September 2014. Activities banned include donations to the group, recruiting fighters, holding ISIL meetings and distributing its propaganda, flying ISIL flags, wearing ISIL symbols and all ISIL activities. Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

“The terror organisation Islamic State is a threat to public safety in Germany as well,” de Mazière said. “Today’s ban is directed solely against terrorists who abuse religion for their criminal goals.” The ban does not mean ISIL has been outlawed as a foreign terrorist organisation, as that requires a court judgement.In October 2014, Switzerland banned ISIL's activities in the country, including propaganda and financial support of the fighters, with prison sentences as potential penalties.SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

In mid-December 2014, India banned ISIL, after arresting the operator of a pro-ISIL Twitter account.Media sources worldwide have also called ISIL a terrorist organisation.In July 2014, the BBC reported the United Nations' chief investigator as stating: "Fighters from the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) may be added to a list of war crimes suspects in Syria." HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

By June 2014, according to United Nations reports, ISIL had killed hundreds of prisoners of war and over 1,000 civilians. In August 2014, the UN accused ISIL of committing "mass atrocities" and war crimes,including the mass killing of up to 250 Syrian Army soldiers near Tabqa Air base. Other known killings of military prisoners took place in Camp Speicher, HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

where 1,095–1,700 Iraqi soldiers were shot and "thousands" more went "missing",and the Shaer gas field, where 200 Syrian soldiers were shot. Navi Pillay, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, said that they were performing "widespread ethnic and religious cleansing in the areas under their control."HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

In early September 2014, the United Nations Human Rights Council agreed to send a team to Iraq and Syria to investigate the abuses and killings being carried out by the ISIL on "an unimaginable scale". Prince Zeid bin Ra'ad, the newly appointed UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, urged world leaders to step in to protect women and children suffering at the hands of ISIL militants, who he said were trying to create a "house of blood". Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

He appealed to the international community to concentrate its efforts on ending the conflict in Iraq and Syria.In November 2014, the UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria said that ISIL was committing crimes against humanity.A report by Human Rights Watch in November 2014 accused ISIL groups in control of Derna, Libya of war crimes and human rights abuses and of terrorising residents. DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

Human Rights Watch documented three apparent summary executions and at least ten public floggings by the Islamic Youth Shura Council, which joined ISIL in November. It also documented the beheading of three Derna residents and dozens of seemingly politically motivated assassinations of judges, public officials, members of the security forces and others. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

Sarah Leah Watson, Director of HRW Middle East and North Africa, said: "Commanders should understand that they may face domestic or international prosecution for the grave rights abuses their forces are committing."Speaking of ISIL's methods, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights has stated that the group "seeks to subjugate civilians under its control and dominate every aspect of their lives through terror, indoctrination, and the provision of services to those who obey".HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan

ISIL compels people in the areas that it controls to declare Islamic creed and live according to its interpretation of Sunni Islamand sharia law.There have been many reports of the group's use of death threats, torture and mutilation to compel conversion to Islam, and of clerics being killed for refusal to pledge allegiance to the so-called "Islamic State". HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

ISIL directs violence against Shia Muslims,indigenous Assyrian, Chaldean, Syriac and Armenian Christians, Yazidis, Druze, Shabaksand Mandeans in particular.Amnesty International has held ISIL responsible for the ethnic cleansing of ethnic and religious minority groups in northern Iraq on a "historic scale". SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/WI CPU Fan

In a special report released on 2 September 2014, it describes how ISIL has "systematically targeted non-Arab and non-Sunni Muslim communities, killing or abducting hundreds, possibly thousands, and forcing more than 830,000 others to flee the areas it has captured since 10 June 2014". Among these people are Assyrian Christians,  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

Turkmen Shia, Shabak Shia, Yazidis,Kaka'i and Sabean Mandeans, who have lived together for centuries in Nineveh province, large parts of which are now under ISIL's control.Among the known killings of religious and minority group civilians carried out by ISIL are those in the villages and towns of Quiniyeh (70–90 Yazidis killed), Hardan (60 Yazidis killed), Sinjar (500–2,000 Yazidis killed), ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

Ramadi Jabal (60–70 Yazidis killed), Dhola (50 Yazidis killed), Khana Sor (100 Yazidis killed),Hardan (250–300 Yazidis killed), al-Shimal (dozens of Yazidis killed), Khocho (400 Yazidis killed and 1,000 abducted), Jadala (14 Yadizis killed) and Beshir (700 Shia Turkmen killed), and others committed near Mosul (670 Shia inmates of the Badush prison killed), and in Tal Afar prison, Iraq (200 Yazidis killed for refusing conversion).HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan

2 The UN estimated that 5,000 Yazidis were killed by ISIL during the takeover of parts of northern Iraq in August 2014.In late May 2014, 150 Kurdish boys from Kobani aged 14–16 were abducted and subjected to torture and abuse, according to Human Rights Watch.In the Syrian towns of Ghraneij, Abu Haman and Kashkiyeh 700 members of the Sunni Al-Shaitat tribe were killed for attempting an uprising against ISIL control.276277 HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The UN reported that in June 2014 ISIL had killed a number of Sunni Islamic clerics who refused to pledge allegiance to it.Christians living in areas under ISIL control who want to remain in the "caliphate" face three options: converting to Islam, paying a religious levy—jizya—or death. "We offer them three choices: Islam; the dhimma contract – involving payment of jizya; if they refuse this they will have nothing but the sword", ISIL said.HP G62-b04SL CPU Fan

ISIL had already set similar rules for Christians in Ar-Raqqah, once one of Syria's more liberal cities.On 23 February 2015, in response to a major Kurdish offensive in the Al-Hasakah Governorate, ISIL abducted 150 Assyrian Christians from villages near near Tal Tamr (Tell Tamer) in northeastern Syria, after launching a large offensive in the region.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

During the Iraqi conflict in 2014, ISIL released dozens of videos showing its ill treatment of civilians, many of whom had apparently been targeted on the basis of their religion or ethnicity. Navi Pillay, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, warned of war crimes being committed in the Iraqi war zone, and disclosed a UN report of ISIL militants murdering Iraqi Army soldiers and 17 civilians in a single street in Mosul. DELL Inspiron N3010 Series CPU Fan

The UN reported that in the 17 days from 5 to 22 June, ISIL killed more than 1,000 Iraqi civilians and injured more than 1,000.After ISIL released photographs of its fighters shooting scores of young men, the UN declared that cold-blooded "executions" by militants in northern Iraq almost certainly amounted to war crimes.ISIL's advance in Iraq in mid-2014 was accompanied by continuing violence in Syria. HP 550 CPU Fan

On 29 May, ISIL raided a village in Syria and at least 15 civilians were killed, including, according to Human Rights Watch, at least six children.A hospital in the area confirmed that it had received 15 bodies on the same day. TheSyrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that on 1 June, a 102-year-old man was killed along with his whole family in a village in Hama province.HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

According to Reuters, 1,878 people were killed in Syria by ISIL during the last six months of 2014, most of them civilians.In Mosul, ISIL has implemented a sharia school curriculum which bans the teaching of art, music, national history, literature and Christianity. DELL Vostro A860 CPU Fan

Although Charles Darwin's theory of evolution has never been taught in Iraqi schools, the subject has been banned from the school curriculum. Patriotic songs have been declared blasphemous, and orders have been given to remove certain pictures from school textbooks. Iraqi parents have largely boycotted schools in which the new curriculum has been introduced.After capturing cities in Iraq, ISIL issued guidelines on how to wear clothes and veils. HP Pavilion dv6-3125ej CPU Fan

ISIL warned women in the city of Mosul to wear full-face veils or face severe punishment.A cleric told Reuters in Mosul that ISIL gunmen had ordered him to read out the warning in his mosque when worshippers gathered. ISIL ordered the faces of both male and female mannequins to be covered, in an order which also banned the use of naked mannequins.Compaq Presario A916NR CPU Fan

In Ar-Raqqah the group uses its two battalions of female fighters in the city to enforce compliance by women with its strict laws on individual conduct.ISIL released 16 notes labelled "Contract of the City", a set of rules aimed at civilians in Nineveh. One rule stipulated that women should stay at home and not go outside unless necessary. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Another rule said that stealing would be punished by amputation.In addition to the Muslim custom of banning the sale and use of alcohol, ISIL has banned the sale and use of cigarettes and hookah pipes. It has also banned "music and songs in cars, at parties, in shops and in public, as well as photographs of people in shop windows".HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

According to The Economist, dissidents in the ISIL capital of Ar-Raqqah report that "all 12 of the judges who now run its court system ... are Saudis". Saudi practices also followed by the group include the establishment of religious police to root out "vice" and enforce attendance at salat prayers, the widespread use of capital punishment, and the destruction of Christian churches and non-Sunni mosques or their conversion to other uses. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

ISIL carried out executions on both men and women who were accused of various acts and found guilty of crimes against Islam such as homosexuality, adultery, watching pornography, usage and possession of contraband, rape, blasphemy, renouncing Islam and murder. Before the accused are executed their charges are read toward them and the spectators.  HP 489126-001 CPU Fan

Executions take various forms, including stoning to death, crucifixions, beheadings, burning people alive, and throwing people from tall buildings.

ISIL has recruited Iraqi children as young as nine to its ranks, who can be seen with masks on their faces and guns in their hands patrolling the streets of Mosul.HP Envy 17-2290nr CPU Fan

According to a report by the magazine Foreign Policy, children as young as six are recruited or kidnapped and sent to military and religious training camps, where they practise beheading with dolls and are indoctrinated with the religious views of ISIL. Children are used as human shields on front lines and to provide blood transfusions for Islamic State soldiers, according to Shelly Whitman of the Roméo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative. ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

The second instalment of a Vice News documentary about ISIL focused on how the group is specifically grooming children for the future. A spokesman told VICE News that those under the age of 15 go to sharia camp to learn about religion, while those older than 16 can go to military training camp. Children are also used for propaganda. According to a UN report, "FUJITSU Lifebook T5010 Series CPU Fan

In mid-August, ISIL entered a cancer hospital in Mosul, forced at least two sick children to hold the ISIL flag and posted the pictures on the internet." Misty Buswell, a Save the Children representative working with refugees in Jordan, said, "It's not an exaggeration to say we could lose a whole generation of children to trauma."

There are many reports of sexual abuse and enslavement in ISIL controlled areas of women and girls, predominantly from the minority Christian and Yazidi communities. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

According to one report, ISIL's capture of Iraqi cities in June 2014 was accompanied by an upsurge in crimes against women, including kidnap and rape. The Guardian reported that ISIL's extremist agenda extended to women's bodies and that women living under their control were being captured and raped.Fighters are told that they are free to have sex with or rape non-Muslim captive women. Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

A Baghdad-based women's rights activist, Basma al-Khateeb, said that a culture of violence existed in Iraq against women generally and felt sure that sexual violence against women was happening in Mosul involving not only ISIL but all armed groups.During a meeting with Nouri al-Maliki, British Foreign Minister William Hague said with regard to ISIL: HP Pavilion dv7-4070us CPUFan

"Anyone glorifying, supporting or joining it should understand that they would be assisting a group responsible for kidnapping, torture, executions, rape and many other hideous crimes".According to Martin Williams in The Citizen, some hard-line Salafists apparently regard extramarital sex with multiple partners as a legitimate form of holy war and it is "difficult to reconcile this with a religion where some adherents insist that women must be covered from head to toe, with only a narrow slit for the eyes".HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPUFan

Haleh Esfandiari from the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars has highlighted the abuse of local women by ISIL militants after they have captured an area. "They usually take the older women to a makeshift slave market and try to sell them. The younger girls ... are raped or married off to fighters", she said, adding, "It's based on temporary marriages, ACER Aspire 4820T Series CPUFan

and once these fighters have had sex with these young girls, they just pass them on to other fighters."Speaking ofYazidi women captured by ISIL, Nazand Begikhani said, "These women have been treated like cattle... They have been subjected to physical and sexual violence, including systematic rape and sex slavery. They've been exposed in markets in Mosul and in Raqqa, Syria, carrying price tags."HP Pavilion dv7-3007tx CPUFan

Yazidi girls in Iraq allegedlyraped by ISIL fighters have committed suicide by jumping to their death from Mount Sinjar, as described in a witness statement.A United Nations report issued on 2 October 2014, based on 500 interviews with witnesses, said that ISIL took 450–500 women and girls to Iraq's Nineveh region in August, where "150 unmarried girls and women, Dell Latitude E6510 CPUFan

predominantly from the Yazidi and Christian communities, were reportedly transported to Syria, either to be given to ISIL fighters as a reward or to be sold as sex slaves". In mid-October, the UN confirmed that 5,000–7,000 Yazidi women and children had been abducted by ISIL and sold into slavery.In November 2014 The New York Times reported on the accounts given by five who escaped ISIL of their captivity and abuse.HP Envy 17 Series CPUFan

In December 2014, the Iraqi Ministry of Human Rights announced that ISIL had killed over 150 women and girls in Fallujah who refused to participate in sexual jihad.Non-Muslim women have reportedly been married off to fighters against their will. ISIL claims the women provide the new converts and children necessary to spread ISIL's control. Toshiba Satellite A135-S4499 CPUFan

Shortly after the death of US hostage Kayla Mueller was confirmed on 10 February 2015, several media outlets reported that the US intelligence community believed she may have been given as a wife to an ISIL fighter. In its digital magazine Dabiq, ISIL explicitly claimed religious justification for enslaving Yazidi women. HP 441137-001 CPUFan

According to The Wall Street Journal, ISIL appeals to apocalyptic beliefs and claims "justification by a Hadith that they interpret as portraying the revival of slavery as a precursor to the end of the world".339 ISIL appeals to the Hadith and Qur'an when claiming the right to enslave and rape captive non-Muslim women.According to Dabiq,HP Pavilion dv6-2150us CPUFan

enslaving the families of the kuffar and taking their women as concubines is a firmly established aspect of the Sharia's that if one were to deny or mock, he would be denying or mocking the verses of the Qur'an and the narration of the Prophet ... and thereby apostatizing from Islam." Captured Yazidi women and children are divided among the fighters who captured them, with one fifth taken as a tax.ACER eMachines G620 Series CPUFan

ISIL has received widespread criticism from Muslim scholars and others in the Muslim world for using part of the Qur'an to derive a ruling in isolation, rather than considering the entire Qur'an and Hadith. According to Mona Siddiqui, ISIL's "narrative may well be wrapped up in the familiar language of jihad and 'fighting in the cause of Allah',  TOSHIBA UDQFRZH05C1N CPUFan

but it amounts to little more than destruction of anything and anyone who doesn't agree with them"; she describes ISIL as reflecting a "lethal mix of violence and sexual power" and a "deeply flawed view of manhood".Dabiq describes "this large-scale enslavement" of non-Muslims as "probably the first since the abandonment of Shariah law". Compaq Presario C714NR CPUFan

In late 2014, ISIL released a pamphlet that focused on the treatment of female slaves.It claims that the Quran allows fighters to have sex with captives, including adolescent girls, and to beat slaves as discipline. The pamphlet's guidelines also allow fighters to trade slaves, including for sex, as long as they have not been impregnated by their owner.  DELL DFS531205PC0T(F6K2-CCW) CPUFan

The Islamic state justifies sexual slavery by quoting Quran It is permissible to have sexual intercourse with the female captive. Allah the almighty said: 'Successful are the believers who guard their chastity, except from their wives or (the captives and slaves) that their right hands possess, for then they are free from blame. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPUFan

Charlie Winter, a researcher at the counter-extremist think tankQuilliam, described the pamphlet as "abhorent". In response to this document Abbas Barzegar, a religion professor at Georgia State University, said Muslims around the world find ISIL's "alien interpretation of Islam grotesque and abhorrent". HP G42-221BR CPUFan

Muslim leaders and scholars from around the world have rejected the validity of these claims, claiming that the reintroduction of slavery is un-Islamic, that they are required to protect 'People of the Scripture' including Christians, Jews, Muslims and Yazidis, and that ISIL's fatwas are invalid due to their lack of religious authority and the fatwas' inconsistency with Islam. HP KSB06105HA CPUFan

The Committee to Protect Journalists states: "Without a free press, few other human rights are attainable."ISIL has tortured and murdered local journalists,352353 creating what Reporters Without Borders calls "news blackholes" in areas controlled by ISIL. ISIL fighters have reportedly been given written directions to kill or capture journalists.DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboardHP Pavilion dv5-1233se laptop keyboardHP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

Published by batterys
commenter cet article
1 avril 2015 3 01 /04 /avril /2015 04:26

,http://www.all-laptopfan.com/,http://www.all-keyboard.com/,http://www.laptopbattery-shop.co.uk/

Isis (/ˈaɪsɪs/; Ancient Greek: Ἶσις; original Egyptian pronunciation more likely "Aset" or "Iset"[1]) is a goddess from the polytheistic pantheon of Egypt. She was first worshiped in Ancient Egyptian religion, and later her worship spread throughout the Roman empire and the greater Greco-Roman world. SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan

Isis is still widely worshiped by many pagans today in diverse religious contexts; including a number of distinct pagan religions, the modern Goddess movement, and interfaith organizations such as the Fellowship of Isis.<br />

Isis was worshipped as the ideal mother and wife as well as the patroness of nature and magic. She was the friend of slaves, sinners, artisans and the downtrodden, but she also listened to the prayers of the wealthy, maidens, aristocrats and rulers.DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

Isis is often depicted as the mother of Horus, the falcon-headed deity associated with king and kingship (although in some traditions Horus's mother was Hathor). Isis is also known as protector of the dead and goddess of children.

The name Isis means "Throne".[3] Her headdress is a throne. As the personification of the throne, she was an important representation of the pharaoh's power. HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

The pharaoh was depicted as her child, who sat on the throne she provided. Her cult was popular throughout Egypt, but her most important temples were at Behbeit El-Hagar in the Nile delta, and, beginning in the reign with Nectanebo I (380–362 BCE), on the island of Philae in Upper Egypt.<br />

In the typical form of her myth, Isis was the first daughter of Geb, god of the Earth, and Nut, goddess of the Sky, and she was born on the fourth intercalary day. HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

She married her brother, Osiris, and she conceived Horus with him. Isis was instrumental in the resurrection of Osiris when he was murdered by Set. Using her magical skills, she restored his body to life after having gathered the body parts that had been strewn about the earth by Set.[4]<br />

This myth became very important during the Greco-Roman period. For example it was believed that the Nile River flooded every year because of the tears of sorrow which Isis wept for Osiris. DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

Osiris's death and rebirth was relived each year through rituals. The worship of Isis eventually spread throughout the Greco-Roman world, continuing until the suppression of paganism in the Christian era.[5] The popular motif of Isis suckling her son Horus, however, lived on in a Christianized context as the popular image of Mary suckling her infant son Jesus from the fifth century onward.[6]</p>Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

The Greek name version of Isis is surprisingly close to her original, Egyptian name spelling (namely Aset).[1] Isis' name was originally written with the signs of a throne seat (Gardiner sign Q1, pronounced "as" or "is"), a bread loaf (Gardiner sign X1, pronounced "t" or "tj") and with an unpronounced determinative of a sitting woman. HP Pavilion DV9233EU Laptop Keyboard

A second version of the original was also written with the throne seat and the bread loaf, but ended with an egg symbol (Gardiner sign H8) which was normally read "set", but here it was used as a determinative to promote the correct reading. The grammar, spelling and used signs of Isis' name never changed during time in any way, making it easy to recognize her any time.[1] DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard

However, the symbolic and metaphoric meaning of Isis' name remains unclear. The throne seat sign in her name might point to a functional role as a goddess of kingship, as the maternal protector of the ruling king. Thus, her name could mean "she of the kings' throne". But all other Egyptian deities have names that point to clear cosmological or nature elemental roles (Râ = the sun; Ma'at = justice and world order), thus the name of Isis shouldn't be connected to the king himself.[1] Compaq Presario CQ57 Laptop Keyboard

The throne seat symbol might alternatively point to a meaning as "throne-mother of the gods", making her the highest and most powerful goddess before all other gods. This in turn would supply a very old existence of Isis, long before her first mentioning during the late Old Kingdom, but this hypothesis remains unproven.[1] A third possible meaning might be hidden in the egg-symbol, that was also used in Isis' name. HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard

The egg-symbol always represented motherhood, implying a maternal role of Isis. Her name could mean "mother goddess", pointing to her later, mythological role as the mother of Horus. But this remains problematic, too: the initial mother-goddess of Horus was Hathor, not Isis.

Most Egyptian deities were first worshipped by very local cults, DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

and they retained those local centres of worship even as their popularity spread, so that most major cities and towns in Egypt were known as the home of a particular deity. However, the origins of the cult of Isis are very uncertain. In fact, Egyptologists such as Maria Münster[7] and Jan Assmann[8] point to the lack of archaeological evidences for a goddess 'Isis' before the time of the late Old Kingdom of Egypt.[7] DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

The first secure references to Isis date back to the 5th dynasty, when her name appears in the sun temple of king Niuserre and on the statue of a priest named Pepi-Ankh, who worshipped at the very beginning of 6th dynasty and bore the title "high priest of Isis and Hathor".[7]

Also, according to Veronica Ions book "Egyptian Mythology" from 1981 on page 56, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2774 Laptop Keyboard

"Isis (or Eset) was also originally an independent and popular deity whose followers were established in pre- dynastic times in the northern Delta, at Sebennytos."

During the Old Kingdom period, Isis was represented as the wife or assistant to the deceased pharaoh. Thus she had a funerary association, her name appearing over eighty times in the pharaoh's funereal texts (the Pyramid Texts). SONY Vaio VGN-AW Laptop Keyboard

This association with the pharaoh's wife is consistent with the role of Isis as the spouse of Horus, the god associated with the pharaoh as his protector, and then later as the deification of the pharaoh himself.

But in addition, Isis was also represented as the mother of the "four sons of Horus", the four deities who protected the canopic jars containing the pharaoh's internal organs. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

More specifically, Isis was viewed as the protector of the liver-jar-deity, Imsety.[9] By the Middle Kingdom period, as the funeral texts began to be used by members of Egyptian society other than the royal family, the role of Isis as protector also grew, to include the protection of nobles and even commoners.[citation needed]

By the New Kingdom period, in many places, Isis was more prominent than her spouse. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

She was seen as the mother of the pharaoh, and was often depicted breastfeeding the pharaoh. It is theorized that this displacement happened through the merging of cults from the various cult centers as Egyptian religion became more standardized.[citation needed] When the cult of Ra rose to prominence, with its cult center at Heliopolis, Ra was identified with the similar deity, Horus. HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard

But Hathor had been paired with Ra in some regions, as the mother of the god. Since Isis was paired with Horus, and Horus was identified with Ra, Isis began to be merged with Hathor as Isis-Hathor. By merging with Hathor, Isis became the mother of Horus, as well as his wife. Eventually the mother role displaced the role of spouse. HP G72-227WM Laptop Keyboard

Thus, the role of spouse to Isis was open and in the Heliopolis pantheon, Isis became the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus/Ra. This reconciliation of themes led to the evolution of the myth of Isis and Osiris.

In Egypt, Isis would have received the same sort of rituals as other Egyptian Deities, including daily offerings. She was served by both priests and priestesses throughout the history of her cult. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

By the Greco-Roman era, many of her priests and priestesses had a reputation for wisdom and healing, and were said to have other special powers, including dream interpretation and the ability to control the weather, which they did by braiding or not combing their hair.[citation needed] The latter was believed because the Egyptians considered knots to have magical powers. HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

The cult of Isis and Osiris continued up until the 6th century CE on the island of Philae in Upper Nile. The Theodosian decree (about 380 CE) banning all pagan religions was not enforced there until the time of Justinian. This toleration was due to an old treaty made between the Blemyes-Nobadae and the emperor Diocletian. HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

Every year they visited Elephantine and at certain intervals took the image of Isis up river to the land of the Blemyes for oracular purposes before returning it. Justinian sent Narses to destroy the sanctuaries, with the priests being arrested and the divine images taken to Constantinople.[10] Philae was the last of the ancient Egyptian temples to be closed.HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

Due to the association between knots and magical power, a symbol of Isis was the tiet or tyet (meaning welfare/life), also called the Knot of Isis, Buckle of Isis, or the Blood of Isis, which is shown to the right. In many respects the tyet resembles an ankh, except that its arms point downward, and when used as such, seems to represent the idea of eternal life or resurrection.  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

The meaning of Blood of Isis is more obscure, but the tyet often was used as a funerary amulet made of red wood, stone, or glass, so this may simply have been a description of the appearance of the materials used.[11][12][13]

The star Sopdet (Sirius) is associated with Isis. The appearance of the star signified the advent of a new year and Isis was likewise considered the goddess of rebirth and reincarnation, and as a protector of the dead. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

The Book of the Dead outlines a particular ritual that would protect the dead, enabling travel anywhere in the underworld, and most of the titles Isis holds signify her as the goddess of protection of the dead.

In art, originally Isis was pictured as a woman wearing a long sheath dress and crowned with the hieroglyphic sign for a throne. HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

Sometimes she is depicted as holding a lotus, or, as a sycamore tree. One pharaoh, Thutmose III, is depicted in his tomb as nursing from a sycamore tree that has a breast.

After she assimilated many of the roles of Hathor, Isis's headdress was replaced with that of Hathor: the horns of a cow on her head, with the solar disk between them, and often with her original throne symbol atop the solar disk. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

Sometimes she also is represented as a cow, or with a cow's head. She is often depicted with her young child, Horus (the pharaoh), with a crown, and a vulture. Occasionally she is represented as a kite flying above the body of Osiris or with the dead Osiris she works her magic to bring him back to life.

Most often Isis is seen holding an ankh (the sign for "life") and a simple lotus staff, HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

but in late images she is sometimes seen with the sacred sistrum rattle and the fertility-bearing menat necklace, items usually associated with Hathor. In The Book of Coming Forth By Day Isis is depicted standing on the prow of the Solar Barque with her arms outstretched.During the Old Kingdom period, the pantheons of individual Egyptian cities varied by region. During the 5th dynasty, Isis entered the pantheon of the city of Heliopolis.  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

She was represented as a daughter of Nut and Geb, and sister to Osiris, Nephthys, and Set. The two sisters, Isis and Nephthys, often were depicted on coffins, with wings outstretched, as protectors against evil. As a funerary deity, she was associated with Osiris, lord of the underworld, and was considered his wife.

A later myth, when the cult of Osiris gained more authority, tells the story of Anubis, the god of the underworld.  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

The tale describes how Nephthys was denied a child by Set and disguised herself as her twin, Isis, to seduce him. The plot succeeded, resulting in the birth of Anubis.

In fear of Set's retribution, Nephthys persuaded Isis to adopt Anubis, so that Set would not find out and kill the child.

 Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

The tale describes both why Anubis is seen as an underworld deity (he becomes the adopted son of Osiris), and why he could not inherit Osiris's position (as he was not actually the son of Osiris but of his brother Set), neatly preserving Osiris's position as lord of the underworld.The most extensive account of the Isis-Osiris story known today is Plutarch's Greek description written in the 1st century CE, usually known under its Latin title De Iside et Osiride. HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

In that version, Set held a banquet for Osiris in which he brought in a beautiful box and said that whoever could fit in the box perfectly would get to keep it. Set had measured Osiris in his sleep and made sure that he was the only one who could fit the box. Several tried to see whether they fit. Once it was Osiris's turn to see if he could fit in the box, Set closed the lid on him so that the box was now a coffin for Osiris. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

Set flung the box in the Nile so that it would drift far away. Isis went looking for the box so that Osiris could have a proper burial. She found the box in a tree in Byblos, a city along the Phoenician coast, and brought it back to Egypt, hiding it in a swamp. But Set went hunting that night and found the box. ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

Enraged, Set chopped Osiris's body into fourteen pieces and scattered them all over Egypt to ensure that Isis could never find Osiris again for a proper burial.[16][17]

Isis and her sister Nephthys went looking for these pieces, but could only find thirteen of the fourteen. Fish had swallowed the last piece, his phallus. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

With Thoth's help she created a golden phallus, and attached it to Osiris’s body. She then transformed into a kite, and with the aid of Thoth’s magic conceived Horus the Younger. The number of pieces is described on temple walls variously as fourteen and sixteen, and occasionally forty-two, one for each nome or district.

Yet another set of late myths detail the adventures of Isis after the birth of Osiris's posthumous son, Horus.  LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

Isis was said to have given birth to Horus at Khemmis, thought to be located on the Nile Delta.[18] Many dangers faced Horus after birth, and Isis fled with the newborn to escape the wrath of Set, the murderer of her husband. In one instance, Isis heals Horus from a lethal scorpion sting; she also performs other miracles in relation to the cippi, or the plaques of Horus.  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

Isis protected and raised Horus until he was old enough to face Set, and subsequently become the pharaoh of Egypt. In some stories. Isis is referred to as Horus' sister.

It was said that Isis tricked Ra into telling her his "secret name" by causing a snake to bite him, the antidote to whose venom only Isis possessed. Knowing his secret name thus gave her power over him. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

The use of secret names became central in many late Egyptian magic spells. By the late Egyptian historical period, after the occupations by the Greeks and the Romans, Isis became the most important and most powerful deity of the Egyptian pantheon because of her magical skills. Magic is central to the entire mythology of Isis, arguably more so than any other Egyptian deity. HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

Isis had a central role in Egyptian magic spells and ritual, especially those of protection and healing. In many spells her powers are merged with those of her son Horus. His power accompanies hers whenever she is invoked. In Egyptian history the image of a wounded Horus became a standard feature of Isis's healing spells, which typically invoked the curative powers of Isis' milk. HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

Using the comparative methodology known as interpretatio graeca, the Greek historian Herodotus (5th century BCE) described Isis by comparison with the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mysteries at Eleusis offered initiates guidance in the afterlife and a vision of rebirth. Herodotus says that Isis was the only goddess worshiped by all Egyptians alike. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

After the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great and the Hellenization of the Egyptian culture initiated by Ptolemy I Soter, Isis became known as Queen of Heaven.[21] Other Mediterranean goddesses, such as Demeter, Astarte, and Aphrodite, became identified with Isis, as did the Arabian goddess Al-‘Uzzá through a similarity of name, since etymology was thought to reveal the essential or primordial nature of the thing named.[ Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

An alabaster statue of Isis from the 3rd century BCE, found in Ohrid, in the Republic of Macedonia, is depicted on the obverse of the Macedonian 10 denar banknote, issued in 1996.

Tacitus writes that after the assassination of Julius Caesar, a temple in honour of Isis had been decreed, but was suspended by Augustus as part of his program to restore traditional Roman religion. SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

The emperor Caligula, however, was open to Eastern religions, and the Navigium Isidis, a procession in honor of Isis, was established in Rome during his reign.[24] According to the Jewish historian Josephus, Caligula donned female garb and took part in the mysteries he instituted. Vespasian, along with Titus, practised incubation in the Roman Iseum. Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

Domitian built another Iseum along with a Serapeum. In a relief on the Arch of Trajan in Rome, the emperor appears before Isis and Horus, presenting them with votive offerings of wine.[24] Hadrian decorated his villa at Tibur with Isiac scenes. Galerius regarded Isis as his protector.

The religion of Isis thus spread throughout the Roman Empire during the formative centuries of Christianity. HP G71-340US CPU Fan

Wall paintings and objects reveal her pervasive presence at Pompeii, preserved by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE. In Rome, temples were built and obelisks erected in her honour. In Greece, the cult of Isis was introduced to traditional centres of worship in Delos, Delphi, Eleusis and Athens, as well as in northern Greece. Harbours of Isis were to be found on the Arabian Sea and the Black Sea. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

Inscriptions show followers in Gaul, Spain, Pannonia, Germany, Arabia, Asia Minor, Portugal and many shrines even in Britain.[26] Tacitus interprets a goddess among the Germanic Suebi as a form of Isis whose symbol (signum) was a ship.[27] Bruce Lincoln regards the identity of this Germanic goddess as "elusive."[28] HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

The Greek antiquarian Plutarch wrote a treatise on Isis and Osiris,[29] a major source for Imperial theology concerning Isis.[15] Plutarch describes Isis as "a goddess exceptionally wise and a lover of wisdom, to whom, as her name at least seems to indicate, knowledge and understanding are in the highest degree appropriate... ." The statue of Athena in Sais was identified with Isis, HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

and according to Plutarch was inscribed "I am all that has been, and is, and shall be, and my robe no mortal has yet uncovered."[30] At Sais, however, the patron goddess of the ancient cult was Neith, many of whose traits had begun to be attributed to Isis during the Greek occupation.

The Roman writer Apuleius recorded aspects of the cult of Isis in the 2nd century CE, including the Navigium Isidis, in his novel The Golden Ass.  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

The protagonist Lucius prays to Isis as Regina Caeli, "Queen of Heaven":

You see me here, Lucius, in answer to your prayer. I am nature, the universal Mother, mistress of all the elements, primordial child of time, sovereign of all things spiritual, queen of the dead, queen of the ocean, queen also of the immortals, HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

the single manifestation of all gods and goddesses that are, my nod governs the shining heights of Heavens, the wholesome sea breezes. Though I am worshipped in many aspects, known by countless names ... the Egyptians who excel in ancient learning and worship call me by my true name...Queen Isis.

According to Apuleius, these other names include manifestations of the goddess as Ceres, HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

"the original nurturing parent"; Heavenly Venus (Venus Caelestis); the "sister of Phoebus", that is, Diana or Artemis as she is worshipped at Ephesus; or Proserpina (Greek Persephone) as the triple goddess of the underworld.[32] From the middle Imperial period, the title Caelestis, "Heavenly" or "Celestial", is attached to several goddesses embodying aspects of a single, supreme Heavenly Goddess.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The Dea Caelestis was identified with the constellation Virgo (the Virgin), who holds the divine balance of justice.

On the Greek island of Delos a Doric Temple of Isis was built on a high over-looking hill at the beginning of the Roman period to venerate the familiar trinity of Isis, the Alexandrian Serapis and Harpocrates. HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

The creation of this temple is significant as Delos is particularly known as the birthplace of the Greek gods Artemis and Apollo who had temples of their own on the island long before the temple to Isis was built.

In the Roman Empire, a well-preserved example was discovered in Pompeii. The only sanctuary of Isis (fanum Isidis) identified with certainty in Roman Britain is located in Londinium (present-day London). Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

The cult of Isis was part of the syncretic tendencies of religion in the Greco-Roman world of late antiquity. The names Isidoros and Isidora in Greek mean "gift of Isis" (similar to "Theodoros", "God's gift").

The sacred image of Isis with the Horus Child in Rome often became a model for the Christian Mary carrying her child Jesus and many of the epithets of the Egyptian Mother of God came to be used for her. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

The Fellowship of Isis (FOI) is an international spiritual organization devoted to promoting awareness of the Goddess. It is dedicated specifically to the Egyptian goddess Isis because the FOI co-founders believed Isis best represented the energies of the dawning Aquarian Age. The FOI is a multi-faith, multi-racial, and multi-cultural organization, and despite worshipping pagan deities, Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

does not consider itself to be a Neopagan faith, with its co-founder Olivia Robertson stating in 2002:

“            I would like to correct an inaccuracy in the definition of the Fellowship of Isis as a Pagan organization. We are happy to have thousands of Pagans among our 21,000 members in so many countries. But we also have Catholics, Protestants, Buddhists, Spiritualists and Hindus as members. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

All love and follow the religion of Isis of 10,000 Names. [1]          ”

All members in the Fellowship of Isis have equal privileges within it, and membership is free.[2] Membership is open to anyone who wishes to join – once an individual has read through the Fellowship of Isis Manifesto and finds themselves in agreement with the principles laid out within it. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

There are no vows of secrecy. Members are free to resign at any time, if they so choose and to rejoin again at a later time.

The FOI was founded at Huntington Castle, Co. Carlow, Ireland at the Vernal Equinox of 1976. The three co-founders were Olivia Robertson[4] and her brother, Lawrence Durdin-Robertson (grandchildren of Thomas Herbert Robertson) and Lawrence's wife Pamela. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

Their aim was to create a fellowship to "help the Goddess actively in the manifestation of Her divine plan." Olivia has described Isis as "God in female form." The FOI grew out of a "working group" created in 1963 called the Huntington Castle Centre for Meditation and Study. This Centre was active in gathering together various occult and theological figures such as Ross Nichols, Josephine and Mohun Lall, and Gerald Gough. ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

The experiences shared within this group, along with the personal spiritual revelations and experiences of the three FOI co-founders led to the eventual founding of the Fellowship of Isis on the Vernal Equinox, 1976. From 1976 until the early 1990s, the group steadily grew.In August 1993, the Fellowship of Isis was represented at the Parliament of the World's Religions at Chicago by Olivia Robertson and other member delegates.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

It is the first time that the Religion of the Goddess has been acknowledged as a world faith at this Parliament.[5] The Parliament "became a showcase for the new religions in America, especially since mainstream Christianity was much underrepresented . . . Two feminist neopagan groups, the Covenant of the Goddess and the Fellowship of Isis, were among the sponsors of the parliament." HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Custodianship of the legacy of the Fellowship of Isis has been entrusted to three Foundation Unions known as "The FOI Foundation Union Triad." The first was the Archpriesthood Union, created in January, 1999. It consists of 32 members of the FOI Priesthood, sixteen ArchPriestesses and sixteen ArchPriests. The ArchDruid Union and Grand Commander Union were founded by FOI Co-Founder Olivia Robertson in October, 2009. Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

The ArchDruid Union consists of 32 ArchDruids and ArchDruidesses of the Druid Clan of Dana. The Grand Commander Union consists of 32 Grand Knight Commanders and Grand Dame Commanders of the Noble Order of Tara. These two new unions join the ArchPriesthood Union to form the Fellowship of Isis Foundation Union Triad. Together the three unions act as "Custodians of the Legacy" of the Fellowship of Isis. SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

A series of advisory boards has also been created by FOI Co-Founder Olivia Robertson to act as consultancies. The Star of Isis-AU consists of ArchPriesthood Union members. It was created by Olivia Robertson in 2003. Owing to the rapid expansion of the Fellowship of Isis over the past several years, the Star of Isis-AU has been joined by the Circle of Brigid (Ireland, 2004), Circle of Isis (USA, UK, Germany, 2004.) Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

Circle of Pelagia (USA, 2006), Nemeton of Dana (for the Druid Clan of Dana, 2006), Round Table of Tara (for the Noble Order of Tara, 2006) and Star of Elen (United Kingdom, USA and Europe, 2008). The authorized central websites for the Fellowship of Isis are: the Circle of Isis (Fellowship of Isis Central), the Star of Elen, FOI Germany and the Fellowship of Isis Homepage Archive.SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan

The authorization of 'central' sites around the world is part of the continuing decentralization process initiated by FOI Co-Founder Olivia Robertson. The Fellowship is a good example of a globally organised religion, whose international and Internet presence is very large by comparison with its Irish base. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

"Over the past 30 years a body of liturgy has developed, detailing how the [Manifesto] principles can be practised by interested members through establishing a relationship between self and deity. Members are encouraged to express this spiritual relationship by enacting rituals, prayers and meditations, as detailed in the liturgy. Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

This liturgy is drawn from the ritual structures of contemporary paganisms, Goddess spirituality and diverse archaeological scholarship into religious experience in the ancient world."[8] The Liturgy of the Fellowship of Isis was written by Olivia Robertson, each ritual honouring different pantheons, and including a divinely channeled oracle encouraging spiritual communion with that Deity. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

These rites may be used for personal spiritual enhancement or, via instruction from a Fellowship of Isis center, various degrees may be attained.

The stated goal of the Fellowship of Isis is to support and promote the idea of the Divine Feminine. The Fellowship of Isis Manifesto sets out the basic principles of this society. HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

The Fellowship accepts religious toleration, and is not exclusivist. Members are free to maintain other religious allegiances. The good in all faiths is honoured. The Fellowship of Isis has no particular affiliations. It practices total religious tolerance, forbids sacrifice of any kind and discourages asceticism.[10]

The Fellowship is dedicated to spreading the religion of all the Goddesses throughout this planet. HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

The Gods are also venerated. The Goddess is seen as Deity, the Divine Mother of all beings, as well as the embodiment of Truth and Beauty. "The ecumenical nature of this nonprofit organization reveals itself in a membership that includes Protestants, Catholics, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, Shintoists, Cabalists, Spiritualists, and Wiccan and pagan worshippers of all kinds." [11] HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

FOI sub-groups, called "FOI Foundation Center Societies" or "Daughter Societies" of the Fellowship of Isis consist of the ‘College of Isis’ (Lyceums), the ‘Spiral of the Adepti’ (Iseums), the ‘Spiral of Alchemy’ (Solar Iseums), the 'Druid Clan of Dana' (Groves) and the 'Noble Order of Tara' (Priories). There are sub-chapters of these societies of the FOI in many major cities and countries around the world. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

The Fellowship of Isis claims over 24,000 members in nearly a hundred countries. Members often blend their own traditions and beliefs with those offered by the Fellowship. Huntington Castle, also known as Clonegal Castle, is a castle in Clonegal, County Carlow, Ireland.

The structure was originally a "plantation castle",[1] used for defensive purposes during the plantation of the area in the early 17th century. DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

The original tower house, which served as a garrison, was built in the 1400s as a stronghold for the Caviness family, an old Irish clan. Later Baron Esmonde.Due to the strategic importance of the village of Clonegal during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland because of its location on the road between Dublin and Wexford, SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

the castle was captured by Oliver Cromwell as he marched on Kilkenny[2] in 1650.

It is now a private house open to the public for guided tours throughout June, July, August and September. It was the setting for Stanley Kubrick's film Barry Lyndon. Its basement has been the base of a religion, the Fellowship of Isis, since 1976,[3] HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan

The castle hosted the Solas Festival in August 2008.[4] co-founded by Olivia Robertson, her brother Lawrence Durdin-Robertson and his wife Pamela.

The Esmonde family, laid out most of the gardens in the 17th century. This includes the French limes on the Avenue, the parterre or lawns to the side of the house, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

the fish ponds on either side of the centre walk through the wilderness and the majority of yew trees which comprise the Yew Walk. Larger plantings have resulted in Huntington possessing a number of great Irish trees, SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/WI CPU Fan

including varieties of hickory, a cut leaved oak, Siberian crab and buckeye chestnut. A lake at the bottom of the wilderness was built for ornamental purposes but next to it is one of the earliest water turbine houses in Ireland, providing Huntington with its own electricity as early as 1888.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

The River Derry, which forms the boundary between Counties Wexford and Carlow, flows along the bottom of the wilderness, providing a pleasant setting for woodland walks.

There have been various myths that Huntington castle has been plagued by ghosts of Druids in the fields and even in the castleASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

It is said that the Druids could, at a stroke, create a mist; start fires at will; and bring down showers of blood. They were feared because they would sacrifice, men and woman, to please their gods. It also has a well that has never run dry, and because of that it has saved the castle from sedge in many instances. HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan,HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan,

SONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery,SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery,SONY VAIO PCG-21212V battery

Published by batterys
commenter cet article
11 novembre 2014 2 11 /11 /novembre /2014 07:18

www.amazon.com/shops/flyme,http://www.all-laptopfan.com/,http://www.all-keyboard.com/,http://www.laptopbattery-shop.co.uk/

The atmosphere of Jupiter is the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System. It is mostly made of molecular hydrogen and helium in roughly solar proportions; other chemical compounds are present only in small amounts and includemethane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and water. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

Although water is thought to reside deep in the atmosphere, its directly measured concentration is very low. The oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and noble gas abundances in Jupiter's atmosphere exceed solar values by a factor of about three.[1]

The atmosphere of Jupiter lacks a clear lower boundary and gradually transitions into the liquid interior of the planet.[2] French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

From lowest to highest, the atmospheric layers are the troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere and exosphere. Each layer has characteristic temperature gradients.[3] The lowest layer, the troposphere, has a complicated system of clouds and hazes, comprising layers of ammonia, ammonium hydrosulfide and water.[4] Wedding Corsage

The upper ammonia clouds visible at Jupiter's surface are organized in a dozen zonal bands parallel to the equator and are bounded by powerful zonal atmospheric flows (winds) known as jets. The bands alternate in color: the dark bands are called belts, while light ones are called zones. Zones, which are colder than belts, correspond to upwellings, while belts mark descending air.[5] Bride and Groom Boutonniere

The zones' lighter color is believed to result from ammonia ice; what gives the belts their darker colors is not known with certainty.[5] The origins of the banded structure and jets are not well understood, though two models exist. The shallow model holds that they are surface phenomena overlaying a stable interior. In the deep model, the bands and jets are just surface manifestations of deep circulation in Jupiter's mantle of molecular hydrogen, which is organized into cylinders.[6] SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

The Jovian atmosphere shows a wide range of active phenomena, including band instabilities, vortices (cyclones and anticyclones), storms and lightning.[7] The vortices reveal themselves as large red, white or brown spots (ovals). The largest two spots are the Great Red Spot (GRS)[8] and Oval BA,[9] which is also red. These two and most of the other large spots are anticyclonic. Smaller anticyclones tend to be white. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

Vortices are thought to be relatively shallow structures with depths not exceeding several hundred kilometers. Located in the southern hemisphere, the GRS is the largest known vortex in the Solar System. It could engulf two or three Earths and has existed for at least three hundred years. Oval BA, south of GRS, is a red spot a third the size of GRS that formed in 2000 from the merging of three white ovals.[10] HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

Jupiter has powerful storms, always accompanied by lightning strikes. The storms are a result of moist convection in the atmosphere connected to the evaporation and condensation of water. They are sites of strong upward motion of the air, which leads to the formation of bright and dense clouds. The storms form mainly in belt regions. The lightning strikes on Jupiter are hundreds of times more powerful than those seen on Earth. HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

However, there are so few, that the amount of lightning activity is comparable to Earth.

The atmosphere of Jupiter is classified into four layers, by increasing altitude: the troposphere,stratosphere, thermosphere and exosphere. Unlike the Earth's atmosphere, Jupiter's lacks a mesosphere.[12]DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

Jupiter does not have a solid surface, and the lowest atmospheric layer, the troposphere, smoothly transitions into the planet's fluid interior.[2] This is a result of having temperatures and the pressures well above those of the critical points for hydrogen and helium, meaning that there is no sharp boundary between gas and liquid phases. Hydrogen becomes a supercritical fluid at around 12 bars pressure.[2] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

Since the lower boundary of the atmosphere is ill-defined, the pressure level of 10 bars, at an altitude of about 90 km below the 1 bar with a temperature of around 340 K, is commonly treated as the base of the troposphere.[3] In scientific literature, the 1 bar pressure level is usually chosen as a zero point for altitudes—a "surface" of Jupiter.[2] As with Earth, the top atmospheric layer, the exosphere, does not have a well defined upper boundary.[ HP Pavilion DV9233EU Laptop Keyboard

13] The density gradually decreases until it smoothly transitions into theinterplanetary medium approximately 5,000 km above the "surface".[14]

The vertical temperature variations in the Jovian atmosphere are similar to those of the atmosphere of Earth. The temperature of the troposphere decreases with height until it reaches a minimum at thetropopause,[15] DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard

which is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere. On Jupiter, the tropopause is approximately 50 km above the visible clouds (or 1 bar level), where the pressure and temperature are about 0.1 bar and 110 K.[3][16] In the stratosphere, the temperatures rise to about 200 K at the transition into the thermosphere, at an altitude and pressure of around 320 km and 1 μbar.[3] Compaq Presario CQ57 Laptop Keyboard

In the thermosphere, temperatures continue to rise, eventually reaching 1000 K at about 1000 km, where pressure is about 1 nbar.Jupiter's troposphere contains a complicated cloud structure.[18] The upper clouds, located in the pressure range 0.6–0.9 bar, are made of ammonia ice.[19] Below these ammonia ice clouds, denser clouds made of ammonium hydrosulfide or ammonium sulfide (between 1–2 bar) and water (3–7 bar) are thought to exist. HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard

There are no methane clouds as the temperatures are too high for it to condense.[18] The water clouds form the densest layer of clouds and have the strongest influence on the dynamics of the atmosphere. This is a result of the higher condensation heat of water and higher water abundance as compared to the ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (oxygen is a more abundant chemical element than either nitrogen or sulfur).[12] DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

Various tropospheric (at 200–500 mbar) and stratospheric (at 10–100 mbar) haze layers reside above the main cloud layers.[20][22] The latter are made from condensed heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or hydrazine, which are generated in the upper stratosphere (1–100 μbar) from methane under the influence of the solar ultraviolet radiation (UV).[18] DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

The methane abundance relative to molecular hydrogen in the stratosphere is about 10−4,[14] while the abundance ratio of other light hydrocarbons, like ethane and acetylene, to molecular hydrogen is about 10−6.[14]

Jupiter's thermosphere is located at pressures lower than 1 μbar and demonstrates such phenomena as airglow, polar aurorae and X-ray emissions.[23] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2774 Laptop Keyboard

Within it lie layers of increased electron and ion density that form the ionosphere.[14] The high temperatures prevalent in the thermosphere (800–1000 K) have not been fully explained yet;[17] existing models predict a temperature no higher than about 400 K.[14] They may be caused by absorption of high-energy solar radiation (UV or X-ray), SONY Vaio VGN-AW Laptop Keyboard

by heating from the charged particles precipitating from the Jovian magnetosphere, or by dissipation of upward-propagating gravity waves.[24] The thermosphere and exosphere at the poles and at low latitudes emit X-rays, which were first observed by the Einstein Observatory in 1983.[25] The energetic particles coming from Jupiter's magnetosphere create bright auroral ovals, which encircle the poles. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

Unlike their terrestrial analogs, which appear only during magnetic storms, aurorae are permanent features of Jupiter's atmosphere.[25] The thermosphere was the first place outside the Earth where the trihydrogen cation (H+
3) was discovered.[14] This ion emits strongly in the mid-infrared part of the spectrum, at wavelengths between 3 and 5 μm; this is the main cooling mechanism of the thermosphere. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

The composition of Jupiter's atmosphere is similar to that of the planet as a whole.[1] Jupiter's atmosphere is the most comprehensively understood of those of all the gas giants because it was observed directly by the Galileoatmospheric probe when it entered the Jovian atmosphere on December 7, 1995.[26] Other sources of information about Jupiter's atmospheric composition include the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),[27HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard

] the Galileo and Cassiniorbiters,[28] and Earth-based observations.[1]

The two main constituents of the Jovian atmosphere are molecular hydrogen (H
2) and helium.[1] The helium abundance is0.157 ± 0.0036 relative to molecular hydrogen by number of molecules, and its mass fraction is 0.234 ± 0.005, which is slightly lower than the Solar System's primordial value.[1] HP G72-227WM Laptop Keyboard

The reason for this low abundance is not entirely understood, but some of the helium may have condensed into the core of Jupiter.[19] This condensation is likely to be in the form of helium rain: as hydrogen turns into the metallic state at the depths of more than 10,000 km, helium separates from it forming droplets which, being denser than the metallic hydrogen, descend to the core. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

This can also explain the severer depletion of neon (see Table), which easily dissolves in helium droplets and is transported in them to the core as well.[29]

The atmosphere contains various simple compounds such as water, methane (CH4), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3) and phosphine (PH3).[1] HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

Their abundances in the deep (below 10 bar) troposphere imply that the atmosphere of Jupiter is enriched in the elements carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and possibly oxygen[b] by factor of 2–4 relative to the Sun.[c][1] The noble gases argon, krypton and xenon appear to be enriched relative to solar abundances as well (see table), while neon is scarcer.[1] HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

Other chemical compounds such as arsine (AsH3) and germane (GeH4) are present only in trace amounts.[1] The upper atmosphere of Jupiter contains small amounts of simple hydrocarbons such as ethane,acetylene, and diacetylene, which form from methane under the influence of the solar ultraviolet radiation and charged particles coming from Jupiter's magnetosphere.[1] FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard

The carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water present in the upper atmosphere are thought to originate from impacting comets, such as Shoemaker-Levy 9. The water cannot come from the troposphere because the cold tropopause acts like a cold trap, effectively preventing water from rising to the stratosphere (see Vertical structure above).[1] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

Earth- and spacecraft-based measurements have led to improved knowledge of the isotopic ratios in Jupiter's atmosphere. As of July 2003, the accepted value for the deuterium abundance is 2.25 ± 0.35 × 10−5,[1] which probably represents the primordial value in the protosolar nebula that gave birth to the Solar System.[27] The ratio of nitrogen isotopes in the Jovian atmosphere, 15NHP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

to 14N, is 2.3 × 10−3, a third lower than that in the Earth's atmosphere (3.5 × 10−3).[1] The latter discovery is especially significant since the previous theories of Solar System formation considered the terrestrial value for the ratio of nitrogen isotopes to be primordial.

The visible surface of Jupiter is divided into several bands parallel to the equator.  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

There are two types of bands: lightly colored zones and relatively dark belts.[5] The wider Equatorial Zone (EZ) extends betweenlatitudes of approximately 7°S to 7°N. Above and below the EZ, the North and South Equatorial belts (NEB and SEB) extend to 18°N and 18°S, respectively. Farther from the equator lie the North and South Tropical zones (NtrZ and STrZ).[5] DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

The alternating pattern of belts and zones continues until the polar regions at approximately 50 degrees latitude, where their visible appearance becomes somewhat muted.[30] The basic belt-zone structure probably extends well towards the poles, reaching at least to 80° North or South.[5]

The difference in the appearance between zones and belts is caused by differences in the opacity of the clouds.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Ammonia concentration is higher in zones, which leads to the appearance of denser clouds of ammonia ice at higher altitudes, which in turn leads to their lighter color.[15] On the other hand, in belts clouds are thinner and are located at lower altitudes.[15] The upper troposphere is colder in zones and warmer in belts.[5] The exact nature of chemicals that make Jovian zones and bands so colorful is not known, but they may include complicated compounds of sulfur, phosphorus and carbon.[5]  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

The Jovian bands are bounded by zonal atmospheric flows (winds), called jets. The eastward (prograde) jets are found at the transition from zones to belts (going away from the equator), whereas westward (retrograde) jets mark the transition from belts to zones.[5] Such flow velocity patterns mean that the zonal winds decrease in belts and increase in zones from the equator to the pole. HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

Therefore wind shear in belts is cyclonic, while in zones it is anticyclonic.[21] The EZ is an exception to this rule, showing a strong eastward (prograde) jet and has a local minimum of the wind speed exactly at the equator. The jet speeds are high on Jupiter, reaching more than 100 m/s.[5] These speeds correspond to ammonia clouds located in the pressure range 0.7–1 bar. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

The prograde jets are generally more powerful than the retrograde jets.[5] The vertical extent of jets is not known. They decay over two to three scale heights[a] above the clouds, while below the cloud level, winds increase slightly and then remain constant down to at least 22 bar—the maximum operational depth reached by the Galileo probe.

The origin of Jupiter's banded structure is not completely clear, though it may be similar to that driving the Earth's Hadley cells.HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

The simplest interpretation is that zones are sites of atmospheric upwelling, whereas belts are manifestations ofdownwelling.[31] When air enriched in ammonia rises in zones, it expands and cools, forming high and dense clouds. In belts, however, the air descends, warming adiabatically, and white ammonia clouds evaporate, revealing lower, darker clouds.  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

The location and width of bands, speed and location of jets on Jupiter are remarkably stable, having changed only slightly between 1980 and 2000. One example of change is a decrease of the speed of the strongest eastward jet located at the boundary between the North Tropical zone and North Temperate belts at 23°N.[6][31] However bands vary in coloration and intensity over time (see below).  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

These variations were first observed in the early seventeenth century.

The belts and zones that divide Jupiter's atmosphere each have their own names and unique characteristics. They begin below the North and South Polar Regions, which extend from the poles to roughly 40–48° N/S. These bluish-gray regions are usually featureless.[30] SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

The North North Temperate Region rarely shows more detail than the polar regions, due to limb darkening, foreshortening, and the general diffuseness of features. That said, the North-North Temperate Belt (NNTB) is the northernmost distinct belt, though it occasionally disappears. Disturbances tend to be minor and short-lived.  Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

The North-North Temperate Zone (NNTZ) is perhaps more prominent, but also generally quiet. Other minor belts and zones in the region are occasionally observed.[33]

The North Temperate Region is part of a latitudinal region easily observable from Earth, and thus has a superb record of observation.[34] HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

It also features the strongest prograde jet stream on the planet—a westerly current that forms the southern boundary of the North Temperate Belt (NTB).[34] The NTB fades roughly once a decade (this was the case during theVoyager encounters), making the North Temperate Zone (NTZ) apparently merge into the North Tropical Zone (NTropZ).[34]Other times, the NTZ is divided by a narrow belt into northern and southern components.[34] HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

The North Tropical Region is composed of the NTropZ and the North Equatorial Belt (NEB). The NTropZ is generally stable in coloration, changing in tint only in tandem with activity on the NTB's southern jet stream. Like the NTZ, it too is sometimes divided by a narrow band, the NTropB. On rare occasions, the southern NTropZ plays host to "Little Red Spots". ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

As the name suggests, these are northern equivalents of the Great Red Spot. Unlike the GRS, they tend to occur in pairs and are always short-lived, lasting a year on average; one was present during the Pioneer 10 encounter.[35]

The NEB is one of the most active belts on the planet. It is characterized by anticyclonic white ovals and cyclonic "barges" (also known as "brown ovals"), with the former usually forming farther north than the latter; ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

as in the NTropZ, most of these features are relatively short-lived. Like the South Equatorial Belt (SEB), the NEB has sometimes dramatically faded and "revived". The timescale of these changes is about 25 years.

The Equatorial Region (EZ) is one of the more stable regions of the planet, in latitude and in activity. The northern edge of the EZ hosts spectacular plumes that trail southwest from the NEB,  LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

which are bounded by dark, warm (in infrared) features known as festoons (hot spots).[37]Though the southern boundary of the EZ is usually quiescent, observations from the late 19th into the early 20th century show that this pattern was then reversed relative to today. The EZ varies considerably in coloration, from pale to an ochre, or even coppery hue; it is occasionally divided by an Equatorial Band (EB).[38 Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

] Features in the EZ move roughly 390 km/h relative to the other latitudes.[39][40]

The South Tropical Region includes the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and the South Tropical Zone. It is by far the most active region the planet, as it is home to its strongest retrograde jet stream. The SEB is usually the broadest, darkest belt on Jupiter; COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

it is sometimes split by a zone (the SEBZ), and can fade entirely every 3 to 15 years before reappearing in what is known as an SEB Revival cycle. A period of weeks or months following the belt's disappearance, a white spot forms and erupts dark brownish material which is stretched into a new belt by Jupiter's winds. The belt most recently disappeared in May 2010.[41] Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

Another characteristic of the SEB is a long train of cyclonic disturbances following the Great Red Spot. Like the NTropZ, the STropZ is one of the most prominent zones on the planet; not only does it contain the GRS, but it is occasionally rent by a South Tropical Disturbance (STropD), a division of the zone that can be very long-lived; the most famous one lasted from 1901 to 1939.[42] HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

The South Temperate Region, or South Temperate Belt (STB), is yet another dark, prominent belt, more so than the NTB; until March 2000, its most famous features were the long-lived white ovals BC, DE, and FA, which have since merged to form Oval BA ("Red Jr."). The ovals were part of South Temperate Zone, but they extended into STB partially blocking it.[5] HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

The STB has occasionally faded, apparently due to complex interactions between the white ovals and the GRS. The appearance of the South Temperate Zone (STZ)—the zone in which the white ovals originated—is highly variable.[43]

There are other features on Jupiter that are either temporary or difficult to observe from Earth. The South South Temperate Region is harder to discern even than the NNTR; TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

its detail is subtle and can only be studied well by large telescopes or spacecraft.[44] Many zones and belts are more transient in nature and are not always visible. These include the Equatorial band (EB),[45] North Equatorial belt zone (NEBZ, a white zone within the belt) and South Equatorial belt zone(SEBZ).[46] Belts are also occasionally split by a sudden disturbance. SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

When a disturbance divides a normally singular belt or zone, an N or an S is added to indicate whether the component is the northern or southern one; e.g., NEB(N) and NEB(S).

Circulation in Jupiter's atmosphere is markedly different from that in the atmosphere of Earth. The interior of Jupiter is fluid and lacks any solid surface. DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

Therefore, convection may occur throughout the planet's outer molecular envelope. As of 2008, a comprehensive theory of the dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere has not been developed. Any such theory needs to explain the following facts: the existence of narrow stable bands and jets that are symmetric relative to Jupiter's equator, the strong prograde jet observed at the equator, HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard

the difference between zones and belts, and the origin and persistence of large vortices such as the Great Red Spot.[6]

The theories regarding the dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere can be broadly divided into two classes: shallow and deep. The former hold that the observed circulation is largely confined to a thin outer (weather) layer of the planet, which overlays the stable interior. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

The latter hypothesis postulates that the observed atmospheric flows are only a surface manifestation of deeply rooted circulation in the outer molecular envelope of Jupiter.[48] As both theories have their own successes and failures, many planetary scientists think that the true theory will include elements of both models.

The first attempts to explain Jovian atmospheric dynamics date back to the 1960s.[ LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

] They were partly based on terrestrial meteorology, which had become well developed by that time. Those shallow models assumed that the jets on Jupiter are driven by small scale turbulence, which is in turn maintained by moist convection in the outer layer of the atmosphere (above the water clouds).[51][52] The moist convection is a phenomenon related to the condensation and evaporation of water and is one of the major drivers of terrestrial weather.[53]  DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

The production of the jets in this model is related to a well-known property of two dimensional turbulence—the so-called inverse cascade, in which small turbulent structures (vortices) merge to form larger ones.[51] The finite size of the planet means that the cascade can not produce structures larger than some characteristic scale, which for Jupiter is called the Rhines scale. HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard

Its existence is connected to production of Rossby waves. This process works as follows: when the largest turbulent structures reach a certain size, the energy begins to flow into Rossby waves instead of larger structures, and the inverse cascade stops.[54] Since on the spherical rapidly rotating planet the dispersion relation of the Rossby waves is anisotropic,  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

the Rhines scale in the direction parallel to the equator is larger than in the direction orthogonal to it.[54] The ultimate result of the process described above is production of large scale elongated structures, which are parallel to the equator. The meridional extent of them appears to match the actual width of jets.[51]Therefore in shallow models vortices actually feed the jets and should disappear by merging into them. HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard

While these weather–layer models can successfully explain the existence of a dozen narrow jets, they have serious problems.[51] A glaring failure of the model is the prograde (super-rotating) equatorial jet: with some rare exceptions shallow models produce a strong retrograde (subrotating) jet, contrary to observations. In addition, the jets tend to be unstable and can disappear over time.[51] Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

Shallow models cannot explain how the observed atmospheric flows on Jupiter violate stability criteria.[55] More elaborated multilayer versions of weather–layer models produce more stable circulation, but many problems persist.[56] Meanwhile, theGalileo probe found that the winds on Jupiter extend well below the water clouds at 5–7 bar and do not show any evidence of decay down to 22 bar pressure level, which implies that circulation in the Jovian atmosphere may in fact be deep. SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

The deep model was first proposed by Busse in 1976.[57][58] His model was based on another well-known feature of fluid mechanics, the Taylor–Proudman theorem. It holds that in any fast-rotating barotropic ideal liquid, the flows are organized in a series of cylinders parallel to the rotational axis. The conditions of the theorem are probably met in the fluid Jovian interior. Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

Therefore the planet's molecular hydrogen mantle may be divided into cylinders, each cylinder having a circulation independent of the others.[59] Those latitudes where the cylinders' outer and inner boundaries intersect with the visible surface of the planet correspond to the jets; the cylinders themselves are observed as zones and belts.

The deep model easily explains the strong prograde jet observed at the equator of Jupiter; HP G71-340US CPU Fan

the jets it produces are stable and do not obey the 2D stability criterion.[59] However it has major difficulties; it produces a very small number of broad jets, and realistic simulations of 3D flows are not possible as of 2008, meaning that the simplified models used to justify deep circulation may fail to catch important aspects of the fluid dynamics within Jupiter.[59] Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

One model published in 2004 successfully reproduced the Jovian band-jet structure.[49] It assumed that the molecular hydrogen mantle is thinner than in all other models; occupying only the outer 10% of Jupiter's radius. In standard models of the Jovian interior, the mantle comprises the outer 20–30%.[60] The driving of deep circulation is another problem. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

The deep flows can be caused both by shallow forces (moist convection, for instance) or by deep planet-wide convection that transports heat out of the Jovian interior.[51] Which of these mechanisms is more important is not clear yet.

As has been known since 1966,[61] Jupiter radiates much more heat than it receives from the Sun. HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

It is estimated that the ratio between the power emitted by the planet and that absorbed from the Sun is 1.67 ± 0.09. The internal heat flux from Jupiter is5.44 ± 0.43 W/m2, whereas the total emitted power is 335 ± 26 petawatts. The latter value is approximately equal to one billionth of the total power radiated by the Sun. This excess heat is mainly the primordial heat from the early phases of Jupiter's formation, but may result in part from the precipitation of helium into the core.[62]  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

The internal heat may be important for the dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere. While Jupiter has a small obliquity of about 3°, and its poles receive much less solar radiation than its equator, the tropospheric temperatures do not change appreciably from the equator to poles. One explanation is that Jupiter's convective interior acts like a thermostat, releasing more heat near the poles than in the equatorial region. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

This leads to a uniform temperature in the troposphere. While heat is transported from the equator to the poles mainly via the atmosphere on Earth, on Jupiter deep convection equilibrates heat. The convection in the Jovian interior is thought to be driven mainly by the internal heat.

The atmosphere of Jupiter is home to hundreds of vortices—circular rotating structures that, as in the Earth's atmosphere, can be divided into two classes: cyclones and anticyclones.[7] HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

Cyclones rotate in the direction similar to the rotation of the planet (counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern); the anticyclones rotate in the reverse direction. However a major difference from the terrestrial atmosphere is that, in the Jovian atmosphere, anticyclones dominate over cyclones, as more than 90% of vortices larger than 2000 km in diameter are anticyclones.[64]  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The lifetime of vortices varies from several days to hundreds of years depending on their size. For instance, the average lifetime of anticyclones with diameters from 1000 to 6000 km is 1–3 years.[65] Vortices have never been observed in the equatorial region of Jupiter (within 10° of latitude), where they are unstable.[10] As on any rapidly rotating planet, Jupiter's anticyclones are high pressure centers, while cyclones are low pressure.[37] HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

The anticyclones in Jupiter's atmosphere are always confined within zones, where the wind speed increases in direction from theequator to the poles.[65] They are usually bright and appear as white ovals.[7] They can move in longitude, but stay at approximately the same latitude as they are unable to escape from the confining zone.[10] The wind speeds at their periphery are about 100 m/s.[9] Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

Different anticyclones located in one zone tend to merge, when they approach each other.[66] However Jupiter has two anticyclones that are somewhat different from all others. They are the Great Red Spot (GRS)[8] and the Oval BA;[9] the latter formed only in 2000. In contrast to white ovals, these structures are red, arguably due to dredging up of red material from the planet's depths.[8] HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

On Jupiter the anticyclones usually form through merges of smaller structures including convective storms (see below),[65] although large ovals can result from the instability of jets. The latter was observed in 1938–1940, when a few white ovals appeared as a result of instability of the southern temperate zone; they later merged to form Oval BA.[9][65] Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

In contrast to anticyclones, the Jovian cyclones tend to be small, dark and irregular structures. Some of the darker and more regular features are known as brown ovals (or badges).[64] However the existence of a few long–lived large cyclones has been suggested. In addition to compact cyclones, Jupiter has several large irregular filamentary patches, which demonstrate cyclonic rotation.[7] HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

One of them is located to the west of the GRS (in its wake region) in the southern equatorial belt.[67] These patches are called cyclonic regions (CR). The cyclones are always located in the belts and tend to merge when they encounter each other, much like anticyclones.[65]

The deep structure of vortices is not completely clear. They are thought to be relatively thin, as any thickness greater than about 500 km will lead to instability. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

The large anticyclones are known to extend only a few tens of kilometers above the visible clouds. The early hypothesis that the vortices are deep convective plumes(or convective columns) as of 2008 is not shared by the majority of planetary scientists.

The Great Red Spot (GRS) is a persistent anticyclonic storm, 22° south of Jupiter's equator; HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

observations from Earth establish a minimum storm lifetime between 300 and 400 years.[69][70] It was described as a "permanent spot" by Gian Domenico Cassini after observing the feature in July 1665 with his instrument-makerEustachio Divini.[71] According to a report by Giovanni Battista Riccioli in 1635, Leander Bandtius, who Riccioli identified as the Abbot of Dunisburgh who possessed an "extraordinary telescope", observed a large spot that he described as "oval, equaling one seventh of Jupiter's diameter at its longest." ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

According to Riccioli, "these features are seldom able to be seen, and then only by a telescope of exceptional quality and magnification."The GRS rotates anticlockwise, with a period of about six Earth days[73] or 14 Jovian days. Its dimensions are 24–40,000 km east-to-west and 12–14,000 km north-to-south. The spot is large enough to contain two or three planets the size of Earth.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

At the start of 2004, the Great Red Spot had approximately half the longitudinal extent it had a century ago, when it was 40,000 km in diameter. At the present rate of reduction, it could potentially become circular by 2040, although this is unlikely because of the distortion effect of the neighboring jet streams.[74] It is not known how long the spot will last, or whether the change is a result of normal fluctuations. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

According to a study by scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, between 1996 and 2006 the spot lost 15 percent of its diameter along its major axis. Xylar Asay-Davis, who was on the team that conducted the study, noted that the spot is not disappearing because "[v]elocity is a more robust measurement because the clouds associated with the Red Spot are also strongly influenced by numerous other phenomena in the surrounding  atmosphere."[76] Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

Infrared data have long indicated that the Great Red Spot is colder (and thus, higher in altitude) than most of the other clouds on the planet;[77] the cloudtops of the GRS are about 8 km above the surrounding clouds. Furthermore, careful tracking of atmospheric features revealed the spot's counterclockwise circulation as far back as 1966 – observations dramatically confirmed by the first time-lapse movies from the Voyager flybys.[78SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

] The spot is spatially confined by a modest eastward jet stream (prograde) to its south and a very strong westward (retrograde) one to its north.[79] Though winds around the edge of the spot peak at about 120 m/s (432 km/h), currents inside it seem stagnant, with little inflow or outflow.[80] The rotation period of the spot has decreased with time, perhaps as a direct result of its steady reduction in size.[81] Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

In 2010, astronomers imaged the GRS in the far infrared (from 8.5 to 24 μm) with a spatial resolution higher than ever before and found that its central, reddest region is warmer than its surroundings by between 3–4 K. The warm airmass is located in the upper troposphere in the pressure range of 200–500 mbar. This warm central spot slowly counter-rotates and may be caused by a weak subsidence of air in the center of GRS.[82] SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan

The Great Red Spot's latitude has been stable for the duration of good observational records, typically varying by about a degree. Itslongitude, however, is subject to constant variation.[83][84] Because Jupiter's visible features do not rotate uniformly at all latitudes, astronomers have defined three different systems for defining the longitude. System II is used for latitudes of more than 10°, LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

and was originally based on the average rotation rate of the Great Red Spot of 9h 55m 42s.[85][86] Despite this, the spot has 'lapped' the planet in System II at least 10 times since the early 19th century. Its drift rate has changed dramatically over the years and has been linked to the brightness of the South Equatorial Belt, and the presence or absence of a South Tropical Disturbance. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

It is not known exactly what causes the Great Red Spot's reddish color. Theories supported by laboratory experiments suppose that the color may be caused by complex organic molecules, red phosphorus, or yet another sulfur compound. The GRS varies greatly in hue, from almost brick-red to pale salmon, or even white. The higher temperature of the reddest central region is the first evidence that the Spot's color is affected by environmental factors.[82TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard

] The spot occasionally disappears from the visible spectrum, becoming evident only through the Red Spot Hollow, which is its niche in the South Equatorial Belt (SEB). The visibility of GRS is apparently coupled to the appearance of the SEB; when the belt is bright white, the spot tends to be dark, and when it is dark, the spot is usually light. The periods when the spot is dark or light occur at irregular intervals; Lenovo 45N2205 Laptop Keyboard

in the 50 years from 1947 to 1997, the spot was darkest in the periods 1961–1966, 1968–1975, 1989–1990, and 1992–1993.[88]The Great Red Spot should not be confused with the Great Dark Spot, a feature observed near the northern pole of Jupiter in 2000 by the Cassini–Huygens spacecraft.[89] A feature in the atmosphere of Neptune was also called the Great Dark Spot. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

The latter feature, imaged by Voyager 2 in 1989, may have been an atmospheric hole rather than a storm. It was no longer present in 1994, although a similar spot had appeared farther to the north.

Oval BA is the official name for a red storm in Jupiter's southern hemisphere similar in form to, though smaller than, the Great Red Spot (it is often affectionately referred to as "Red Spot Jr.", "Red Jr." or "The Little Red Spot"). HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard

A feature in the South Temperate Belt, Oval BA was first seen in 2000 after the collision of three small white storms, and has intensified since then.[91]

The formation of the three white oval storms that later merged into Oval BA can be traced to 1939, when the South Temperate Zone was torn by dark features that effectively split the zone into three long sections. HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard

Jovian observer Elmer J. Reese labeled the dark sections AB, CD, and EF. The rifts expanded, shrinking the remaining segments of the STZ into the white ovals FA, BC, and DE.[92]Ovals BC and DE merged in 1998, forming Oval BE. Then, in March 2000, BE and FA joined together, forming Oval BA.[91] (see White ovals, below).

Oval BA slowly began to turn red in August 2005.[93] On February 24, 2006, SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard

Filipino amateur astronomer Christopher Go discovered the color change, noting that it had reached the same shade as the GRS.[93] As a result, NASA writer Dr. Tony Phillips suggested it be called "Red Spot Jr." or "Red Jr."[94]

In April 2006, a team of astronomers, believing that Oval BA might converge with the GRS that year, observed the storms through theHubble Space Telescope.[95] DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

The storms pass each other about every two years, but the passings of 2002 and 2004 did not produce anything exciting. Dr. Amy Simon-Miller, of the Goddard Space Flight Center, predicted the storms would have their closest passing on July 4, 2006.[95] On July 20, the two storms were photographed passing each other by the Gemini Observatory without converging.[96] TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard

Why Oval BA turned red is not understood. According to a 2008 study by Dr. Santiago Pérez-Hoyos of the University of the Basque Country, the most likely mechanism is "an upward and inward diffusion of either a colored compound or a coating vapor that may interact later with high energy solar photons at the upper levels of Oval BA."[97] Some believe that small storms (and their corresponding white spots)  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

on Jupiter turn red when the winds become powerful enough to draw certain gases from deeper within the atmosphere which change color when those gases are exposed to sunlight.[98]

Oval BA is getting stronger according to observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2007. The wind speeds have reached 618 km/h; TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

about the same as in the Great Red Spot and far stronger than any of the progenitor storms.[99][100] As of July 2008, its size is about the diameter of Earth—approximately half the size of the Great Red Spot.[97]

Oval BA should not be confused with another major storm on Jupiter, the South Tropical Little Red Spot (LRS) (nicknamed "the Baby Red Spot" by NASA[101]), which was destroyed by the GRS.[98] DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard

The new storm, previously a white spot in Hubble images, turned red in May 2008. The observations were led by Imke de Pater of the University of California, at Berkeley, US.[102] The Baby Red Spot encountered the GRS in late June to early July 2008, and in the course of a collision, the smaller red spot was shredded into pieces. The remnants of the Baby Red Spot first orbited, then were later consumed by the GRS.  DELL 0P445M Laptop Keyboard

The last of the remnants with a reddish color to have been identified by astronomers had disappeared by mid-July, and the remaining pieces again collided with the GRS, then finally merged with the bigger storm. The remaining pieces of the Baby Red Spot had completely disappeared by August 2008.[101] During this encounter Oval BA was present nearby, but played no apparent role in destruction of the Baby Red Spot.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002L Laptop Keyboard

The storms on Jupiter are similar to thunderstorms on Earth. They reveal themselves via bright clumpy clouds about 1000 km in size, which appear from time to time in the belts' cyclonic regions, especially within the strong westward (retrograde) jets.[11] In contrast to vortices, storms are short-lived phenomena; the strongest of them may exist for several months, while the average lifetime is only 3–4 days.[11] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

They are believed to be due mainly to moist convection within Jupiter's troposphere. Storms are actually tall convective columns (plumes), which bring the wet air from the depths to the upper part of the troposphere, where it condenses in clouds. A typical vertical extent of Jovian storms is about 100 km; as they extend from a pressure level of about 5–7 bar, where the base of a hypothetical water cloud layer is located, to as high as 0.2–0.5 bar.[103] Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

Storms on Jupiter are always associated with lightning. The imaging of the night–side hemisphere of Jupiter by Galileo and Cassinispacecraft revealed regular light flashes in Jovian belts and near the locations of the westward jets, particularly at 51°N, 56°S and 14°S latitudes.[104] On Jupiter lighting strikes are on average a few times more powerful than those on Earth. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

However, they are less frequent; the light poweremitted from a given area is similar to that on Earth.[104] A few flashes have been detected in polar regions, making Jupiter the second known planet after Earth to exhibit polar lightning.[105]

Every 15–17 years Jupiter is marked by especially powerful storms. HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

They appear at 23°N latitude, where the strongest eastward jet, that can reach 150 m/s, is located. The last time such an event was observed was in March–June 2007.[103] Two storms appeared in the northern temperate belt 55° apart in longitude. They significantly disturbed the belt. The dark material that was shed by the storms mixed with clouds and changed the belt's color. HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

The storms moved with a speed as high as 170 m/s, slightly faster than the jet itself, hinting at the existence of strong winds deep in the atmosphere.

The normal pattern of bands and zones is sometimes disrupted for periods of time. One particular class of disruption are long-lived darkenings of the South Tropical Zone, normally referred to as "South Tropical Disturbances" (STD). HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

The longest lived STD in recorded history was followed from 1901 until 1939, having been first seen by Percy B. Molesworth on February 28, 1901. It took the form of darkening over part of the normally bright South Tropical zone. Several similar disturbances in the South Tropical Zone have been recorded since then.

One of the most mysterious features in the atmosphere of Jupiter are hot spots. In them the air is relatively free of clouds and the heat can escape from the depth without much absorption. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

The spots look like bright spots in the infrared images obtained at the wavelength of about 5 μm.[37] They are preferentially located in the belts, although there is a train of prominent hot spots at the northern edge of the Equatorial Zone. Galileo probe descended into one of those equatorial spots. Each equatorial spot is associated with a bright cloudy plume located to the west of it and reaching up to 10,000 km in size.[5] DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

Hot spots generally have round shape, although they do not resemble vortexes.[37]

The origin of hot spots is not clear. They can be either downdrafts, where the descending air is adiabatically heated and dried or, alternatively, they can

be a manifestation of planetary scale waves. The latter hypotheses explains the periodical pattern of the equatorial spots. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

Early astronomers, using small telescopes, recorded the changing appearance of Jupiter's atmosphere.[22] Their descriptive terms—belts and zones, brown spots and red spots, plumes, barges, festoons, and streamers—are still used.[22] Other terms such as vorticity, vertical motion, cloud heights have entered in use later, in the 20th century.[22] HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan

The first observations of the Jovian atmosphere at higher resolution than possible with Earth-based telescopes were taken by thePioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. The first truly detailed images of Jupiter's atmosphere were provided by the Voyagers.[22] The two spacecraft were able to image details at a resolution as low as 5 km in size in various spectra, and also able to create "approach movies" of the atmosphere in motion.[22] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The Galileo probe, which suffered an antenna problem, saw less of Jupiter's atmosphere but at a better average resolution and a wider spectral bandwidth.[22]

Today, astronomers have access to a continuous record of Jupiter's atmospheric activity thanks to telescopes such as Hubble.SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/WI CPU Fan

These show that the atmosphere is occasionally wracked by massive disturbances, but that, overall, it is remarkably stable.[22] The vertical motion of Jupiter's atmosphere was largely determined by the identification of trace gases by ground-based telescopes.[22]Spectroscopic studies after the collision of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 gave a glimpse of the Jupiter's composition beneath the cloud tops.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

The presence of diatomic sulfur (S2) and carbon disulfide (CS2) was recorded—the first detection of either in Jupiter, and only the second detection of S2 in any astronomical object— together with other molecules such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), while oxygen-bearing molecules such as sulfur dioxide were not detected, to the surprise of astronomers.[107]ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

The Galileo atmospheric probe, as it plunged into Jupiter, measured the wind, temperature, composition, clouds, and radiation levels down to 22 bar. However, below 1 bar elsewhere on Jupiter there is uncertainty in the quantities.

The first sighting of the GRS is often credited to Robert Hooke, who described a spot on the planet in May 1664; HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan

however, it is likely that Hooke's spot was in the wrong belt altogether (the North Equatorial Belt, versus the current location in the South Equatorial Belt). Much more convincing is Giovanni Cassini's description of a "permanent spot" in the following year.[108] With fluctuations in visibility, Cassini's spot was observed from 1665 to 1713.[109]

A minor mystery concerns a Jovian spot depicted around 1700 on a canvas by Donato Creti, which is exhibited in the Vatican.[HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

]It is a part of a series of panels in which different (magnified) heavenly bodies serve as backdrops for various Italian scenes, the creation of all of them overseen by the astronomer Eustachio Manfredi for accuracy. Creti's painting is the first known to depict the GRS as red. No Jovian feature was officially described as red before the late 19th century.[111]

The present GRS was first seen only after 1830 and well-studied only after a prominent apparition in 1879. DELL Inspiron 1720 laptop keyboard

118-year gap separates the observations made after 1830 from its 17th-century discovery; whether the original spot dissipated and re-formed, whether it faded, or even if the observational record was simply poor are unknown.[88] The older spots had a short observational history and slower motion than that of the modern spot, which make their identity unlikely. TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1BZ laptop keyboard

On February 25, 1979, when the Voyager 1 spacecraft was 9.2 million kilometers from Jupiter it transmitted the first detailed image of the Great Red Spot back to Earth. Cloud details as small as 160 km across were visible. The colorful, wavy cloud pattern seen to the west (left) of the GRS is the spot's wake region, where extraordinarily complex and variable cloud motions are observed. HP COMPAQ NC6120 laptop keyboard

The white ovals that were to become Oval BA formed in 1939. They covered almost 90 degrees oflongitude shortly after their formation, but contracted rapidly during their first decade; their length stabilized at 10 degrees or less after 1965.[113] Although they originated as segments of the STZ, they evolved to become completely embedded in the South Temperate Belt, suggesting that they moved north, "digging" a niche into the STB.[114] DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

Indeed, much like the GRS, their circulations were confined by two opposing jet streams on their northern and southern boundaries, with an eastward jet to their north and a retrograde westward one to the south.[113]

The longitudinal movement of the ovals seemed to be influenced by two factors: Jupiter's position in its orbit (they became faster at aphelion), and their proximity to the GRS (they accelerated when within 50 degrees of the Spot).[115]  Lenovo 45N2205 laptop keyboard

The overall trend of the white oval drift rate was deceleration, with a decrease by half between 1940 and 1990.[116]

During the Voyager fly-bys, the ovals extended roughly 9000 km from east to west, 5000 km from north to south, and rotated every five days (compared to six for the GRS at the time). COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard,DELL 9Z.N1K82.C01 laptop keyboard, IBM ThinkPad T42 2375 Laptop Keyboard

Published by batterys
commenter cet article
9 novembre 2014 7 09 /11 /novembre /2014 03:08

The miniature towers bear finer and more elegant details, indicating that architectural ideas traveled fast from the north to the south.[62]  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Decoration and ornamentation had evolved from a moulded form to a chiseled form, the sharpness sometimes giving it a three-dimensional effect. The foliage decorations changed from bulky to thin, and a change in the miniature towers on dual pilasters is seen. The 11th century miniatures consisted of a cornice (kapota), a floor (vyalamala), a balustrade (vedika) and a roof (kuta) with a voluptuous moulding, while in the 12th century, HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

detailed dravida miniature towers with many tiny tiers (tala) came into vogue.[41] Some 12th-century temples such as the Kallesvara Temple at Hirehadagalli have miniature towers that do not stand on pilasters but instead are supported by balconies, which have niches underneath that normally contain an image of a deity.

The Western Chalukyan kings Shaivas (worshippers of the Hindu god Shiva) dedicated most of their temples to that God. Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

They were however tolerant of the Vaishnava or Jain faiths and dedicated some temples to Vishnu and the Jain tirthankaras respectively. There are some cases where temples originally dedicated to one deity were converted to suit another faith. In such cases, the original presiding deity can sometimes still be identified by salient clues.[26] HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

While these temples shared the same basic plan andarchitectural sensibilities, they differed in some details, such as the visibility and pride of place they afforded the different deities.

As with all Indian temples, the deity in the sanctum was the most conspicuous indicator of the temple's dedication. The sanctum (Garbhagriha or cella) of a Shaiva temple would contain a Shiva linga, the universal symbol of the deity.[64] Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

An image of Gaja Lakshmi (consort of the Hindu god Vishnu) or an image of Vishnu riding on Garuda, or even just the Garuda, signifies a Vaishnava temple. Gaja Lakshmi, however, on account of her importance to the Kannada-speaking regions,[26] is found on the lintel of the entrance to the mantapa (pillared hall) in all temples irrespective of faith. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

The carving on the projecting lintel on the doorway to the sanctum has the image of a linga or sometimes of Ganapati (Ganesha), the son of Shiva in the case of Shaiva temples or of a seated or upright Jain saint (Tirthankar) in the case of Jain temples.[26]

The great arched niche at the base of the superstructure (Sikhara or tower) also contains an image indicative of the dedicators' sect or faith.[26] HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

Above the lintel, in a deep and richly wrought architrave can be found images of the Hindu trimurti (the Hindu triad of deities) Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu beneath arched rolls of arabesque. Shiva or Vishnu occupies the centre depending on the sect the temple was dedicated to.

Occasionally, Ganapati and his brother Kartikeya (Kumara, Subramanya) or the saktis, the female counterparts, can be found at either end of this carving. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

Carvings of the river Goddesses Ganga and Yamuna are found at either end of the foot of the doorway to the shrine in early temples.

The Western Chalukya dynastic rule ended in the late 12th century, but its architectural legacy was inherited by the temple builders in southern Karnataka, a region then under the control of the Hoysala empire.[65] ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

Broadly speaking, Hoysala architecture is derived from a variant of Western Chalukya architecture that emerged from the Lakshmeshwar workshops.[66] The construction of the Chennakesava Temple at Belur was the first major project commissioned by Hoysala King Vishnuvardhana in 1117 CE. This temple best exemplifies the Chalukyan taste the Hoysala artisans inherited.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Avoiding overdecoration, these artists left uncarved spaces where required, although their elaborate doorjambs are exhibitionistic. Here, on the outer walls, the sculptures are not overdone, yet they are articulate and discretely aesthetic.[18][67] The Hoysala builders used soapstone almost universally as building material, a trend that started in the middle of the 11th century with Chalukyan temples.[32] HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Other common artistic features between the two Kanarese dynasties are the ornate Salabhanjika (pillar bracket figures), the lathe-turned pillars and the makara torana (lintel with mythical beastly figure).[18] The tower over the shrine in a Hoysala temple is a closely moulded form of the Chalukya style tower.[68]

When the Vijayanagara Empire was in power in the 15th and 16th centuries, its workshops preferred granite over soapstone as the building material for temples. Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

However, an archaeological discovery within the royal center at Vijayanagara has revealed the use of soapstone for stepped wells. These stepped wells are fashioned entirely of finely finished soapstone arranged symmetrically, with steps and landings descending to the water on four sides. This design shows strong affinities to the temple tanks of the Western Chalukya–Hoysala period. SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

Unlike the Badami Chalukyan temples featured in detailed studies by Henry Cousens (1927), Gary Tartakov (1969) and George Michell (1975), Western Chalukyan architecture suffered neglect despite its importance and wider use. Recently however, scholars have returned to the modern Karnataka region to focus on a longer chronology, Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

investigating a larger geographical area, making detailed studies of epigraphs and giving more importance to individual monuments dating from the 11th through 13th centuries.[3]

The first detailed study of Western Chalukya architecture was by M.A. Dhaky (1977), who used as a starting point two medieval epigraphs that claimed the architects were masters of various temple forms. SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan

This study focused in particular on the riches of the Western Chalukya miniature wall shrines (aedicules). An important insight gained from this work was that the architects of the region learned about temple forms from other regions. These forms to them appeared "exotic", but they learned to reproduce them with more or less mastery, depending on the extent of their familiarity with the other regions' building traditions.[70]  LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

This conscious eclectic attempt to freely use elements from other regions in India was pointed out by Sinha (1993) as well.[71]

A seminal work by Adam Hardy (1995) examined the Karnataka temple-building tradition over a period of 700 years, from the 7th century to the 13th century, and reviewed more than 200 temples built by four dynasties; Badami Chalukya, Rashtrakuta, Western Chalukya and Hoysala.  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

The study covered dravida and nagara style monuments and the differences between the dravida tradition in modern Karnataka and that of neighbouring Tamil Nadu and made it possible to interpret the many architectural details as part of a larger scheme.[3][71]

Today, the temples and epigraphs of the Western Chalukyas are protected by the Archaeological Survey of India and the Directorate of Archaeology and Museums–Government of Karnataka.[72TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard

][73] In the words of historian S. Kamath (2001), "The Western Chalukyas left behind some of the finest monuments of artistic merit. Their creations have the pride of place in Indian art tradition".

The Mahadeva Temple at Itagi dedicated to Shiva is among the larger temples built by the Western Chalukyas and perhaps the most famous. Inscriptions hail it as the 'Emperor among temples'.[74] Lenovo 45N2205 Laptop Keyboard

Here, the main temple, the sanctum of which has a linga, is surrounded by thirteen minor shrines, each with its own linga. The temple has two other shrines, dedicated to Murthinarayana and Chandraleshwari, parents of Mahadeva, the Chalukya commander who consecrated the temple in 1112 CE.[75]

The Siddheshwara temple in the Haveri district has sculptures of deities of multiple faiths. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

The temple may have been consecrated first as a Vaishnava temple, later taken over by Jains and eventually becoming a Shaiva temple.[28] The hall in the temple contains sculptures ofUma Mahesvara (Shiva with his consort Uma), Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, Surya (the sun god), Naga-Nagini (the snake goddess), and the sons of Shiva, Ganapati and Kartikeya. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

Shiva is depicted with four arms, holding his attributes: the damaru (drum), the aksamala (chain of beads) and the trishul (trident) in three arms. His lower left arm rests on Uma, who is seated on Shiva's lap, embracing him with her right arm while gazing into his face. The sculpture of Uma is well decorated with garlands, large earrings and curly hair.[76] HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard

Some temples, in a departure from the norm, were dedicated to deities other than Shiva or Vishnu. These include the Surya (portrayed as 'Suryanarayana') shrine at the Kasi Vishveshwara temple complex and a Jain temple dedicated to Mahavira, both at Lakkundi; the Taradevi temple (built in a Buddhist architectural style) at Dambal in the Gadag district; HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard

the Mahamaya temple dedicated to a tantric goddess at Kuknur in the Koppal district, and the Durga temple at Hirekerur in the Haveri district.

Whaam! is a 1963 diptych painting by the American artist Roy Lichtenstein. It is one of the best-known works of pop art, and among Lichtenstein's most important paintings. SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard

Whaam! was first exhibited at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York City in 1963, and purchased by the Tate Gallery, London, in 1966. It has been on permanent display at Tate Modern since 2006.

The left-hand panel shows a fighter plane firing a rocket that, in the right-hand panel, hits a second plane which explodes in flames. Lichtenstein conceived the image from several comic-book panels. DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

He transformed his primary source, a panel from a 1962 war comic book, by presenting it as a diptych while altering the relationship of the graphical and narrative elements. Whaam! is regarded for the temporal, spatial and psychological integration of its panels. The painting's title is integral to the action and impact of the painting, and displayed in large onomatopoeia in the right panel. TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard

Lichtenstein studied as an artist before and after serving in the United States Army during World War II. He practiced anti-aircraft drills during basic training, and he was sent for pilot training but the program was canceled before it started. Among the topics he tackled after the war were romance and war. He depicted aerial combat in several works.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Whaam! is part of a series on war that he worked on between 1962 and 1964, and along with As I Opened Fire (1964) is one of his two large war-themed paintings.

In 1943 Lichtenstein left his study of painting and drawing at Ohio State University to serve in the U.S. Army, where he remained until January 1946. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

After entering training programs for languages, engineering, and piloting, all of which were canceled, he served as an orderly, draftsman and artist in noncombat roles.[1][2] One of his duties at Camp Shelby was enlarging Bill Mauldin's Stars and Stripes cartoons.[1] He was sent to Europe with an engineer battalion, but did not see active combat.[1] DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard

As a painter, he eventually settled on an abstract-expressionist style with parodist elements.[3] Around 1958 he began to incorporate hidden images of cartoon characters such as Mickey Mouse and Bugs Bunny into his abstract works.[4]

By the late 1950s and early 1960s, the American art world had grown accustomed to and tired of the subjective angst and "hot" look of abstract expressionism.[5][  DELL 0P445M Laptop Keyboard

6]A new generation of artists emerged with a more objective, "cool" approach characterized by the art movements known today as minimalism,[7] hard-edge painting,[8]color field painting,[9] the neo-Dada movement,[10] Fluxus,[11] and pop art, all of which re-defined the avant-garde contemporary art of the time.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002L Laptop Keyboard

Pop art and neo-Dada re-introduced and changed the use of imagery by appropriating subject matter from commercial art, consumer goods, art history and mainstream culture.[12][13]Lichtenstein achieved international recognition during the 1960s as one of the initiators of the pop art movement in America.[14] Regarding his use of imagery MoMAcurator Bernice Rose observed that Lichtenstein was interested in "challenging the notion of originality as it prevailed at that time."[15] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

Lichtenstein's early comics-based works such as Look Mickey focused on popular animated characters. By 1963 he had progressed to more serious, dramatic subject matter, typically focusing on romantic situations or war scenes.[16] Comic books as a genre were held in low esteem at the time. Public antipathy led in 1954 to examination of alleged connections between comic books and youth crime during Senate investigations into juvenile delinquency;[ Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

17] by the end of that decade, comic books were regarded as material of "the lowest commercial and intellectual kind", according to Mark Thistlethwaite of the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth.[17]Lichtenstein was not a comic-book enthusiast as a youth,[18] but was enticed as an artist by the challenge of creating art based on a subject remote from the typical "artistic image".[19] SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

Lichtenstein admitted he was "very excited about, and very interested in, the highly emotional content yet detached impersonal handling of love, hate, war, etc., in these cartoon images."[16]

Lichtenstein's romance and war comic-based works took heroic subjects from small source panels and monumentalized them.[20] HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

Whaam! is comparable in size to the generally large canvases painted at that time by the abstract expressionists.[21] It is one of Lichtenstein's many works with an aeronautical theme.[22] He said that "the heroes depicted in comic books are fascist types, but I don't take them seriously in these paintings—maybe there is a point in not taking them seriously, a political point. I use them for purely formal reasons." HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

Whaam! adapts a panel by Irv Novick from the "Star Jockey" story from issue #89 of DC Comics' All-American Men of War (Feb. 1962).[24][25][26] The original forms part of a dream sequence in which fictional World War II P-51 Mustang pilot Johnny Flying Cloud, "the Navajo ace", foresees himself flying a jet fighter while shooting down other jet planes.[27][28] HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

In Lichtenstein's painting, both the attacking and target planes are replaced by different types of aircraft. Paul Gravettsuggests that Lichtenstein substituted the attacking plane with an aircraft from "Wingmate of Doom" illustrated by Jerry Grandenetti in the subsequent issue (#90, April 1962),[29] and that the target plane was borrowed from a Russ Heath drawing in the third panel of page 3 of the "Aces Wild" story in the same issue #89.[30] Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

The painting also omits the speech bubble from the source in which the pilot exclaims "The enemy has become a flaming star!"A smaller, single-panel oil painting by Lichtenstein around the same time, Tex!, has a similar composition, with a plane at the lower left shooting an air-to-air missile at a second plane that is exploding in the upper right, with a word bubble.[32] DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

The same issue of All-American Men of War was the inspiration for at least three other Lichtenstein paintings, Okay Hot-Shot, Okay!Brattata and Blam, in addition to Whaam! andTex![33] The graphite pencil sketch, Jet Pilot was also from that issue.[34] Several of Lichtenstein's other comics-based works are inspired by stories about Johnny Flying Cloud written by Robert Kanigher and illustrated by Novick, including Okay Hot-Shot, Okay!Jet Pilot and Von Karp.[28] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

Lichtenstein repeatedly depicted aerial combat between the United States and the Soviet Union.[2] In the early and mid-1960s, he produced "explosion" sculptures, taking subjects such as the "catastrophic release of energy" from paintings such as Whaam! and depicting them in freestanding and relief forms.[35] In 1963, he was parodying a variety of artworks, from advertising and comics and to "high art" modern masterpieces byCézanne, Mondrian, Picasso and others. HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan

At the time, Lichtenstein noted that "the things that I have apparently parodied I actually admire."[36]

Lichtenstein's first solo exhibition was held at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York City, from February 10 to March 3, 1962. It sold out before its opening.[37]The exhibition included Look Mickey,[38] Engagement RingBlam and The Refrigerator.[39] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

According to the Lichtenstein Foundation website, Whaam! was part of Lichtenstein's second solo exhibition at the Leo Castelli Gallery from September 28 to October 24, 1963, that also included Drowning GirlBaseball ManagerIn the CarConversation, and Torpedo...Los![1][37] Marketing materials for the show included the lithograph artwork, Crak![40][41] SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/WI CPU Fan

The Lichtenstein Foundation website says that Lichtenstein began using his opaque projector technique in 1962.[1] in 1967 he described his process for producing comics-based art as follows:I do them as directly as possible. If I am working from a cartoon, photograph or whatever, I draw a small picture—the size that will fit into my opaque projector ...  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

I don't draw a picture in order to reproduce it—I do it in order to recompose it ... I go all the way from having my drawing almost like the original to making it up altogether.

Whaam! was purchased by the Tate Gallery in 1966.[1] In 1969, Lichtenstein donated his initial graphite-on-paper drawing Drawing for 'Whaam!', describing it as a "pencil scribble".[43] ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

According to the Tate, Lichtenstein claimed that this drawing represented his "first visualization of Whaam! and that it was executed just before he started the painting."[44] Although he had conceived of a unified work of art on a single canvas, he made the sketch on two sheets of paper of equal size—measuring 14.9 cm × 30.5 cm (5.9 in × 12.0 in).[44] The painting has been displayed at Tate Modern since 2006.[45HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan

] In 2012–13, both works were included in the largest Lichtenstein retrospective that visited the Art Institute of Chicago, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the Tate Modern in London and the Centre Pompidou.

haam! depicts a fighter aircraft in the left panel firing a rocket into an enemy plane in the right panel, which disintegrates in a vivid red-and-yellow explosion. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The cartoon style is emphasized by the use of the onomatopoeic lettering "WHAAM!" in the right panel, and a yellow-boxed caption with black lettering at the top of the left panel. The textual exclamation "WHAAM!" can be considered the graphic equivalent of a sound effect.[48] This was to become a characteristic of his work—like others of his onomatopoeic paintings that contain exclamations such as Bratatat! and Varoom![49] DELL Inspiron 1720 laptop keyboard

Whaam! is one of Lichtenstein's series of war images, typically combining vibrant colors with an expressive narrative.[50] Whaam! is very large, measuring 1.7 m × 4.0 m (5 ft 7 in × 13 ft 4 in).[24] It is less abstract than As I Opened Fire, another of his war scenes.[48] Lichtenstein employs his usual comic-book style: stereotyped imagery in bright primary colors with black outlines, coupled with imitations of mechanical printer's Ben-Day dots.[51] TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1BZ laptop keyboard

The use of these dots, which were invented by Benjamin Day to simulate color variations and shading, are considered Lichtenstein's "signature method".[52] Whaam!departs from Lichtenstein's earlier diptychs such as Step-on-Can with Leg and Like New, in that the panels are not two variations of the same image.

Although Lichtenstein strove to remain faithful to the source images, HP COMPAQ NC6120 laptop keyboard

he constructed his paintings in a traditional manner, starting with a sketch which he adjusted to improve the composition and then projected on to a canvas to make the finished painting.[53] In the case of Whaam!, the sketch is on two pieces of paper, and the finished work is painted with Magna acrylicand oil paint on canvas.[32] DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

Although the transformation from a single-panel conception into a diptych painting occurred during the initial sketch, the final work varies from the sketch in several ways. The sketch suggests that the "WHAAM!" motif would be colored white, although it is yellow in the finished work.[43][44] Lichtenstein enlarged the main graphical subject of each panel (the plane on the left and the flames on the right), bringing them closer together as a result.[44]  Lenovo 45N2205 laptop keyboard

Lichtenstein built up the image with multiple layers of paint. The paint was applied using a scrub brush and handmade metal screen to produce Ben-Day dots via a process that left physical evidence behind.[54][55] The Ben-Day dots technique enabled Lichtenstein to give his works a mechanically reproduced feel. Lichtenstein said that the work is "supposed to look like a fake, and it achieves that, I think".[52] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

Lichtenstein split the composition into two panels to separate the action from its consequence.[26] The left panel features the attacking plane—placed at a diagonal to create a sense of depth—below the text balloon, which Lichtenstein has relegated to the margin above the plane.[26] In the right panel, the exploding plane—depicted head-on—is outlined by the flames, accompanied by the bold exclamation "WHAAM!".[26]  HP Pavilion DV7-3173nr laptop keyboard

Although separate, with one panel containing the missile launch and the other its explosion, representing two distinct events,[56] the two panels are clearly linked spatially and temporally, not least by the horizontal smoke trail of the missile.[57] Lichtenstein commented on this piece in a July 10, 1967, letter: "I remember being concerned with the idea of doing two almost separate paintings having little hint of compositional connection, DELL 9Z.N1K82.C01 laptop keyboard

and each having slightly separate stylistic character. Of course there is the humorous connection of one panel shooting the other."Lichtenstein altered the composition to make the image more compelling, by making the exploding plane more prominent compared to the attacking plane than in the original.[26] The smoke trail of the missile becomes a horizontal line.  IBM ThinkPad T42 2375 Laptop Keyboard

The flames of the explosion dominate the right panel,[26] but the pilot and the airplane in the left panel are the narrative focus.[48] They exemplify Lichtenstein's painstaking detailing of physical features such as the aircraft's cockpit.[59] The other element of the narrative content is a text balloon that contains the following text: "I pressed the fire control ... and ahead of me rockets blazed through the sky ..."[54] GATEWAY MT6919 Laptop Keyboard

This is among the text believed to have been written by All-American Men of War editor Robert Kanigher.[29][60][61] The yellow word "WHAAM!", altered from the red in the original comic-book panel and white in the pencil sketch, links the yellow of the explosion below it with the textbox to the left and the flames of the missile below the attacking plane.  COMPAQ Presario CQ45-208TU Laptop Keyboard

Lichtenstein's borrowings from comics mimicked their style while adapting their subject matter.[62] He explained that "Signs and comic strips are interesting as subject matter. There are certain things that are usable, forceful and vital about commercial art." Rebecca Bengal at PBS wrote that Whaam!'s graphic clarity exemplifies the ligne claire style associated with Hergé, a cartoonist whose influence Lichtenstein acknowledged.[63Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

] Lichtenstein was attracted to using a cool, formal style to depict emotive subjects, leaving the viewer to interpret the artist's intention.[53] He adopted a simplified color scheme and commercial printing-like techniques. The borrowed technique was "representing tonal variations with patterns of colored circles that imitated the half-tone screens of Ben Day dots used in newspaper printing, and surrounding these with black outlines similar to those used to conceal imperfections in cheap newsprint."[62 HP Mini 110-3105tu Laptop Keyboard

] Lichtenstein once said of his technique: "I take a cliche and try to organize its forms to make it monumental."

The painting was, for the most part, well received by art critics when first exhibited. A November 1963 Art Magazine review by Donald Judd described Whaam! as one of the "broad and powerful paintings" of the 1963 exhibition at Castelli's Gallery.[37] Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

In his review of the exhibition, The New York Times art critic Brian O'Doherty described Lichtenstein's technique as "typewriter pointillism ... that laboriously hammers out such moments as a jet shooting down another jet with a big BLAM". According to O'Doherty, the result was "certainly not art, [but] time may make it so", depending on whether it could be "rationalized ...  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

and placed in line for the future to assimilate as history, which it shows every sign of doing."[64] The Tate Gallery in London acquired the work in 1966, leading to heated argument amongst their trustees and some vocal members of the public. The purchase was made from art dealer Ileana Sonnabend, whose asking price of £4,665 (£75,821 in 2014 currency) was reduced by negotiation to £3,940 (£64,037 in 2014 currency).[65] HP Pavilion dv4-1030ee Laptop Keyboard

Some Tate trustees opposed the acquisition, among them sculptor Barbara Hepworth, painter Andrew Forge and the poet and critic Herbert Read.[65] Defending the acquisition, art historian Richard Morphet, then an assistant keeper at the Tate, suggested that the painting addresses several issues and painterly styles at the same time: "history painting, Baroque extravagance, and the quotidian phenomenon of mass-circulation comic strips."[66] HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

The Times in 1967 described the acquisition as a "very large and spectacular painting".[67] The Tate's director, Norman Reid, later said that the work aroused more public interest than any of its acquisitions since World War II.[68]

In 1968, Whaam! was included in the Tate's first solo exhibition of Lichtenstein's work.[68] HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

The showing attracted 52,000 visitors, and was organized with theStedelijk Museum in Amsterdam,[65] which later hosted the exhibition from November 4 to December 17, 1967, before it traveled to three other museums.

For José Pierre, Whaam! represents Lichtenstein's 1963 expansion "into the 'epic' vein".[69] Keith Roberts, in a 1968 Burlington Magazine article, described the explosion as combining "art nouveau elegance with a nervous energy reminiscent of Abstract Expressionism".[70] HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard

Wendy Steiner believes the work is Lichtenstein's most successful and harmonious comic-based composition. She sees the narrative and graphic elements as complementary: the action and spatial alignment lead the viewer's eye from left to right so as to emphasize the relationship between the action and its explosive consequence. The ellipses of the text balloon present a progression which culminates with a "WHAAM!". DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

The "coincidence of pictorial and verbal order" are clear for the Western viewer with the explanatory text beginning in the upper left and action vector moving from the left foreground to the right background, culminating in a graphical explosion in tandem with a narrative exclamation.[71] Steiner says the striking incongruity of the two panels—the left panel appearing to be "truncated", while the right depicts a centralized explosion—enhances the work's narrative power. SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard

Lichtenstein's technique has been characterized by Ernst A. Busche as "the enlargement and unification of his source material ... on the basis of strict artistic principles".[62] Extracted from a larger narrative, the resulting stylized image became in some cases a "virtual abstraction". By recreating their minimalistic graphic techniques, Lichtenstein reinforced the artificial nature of comic strips and advertisements. HP Mini 110-3004tu Laptop Keyboard

Lichtenstein's magnification of his source material made his impersonally drawn motifs seem all the more empty. Busche also says that although a critique of modern industrial America may be read into these images, Lichtenstein "would appear to accept the environment as revealed by his reference material as part of American capitalist industrial culture".[62] SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard

David McCarthy contrasted Lichtenstein's "dispassionate, detached and oddly disembodied" presentation of aerial combat with the work of H.C. Westermann, for whom the experience of military service in World War II instilled a need to horrify and shock. In contrast, Lichtenstein registers his "comment on American civilization" by scaling up inches-high comic book images to the oversized dimensions of history painting.[2] TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Laura Brandon saw an attempt to convey "the trivialization of culture endemic in contemporary American life" by depicting a shocking scene of combat as a banal Cold War act.[72]

Carol Strickland and John Boswell say that by magnifying the comic book panels to an enormous size with dots, "Lichtenstein slapped the viewer in the face with their triviality."[51] Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

H. H. Arnason noted that Whaam! presents "limited, flat colors and hard, precise drawing," which produce "a hard-edge subject painting that documents while it gently parodies the familiar hero images of modern America."[73] The flat and highly finished style of planned brushstrokes can be seen as pop art's reaction against the looseness of abstract expressionism.[74] DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

Alastair Sooke says that the work can be interpreted as a symbolic self-portrait in which the pilot in the left panel represents Lichtenstein "vanquishing his competitors in a dramatic art-world dogfight" by firing a missile at the colorful "parody of abstract painting" in the right panel.[66]

According to Ernesto Priego, while the work adapts a comic-book source, the painting is neither a comic nor a comics panel, and "its meaning is solely referential and post hoc. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard

" It directs the attention of its audience to features such as genre and printing methods. Visually and narratively, the original panel was the climactic element of a dynamic page composition. Lichtenstein emphasizes the onomatopoeia while playing down articulated speech by removing the speech balloon. According to Priego, "by stripping the comics panel from its narrative context, APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

Whaam! is representative in the realm of fine art of the preference of the image-icon over image-narrative".[61]

Whaam! is sometimes said to belong to the same anti-war genre as Picasso's Guernica, a suggestion dismissed by Bradford R. Collins. Instead, Collins views the painting as a revenge fantasy against Lichtenstein's first wife Isabel, conceived as it was during their bitter divorce battle (the couple separated in 1961 and divorced in 1965). HP G62-b04SL CPU Fan

Marla F. Prather observed that Whaam!'s grand scale and dramatic depiction contributed to its position as a historic work of pop art.[74] With As I Opened Fire, Lichtenstein's other monumental war painting, Whaam! is regarded as the culmination of Lichtenstein's dramatic war-comics works, according to Diane Waldman.[76] It is widely described as either Lichtenstein's most famous work,[  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

] or, along with Drowning Girl, as one of his two most famous works.[80][81] Andrew Edgar and Peter Sedgwick describe it, along with Warhol's Marilyn Monroe prints, as one of the most famous works of pop art.[82] Gianni Versace once linked the two iconic pop art images via his gown designs.[83] According to Douglas Coupland, the World Book Encyclopedia used pictures of Warhol's Monroes and Whaam! to illustrate its Pop art entry. DELL Inspiron N3010 Series CPU Fan

Comic books were in turn affected by the cultural impact of pop art. By the mid-1960s, some comic books were displaying a new emphasis on garish colors, emphatic sound effects and stilted dialogue—the elements of comic book style that had come to be regarded as camp—in an attempt to appeal to older, college-age readers who appreciated pop art.[85] HP 550 CPU Fan

Gravett observed that the "simplicity and outdatedness [of comic books] were ripe for being mocked".[29]

Whaam! was one of the key works exhibited in a major Lichtenstein retrospective in 2012–2013 that was designed, according to Li-mei Hoang, to demonstrate "the importance of Lichtenstein's influence, his engagement with art history and his enduring legacy as an artist".[86HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

] In his review of the Lichtenstein Retrospective at the Tate Modern, Adrian Searle of The Guardian—who was generally unenthusiastic about Lichtenstein's work—credited the work's title with accurately describing its graphic content: "Whaam! goes the painting, as the rocket hits, and the enemy fighter explodes in a livid, comic-book roar."[87] DELL Vostro A860 CPU Fan

Daily Telegraph critic Alastair Smart wrote a disparaging review in which he acknowledged Lichtenstein's reputation as a leading figure in "Pop Art's cheeky assault on the swaggering, self-important Abstract Expressionists", whose works Smart said Whaam! mimicked by its huge scale. Smart said the work was neither a positive commentary on the fighting American spirit nor a critique, but was notable for marking "Lichtenstein's incendiary impact on the US art scene".[21] HP Pavilion dv6-3125ej CPU Fan

Critics have raised concerns over Lichtenstein's appropriation, in that he directly references imagery from other sources[88] in Whaam! and other works of the period.[29] Some have denigrated it as mere copying, to which others have countered that Lichtenstein altered his sources in significant, creative ways.[66] In response to claims of plagiarism, Compaq Presario A916NR CPU Fan

the Roy Lichtenstein Foundation has noted that publishers have never sued for copyright infringement, and that they never raised the issue when Lichtenstein's comics-derived work first gained attention in the 1960s.[89] Other criticism centers on Lichtenstein's failure to credit the original artists of his sources;[66][90][91] Ernesto Priego implicates National Periodicals in the case of Whaam!, as the artists were never credited in the original comic books.[61] HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

In Alastair Sooke's 2013 BBC Four documentary that took place in front of Whaam! at the Tate Modern, British comic book artist Dave Gibbons disputed Sooke's assertion that Lichtenstein's painting improved upon Novick's panel, saying: "This to me looks flat and abstracted, to the point of view that to my eyes it's confusing. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Whereas the original has got a three-dimensional quality to it, it's got a spontaneity to it, it's got an excitement to it, and a way of involving the viewer that this one lacks."[29] Gibbons has parodied Lichtenstein's derivation of the Novick work. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan, HP 489126-001 CPU Fan, HP Envy 17-2290nr CPU Fan

Published by batterys
commenter cet article
9 novembre 2014 7 09 /11 /novembre /2014 03:06

www.amazon.com/shops/flyme,http://www.all-laptopfan.com/,http://www.all-keyboard.com/,http://www.laptopbattery-shop.co.uk/

 Western Chalukya architecture (Kannada: ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ವಾಸ್ತುಶಿಲ್ಪ), also known as Kalyani Chalukya or Later Chalukyaarchitecture, is the distinctive style of ornamented architecture that evolved during the rule of the Western Chalukya Empire in the Tungabhadra region of central Karnataka, India, during the 11th and 12th centuries. Western Chalukyan political influence was at its peak in the Deccan Plateau during this period.Wedding Headdress

The centre of cultural and temple-building activity lay in the Tungabhadra region, where large medieval workshops built numerous monuments. These monuments, regional variants of pre-existing dravida(South Indian) temples, defined the Karnata dravida tradition.[2][3] Temples of all sizes built by the Chalukyan architects during this era remain today as examples of the architectural style.Wedding Bouquet

Most notable of the many buildings dating from this period are the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in the Koppal district, theKasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi in the Gadag district, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti in the Bellary district and theKallesvara Temple at Bagali in the Davangere district. Other monuments notable for their craftsmanship include theKaitabheshvara Temple in Kubatur and Kedareshvara Temple in Balligavi, Bride Holding Flowers

both in the Shimoga district, the Siddhesvara Temple atHaveri in the Haveri district, the Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri in the Dharwad district, the Sarasvati Temple in Gadag, and theDodda Basappa Temple at Dambal, both in the Gadag district.The surviving Western Chalukya monuments are temples built in the Shaiva, Vaishnava, and Jain religious traditions. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

None of the military, civil, or courtly architecture has survived; being built of mud, brick and wood, such structures may not have withstood repeated invasions.[7] The centre of these architectural developments was the region encompassing the present-day Dharwad district; it included areas of present-day Haveri and Gadag districts.[8][9] French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's 

In these districts, about fifty monuments have survived as evidence of the widespread temple building of the Western Chalukyan workshops. The influence of this style extended beyond theKalyani region in the northeast to the Bellary region in the east and to the Mysore region in the south. In the Bijapur–Belgaum region to the north, the style was mixed with that of the Hemadpanti temples. Macaron Cushion

Although a few Western Chalukyan temples can be found in the Konkanregion, the presence of the Western Ghats probably prevented the style from spreading westwards.

Though the basic plan of the Western Chalukya style originated from the older dravida style, many of its features were unique and peculiar to it.[10][11] SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

One of these distinguishing features of the Western Chalukyan architectural style was an articulation that can still be found throughout modern Karnataka. The only exceptions to this motif can be found in the area around Kalyani, where the temples exhibit a nagara (North Indian) articulation which has its own unique character.[12] DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

In contrast to the buildings of the early Badami Chalukyas, whose monuments were centred around the metropoleis of Pattadakal,Aihole, and Badami, these Western Chalukya temples are widely dispersed, reflecting a system of local government and decentralisation.[1] The Western Chalukya temples were smaller than those of the early Chalukyas, a fact discernible in the reduced height of the superstructures which tower over the shrines. HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

The Western Chalukya art evolved in two phases, the first lasting approximately a quarter of a century and the second from the beginning of 11th century until the end of Western Chalukya rule in 1186 CE. During the first phase, temples were built in the Aihole-Banashankari-Mahakuta region (situated in the early Chalukyaheartland) and Ron in the Gadag district. HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

A few provisional workshops built them in Sirval in the Gulbarga district and Gokak in the Belgaum district. The structures at Ron bear similarities to the Rashtrakuta temples in Kuknur in the Koppal district andMudhol in the Bijapur district, evidence that the same workshops continued their activity under the new Karnata dynasty.[13] The mature and latter phase reached its peak at Lakkundi (Lokigundi), a principal seat of the imperial court.[1DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

4] From the mid-11th century, the artisans from the Lakkundi school moved south of the Tungabhadra River. Thus the influence of the Lakkundi school can be seen in some of the temples of the Davangere district, and in the temples at Hirehadagalli and Huvinahadgalli in the Bellary district.[15] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

Influences of Western Chalukya architecture can be discerned in the geographically distant schools of architecture of the Hoysala Empire in southern Karnataka, and the Kakatiya dynasty in present-day Andhra Pradesh.[16] Sometimes called the Gadag style of architecture, Western Chalukya architecture is considered a precursor to the Hoysala architecture of southern Karnataka.[17] HP Pavilion DV9233EU Laptop Keyboard

This influence occurred because the early builders employed by the Hoysalas came from pronounced centres of medieval Chalukya art.[18][19] Further monuments in this style were built not only by the Western Chalukya kings but, also by their feudal vassals.

A typical Western Chalukya temple may be examined from three aspects — the basic floor plan, the architectural articulation, and the figure sculptures.[ DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard

The basic floor plan is defined by the size of the shrine, the size of the sanctum, the distribution of the building mass, and by the pradakshina (path for circumambulation), if there is one.

Architectural articulation refers to the ornamental components that give shape to the outer wall of the shrine. These include projections, recesses, and representations that can produce a variety of patterns and outlines, either stepped, stellate (star-shaped), or square.[2Compaq Presario CQ57 Laptop Keyboard

1] If stepped (also called "stepped diamond of projecting corners"), these components form five or seven projections on each side of the shrine, where all but the central one are projecting corners (projections with two full faces created by two recesses, left and right, that are at right angles with each other). If square (also called "square with simple projections"), these components form three or five projections on a side, only two of which are projecting corners. HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard

Stellate patterns form star points which are normally 8-, 16-, or 32-pointed and are sub-divided into interrupted and uninterrupted stellate components. In an 'interrupted' stellate plan, the stellate outline is interrupted by orthogonal (right-angle) projections in thecardinal directions, resulting in star points that have been skipped.[22] DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

Two basic kinds of architectural articulation are found in Indian architecture: the southern Indian dravida and the northern Indian nagara.[23]

Figure sculptures are miniature representations that stand by themselves, including architectural components on pilasters, buildings, sculptures, and complete towers. They are generally categorised as "figure sculpture" or "other decorative features".[24] DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

On occasion, rich figure sculpture can obscure the articulation of a shrine, when representations of gods, goddesses, and mythical figures are in abundance.

Chalukyan temples fall into two categories — the first being temples with a common mantapa (a colonnaded hall) and two shrines (known as dvikuta), and the second being temples with one mantapa and a single shrine (ekakuta). IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2774 Laptop Keyboard

Both kinds of temples have two or more entrances giving access to the main hall.[26] This format differs from both the designs of the northern Indian temples, which have a small closed mantapa leading to the shrine and the southern Indian temples which generally have a large, open, columned mantapa.

The Chalukyan architects retained features from both northern and southern styles. SONY Vaio VGN-AW Laptop Keyboard

However, in the overall arrangement of the main temple and of the subsidiary shrines, they inclined towards the northern style and tended to build one main shrine with four minor shrines, making the structure a panchayatna or five-shrined complex.[27] Chalukyan temples were, almost always, built facing the east.[28]

The Sanctum (cella) is connected by a vestibule (ardha mantapa or ante-chamber) to the closed mantapa (also called the navaranga), which is connected to the open mantapaLenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

Occasionally there can be two or more open mantapas. In Shaiva temples, directly opposite the sanctum and opposite the closed mantapa is the nandi mantapa, which enshrines a large image of Nandi, the bull attendant of Shiva.[29] The shrine usually has no pradakshina.

The pillars that support the roof of the mantapa are monolithic shafts from the base up to the neck of the capital. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

Therefore, the height of the mantapa and the overall size of the temple were limited by the length of the stone shafts that the architects were able to obtain from the quarries.[30] The height of the temple was also constrained by the weight of the superstructure on the walls and, since Chalukyan architects did not use mortar, by the use of dry masonry and bonding stones without clamps or cementing material.[30] HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard

The absence of mortar allows some ventilation in the innermost parts of the temple through the porous masonry used in the walls and ceilings. The modest amount of light entering the temples comes into the open halls from all directions, while the very subdued illumination in the inner closed mantapa comes only through its open doorway. HP G72-227WM Laptop Keyboard

The vestibule receives even less light, making it necessary to have some form of artificial lighting (usually, oil lamps) even during the day. This artificial source of light perhaps adds "mystery" to the image of the deity worshipped in the sanctum.

From the 11th century, newly incorporated features were either based on the traditional dravida plan of the Badami Chalukyas,COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

as found in the Virupaksha and Mallikarjuna Temples at Pattadakal, or were further elaborations of this articulation. The new features produced a closer juxtaposition of architectural components, visible as a more crowded decoration, as can be seen in the Mallikarjuna Temple at Sudi in the Gadag district and the Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri in the Dharwad district. HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

The architects in the Karnataka region seem to have been inspired by architectural developments in northern India. This is evidenced by the fact that they incorporated decorative miniature towers (multi-aedicular towers depicting superstructures) of the Sekhari and Bhumija types, supported on pilasters, almost simultaneously with these developments in the temples in northern India. HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

The miniature towers represented shrines, which in turn represented deities. Sculptural depictions of deities were generally discreet although not uncommon. Other northern ideas they incorporated were the pillar bodies that appeared as wall projections.[33] Well-known constructions incorporating these features are found at the Kasivisvesvara Temple and the Nannesvara Temple, both at Lakkundi.[34] FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard

In the 11th century, temple projects began employing soapstone, a form of greenish or blueish black stone, although temples such as the Mallikarjuna Temple at Sudi, the Kallesvara Temple at Kuknur, and the temples at Konnur and Savadi were built with the formerly traditional sandstone in the dravida articulation.[32]

Soapstone is found in abundance in the regions of Haveri, Savanur, Byadgi, Motebennur and Hangal. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

The great archaic sandstone building blocks used by the Badami Chalukyas were superseded with smaller blocks of soapstone and with smaller masonry.[35] The first temple to be built from this material was the Amrtesvara Temple in Annigeri in the Dharwad district in 1050 CE. This building was to be the prototype for later, more articulated structures such as the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi.[36] HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

Soapstone was also used for carving, modelling and chiselling of components that could be described as "chubby".[37] However, the finish of the architectural components compared to the earlier sandstone temples is much finer, resulting in opulent shapes and creamy decorations.[38] Stepped wells are another feature that some of the temples included.  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

The 11th-century temple-building boom continued in the 12th century with the addition of new features. The Mahadeva Temple at Itagi and the Siddhesvara Temple in Haveri are standard constructions incorporating these developments. Based on the general plan of the Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri, the Mahadeva Temple was built in 1112 CE and has the same architectural components as its predecessor. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

There are however differences in their articulation; the sala roof (roof under the finial of the superstructure) and the miniature towers on pilasters are chiseled instead of moulded.[40] The difference between the two temples, built fifty years apart, is the more rigid modelling and decoration found in many components of the Mahadeva Temple. The voluptuous carvings of the 11th century were replaced with a more severe chiselling.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

As developments progressed, the Chalukyan builders modified the pure dravida tower by reducing the height of each stepped storey and multiplying their number. From base to top, the succeeding storeys get smaller in circumference and the topmost storey is capped with a crown holding thekalasa, a finial in the shape of a decorative water pot. Each storey is so richly decorated that the original dravida character becomes almost invisible.  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

In the nagara tower the architects modified the central panels and niches on each storey, forming a more-or-less continuous vertical band and simulating the vertical bands up the centre of each face of the typical northern style tower.[35] Old and new architectural components were juxtaposed but introduced separately.[40] HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

Some superstructures are essentially a combination of southern dravida and northern nagara structures and is termed "Vesara Sikhara" (also called Kadamba Sikhara).[29]

The characteristically northern stepped-diamond plan of projecting corners was adopted in temples built with an entirely dravida articulation.[37] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

Four 12th century structures constructed according to this plan are extant: the Basaveshwara Temple at Basavana Bagevadi, the Ramesvara Temple at Devur and the temples at Ingleshwar and Yevur, all in the vicinity of the Kalyani region, where nagara temples were common. This plan came into existence in northern India only in the 11th century, a sign that architectural ideas traveled fast. HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

A major development of this period was the appearance of stellate (star-shaped) shrines in a few temples built of the traditional sandstone, such as the Trimurti Temple at Savadi, the Paramesvara Temple at Konnur and the Gauramma Temple at Hire Singgangutti. In all three cases, the shrine is a 16-pointed uninterrupted star, a ground-plan not found anywhere else in India and which entirely differentiates these temples from the 32-pointed interrupted star plans of bhumija shrines in northern India.  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

The stellate plan found popularity in the soapstone constructions such as the Doddabasappa Temple at Dambal as well. Contemporary stellate plans in northern India were all 32-pointed interrupted types. No temples of the 6-, 12-, or 24-pointed stellate plans are known to exist anywhere in India, with the exception of the unique temple at Dambal, which can be described either as a 24-pointed uninterrupted plan,  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

or a 48-pointed plan with large square points of 90 degrees alternating with small short points of 75 degrees.[44] The upper tiers of the seven-tiered superstructure look like cogged wheels with 48 dents.[45] The Doddabasappa Temple and the Somesvara Temple at Lakshmeshwara are examples of extreme variants of a basic dravida articulation. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

These temples prove that the architects and craftsman were consciously creating new compositions of architectural components out of traditional methods.In the early 13th century, 12th century characteristics remained prominent; however, many parts that were formerly plain became decorated. This change is observed in the Muktesvara Temple at Chaudayyadanapura (Chavudayyadanapura) and the Santesvara Temple at Tilavalli, both in the Haveri district.  Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

The Muktesvara Temple with its elegant vimana was renovated in the middle of the 13th century.[47] In the Tilavalli Temple, all the architectural components are elongated, giving it an intended crowded look. Both temples are built with a dravida articulation.[47] Apart from exoticdravida articulations, some temples of this period have nagara articulation, built in the stepped-diamond and the square plan natural to a nagara superstructure. HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

Notable among temples with a stepped-diamond style are the Ganesha Temple at Hangal, the Banashankari temple at Amargol (which has one dravida shrine and one nagarashrine), and a small shrine that is a part of the ensemble at the Mahadeva Temple.[45] At Hangal, the architects were able to provide a sekhari superstructure to the shrine, while the lower half received a nagara articulation and depictions of miniature sekhari towers. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

The style of workmanship with a square plan is found at Muttagi and the Kamala Narayana Temple at Degoan.

Temples built in and around the Kalyani region (in the Bidar district) were quite different from those built in other regions. Without exception, the articulation was nagara, and the temple plan as a rule was either stepped-diamond or stellate.[22] ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

The elevations corresponding to these two plans were similar because star shapes were produced by rotating the corner projections of a standard stepped plan in increments of 11.25 degrees, resulting in a 32-pointed interrupted plan in which three star points are skipped in the centre of each side of the shrine.[22] Examples of stepped-diamond plans surviving in Karnataka are the Dattatreya Temple at Chattarki, ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

the Somesvara Temple in Kadlewad, and the Mallikarjuna and Siddhesvara at Kalgi in the Gulbarga district. Thenagara shrine at Chattarki is a stepped diamond of projecting corners with five projections per side.[22] Because of the stepped-diamond plan, the wall pillars have two fully exposed sides, with a high base block decorated with a mirrored stalk motif and two large wall images above.  LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

The shapes and decorations on the rest of the wall pillar have a striking resemblance to the actual pillars supporting the ceiling.[48]

The other type is the square plan with simple projections and recesses but with a possibility of both sekhari and bhumijasuperstructures.  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

The plan does not have any additional elements save those that derive from the ground plan. The recesses are simple and have just one large wall image. The important characteristic of these nagara temples in the Kalyani region is that they not only differ from the dravida temples in the north Karnataka region but from the nagara temples north of the Kalyani region as well. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

These differences are manifest in the articulation and in the shapes and ornamentation of individual architectural components, giving them a unique place in Chalukyan architecture. Temples that fall in this category are the Mahadeva Temple at Jalsingi and the Suryanarayana Temple at Kalgi in the modern-day Gulbarga district.[48] Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

The plan and the nagara articulation of these temples are the same as found to the north of the Kalyani region, but the details are different, producing a different look.

The Western Chalukya decorative inventiveness focused on the pillars, door panels, lintels (torana), domical roofs in bays,[49HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

]outer wall decorations such as Kirtimukha (gargoyle faces common in Western Chalukya decoration),[50][51] and miniature towers on pilasters.[30] Although the art form of these artisans does not have any distinguishing features from a distance, a closer examination reveals their taste for decoration. An exuberance of carvings, bands of scroll work, figural bas-reliefs and panel sculptures are all closely packed.[52] HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

The doorways are highly ornamented but have an architectural framework consisting of pilasters, a moulded lintel and a cornice top. The sanctum receives diffused light through pierced window screens flanking the doorway; these features were inherited and modified by the Hoysala builders.[29] The outer wall decorations are well rendered. The Chalukyan artisans extended the surface of the wall by means of pilasters and half pilasters. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

Miniature decorative towers of multiple types are supported by these pilasters. These towers are of the dravida tiered type, and in the nagara style they were made in the latina (mono aedicule) and its variants; the bhumija and sekhari.

The Jain Temple at Lakkundi marked an important step in the development of Western Chalukya outer wall ornamentation, SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

and in the Muktesvara Temple at Chavudayyadanapura the artisans introduced a double curved projecting eave (chhajja), used centuries later inVijayanagara temples.[33] The Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi embodies a more mature development of the Chalukyan architecture in which the tower has a fully expressed ascending line of niches. DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

The artisans used northern style spires and expressed it in a modified dravidaoutline. Miniature towers of both dravida and nagara types are used as ornamentation on the walls. With further development, the divisions between storeys on the superstructure became less marked, until they almost lost their individuality. This development is exemplified in the Dodda Basappa Temple at Dambal, HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard

where the original dravida structure can only be identified after reading out the ornamental encrustation that covers the surface of each storey.[27]

The walls of the vimana below the dravida superstructure are decorated with simple pilasters in low relief with boldly modeled sculptures between them. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

There are fully decorated surfaces with frequent recesses and projections with deeper niches and conventional sculptures.[52] The decoration of the walls is subdued compared to that of the later Hoysala architecture. The walls, which are broken up into hundreds of projections and recesses, produce a remarkable effect of light and shade,[52] an artistic vocabulary inherited by the Hoysala builders in the decades that followed. LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

An important feature of Western Chalukya roof art is the use of domical ceilings (not to be confused with the European types that are built of voussoirs with radiating joints) and square ceilings. Both types of ceilings originate from the square formed in the ceiling by the four beams that rest on four pillars. The dome above the four central pillars is normally the most attractive.[26] DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

The dome is constructed of ring upon ring of stones, each horizontally bedded ring smaller than the one below. The top is closed by a single stone slab. The rings are not cemented but held in place by the immense weight of the roofing material above them pressing down on the haunches of the dome.[26] The triangular spaces created when the dome springs from the centre of the square are filled with arabesques. HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard

In the case of square ceilings, the ceiling is divided into compartments with images of lotus rosettes or other images from Hindu mythology.

Pillars are a major part of Western Chalukya architecture and were produced in two main types: pillars with alternate square blocks and a sculptured cylindrical section with a plain square-block base, and bell-shaped lathe-turned pillars.  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

The former type is more vigorous and stronger than the bell-shaped type, which is made of soapstone and has a quality of its own.[30] Inventive workmanship was used on soapstone shafts, roughly carved into the required shapes using a lathe. Instead of laboriously rotating a shaft to obtain the final finish, workers added the final touches to an upright shaft by using sharp tools. HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard

Some pillars were left unpolished, as evidenced by the presence of fine grooves made by the pointed end of the tool. In other cases, polishing resulted in pillars with fine reflective properties such as the pillars in the temples at Bankapura, Itagi and Hangal.[30] This pillar art reached its zenith in the temples at Gadag, specifically the Sarasvati Temple in Gadag city.[55] Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

Notable in Western Chalukya architecture are the decorative door panels that run along the length of the door and over on top to form a lintel. These decorations appear as bands of delicately chiseled fretwork, moulded colonettes and scrolls scribed with tiny figures. The bands are separated by deep narrow channels and grooves and run over the top of the door.[26] SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

The temple plan often included a heavy slanting cornice of double curvature, which projected outward from the roof of the open mantapa. This was intended to reduce heat from the sun, blocking the harsh sunlight and preventing rainwater from pouring in between the pillars.[56] The underside of the cornice looks like woodwork because of the rib-work. Occasionally, a straight slabbed cornice is seen. Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

Figural sculpture on friezes and panels changed during the period. The heroes from the Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, depicted often in early temples, become fewer, limited to only a few narrow friezes; there is a corresponding increase in the depiction of Hindu gods and goddesses in later temples.[57] Depiction of deities above miniature towers in the recesses, HP G71-340US CPU Fan

with a decorative lintel above, is common in 12th-century temples, but not in later ones.[41] Figures of holy men and dancing girls were normally sculpted for deep niches and recesses. The use of bracket figures depicting dancing girls became common on pillars under beams and cornices. Among animal sculptures, the elephant appears more often than the horse: its broad volumes offered fields for ornamentation.[57Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

] Erotic sculptures are rarely seen in Chalukyan temples; the Tripurantakesvara Temple at Balligavi is an exception. Here, erotic sculpture is limited to a narrow band of friezes that run around the exterior of the temple.

In what was a departure from convention, the Western Chalukyan figure sculptures of gods and goddesses bore stiff forms and were repeated over and over in the many temples.[56] HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

This was in contrast to the naturalistic and informal poses employed in the earlier temples in the region. Barring occasional exaggerations in pose, each principal deity had its own pose depending on the incarnationor form depicted. Consistent with figure sculpture in other parts of India, these figures were fluent rather than defined in their musculature, and the drapery was reduced to a few visible lines on the body of the image.[56] HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

Western Chalukyan deity sculptures were well-rendered; exemplified best by that of Hindu goddess Sarasvati at the Sarasvati temple in Gadag city.[59] Much of the drapery on the bust of the image is ornamentation comprising jewellery made of pearls around her throat. An elaborate pile of curls forms her hair, some of which trails to her shoulders.  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

Above these curly tresses and behind the head is a tiered coronet of jewels, the curved edge of which rises to form a halo.[60] From the waist down, the image is dressed in what seems to be the most delicate of material; except for the pattern of embroidery traced over it, it is difficult to tell where the drapery begins and where it ends.

From the 11th century, architectural articulation included icons between pilasters, miniature towers supported by pilasters in the recesses of walls, and, on occasion, the use of wall pillars to support these towers.[33] HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

These miniature towers were of the southerndravida and northern bhumija and sekhari types and were mostly used to elaborate dravida types of articulation. The miniatures on single pilasters were decorated with a protective floral lintel on top, a form of decoration normally provided for depiction of gods.[38] These elaborations are observed in the Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri. HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

These miniatures became common in the 12th century, and the influence of this northern articulation is seen in the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi and in the nearby Nannesvara Temple.[33]

Published by batterys
commenter cet article
1 novembre 2014 6 01 /11 /novembre /2014 04:10

http://www.all-laptopfan.com/,http://www.all-keyboard.com/,http://www.laptopbattery-shop.co.uk/

The production of renewable energy in Scotland is an issue that has come to the fore in technical, economic, and political terms during the opening years of the 21st century.[1] The natural resource base for renewable energy is extraordinary by European, and even global standards, with the most important potential sources being wind, wave, and tide. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

At the end of the second quarter in 2014, there was 7,083 megawatts (MW) of installed renewable electricity capacity in Scotland, an increase of 10.5% (or 671 MW) from the end of the second quarter in 2013. Renewable electricity generation in Scotland was 16,974 GWh in 2013, up 16.4% on 2012.[2] 40.3 per cent of Scotland's electricity came from renewables in 2012. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

Scottish renewable generation makes up approximately 32% of total UK renewable generation (down from 36% in 2012).[3] In 2012, Scotland exported over 26 per cent of generation.[4]Continuing improvements in engineering and economics are enabling more of the renewable resources to be utilised. Fears regardingpeak oil and climate change have driven the subject high up the political agenda and are also encouraging the use of variousbiofuels. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

Although the finances of many projects remain either speculative or dependent on market incentives, it is probable that there has been a significant, and in all likelihood long-term change, in the underpinning economics.[5]

In addition to planned increases in both large-scale generating capacity and microsystems using renewable sources, Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery

various related schemes to reduce carbon emissions are being researched.[6] Although there is significant support from the public, private and community-led sectors, concerns about the effect of the technologies on the natural environment have been expressed. There is also an emerging political debate about the relationship between the siting, and the ownership and control of these widely distributed resources. Sony VAIO PCG-31113M battery

The natural resource base for renewables is extraordinary by European, and even global standards. In addition to an existing installed capacity[a] of 1.3 Gigawatts (GW) of hydro-electric schemes, Scotland has an estimated potential of 36.5 GW of wind and 7.5 GW of tidal power, 25% of the estimated total capacity for theEuropean Union and up to 14 GW of wave power potential, 10% of EU capacity.[8][9] Sony VAIO PCG-31114M battery

The renewable electricity generating capacity may be 60 GW or more, considerably greater than the existing capacity from all Scottish fuel sources of 10.3 GW.[8][10] Scotland exceeded its renewable energy target, set in 2007, for 31% of total power generation coming from renewables by 2011, and the 2020 target for the renewable share of total electricity generation has been raised from 50% to 100%.[11] Sony VAIO PCG-31111V battery

In January 2006 the total installed electrical generating capacity from all forms of renewable energy was less than 2 GW, about a fifth of the total electrical production.[10] By January 2007 wind power capacity, which has been growing rapidly, reached 1 GW capacity, and the total for renewables had grown to over 2.3 GW.[12] By August 2009 wind power capacity was a fraction short of 1.5 GW and total renewables capacity had reached over 3.1 GW.[13] Sony VAIO PCG-31112V battery

By mid-2011 these figures were 2.76 GW and 4.6 GW respectively.[14]

In 2012, over 40 per cent of Scotland's electricity came from renewable energy, and Scotland contributed almost 40 per cent of the UK's renewables output. At the end of 2012, there was 5,801 megawatts (MW) of installed renewables electricity capacity in Scotland, an increase of 20.95 per cent (1,005 MW) on the end of 2011. Sony VAIO PCG-31113V battery

Renewable electricity generation in 2012 was a record high at 14,756 GWh – an increase of 7.3 per cent on 2011, the previous record year for renewables output.[4]The bulk of electricity production is derived from gas and oil. 2002 figures used in RSPB Scotland et al. (2006) are gas (34%), oil (28%), coal (18%) and nuclear(17%), with renewables 3% (principally hydro-electric), prior to the substantial growth in wind power output. Sony VAIO PCG-31114V battery

It should be borne in mind that electricity production is only part of the overall energy use budget. In 2002, Scotland consumed a total of 175 Terawatt-hours (TWh)[15] of energy in all forms, some 2% less than in 1990. Of this, only 20% was consumed in the form of electricity by end users, the great majority of energy utilised being from the burning of oil (41%) and gas (36%).[16][17]Sony VAIO PCG-GRS100 battery

The renewable energy industry supports more than 11,500 jobs in Scotland, according to a 2013 study by Scottish Renewables.[18] However a 2011 study by 4-Consulting calculated that there was probably a small net loss in jobs in Scotland from government support for renewable energy. They estimated that the offshore wind industry might create between 300–2,200 long-term jobs by 2020.[19] Sony VAIO PCG-41111M battery

With 20 GW of renewable energy projects in the pipeline, the sector has the potential to grow quickly in the years ahead creating more jobs in the region. Glasgow, Fife and Edinburgh are key centres of offshore wind power development, and the emerging wave power and tidal power industries are centred around the Highlands and Islands. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M battery

Rural job creation is being supported by bioenergy systems in areas such as Lochaber, Moray andDumfries and Galloway.Scotland also has significant quantities of fossil fuel deposits, including 62.4% of the EU's proven reserves of oil, 12.5% of the EU's proven reserves of gas and 69% of UK coal reserves.[9] Nonetheless, the Scottish Government has set ambitious targets for renewable energy production. Sony VAIO PCG-41111V battery

In 2005 the aim was for 18% of Scotland's electricity production to be generated by renewable sources by 2010, rising to 40% by 2020.[21] In 2007 this was increased to 50 per cent of electricity from renewables by 2020, with an interim target of 31 per cent by 2011.[22] The following year new targets to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 were announced and then confirmed in the 2009 Climate Change Delivery Plan. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

Maf Smith, director of the Sustainable Development Commission in Scotland said "Governments across the world are shying away from taking the necessary action. The Scottish Government must be commended for its intention to lead the way".[23][24]

An important reason for this ambition is growing international concern about human-induced climate change. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution's proposal that carbon dioxide emissions should be reduced by 60% was incorporated into the UK government's 2003 Energy White Paper.[8] The 2006 Stern Review proposed a 55% reduction by 2030.[25] The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report[26] has further increased the profile of the issue. HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

Scotland has 85% of the UK's hydro-electric energy resource,[28] much of it developed by the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Boardin the 1950s. The "Hydro Board", which brought "power from the glens", was a nationalised industry at the time although it wasprivatised in 1989 and is now part of Scottish and Southern Energy plc. HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

Current capacity is 1.33 GW[10] and includes major developments such as the 120 MW Breadalbane scheme and the 245 MW Tummel system. Several of Scotland's hydro-electric plants were built to power the aluminium smelting industry. These were built in several "schemes" of linked stations, each covering a catchment area, whereby the same water may generate power several times as it descends. DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

Numerous remote straths were flooded by these schemes, many of the largest of which involved tunnelling through mountains as well as damming rivers. Emma Wood, the author of a study of these pioneers wrote:

I heard about drowned farms and hamlets, the ruination of the salmon-fishing and how Inverness might be washed away if the dams failed inland. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

I was told about the huge veins of crystal they found when they were tunnelling deep under the mountains.[29]

It is estimated that as much as another 1.2 GW of capacity remains available to exploit, mostly in the form of micro and small-hydro developments[30] such as the existing one in Knoydart and a system planned for Kingussie.[31] HP Pavilion DV9233EU Laptop Keyboard

In reality, environmental constraints and given that the most easily available catchment areas have already been exploited it is unlikely that the full 1.2 GW will exploited.[32] There is also further potential for new pumped storage schemes (at present used to meet peak demand[33]) that would work with intermittent sources of power such as wind and wave. Examples include the 440 MW Cruachan Dam and 300 MW Falls of Foyers schemes.[34] DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard

The 100 MW Glendoe Project which opened in 2009[35] was the first large scale scheme in Scotland for almost fifty years but is likely to be one of the last of its kind.[36][37] A 2011 report calculated that pumped storage hydro capacity could supply 2.8 GW of electricity for 5 hours, then drop to 1.1 GW and run out of water in 22 hours. Compaq Presario CQ57 Laptop Keyboard

The report concluded that even with projected new schemes at Loch Ness and Loch Sloy, pumped storage would not be able to replace wind electricity during extended windless periods.

Wind power in Scotland is the country's fastest growing renewable energy technology, with 2574 MW of installed capacity as of April 2011.[38][39] HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard

The Robin Rigg Wind Farm is a 180 MW development completed in April 2010, which is Scotland's first offshore wind farm, sited on a sandbank in the Solway Firth.[40][41] The United Kingdom's largest onshore wind farm (539 MW) is at Whitelee in East Renfrewshire.[42] The Clyde Wind Farm is a 548 MW wind farm under construction near Abington, DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

South Lanarkshire, Scotland, which will be Europe's largest onshore wind farm when completed.[43] Two very large offshore wind turbines (5 MW each) are located in theMoray Firth. There are many other large onshore wind farms including some, both planned and operating, which are in community ownership.

The siting of turbines is sometimes an issue, but surveys have generally shown high levels of community acceptance for wind power in Scotland.[ DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

Wind farm developers sometimes offer "community benefit funds" to help address any disadvantages faced by those living adjacent to wind farms.[48][49][50] There is further potential for expansion, especially offshore given the high average wind speeds, and a number of large offshore wind farms are planned.

It is estimated that 11.5 GW of onshore wind potential exists, enough to provide 45 TWh of energy. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2774 Laptop Keyboard

More than double this amount exists on offshore sites[8] where mean wind speeds are greater than on land.[51] The total offshore potential is estimated at 25 GW, which although more expensive to install, could be enough to provide almost half the total energy used in Scotland.[8] Plans to harness up to 4.8 GW of the potential in the inner Moray Firth and Firth of Forth were announced in January 2010. SONY Vaio VGN-AW Laptop Keyboard

Moray Offshore Renewables and SeaGreen Wind Energy were awarded development contracts by the Crown Estate as part of a UK-wide initiative.[52][53]Also in 2010, discussions were held between the Scottish Government and Statoil of Norway with a view to developing a 5-turbine floating windfarm, possibly to be located off Fraserburgh. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

Various systems are under development at present aimed at harnessing the enormous potential available for wave power off Scotland's coasts. Pelamis Wave Power (previously Ocean Power Delivery) are an Edinburgh-based company whose Pelamis system has been tested off Orkney and Portugal. Their second generation P2 Pelamis machines are 180 metres (591 ft) long and 4 metres (13.1 ft) diameter. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

Five tubes joined together by hinged joints float semi-submerged on the surface of the ocean and move relative to each other as waves pass down the length of the machine. This motion is resisted by hydraulic cylinders which drive generators inside the machine to produce electricity. Future wave farm projects around Scotland could involve an arrangement of interlinked 1 MW machines connected to shore by a subsea transmission cable.[56] HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard

Another approach was used by the LIMPET 500 (Land Installed Marine Power Energy Transformer) energy converter which was installed on the island of Islay by Wavegen Ltd. It was a shore-based unit and generated power when waves run up the beach, creating pressure inside an inclined oscillating water column. This in turn creates pneumatic power which drives the twin 250 kW generators. HP G72-227WM Laptop Keyboard

Islay LIMPET was opened in 2001 and was the world's first commercial scale wave-energy device. In March 2013 Voith Hydro decided to close down Wavegen choosing to concentrate on tidal power projects.[57]

Funding for the UK's first wave farm was announced by the then Scottish Executive on 22 February 2007. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

It will be the world's largest, with a capacity of 3 MW generated by four Pelamis machines at a cost of over 4 million pounds.[58] The funding is part of a new £13 million funding package for marine power projects in Scotland that will also support developments to Aquamarine's Oyster and Ocean Power Technologies' PowerBuoy wave systems, HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

AWS Ocean Energy's sub-sea wave devices, ScotRenewables' 1.2 MW floating rotor device, Cleantechcom's tidal surge plans for the Churchill barriers between various Orkney islands, the Open Hydro tidal ring turbines, and further developments to the Wavegen system proposed for Lewis as well as a further £2.5 million for the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) based in Orkney.[59] HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

This is a Scottish Executive-backed research facility that has installed a wave testing system at Billia Croo on the Orkney mainland and a tidal power testing station on the nearby island of Eday.[60] At the official opening of the Eday project the site was described as "the first of its kind in the world set up to provide developers of wave and tidal energy devices with a purpose-built performance testing facility."[61] FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard

The Siadar Wave Energy Project was announced in 2009. This 4 MW system was planned by npower Renewables and Wavegen for a site 400 metres off the shore of Siadar Bay, in Lewis.[62] However in July 2011 holding company RWE announced they were withdrawing from the scheme, and Wavegen are seeking new partners.[63] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

In early 2010 two areas were identified for substantial offshore wind development, in the Moray Firth basin and outer Firth of Forth. Shortly afterwards the Government earmarked eleven sites they expected to benefit from the construction of up to 8,000 offshore turbines by 2020. These included Campbeltown and Hunterston, four sites previously used for offshore oil fabrication at Ardersier, HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

Nigg Bay, Arnish and Kishorn and five east coast locations fromPeterhead to Leith.[64] In May 2010 the "Vagr Atferd P2" Pelamis 750 kW system was launched for testing by EMEC. The device weighs 1500 tonnes and is 180 metres long.

Unlike wind and wave, tidal power is an inherently predictable source.  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

However the technology is in its infancy and numerous devices are in the prototype stages. Today it is known that a tall tubular tower with three blades attached to it is the typical profile of a wind turbine, but twenty-five years ago there were a wide variety of different systems being tested.[66] This is the current situation with regard to tidal power. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Some systems capture energy from the tides in a vertical direction. The tide comes in and raises the water level in a basin. As the tide lowers the water in the basin is discharged through a turbine. Tidal stream power captures energy from the flow of tides, usually using underwater plant resembling a small wind turbine. An example is Marine Current Turbines SeaGen 1.2 MW device at Strangford Lough in Northern Ireland,  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

which is the largest tidal stream turbine in the world.[67] To date the only installed tidal power plant of any size is the 240 MW rated barrage scheme at the Rance Estuary inBrittany, which has been operating successfully for more than 25 years, although there are a number of other much smaller projects around the world.[68]  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

The Pentland Firth between Orkney and mainland Scotland has been described as the "Saudi Arabia of tidal power"[69] and may be capable of generating up to 10 GW[70] although a more recent estimate suggests an upper limit of 1.9 GW.[71] In March 2010 a total of ten sites in the area, capable of providing an installed capacity of 1.2 GW of tidal and wave generation were leased out by the Crown Estate.[72HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

] Several other tidal sites with considerable potential exist in the Orkney archipelago.[73] Tidal races on the west coast at Kylerhea between Skye and Lochalsh, the Grey Dog north of Scarba, the Dorus Mòr off Crinan and the Gulf of Corryvreckan also offer significant prospects.[70][74]

In August 2010 the Atlantis Resources Corporation 's AK-1000 turbine, which has 18 metres (59 ft) blades was unveiled at Invergordon. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

It is claimed to be the largest tidal turbine ever built and will be tested by EMEC off Eday.[75] In October 2010 MeyGen, a consortium of Morgan Stanley, Atlantis Resources Corporation andInternational Power, received a 25-year operational lease from the Crown Estate for a 400MW tidal power project in the Pentland Firth.[76] However in 2011 the plans were in difficulty after Norwegian partners Statkraft pulled out of the project.[63] HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

In 2010 it was announced that 10 Hammerfest Strom HS1000 Norwegian turbines, capable of generating 1 MW each, could be installed in the Sound of Islay and that the BiFab yard at Arnish had won a £2 million contract to build some of the structures' components.[77] The following March this project, which will become largest tidal array in the world,  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

was approved by the Scottish Government with 10 planned tidal turbines predicted to generate enough power for over 5,000 homes. The Sound of Islay offers both high currents and shelter from storms.[78] A single 1MW HS1000 was installed at EMEC off Eday, Orkney by the end of 2011.[79]

The "world's first community-owned tidal power generator" is planned for Bluemull Sound in Shetland.  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

This 30 kW Nova Innovation device is expected to be operational by the end of 2011.[80] At the opposite end of the country a 2010 consultants' report into the possibility of a scheme involving the construction of a Solway Barrage, possibly south of Annan, concluded that the plans "would be expensive and environmentally sensitive."[81] SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

In 2013 an alternative scheme using the VerdErg Renewable Energy spectral marine energy converter was proposed for a plan involving the use of bridge along the route of an abandoned railway line between Annan andBowness-on-Solway.

Various biodiesel schemes exist at present, and as with most renewables, interest is growing in the subject.  Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

Westray Development Trust operate a biodiesel vehicle fuelled by the residual vegetable oils from the Orkney archipelago fish and chip outlets.[83] On a larger scale Argent Energy's plant in Motherwell recycles tallow and used cooking oil to produce 50 million litres of biodiesel per annum.[84]

A major benefit of biodiesel is lower carbon emissions, although the energy balance of liquid biofuels is a matter of controversy.[85HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

] Research is being undertaken into converting rapeseed oil into biodiesel,[83] and the European biofuels directive intends to ensure that 5.75% Europe's transport fuel comes from renewable sources by 2010. However, there is only enough used vegetable oil in the UK to contribute 0.38% of current road fuel demand and if all the arable land in the UK were turned over to biofuel crops this would still only satisfy 22% of the existing requirement for road transport. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

Serious concerns regarding the ethics of growing biodiesel in developing countries and importing the fuel to Europe have been raised on the grounds that they may replace much needed food crops.[5] Converting any mainstream transport system to a renewable one also involves the conundrum that for consumers to use it the infrastructure must be in place, but high levels of use may be required to finance the infrastructure.[5] ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

Developments are thus slow at present and renewably powered vehicles very much the exception.

Due to the relatively short growing season for sugar producing crops, ethanol is not commercially produced as a fuel in Scotland at present.[86] However there are encouraging developments in cellulosic decomposition that might enable grass or tree crops to be used to this end in future and which may prove to have lower net carbon emissions than other production techniques. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

Biogas, or landfill gas, is a biofuel produced through the intermediary stage of anaerobic digestion consisting mainly of 45–90% biologically produced methane and carbon dioxide. In early 2007 a thermophilic anaerobic digestion facility was commissioned in Stornoway in the Western Isles.  LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Renewable Energy Association are also leading the way towards the establishment of a digestate standard to facilitate the use of solid outputs from digesters on land. Anaerobic digestion and mechanical biological treatment facilities have been planned at a number of other locations in Scotland, such asWestray.[89] Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

It has been recognised that biogas (mainly methane) – produced from the anaerobic digestion of organic matter – is potentially a valuable and prolific feedstock. It is estimated that 0.4 GW of generating capacity might be available from agricultural waste in Scotland.[8] The Scottish Executive and SEPA has funded seven small scale farm trial plants with the British anaerobic digestion company Greenfinch in Southwest Scotland.[90] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

Landfill sites have the potential for a further 0.07 GW[8]with sites such as the Avondale Landfill in Falkirk already utilising their potential.A 2007 report concluded that wood fuel exceeded hydroelectric and wind as the largest potential source of renewable energy. Scotland's forests, which made up 60% of the UK resource base,[92] were forecast to be able to provide up to 1 million tonnes of wood fuel per annum.[93Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

] The biomass energy supply in Scotland was forecast to reach 450 MW or higher, (predominantly from wood), with power stations requiring 4,500–5,000 oven dry tonnes per annum per megawatt of generating capacity.[92]However a 2011 Forestry Commission and Scottish government follow-up report concluded that: "...there is no capacity to support further large scale electricity generation biomass plants from the domestic wood fibre resource."[94] A plan to build in Edinburgh a 200MW biomass plant which would have imported 83% of its wood,[95] was withdrawnHP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

by Forth Energy in 2012.[96] The energy company E.ON has constructed a 44 MW biomass power station at Lockerbie using locally sourced crops[97] while the smaller EPR Westfield power plant in Fife produces 9.8 MW of output using chicken litter as fuel.[98] The Scottish Executive and the Forestry Commission issued a Scottish Biomass Action Plan in 2007.[99] HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

The Scottish Government set up the Scottish Biomass Support Scheme in 2006 with a £7.5 million grant, later increased to £10.5 million, to support biomass energy. £6 million of grants were drawn down by the time the scheme finished in March 2008 and a 2009 review of results concluded that the scheme had "...achieved limited success against its strategic aims objectives."[100] SONY VAIO VGN-CS17G/R laptop keyboard

A 2007 article by Renew Scotland claimed that automatic wood pellet boilers could be as convenient to use as conventional central heating systems. These boilers might be cheaper to run and, by using locally produced wood fuel, could try to be as carbon neutral as possible by using little energy for transportation.[93]

There is also local potential for energy crops such as short-rotation willow or poplar coppice, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

miscanthus energy grass, agricultural wastes such as straw and manure, and forestry residues.[93][101] These crops could provide 0.8 GW of generating capacity.

The Energy Savings Trust has estimated that micro-generation could provide a significantly increased proportion of the UK's electricity demand by 2050[17] although only a fraction of this would come from renewable sources.[102] SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

The current Scottish output is negligible. In May 2006 the then Communities Minister Malcolm Chisholm launched a Planning Advice Note aimed at promoting micro-renewables.[103] Small-scale 'wind2heat' projects, which use wind turbines to power electrical storage heaters directly,[104] have proven to be successful in remoter rural areas;[105] as have various other local schemes such as air source heat pumps.[106] DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

Whisky distilleries may have a locally important part to play. Caithness Heat and Power have announced plans to tackle fuel povertyin Wick by utilising a wood chip CHP scheme in partnership with the Old Pulteney Distillery.[107] On the island of Islay, a swimming pool is heated using waste heat from the Bowmore distillery.[108] In Edinburgh, HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard

Tynecastle High School, due to be completed in 2010, will be heated by waste heat from the neighbouring North British Distillery.[109] In 2009 the Diageo Cameron Bridge distillery announced plans for a £65 million facility to generate energy from the spent "wash" created in the manufacturing process, which will aim to replace 95% of the plan's existing fossil fuel use.[110] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

There are also a growing number of Micro hydro systems on smaller watercourses, especially in more remote rural locations.

Despite Scotland's relatively low level of sunshine hours,[113] solar thermal panels can work effectively as they are capable of producing hot water even in cloudy weather.[114][115] LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

The technology was developed in the 1970s and is well-established with various installers in place, although AES Solar based in Forres (who provided the panels for the Scottish Parliament building)[116] are Scotland's only manufacturer.Since the introduction of Feed-in tariffs there has been a growth in the volume of installed photovoltaicpanels, which generate electricity.[117]  DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

In 2004, the largest installation in Scotland was a 21 kWp system at the Sir E. Scott secondary school in Tarbert, Harris although larger systems have been completed since then.[118] The UK's practicable resource is estimated at 7.2 TWh per annum,[17] which in the Scottish context is the approximate equivalent of 70 MW or less of installed capacity. HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard

The "road energy system" uses water pipes buried beneath a layer of tarmac. In the summer, the dark asphalt is heated by the sun which in turn heats the water in the pipes. This water can be stored in an underground aquifer and the heat extracted in winter using a heat pump. The system can be used to warm or cool down roads, keeping them ice-free and/or preventing softening due to overheating.  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

Alternatively, the stored energy can be used for cooling buildings.[119][120] The system was developed in the Netherlands and has been licensed by Ullapool-based Invisible Energy Systems, who have installed the technology in their car park.

Geothermal energy is obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself. HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard

Most systems in Scotland provide heating through a ground source heat pump which brings energy to the surface via shallow pipe works. An example is the Glenalmond Street project in Shettleston, which uses a combination of solar and geothermal energy to heat 16 houses. Water in a coal mine 100 metres (328 ft) below ground level is heated by geothermal energy and maintained at a temperature of about 12 °C (54 °F) throughout the year. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

The warmed water is raised and passed through a heat pump, boosting the temperature to 55 °C (131 °F), and is then distributed to the houses providing heating to radiators.[122]

Although the pumps may not be powered from renewable sources, up to four times the energy used can be recovered. SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

Installation costs can vary from £7,000 to £10,000, and grants may be available from the Scottish Community and Householders Renewables Initiative operated by Community Energy Scotland for domestic properties up to a maximum of £4,000.[123] Perhaps up to 7.6 TWh of energy is available on an annual basis from this source.[124] Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

There is also potential for geothermal energy production from decommissioned oil and gas fields.

It is clear that if carbon emissions are to be reduced, a combination of increased production from renewables and decreased consumption of energy in general and fossil fuels in particular will be required.[126] HP G71-340US CPU Fan

On the latter front, Gordon Brown, the then UK Chancellor of the Exchequer, announced in November 2006 that within a decade all new houses would have to be 'zero carbon'.[127] A variety of other options exist, most of which may affect development of renewable technologies even if they are not means of producing energy from renewable sources themselves. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

Various other ideas for renewable energy in the early stages of development, such as ocean thermal energy conversion, deep lake water cooling, and blue energy, have received little attention in Scotland, presumably because the potential is so significant for less speculative technologies.

Carbon offsetting involves individuals or organisations compensating for their use of fossil fuels by making payments to projects that aim to neutralise the effect of these carbon emissions. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Although the idea has become fashionable, the theory has received serious criticism of late.[128][129]

Nonetheless, a credible option may be to plant trees within the local bioregion and maintain the forest on a permanent basis, thus locking up carbon produced by burning fossil fuels. HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

In British growing conditions this method can compensate for carbon at a rate of 200 tonnes per square kilometre (0.89 tons/acre) planted over a 100-year period. Thus a 4-square-kilometre (988-acre) plantation could uptake 200 tonnes (220 tons) of carbon over twenty-five years.[130] This is the equivalent of 10,000 tonnes (11,000 short tons) of carbon dioxide.[131]  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

The weaknesses of the approach include uncertainty as to whether the planting might have occurred anyway and who, in the future, will ensure permanence. However, there is likely to be a greater level of credibility inherent in a nearby and visible scheme than in a far-distant one.

The following technologies are means of reducing the effect of carbon emissions and form an important aspect of the energy debate in Scotland and are included here for completeness. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Their effect is likely to influence the future direction of commercial renewable energy, but they are not renewable forms of energy production themselves.

Carbon sequestration: Also known as carbon capture and storage, this technology involves the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is a by-product of industrial processes through its injection into oil fields. HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

It is not a form of renewable energy production, but it may be a way to significantly reduce the effect of fossil fuels whilst renewables are commercialised. It may also be an intermediate step towards a 'hydrogen economy' (see below), which could either enable further renewable development or conceivably out-compete it. The technology has been successfully pioneered in Norway[132] but is still a relatively untried concept.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

'Clean coal' technology: It has been estimated that it will be 2020 to 2025 before any commercial-scale clean coal power stations (coal-burning power stations with carbon capture and sequestration) are widely adopted.[133] Moreover, some have criticised the clean coal approach[134] and it is at best a means of ameliorating carbon emissions. HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

It is not a form of renewable energy production, although like carbon sequestration it offers a significant commercial challenge to renewable developments.[135][136] In 2009 a licence to test underground coal gassification technology in Fife was granted to Thornton New Energy.[137] However, a plan to build a new "clean coal" power station at Hunterston collapsed in 2009 after financial backing was withdrawn. Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

Nuclear power: Renewable energy as a concept generally excludes nuclear power[139][140] although this stance has been challenged.

Incineration: There is a successful waste-to-energy incineration plant at Lerwick in Shetland which burns 22,000 tonnes (24,250 tons) of waste every year and provides district heating to over 600 customers.[143] HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

Although such plants generate carbon emissions through the combustion of the biological material and plastic wastes (which derive from fossil fuels), they also reduce the damage done to the atmosphere from the creation of methane in landfill sites. This is a much more damaging greenhouse gas than the carbon dioxide the burning process produces,[5] Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

although other systems which do not involve district heating may have a similar carbon footprint to straightforward landfill degradation.

Although hydrogen offers significant potential as an alternative to hydrocarbons as a carrier of energy, neither hydrogen itself nor the associated fuel cell technologies are sources of energy in themselves. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

Nevertheless, the combination of renewable technologies and hydrogen is of considerable interest to those seeking alternatives to fossil fuels.[145] There are a number of Scottish projects involved in this research, supported by the Scottish Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Association (SHFCA).[146]The PURE project on Unst in Shetland is a ground-breaking training and research centre which uses a combination of the ample supplies of wind power and fuel cells to create a wind hydrogen system. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

Two 15 kW turbines are attached to a 'Hypod' fuel cell, which in turn provides power for heating systems, the creation of stored liquid hydrogen and an innovative fuel-cell driven car. The project is community-owned and part of the Unst Partnership, the community's development trust.[147]

In the Western Isles a plan to enable a £10 million waste management plant into a hydrogen production facility was announced in June 2006. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

The Council have also agreed to purchase hydrogen-fuelled buses and hope the new plant, which will be constructed in partnership with the local Hydrogen Research Laboratory, will supply island filling stations and houses and the industrial park at Arnish.[148]

ITI Energy was a division of ITI Scotland and was established with the aim of funding Research and Development programmes in the energy sector. ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

It is a division of ITI Scotland, which also includes a life sciences and digital media division. ITI Energy attracted the Alterg project, a French company that is developing technology for the cost-effective storage of hydrogen.[149][150]

In July 2008 the SHFCA announced plans for a "hydrogen corridor" from Aberdeen to Peterhead.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The proposal involves running hydrogen powered buses along the A 90 and is supported by Aberdeenshire Council and the Royal Mail.[151] The economics and practical application of hydrogen vehicles are currently being investigated by theUniversity of Birmingham in England.[152]

The "Hydrogen Office" in Methil aims to demonstrate the benefits of improved energy efficiency and renewable and hydrogen energy systems. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

A significant feature of Scotland's renewable potential is that the resources are largely distant from the main centres of population. This is by no means coincidental. The power of wind, wave and tide on the north and west coasts and for hydro in the mountains makes for dramatic scenery, but sometimes harsh living conditions. W. H. Murray described the Hebrides as "the Isles on the Edge of the Sea where men are welcome—if they are hard in body and in spirit tenacious."[154] Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

This happenstance of geography and climate has created various tensions. There is clearly a significant difference between a renewable energy production facility of modest size providing an island community with all its energy needs, and an industrial scale power station in the same location that is designed to export power to far distant urban locations. SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

Thus, plans for one of the world's largest onshore windfarms on the Hebridean island of Lewis have generated considerable debate.[155] A related issue is the planned high-voltage Beauly–Denny power line which will bring electricity from renewable projects in the north and west to the cities of the south. Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

The matter went to a public inquiry and has been described by Ian Johnston of The Scotsman as a "battle that pitches environmentalists against conservationists and giant energy companies against aristocratic landowners and clan chiefs".[156]In January 2010 Jim Mather, the Energy Minister, announced that the project would be going ahead, notwithstanding the more than 18,000 objections received.[157] SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan

There is considerable support for community-scale energy projects.[158] For example, Alex Salmond, First Minister of Scotland, has stated that "we can think big by delivering small" and aspires to have a "million Scottish households with access to their own or community renewable generation within ten years".[69] The John Muir Trust has also stated that "the best renewable energy options around wild land are small-scale,  LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

sensitively sited and adjacent to the communities directly benefiting from them",[159] although even community-owned schemes can prove controversial.[160]

A related issue is the position of Scotland within the United Kingdom. It has been alleged that UK transmission pricing structures are weighted against the development of renewables in Scotland,  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

a debate which highlights the contrast between the sparsely populated north of Scotland and the highly urbanised south and east of England. Although the ecological footprints of Scotland and England are similar the relationship between this footprint and the biocapacities of the respective countries are not. Scotland's biocapacity (a measure of the biologically productive area) is 4.52 global hectares (gha) per head, TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard

some 15% less than the current ecological effect.[164] In other words, with a 15% reduction in consumption, the Scottish population could live within the productive capacity of the land to support them. However, the UK ecological footprint is more than three times the biocapacity, which is only 1.6 gha head, amongst the lowest in Europe.[ Lenovo 45N2205 Laptop Keyboard

Thus, to achieve the same end in the UK context, consumption would have to be reduced by about 66%.

The developed world's economy is presently very dependent on inexpensive 'point-source' fossil fuels. Scotland, as a relatively sparsely populated country with significant renewable resources, is in a unique position to demonstrate how the transition to a low-carbon, widely distributed energy economy may be undertaken. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

A balance will need to be struck between supporting this transition and providing exports to the economies of densely populated regions in the Central Belt and elsewhere, as they seek their own solutions. The tension between local and national needs in the Scottish context may therefore also play out on the wider UK and European stage. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

Growing national concerns regarding peak oil and climate change have driven the subject of renewable energy high up the political agenda. Various public bodies and public-private partnerships have been created to develop the potential. The Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland, (FREDS) is a partnership between industry, academia and Government aimed at enabling Scotland to capitalise on its renewable energy resource. HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard

The Scottish Renewables Forum is an important intermediary organisation for the industry, hosting the annual Green Energy Awards. Community Energy Scotland provides advice, funding and finance for renewable energy projects developed by community groups. Aberdeen Renewable Energy Group (AREG) is a public-private partnership created to identify and promote renewable energy opportunities for businesses in the north-east.[168] HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard

In 2009 AREG formed an alliance with North Scotland Industries Group to help promote the North of Scotland as an "international renewable energy hub".[169]

The Forestry Commission is active in promoting the biomass potential. The Climate Change Business Delivery Group aims to act as a way for businesses to share best practice and address the climate change challenge. SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard

Numerous universities are playing a role in supporting energy research under the Supergen programme, includingfuel cell research at St Andrews, marine technologies at Edinburgh, distributed power systems at Strathclyde[97] and biomass crops at the UHI Millennium Institute'sOrkney College.[170] DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

In 2010 the Scotcampus student Freshers' Festivals held in Edinburgh and Glasgow were powered entirely by renewable energy in a bid to raise awareness among young people in Scotland.New data appears on a regular basis and milestones in 2007–14 include the following.In February 2007 the commissioning of the Braes of Doune wind farm took the UK renewables installed capacity up to 2 GW.TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard

Total Scottish capacity at October 2007 was 1.13 GW from 760 turbines and increased to 1.3 GW by September 2008 and 1.48 GW by August 2009.

Also during 2007 Scottish and Southern Energy plc in conjunction with the University of Strathclyde began the implementation of a 'Regional Power Zone' in the Orkney archipelago. T Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

his ground-breaking scheme (that may be the first of its kind in the world) involves 'active network management' that will make better use of the existing infrastructure and allow a further 15MW of new 'non-firm generation' output from renewables onto the network.Heat and Power Ltd. of Westray are involved in developing an innovative digestor system that is being trialled at Tuquoy farm. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Designed by Sam Harcus and Colin Risbridger, it is capable of handling up to 1,500 tonnes of feedstock per annum. Scottish & Southern Energy have been asked to provide for an export capacity of 40kWe. The aim is to help move the farm towards being powered by 100% renewable energy.[177][178]

In January 2008 it was reported that Professor Graeme Walker of the University of Abertay is leading a project aimed at using grain that is a by-product of whisky distilling as a biofuel.[179DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard

] In February 2008 plans to build a 10MW prototype tidal energy plant in the Pentland Firth were announced by Tocardo Tidal Energy Ltd. of Wick. Production was expected to commence in 2009.[180][181] The following September, Scottish Power announced plans for two tidal projects in the same area, pending successful tests of a £6 million prototype.[182]  DELL 0P445M Laptop Keyboard

In January 2009 the government announced the launch of a "Marine Spatial Plan" to map the potential of the Pentland Firth and Orkney coasts and agreed to take part in a working group examining opti

ons for an offshore grid to connect renewable energy projects in the North Sea to on-shore national grids.[183] The potential for such a scheme has been described as including acting as a "30 GW battery for Europe's clean energy".[184]  TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002L Laptop Keyboard

In July 2009 Friends of the Earth, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, World Development Movement` and World Wildlife Fund published a study called "The Power of Scotland Renewed." This study claimed that the country could meet all its electricity needs by 2030 without the requirement for either nuclear or fossil fuel powered installations.[185] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

In April 2010 permission was granted for four new hydro schemes totalling 6.7 MW capacity in the Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park.[186]

Sea Energy Renewables Ltd was purchased by Spanish company Repsol in June 2010. This move paved the way for the Inch Cape 180 wind turbine project offshore fromDundee, scheduled for a 2018 completion.[187] Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

Work is not expected to start before 2015.In 2013, a YouGov energy survey concluded that:

New YouGov research for Scottish Renewables shows Scots are twice as likely to favour wind power over nuclear or shale gas. Over six in ten (62%) people in Scotland say they would support large scale wind projects in their local area, more than double the number who said they would be generally for shale gas (24%) and almost twice as much as nuclear (32%). SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

Hydro power is the most popular energy source for large scale projects in Scotland, with an overwhelming majority (80%) being in favour.[44]

In August 2013 Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution connected a 2MW lithium-ion battery at Kirkwall Power Station. This was the UK’s first large scale battery connected to a local electricity distribution network.[189] HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

In September of that year the Scottish Government granted permission for the commencement of the "largest tidal energy project in Europe". MeyGen intends to install a 9MW demonstration turbine and then an 86MW array tidal array in the Pentland Firth, with expected completion in 2020.In July 2014 the Crown Estate gave approval to four new demonstration wave and tidal sites at the Stronsay Firth, the Mull of Galloway, Islay and Harris. HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

Wind power is Scotland's fastest growing renewable energy technology, with 2574 MW of installed capacity as of April 2011.[1]Whitelee Wind Farm is the largest on-shore wind farm in the United Kingdom with 215 Siemens and Alstom wind turbines and a total capacity of 539 megawatts (MW).[2] The Clyde Wind Farm is a 350 megawatt (MW) wind farm near Abington in South Lanarkshire, Scotland.[3] HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

The Robin Rigg Wind Farm is a 180 MW development completed in April 2010, is an offshore wind farm sited on a sandbank in the Solway Firth.[4][5] Two very large offshore wind turbines (5 MW each) are located in the Moray Firth. There are many other large onshore wind farms including some, both planned and operating, which are in community ownership. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

The siting of turbines is often an issue, but some surveys have shown local community acceptance for wind power in Scotland.[6][7][8]There is further potential for expansion, especially offshore given the high average wind speeds, and a number of large offshore wind farms are planned.The Scottish Government has a target of generating 31% of Scotland's electricity from renewable energy by 2011, and 100% by 2020, which was raised from 50% in September 2010.[9] DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

The majority of this is likely to come from wind power.

Scotland's first offshore wind turbine was placed near the Beatrice Oil Field, 24 km (15 mi; 13 nmi) off the east coast in the Moray Firth, North Sea, in August 2006. This was the world's largest wind turbine at the time, an REpower 5M, with a maximum output of 5MW. A second identical turbine joined it and the wind farm began supplying electricity in August 2007.[11] As of February 20SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

10,Beatrice Wind Farm is the deepest and northernmost offshore wind installation in the world.[12]

This was the first time such large offshore wind turbines had been tested, and the first time any wind turbine generators have been assembled in such deep (44 metres) water.[13] Such large wind turbine generators are ideally suited to the offshore environment due to high consistent wind speeds and minimal turbulence. HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan

According to historical measures of wind speeds at the Beatrice offshore location, it is expected that the turbines will run 96% of the time (8440 hours per year), and at 10 MW full power 38% of the time (3300 hours per year).

In 2003, MORI Scotland was commissioned by the Scottish Executive to undertake a study examining the attitudes of people living close to Sottish wind farms. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The survey showed that people living near Scotland’s ten largest wind farms strongly support more of Scotland's energy needs being produced by the wind. 82% wanted an increase in electricity generated from wind power, whilst more than 50% supported an increase in the number of wind turbines at their local wind farm. 20% say their local wind farm has had a broadly positive impact on the area, as opposed to a negative impact (7%).[7] SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/WI CPU Fan

A survey conducted in 2005, and commissioned by the renewable energy industry, showed that 74% of people in Scotland agree that wind farms are necessary to meet current and future energy needs. When people were asked the same question in a Scottish Renewables study conducted in 2010, 78% agreed. The increase is significant as there were twice as many wind farms in 2010 as there were in 2005.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

The 2010 survey also showed that 52% disagreed with the statement that wind farms are "ugly and a blot on the landscape". 59% agreed that wind farms were necessary and that how they looked was unimportant. The 2010 study suggests that the majority of people in Scotland are in support of clean energy. However this survey has been widely criticised for its methodology, ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

in that it used a weighting scale such that the opinion those who lived nearer windfarms was rated as of lesser importance.

Siting of wind turbines has sometimes been an issue, as most people are concerned about the value of natural landscapes. HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan

The John Muir Trust has stated that "the best renewable energy options around wild land are small-scale, sensitively sited and adjacent to the communities directly benefiting from them".[36][37] For example, a small-scale scheme proposed by North Harris Development Trusthas been supported by the John Muir Trust.[38] A 2013 poll carried out by the John Muir Trust, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

suggests that 75% of Scots would like to see their wild areas protected from further development.[39][40] Wind farm developers sometimes offer "community benefit funds" to help address any disadvantages faced by those living adjacent to wind farms.The Ardrossan Wind Farm on the west coast of Scotland has been "overwhelmingly accepted by local people".[44] DELL Inspiron 1720 laptop keyboard

Instead of spoiling the landscape, local people believe it has enhanced the area. According to one of the town's councillors: "The turbines are impressive looking, bring a calming effect to the town and, contrary to the belief that they would be noisy, we have found them to be silent workhorses".[44] TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1BZ laptop keyboard

The £90 million Black Law Wind Farm is located near Forth in Lanarkshire and has been built on an old opencast coalmine site which was completely restored to shallow wetlands during the construction programme. It employs seven permanent staff on site and created 200 jobs during construction.However, concerns over inappropriate siting of turbines has been voiced by groups in Fife, in particular, where the number of planning applications for turbines has risen sharply.[45] HP COMPAQ NC6120 laptop keyboard

This also is true of Berwickshire, which is home to the second largest windfarm in the UK, Crystal Rig Wind Farm, and where hundreds more turbines are due to be situated, contrary to the wishes of many residents of the county, and the John Muir Trust.[46][47][48] DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

Also, the siting of turbines in environmentally sensitive areas has led to the deaths of migratory and native birds, such as on Harris where a rare visitor to Scotland, a White-throated Needletail was witnessed being killed by a turbine.[49]

Wind power produces no greenhouse gases during operation, although inevitably some are produced during construction and transport. The precise amounts involved are a matter of controversy.  Lenovo 45N2205 laptop keyboard

Manufacturers typically state that carbon emissions are 'paid back' within 3–18 months of production, but recent research claims that turbines located on peat bogs create incidental emissions that may increase this to 8 years or more.[50] A 2013 financial analysis of utility companies such as theSSE (formerly Scottish and Southern Electricity) concluded that utilities were haemorrhaging cash. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

Construction of wind farms by the electrical generating industry lead to duplication of existing power plants which were still needed as backup without increasing the utilities customer base or their output.[51]

Scottish Natural Heritage has stated that the decommissioning of ageing turbine structures in the future would be more deleterious to the environment than leaving the bases in place,  HP Pavilion DV7-3173nr laptop keyboard

thus littering Scotland's wild land with concrete which though they could be covered with topsoil, could lead to "oxidising and subsequent staining/contamination" and would lead to irreversible damage to the sensitive Peatlands on which many are built. Alternatively, new wind farms could be built on the same site, minimising overall damage. DELL 9Z.N1K82.C01 laptop keyboard

It is estimated that 11.5 GW of onshore wind potential exists, enough to provide about 45 TWh of energy in a year, allowing for wind variability. More than double this amount exists on offshore sites where mean wind speeds are greater than on land. The total offshore potential is estimated at 25 GW, and although more expensive to install could be enough to provide almost half the total energy used in Scotland.  IBM ThinkPad T42 2375 Laptop Keyboard

According to a recent report, the world's wind market offers many opportunities for Scottish companies, with total global revenue over the next five years estimated at £35 billion and continued growth forecast until at least 2025. COMPAQ Presario CQ45-208TU Laptop Keyboard, HP Mini 110-3105tu Laptop Keyboard,HP Pavilion dv4-1030ee Laptop Keyboard

Published by batterys
commenter cet article
30 octobre 2014 4 30 /10 /octobre /2014 08:12

http://www.all-laptopfan.com/,http://www.all-keyboard.com/,http://www.laptopbattery-shop.co.uk/

Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States and is the first land-grant institution that was created to serve as a model for future land-grant colleges in the country under the 1862 Morrill Act. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

MSU pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and telecommunication. It is considered to be one of America's Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public universities in the United States.[5]

Following the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture.French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

Today, MSU is the seventh-largest university in the United States (in terms of enrollment), with 49,300 students (2013–14) and 2,954 faculty members. MSU's Division I sports teams are called the Spartans. They compete in theBig Ten Conference in all sports. MSU's football team won the Rose Bowl in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014 and boasts six national championships.[6] SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

Its men's basketball team won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and is currently enjoying a streak of six Final Four appearances over the last 13 seasons. MSU men's ice hockey won national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. Cross country has historically been Michigan State's most successful sport, HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

especially during a four-decade period spanning roughly 1930–1970 during which the Spartans won eight NCAA championships and numerous other conference and national titles.

The Michigan Constitution of 1850 called for the creation of an "agricultural school",[8] though it was not until February 12, 1855, that Michigan Governor Kinsley S. FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard

Bingham signed a bill establishing the United States' first agriculture college, the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan.[9] Classes began on May 13, 1857, with three buildings, five faculty members, and 63 male students. The first president, Joseph R. Williams, designed a curriculum that required more scientific study than practically any undergraduate institution of the era. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

It balanced science, liberal arts, and practical training. The curriculum excluded Latin and Greek studies, since most applicants did not study any classical languages in their rural high schools. However, it did require three hours of daily manual labor, which kept costs down for both the students and the College.[10] Despite Williams' innovations and his defense of education for the masses, the State Board of Education saw Williams' curriculum as elitist. HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

They forced him to resign in 1859 and reduced the curriculum to a two-year vocational program.

In 1860, Williams became acting lieutenant governor[11] and helped pass the Reorganization Act of 1861. This gave the College a four-year curriculum and the power to grant master's degrees. Under the act, a newly created body, known as the State Board of Agriculture, took over from the State Board of Education in running the institution.  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

The College changed its name to State Agricultural College, and its first class graduated in the same year. As the Civil War had just begun, there was no time for an elaborate graduation ceremony. The first alumni enlisted to the Union Army. Williams died, and the following year, Abraham Lincoln signed the First Morrill Act of 1862 to support similar colleges, making the Michigan school a national model. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

The college first admitted women in 1870, although at that time there were no female residence halls. The few women who enrolled either boarded with faculty families or made the arduous stagecoach trek from Lansing. From the early days, female students took the same rigorous scientific agriculture courses as male students. In 1896, the faculty created a "Women Course" that melded a home economics curriculum withliberal arts and sciences.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

That same year, the College turned the old Abbot Hall male dorm into a women's dormitory. It was not until 1899 that the State Agricultural College admitted its first African American student, William O. Thompson. After graduation, he taught at what is now Tuskegee University. PresidentJonathan L. Snyder invited its president Booker T. Washington to be the Class of 1900 commencement speaker.  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

A few years later, Myrtle Craig became the first woman African-American student to enroll at the College. Along with the Class of 1907, she received her degree from U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, commencement speaker for the Semi-Centennial celebration. The City of East Lansing was incorporated in that same year,[12] and two years later the college officially changed its name to Michigan Agricultural College (M.A.C.). HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

During the early 20th century, M.A.C. expanded its curriculum well beyond agriculture. By 1925 it had expanded enough that it changed its name to Michigan State College of Agriculture and Applied Science (M.S.C.). In 1941 the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, John A. Hannah, became president of the College. He began the largest expansion in the institution's history, with the help of the 1945 G.I. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

Bill, which helped World War II veterans to receive an education. One of Hannah's strategies was to build a new dormitory building, enroll enough students to fill it, and use the income to start construction on a new dormitory. Under his plan, enrollment increased from 15,000 in 1950 to 38,000 in 1965.[13] In 1957 Hannah continued MSU's expansion by co-founding Michigan State University–Oakland, now Oakland University, with Matilda Dodge Wilson. HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

Hannah also got the chance to improve the athletic reputation of M.S.C. when the University of Chicago resigned from the Big Ten Conference in 1946. Hannah lobbied hard to take its place, gaining admission in 1949.[14] Six years later, in its Centennial year of 1955, the State of Michigan renamed the College as Michigan State University of Agriculture and Applied Science.[15]  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

Nine years after that, the University governing body changed its name from the State Board of Agriculture to the MSU Board of Trustees. The State of Michigan[16] allowed the University to drop the words "Agriculture and Applied Science" from its name. Since 1964 the institution has gone by the name of Michigan State University DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

In 1957, the donation of 1,500 acres (6.1 km2) in Pontiac Township, Michigan prompted creation of Michigan State University – Oakland. This donation was indicative of the University's benefactor community that continues today. That campus became officially independent in 1970 as Oakland University.

Since the end of the Hannah era, Michigan State has shifted its focus from increasing the size of its student body to advancing its national and global reputation. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

In September 2005, current president Lou Anna Simon called for MSU, one of the public ivy institutions, to become the global model leader for Land Grant institutions by the year 2012. Her plans include creating a newresidential college and increasing grants awarded from the National Institutes of Health past the US$100 million mark.  Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

While there are over 100 Land-grant universities in the United States, she has stated that she would like Michigan State University to be the leader.

Michigan State, the University of Michigan and Wayne State University created the University Research Corridor in 2006.[20] HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

This alliance was formed to transform and strengthen Michigan's economy by reaching out to businesses, policymakers, innovators, investors and the public to speed up technology transfer, make resources more accessible and help attract new jobs to the state.

On May 1, 2014, Michigan State University was named one of fifty five higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights “HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints” by Barack Obama's White House Task Force To Protect Students from Sexual Assault.[21] "The investigation at Michigan State involves its response to sexual harassment and sexual assault complaints involving students," according to one reporter.[22] It was later reported in the same paper that "An investigation by the U.S. ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

Department of Education into how Michigan State University handles sexual assault complaints was spurred by an incident in Wonders Hall in August 2010, a spokesman said."

MSU's sprawling campus is located in East Lansing, Michigan. The campus is perched on the banks of the Red Cedar River. Development of the campus started in 1856 with three buildings: a multipurpose building called College Hall, a dormitory later called "Saints' Rest",[24] and a barn. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

Today, MSU's contiguous campus consists of 5,200 acres (21 km2), 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) of which are developed. There are 556 buildings: 100 for academics, 131 for agriculture, 166 for housing and food service, and 42 for athletics. Overall, the university has 22,763,025 square feet (2,114,754.2 m2) of total indoor space.[25] Connecting it all is 26 miles (42 km) of roads and 100 miles (160 km) of sidewalks.[26 LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

] MSU also owns 44 non-campus properties, totaling 22,000 acres (89 km2) in 28 different counties.

The oldest part of campus lies on the north bank of the Red Cedar.[28]

It includes Collegiate Gothic architecture, plentiful trees, and curving roads with few straight lines. It was in this area that the College built its first three buildings, of which none survive.  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

Other historic buildings north of the river include Cowles House, the president's official residence, and Beaumont Tower, a carillon clock tower marking the site of College Hall, the original classroom building. To the east lies Eustace–Cole Hall, America's first freestanding laboratory for horticulture.[29] Other landmarks include the bronze statue of former president John A. Hannah, COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, and the painted boulder known as "The Rock", which is a popular spot for theatre, tailgating, and candlelight vigils. On the northwest corner of campus lies the University's hotel, the Kellogg Hotel and Conference Center. The university also has a museum, initiated in 1857. MSU Museum is one of the oldest museums in the Midwest and is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

The campus south of the river consists mostly of post-World War II International Style buildings with sparse foliage, relatively straight roadways, and numerous parking lots. The "2020 Vision" Master Plan proposes replacing these parking lots with parking ramps and green space,[32] but these plans will take many years to reach fruition. HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

As part of the master plan, the University erected a new bronze statue of The Spartan in 2005 to be placed at the intersection of Chestnut and Kalamazoo, just south of the Red Cedar River. This replica replaced the original modernist terra cotta statue,[33] which can still be seen inside Spartan Stadium. Notable academic and research buildings on the South Campus include the Cyclotron and the College of Law. HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

This part of campus is home to the MSU Horticulture Gardens and the adjoining 4-H Children's Garden. South of the gardens lie theCanadian National and CSX railroads, which divide the main campus from thousands of acres of university-owned farmland. The university's agricultural facilities include the Horse, Dairy Cattle, Beef Cattle, Sheep, SONY VAIO VGN-CS17G/R laptop keyboard

and Poultry Teaching and Research Farms, as well as the Air Quality Control Lab and the Diagnostics Center for Population and Animal Health.

In 2007, Michigan State University established an education center in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The chief officer of the campus was Brendan Mullen, Dean, Michigan State University Dubai. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

MSU Dubai was the first American university with a presence in Dubai International Academic City, with classes beginning in August 2008. The University offered six undergraduate programs: Business Administration; Child and Youth Development; Construction Project Management; Early Childhood Education; Media Management and Research; SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

Computer Engineering, which later was changed to Electrical and Computer Engineering; and a Master's Degree in Human Resources & Labor Relations. The University attracted 100 students from all over the Middle East and beyond.[34] However, in 2010 MSU closed the program and the campus because of low enrollment, before any students had graduated. Packard Bell Easynote TK81 laptop keyboard

MSU made plans for the existing students to transfer either to the main campus in East Lansing or to other universities in the UAE.[35] MSU said the program would have needed 100–150 new students admitted each year to be viable, but was able to recruit only one-third of that number.[36][37]

MSU Dubai currently runs a small campus at Dubai Knowledge Village. It offered at first only one program, a master's program in human resources and labor relation. DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

In 2011 it added a master's program in Public Health. In April 2012, MSU Dubai announced that it hopes to begin in 2013 two programs in law: a LL.M program as well as a Master of Jurisprudence program.

The Kellogg Hotel and Conference Center doubles as a 4-star hotel and a business friendly conference center. HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard

It is located on the northwest corner of Michigan State University's campus, across from the Brody Complex, on Harrison Road just south of Michigan Avenue. The hotel has 160 rooms and suites which can accommodate anyone staying in East Lansing for a business conference, sporting event or an on-campus visit, but it originally served as a dormitory for MSU students. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

Besides a lodging facility, the Kellogg Hotel and Conference Center serves as a "learning laboratory for the 300–400 students each year that are enrolled in The School of Hospitality Business and other majors." The Kellogg Hotel and Conference Center strives to facilitate education by hosting conferences and seminars.

Michigan State offers a rolling admissions system, with an early admission deadline in October. MSU is considered "more selective" by the U.S. News & World Report.[39] LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

For Fall 2013, MSU received over 31,000 freshman applications, which is a record for the school, and admitted nearly 69% of them. Incoming freshman had an average high school GPA of 3.62.

MSU has the ninth largest student body in the U.S. For the fiscal year of 2009–10, the Office of the Registrar conferred 11,140 degrees.[41] The student body is 55% female and 45% male.  DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

While 89% of students come from all 83 counties in the State of Michigan,[42] also represented are all 50 states in the U.S. and about 130 other countries.[3] In 2011–2012 5,898 international students enrolled at MSU. The top five countries represented: China, Korea, India, Taiwan and Canada.[43] MSU has about 4,500 faculty and 6,000 staff members, and a student/faculty ratio of 19:1. HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard

Listed as a Public Ivy,[45] Michigan State is a member of the Association of American Universities. Michigan State University Ombudsman is the longest continually operating ombudsman office at a college or university in the country.[46] Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at MSU, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.[47]  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

MSU's study abroad program is the largest of any single-campus university in the United States with 2,461 students studying abroad in 2004–2005 in over 60 countries on all continents, including Antarctica.[48] MSU has six faculty members elected to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS); Martin Bukovac (1983), James Dye (1989), Pamela Fraker (2007), Richard Lenski (2006), Michael Thomashow (2003), and James Tiedje (2003). HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard

Its admissions are difficult; for 2009's entering class, the 25th/75th percentiles for the SAT were 1030 and 1240/1600, and its 25th/75th percentiles on the ACT were 23 and 27/36.

Michigan State ranks 92nd in the world, according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, which measures scientific research.[58] Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

U.S. News & World Report ranks MSU 85th in the U.S. and 35th among public universities.[59] The 2011 QS World University Rankings placed Michigan State University at 164th internationally.[60]

The university has over 200 academic programs. U.S. News has ranked MSU's graduate-level elementary education,[61] secondary education,[62] and Industrial and Organizational Psychology[63] programs number one for the last 19 years.SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

The National Communication Association (NCA) ranks MSU's PhD programs as number one in educating researchers in the rapidly growing fields of health communication and communication technology.

MSU is also ranked number four in several other fields, including international/intercultural communication, mass communication, and interpersonal communication based on the November 2004 NCA report.[64] Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

HP G71-340US CPU Fan

The Eli Broad College of Business was ranked No. 42nd among undergraduatee institutions nationally with 94% of their graduates receiving job offers in 2014 by Businessweek.[65] The 2014 U.S. News ranked Michigan State's supply chain management program in the Eli Broad College of Business No. 1 in the nation for the third consecutive year.[66] Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

In addition, the Eli Broad College of Business undergraduate accounting program is ranked 13th, the master's accounting program is ranked 15th, and the doctoral program is ranked 11th, according to the 2013 Public Accounting Report's Annual Survey of Accounting Professors.[67] The MBA program is ranked 19th in the U.S. by Forbes magazine.[68] HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

The College of Communication Arts and Sciences was established in 1955 and was the first of its kind in the United States.[69] The college's Media and Information Studies doctoral program was ranked No. 2 in 2007 by The Chronicle of Higher Education in the category of mass communication.[69] The communication doctoral program was ranked No. 4 in a separate category of communication in HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

The Chronicle of Higher Education's 2005 Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index, published in 2007.[69]The college's faculty and alumni include eight Pulitzer Prize winners and a two-time Emmy Award winning recording mixer.[69]

MSU's graduate program in nuclear physics is ranked No. 1 in the nation by U.S. News. In primary medical care, U.S.  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

News ranks MSU's College of Osteopathic Medicine at No.5, College of Veterinary Medicine at No.9, and the College of Human Medicine at No.18.[70] MSU's graduate program in Mathematics has been ranked 23rd in the US according to the latest National Research Council ranking.

Other programs of note include criminal justice,[71] hospitality business,[72] packaging,[73] political science,[74] dietetics[75] and communications.[76] HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

The Sustainable Endowments Institute awarded Michigan State with an overall grade of "B" on the 2009 Campus Sustainability Survey, including "A"s in the categories of Administration, Transportation, Endowment Transparency, and Investment Policies.

The Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum is the contemporary art museum of the university. HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

Michigan State University Libraries comprise the 29th largest academic library system in North America with over 4.9 million volumes and 6.7 million microforms.The university spent nearly US$405 million in 2008–09 on research,[3] capping a long history of academic research. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

MSU dairy professor G. Malcolm Troutinvented the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s. In the 1960s, MSU scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug.Today Michigan State continues its research with facilities such as the U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory[79] and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams(FRIB). The $550 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields. Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60[80] In that same year, Michigan State, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins.[81] Since 1999, MSU has been part of another consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan.[82]Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences' Quello Center researches current issues of information and communication management. Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

Michigan State University is a participant in the Committee on Institutional Cooperation. The Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) is the academic consortium of the universities in the Big Ten Conference plus former conference member, theUniversity of Chicago. The initiative also allows students at participating institutions to take distance courses at other participating institutions. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

The initiative also forms a partnership of research. Engaging in $8 billion in research in 2010, CIC universities are providing powerful insight into important issues in medicine, technology, agriculture, and communities.[83]Students at participating schools are also allowed "in-house" viewing privileges at other participating schools' libraries.[84] They also employ collective purchasing, which has saved member institutions $19 million to date. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

MSU's (private, non-Morrill Act) endowment started in 1916 when the Engineering Building burned down. Automobile magnate R.E. Olds helped the program stay afloat with a gift of $100,000.[86] There was a time when MSU lagged behind peer institutions in terms of endowments. As recently as the early 1990s, MSU was last among the eleven Big Ten schools, with barely over $100 million in endowment funds. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

This changed dramatically in the 2000s (decade), when the University started a campaign to increase the size of the endowment. At the close of fiscal year 2004–2005, the endowment had risen to $1.325 billion, raising the University to sixth of the 11 Big Ten schools in terms of endowment; within $2 million of the fifth-rated school.[87] ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

The rapid increase in the size of the endowment will help to improve outdated facilities, such as the Music Building, which the College of Music hopes to soon replace with money from its alumni fundraising program.

MSU has several residential colleges, based on the Oxbridge "living-learning" model. By putting classes in student dormitories, these colleges improve student access to faculty and facilities.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

MSU's first residential college, Justin Morrill College started in 1965 with an interdisciplinary curriculum.[89] MSU closed Morrill College in 1979, but today the university has three residential colleges, including the recent opening of the Residential College in Arts & Humanities (RCAH) located in Snyder and Phillips halls.

Established in 1967, James Madison College is a smaller component residential college featuring multidisciplinary HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

programs in the social sciences, founded on a model of liberal education. James Madison College is housed in Case Hall. Classes in the college are small, with an average of 25 students, and most instructors are tenure track faculty. James Madison College has about 1150 students total, with each freshman class containing about 320 students.[90] Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

Each of Madison's four majors—Social Relations and Policy, International Relations, Political Theory and Constitutional Democracy, and Comparative Cultures and Politics[91]—requires two years of foreign language and one semester of "field experience" in an internship or study abroad program. Although Madison students make up about 4% of MSU graduates, they represent around 35% of the MSU's Phi Beta Kappa members. SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

Also established in 1967, Lyman Briggs College teaches math and science within social, historical and philosophical contexts.[93]Many Lyman Briggs students intend to pursue careers in medicine, but the school supports over 30 coordinate majors, from human biology to computer sciences.[94] Lyman Briggs is one of the few colleges that lets undergraduates teach as "Learning Assistants."[ Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

MSU's newest residential college is the Residential College in Arts & Humanities. Founded October 21, 2005,[96] the college provides around 600 undergraduates with an individualized curriculum in the liberal, visual and performing arts. Though all the students will graduate with the same degree, MSU encourages students in the college to get a second degree or specialization.[97SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan

] The university houses the new college in a newly renovated Snyder-Phillips Hall, the location of MSU's first residential college, Justin Morrill College.

The Michigan State University College of Law is an independent, non-profit corporation[99] affiliated[100] with the publicinstitution.  LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

Founded in Detroit in 1891 as the Detroit College of Law, the law school moved to East Lansing in 1995 becoming an integral part of the university. Students attending MSU College of Law come from 42 states and 13 countries. The law school publishes the Michigan State Law Review,[101] the Michigan State Journal of International Law, the Journal of Medicine Law, and the Journal of Business & Securities Law.  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

The College of Law is the home of the Geoffrey Fieger Trial Practice Institute,[102] the first trial practice institute in the United States. The Intellectual Property and Communications Law program was ranked seventeenth nationally, in 2006.[103]

The Eli Broad College of Business has programs in accounting, information systems, finance, general management, human resource management, marketing, supply chain management, and hospitality business. Lenovo 45N2205 Laptop Keyboard

The school has 2,066 admitted undergraduate students and 817 graduate students.[104] The Eli Broad Graduate School of Management, which Businessweek magazine in 2012 ranked 35th in the nation and 14th among public institutions,[105] offers three MBA programs, as well as joint degrees with the College of Law.[106] The opening of the Eugene C. Eppley Center for Graduate Studies in Hotel, HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

Restaurant and Institutional Management brought the first program in the United States to offer a Master of Business Administration degree in Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Management to MSU.The Michigan State University College of Nursing grants B.S.N., M.S.N., and PhD degrees.The Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine was the world's first publicly funded college of osteopathic medicine.[108] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

It has a long-standing tradition of retaining its alumni in Michigan to practice – more than two-thirds of the college's graduates remain to practice in Michigan.[109] In 2008, the Michigan State University Board of Trustees approved a resolution endorsing the expansion of the College of Osteopathic Medicine to two sites in southeast Michigan, HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard

a move board members and college officials say will not only improve medical education in the state, but also address a projected physicianshortage.According to U.S. News & World Report, the College of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O. degree) ranked No. 9 among U.S. medical schools for primary care,[111] and the College of Human Medicine (MD degree) has regularly ranked among the top forty U.S. medical schools for primary care.[112] HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard

The College of Human Medicine graduates students with a Doctor of Medicine (M.D. degree) and is split into seven distinct campuses located in East Lansing,Kalamazoo, Flint, Saginaw, Marquette, Traverse City and Grand Rapids. Each campus is affiliated with local hospitals and other medical facilities professionals in the area.[113] For example, the Lansing campus includes Sparrow Hospital and McLaren–Greater Lansing Hospital.[114] SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard

The College of Human Medicine has recently gained attention for its expansion into the Grand Rapids area, with the new Secchia Center completed in the Fall of 2010, that is expected to fuel the growing medical industry in that region.[115]

Though Michigan State has offered courses in veterinary science since its founding, DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

the College of Veterinary Medicine was not formally established as a four-year, degree-granting program until 1910.[116] In 2011, the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine was ranked No. 9 in the nation.[117] The college has over 170,000 square feet (16,000 m2) of office, teaching, and research space, as well as a veterinary teaching hospital. TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard

In recent years, MSU's music program has grown substantially. Music major enrollment increased more than 97% between 1991 and 2004.[119] In early 2007, this growth led the university board of trustees to spin the music program off into its own college unit: The MSU College of Music.[120] The new college faces many new challenges, such as working with limited space[121] and funding.[122]  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Nevertheless, MSU's music college plans on continued success, placing an annual average of 25 graduate students in tenure stream university positions.[119]

The College of Education at Michigan State University offers graduate and undergraduate degrees in several fields, including counseling, educational psychology,special education, teacher education and kinesiology.[123] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

The college has had high-ranked programs in elementary,[61] educational technology, educational policy, and secondary education.[62][124] In addition, Michigan State ties the University of Wisconsin–Madison for the top spot in rehabilitation counseling.[125] The College of Education is currently housed in Erickson Hall.

Founded in 1956, the MSU Honors College provides individualized curricula to MSU's top undergraduate students. DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard

Though the college has no majors of its own, it has its own dean and academic advisers to help Honors students with their educational pursuits. High school students starting at MSU may join the Honors College if they are in the top 5% of their high school graduating class and have either an ACT score of at least 30 or an SAT total score of at least 1360.[126]  DELL 0P445M Laptop Keyboard

Students can also be admitted after their first semester, generally if they're in the top 10% of their College in GPA. Once admitted, students must maintain a 3.20 GPA and complete eight approved honors courses in order to graduate with Honors College designation on their degree. If membership is relinquished at any point, it cannot be reclaimed.[127]  TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002L Laptop Keyboard

After three years of planning, The College of Engineering successfully launched the first stages of its Residential Experience for Spartan Engineering, formally known as the Residential Option for Scientists and Engineers (ROSES), the new program is located in Wilson Hall after being housed in Bailey Hall for a number of years. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

The Residential program essentially combines with a brand new academic component, Cornerstone Engineering, where freshman engineering students not only get an overview of the engineering field(s) but get a hands-on experience along with it.[128] Global Engineering is a new subject that is of certain interest for not only the Cornerstone Engineering and Residential Experience programs but for the entire College of Engineering at MSU. Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

Engineering in today's society has shown to have a monumental impact on the global economy due to advancements in education, interdependence on economics with infrastructure, computers, transportation, technology and other manufactured goods as well as Michigan State University's study-abroad program being ranked No. 1 in the nation, allowing for students to experience education and learn cultures in hundreds of countries.[129] SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

Also of note is the innovative Visiting International Professional Program, which connects professional education to the expertise of Michigan State University, a world leader in global research and leadership training. VIPP creates practical links between the world-class faculty at MSU and global industries, businesses, governments and societies. HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

The newly established Cornerstone Engineering and Residential Experience programs for College of Engineering have started programs abroad for more courses in engineering including Study abroad seminars.[130]

MSU currently offers a 30 credit graduate program for Masters in Educational Technology[131] in 3 different formats; completely online,[132] hybrid[133] in East Lansing, Michigan, or overseas. HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

MSU.edu The overseas program is offered at universities around the world. Past locations have included England, France, Switzerland and Thailand. The program lasts one month a summer for three summers, with each summer covering 9 credit hours. One online class is required between the second and third summer. The classes are focused on preparing teachers in integrating technology into their classrooms and helping them understand the affordances and constraints of using different programs. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

The courses are taught by MSU professors and are open to students around the world.

Michigan State's NCAA Division I-A program offers 12 varsity sports for men and 13 for women.[3] Since their teams are called the Spartans, MSU's mascot is a Spartan warrior named Sparty. The university participates in the Big Ten Conference in all varsity sports, including the new Big Ten hockey conference, featuring 6 teams. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

The current athletic director is Mark Hollis, who was promoted to the position on January 1, 2008.[134] Hollis replaced Ron Mason, who served as head hockey coach from 1979 to 2002, retiring with a record total of 924 wins, and a 635–270–69 record at MSU.[135]

In 1888 Michigan State University (then as known as Michigan Agricultural College) along with Olivet, DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

Albion and Hillsdale Colleges was a founding member of the nation's oldest athletic conference, the Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association (MIAA). MAC left the conference in 1907.

Football has a long tradition at Michigan State. Starting as a club sport in 1884, football gained varsity status in 1896.[136] MSU football teams won the Rose Bowl in 1954, 1956, 1988, and 2014. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

They won national championships in 1951, 1952, 1955, 1957, 1965 and 1966. The Spartans accounted for four of the top eight selections in the 1967 NFL Draft, the only time a college football program has accomplished such a feat.

Today, the football team competes in Spartan Stadium, a renovated 75,005 seat football stadium near the center of campus. The current coach is Mark Dantonio, who was hired on November 27, 2006.[137] HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan

He led the team in its first season to a 7–6 record. MSU's traditional archrival is the University of Michigan, against whom they compete annually for the Paul Bunyan Trophy. Their overall record against the Wolverines currently stands at 32–67–5 and 23–34–2 since 1953 when the Paul Bunyan Trophy was established and MSU joined the Big Ten Conference. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

In 2010, the Spartans finished 7–1 (11–2) in conference play and were Co-Big Ten Champions along with Wisconsin and Ohio State. In 2011, the Spartans finished 1st in the Legends Division of the Big Ten with a 7–1 (11–3) conference record. While beating Wisconsin (Leaders Division Champions) in regular season play on a last second Hail Mary pass, SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/WI CPU Fan

they lost in dramatic fashion to the Badgers in the inaugural Big Ten Championship Game played in Indianapolis. Though the Spartans did not win the Big Ten Conference Championship they did gain some revenge by beating the SEC's University of Georgia Bulldogs in the 2012 Outback Bowl. The Spartans outlasted the Bulldogs 33–30 in a triple overtime thriller.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

Dantonio got his first Bowl victory as the Spartans coach, the team finished the 2011 season with 11 wins. High expectations are growing in East Lansing after back to back 11 win seasons, a first in Spartan football history. The Spartan football final ranking in 2011 was No. 10 in the Coaches' Poll and No. 11 in the AP Poll.

MSU's men's basketball team has won the National Championship twice: in 1979 and again in 2000.[1ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

38] In 1979, Earvin "Magic" Johnson,[139] along with Greg Kelser,[140] Jay Vincent[141] and Mike Brkovich, led the MSU team to a 75–64 win against the Larry Bird-led Indiana State Sycamores. In 2000, three players from Flint, Morris Peterson,[142] Charlie Bell[143] and Mateen Cleaves,[144]led the team to its second national title. Dubbed the "Flintstones", they were the key to the Spartans' win against the University of Florida. HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan

On December 13, 2003, Michigan State and Kentucky played in the Basketbowl, in which a record crowd of 78,129 watched the game in Detroit's Ford Field. Kentucky won 79–74.[145] The basketball team currently plays at the Jack Breslin Student Events Center under head coach Tom Izzo, who has a 403–166 record as of February 2012 (70.8% winning percentage). The student spirit section at Breslin is called the Izzone. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Izzo's coaching has helped the team make six Final Fours since 1999, winning the title in 2000, and thirteen consecutive NCAA tournament appearances (beginning in 1998). In 2009 the Spartans made it to the National Championship game and lost 89–72 to North Carolina.

The Michigan State University men's ice hockey team started in 1924, though it has only been a varsity sport since 1950. The team has since won national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. DELL Inspiron 1720 laptop keyboard

The Spartans came close to repeating the national title in 1987, but lost the championship game to the University of North Dakota. They play at MSU's Munn Ice Arena. Former head coach Ron Mason is college hockey's winningest coach with 924 wins total and 635 at MSU.[135] The current head coach is Tom Anastos. Since the Big Ten Conference does not include Division I men's ice hockey, TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1BZ laptop keyboard

Michigan State competes in the Central Collegiate Hockey Association. Michigan State leads the CCHA in all-time wins, is second in CCHA Conference championships with 7, and is first in CCHA Tournament Championships with 11. Along with the University of Michigan (U-M) and the Ohio State University, it is one of three Big Ten schools in the CCHA. HP COMPAQ NC6120 laptop keyboard

As with other sports, the hockey rivalry between MSU and U-M is a fierce one, and on October 6, 2001, MSU faced U-M in the Cold War, during which a world record crowd of 74,554 packed Spartan Stadium to watch the game end in a 3–3 tie.[146] In the 2006–2007 season, the Men's Ice Hockey team defeated Boston College for its third NCAA hockey championship. DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

Between World War I and World War II, Michigan State College competed in the Central Collegiate Conference, winning titles in 1926–1929, 1932, 1933 and 1935. Michigan State also experienced success in the IC4A, at New York's Van Cortlandt Park, winning 15 team titles (1933–1937, 1949, 1953, 1956–1960, 1962, 1963 and 1968). Since entering the Big Ten in 1950,  Lenovo 45N2205 laptop keyboard

Michigan State has won 14 men's team titles (1951–1953, 1955–1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1970 and 1971). Michigan State hosted the inaugural NCAA cross country championships in 1938 and every year thereafter through 1964 (there was no championship in 1943). The Spartans won NCAA championships in 1939, 1948, 1949, 1952, 1955, 1956, 1958 and 1959. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

MIchigan State University Men's Club Volleyball was founded in 1989. It is currently a part of MIVA, and competes in the NCVF National Championships. The club currently has four teams, Green, White, Posse, and Greenhorns who all practice in the IM West Sports Arena on the campus of Michigan State University. The Green team is coached by Sante Perrelli.  HP Pavilion DV7-3173nr laptop keyboard

The club also hosts the "Back to the Hardwood Classic" which is the biggest preseason tournament in the country.

MSU Spartan Wrestling won their only team NCAA Championship in 1967. The current Spartans Head coach is Tom Minkel in his 25th season. The team competes on campus at the Jenison Field House. Spartan Wrestling has over 50 Big Ten Conference Champions, DELL 9Z.N1K82.C01 laptop keyboard

over 100 All-Americans, and have 11 individual wrestlers from the NCAA Division I Wrestling Championships. Notable former Spartan wrestlers include Rashad Evans and Gray Maynard.

East Lansing is very much a college town, with 60.2% of the population between the ages of 15 and 24.[150] President John A. Hannah's push to expand in the 1950s and 1960s resulted in the largest residence hall system in the United States.[151 IBM ThinkPad T42 2375 Laptop Keyboard

] Around 16,000 students live in MSU's 23 undergraduate halls, one graduate hall, and three apartment villages. Each residence hall has its own hall government, with representatives in the Residence Halls Association. Yet despite the size and extent of on-campus housing, the residence halls are complemented by a variety of housing options. GATEWAY MT6919 Laptop Keyboard

58% of students live off-campus,[152] mostly in the areas closest to campus, in either apartment buildings, former single-family homes, fraternity and sorority houses, or in a co-op.

With over 3,000 members, Michigan State University's Greek Community is one of the largest in the US. Started in 1872[153] and re-established in 1922 by Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity, Alpha Gamma RhoFraternity, and Alpha Phi Sorority;  COMPAQ Presario CQ45-208TU Laptop Keyboard

the MSU Greek system now consists of 55 Greek lettered student societies.[154] These chapters are in turn under the jurisdiction of one of MSU's four Greek governing councils: National Panhellenic Conference, North American Interfraternity Council, National Pan-Hellenic Council,[155] and Independent Greek Council. National Pan-Hellenic Council is made up of 9 organizations, 5 Fraternities and 4 Sororities, Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

that were founded on Historically Black College and Universities (HBCU's).[156]The Interfraternity Council and the Women's Panhellenic Council are each entirely responsible for their own budgets, giving them the freedom to hold large fundraising and recruitment events. MSU's fraternities and sororities hold many philanthropy events and community fundraisers.  HP Mini 110-3105tu Laptop Keyboard

For example, in April 2011 the Greek Community held Greek Week to raise over $260,000 for the American Cancer Society, and $5,000 for each of these charities: Big Brothers Big Sisters, The Listening Ear and previous charities include: the Make-a-Wish Foundation (MSU Chapter), Share Laura's Hope, The Mary Beth Knox Scholarship, and the Special Olympics, in which fraternity and sorority members get to help each other participate. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

The Associated Students of Michigan State University (ASMSU) is the undergraduate student government of Michigan State University.[158] It is unusual amongst university student governments for its decentralized bicameral structure,[159] and the relatively non-existent influence of the Greek system. The structure has since changed to a single General Assembly as part of reorganization in the late 2000s. 

> TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

ASMSU representatives are nonpartisan and many are elected in noncompetitive races. Their mission is to enhance the individual and collective student experience through education, empowerment, and advocacy by education to the needs and interest of students. Some services they offer include: free blue books, low cost copies and faxes, free yearbooks, HP Pavilion dv4-1030ee Laptop Keyboard

interest free loans, funding for student organizations, free legal consultation, health insurance, and iClicker rentals. There are many ways of getting involved such as: Freshman Class Council, Senior Class Council, appointments to General Assembly, and employment.

Students pay $18 per semester to fund the functions of the ASMSU, including stipends for the organization's officers and activities throughout the year.[160HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

] Some students have criticized ASMSU for not having enough electoral participation to gain a student mandate. Turnout since 2001 has hovered between 3 and 17 percent, with the 2006 election bringing out 8% of the undergraduate student body.[161]

Student-run organizations beyond student government also have a large impact on the East Lansing/Michigan State University community. HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

Student Organizations are registered through the Department of Student Life, which currently has a registry of over 550 student organizations.[162] One example is the Tower Guard honor society. Tower Guard is the oldest and one of the most respected student organizations on campus.[163]

The Eli Broad College of Business includes 27 student organizations. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard

The three largest organizations are the Finance Association (FA), the Accounting Student Association (ASA), and the Supply Chain Management Association (SCMA).[164] The SCMA is the host of the university's largest major specific career fair. The fair attracts over 100 companies and over 400 students each year.

Activists have played a significant role in MSU history. DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

During the height of the Vietnam War, student protests helped create co-ed residence halls, and blocked the routing of Interstate 496 through campus.[166] In the 1980s, Michigan State students convinced the University to divest the stocks of companies doing business inapartheid South Africa from its endowment portfolio, such as Coca-Cola. HP Mini 110-3004tu Laptop Keyboard

MSU has many student groups focused on political change. Graduate campus groups include the Graduate Employees Union[168] and the Council of Graduate Students.[169] Michigan State also has a variety of partisan groups ranging from liberal to conservative, including the College Republicans, the College Democrats and several third party organizations. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Other partisan activist groups include Young Americans for Freedom and Young Americans for Liberty on the right; Young Democratic Socialists, Students for Economic Justice, Young Communist League and MEChA on the left. Given MSU's proximity to the Michigan state capital of Lansing, many politically inclined Spartans intern for state representatives. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

The MSU Office of Sustainability works with the University Committee for a Sustainable Campus to "foster a collaborative learning culture that leads the community to heightened awareness of its environmental impact."[170] The University is a member of the Chicago Climate Exchange, the world's first greenhouse gas emission registry, and boasts the lowest electrical consumption per square foot among Big Ten universities. DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

The University has set a goal of reducing energy use by 15%, reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 15%, reducing landfill waste by 30% by 2015.[171]

The university has also pledged to meet LEED-certification standards for all new construction. In July 2009, the University completed construction of a $13.3 million recycling center, and hopes to double their 2008 recycling rate of 14% by 2010. [172] HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard

The construction of Brody Hall, a residence hall of Michigan State University Housing, was completed in August 2011 and qualified for LEED Silver certification because the facility includes a rain water collection tank used for restroom fixtures, a white PVC roof, meters that will monitor utilities to make sure they are used efficiently, and the use of recycled matter and local sources for building materials.[173] APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

The Environmental Steward's program support's president Simon's "Boldness by Design" strategic vision to transform environmental stewardship on campus within the seven-year time frame.[174] Environmental stewards promote environmental changes among co-workers and peers, be points of contact for their department for environment-related concerns, and be liaisons between the Be Spartan Green Team and buildings.[174] HP G62-b04SL CPU Fan

ECO is the leading student-run sustainability organization on campus. They are also affiliated with regional and national groups such as Campus Climate Challenge and the Michigan Student Sustainability Coalition.[175]

The Student Organic Farm is a student-run, four-season farm, which teaches the principals of organic farming and through a certificate program and community supported agriculture (CSA) on ten acres on the MSU campus.[17 Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

6] The certificate program consists of year round crop production, course work in organic farming, practical training and management, and an off-site internship requirement.

MSU has a variety of campus media outlets. The student-run newspaper is called The State News and free copies of the paper are available online or at East Lansing newsstands. DELL Inspiron N3010 Series CPU Fan

The paper prints 28,500 copies of the paper Monday through Friday during the fall and spring semesters, and 15,000 copies Monday through Friday during the summer.[179] The paper is not published on weekends, holidays, or semester breaks, but is continually updated online at statenews.com. The campus yearbook is called the Red Cedar Log.[180] HP 550 CPU Fan

Red Cedar Review, Michigan State University's premier literary digest for over forty years, is the longest running undergraduate-run literary journal in the United States.[181] It is published annually by the Michigan State University Press.

MSU also publishes a student-run magazine during the academic year called Ing Magazine.[182] HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

Created in 2007 by MSU alumnus Adam Grant, the publication is released at the beginning of each month and currently publishes 7 issues each school year.[183] MSU also publishes a student-run fashion and lifestyle magazine called VIM Magazine once a semester.

Electronic media include three radio stations and one public television station, as well as student-produced television shows.DELL Vostro A860 CPU Fan

MSU'sPublic Broadcasting Service affiliate, WKAR-TV, the station is the second-oldest educational television station in the United States, and the oldest east of the Mississippi River. Besides broadcasting PBS shows, WKAR-TV produces its own local programming, such as a high school quiz bowl show called "QuizBusters". In addition, MSU has three radio stations; HP Pavilion dv6-3125ej CPU Fan

WKAR-AM plays National Public Radio's talk radio programming, whereas WKAR-FM focuses mostly on classical music programming.[184] Michigan State's student-run radio station, WDBM, broadcasts mostly alternative music during weekdays, and electric music programming nights and weekends.

The current president of the University is Lou Anna Simon who took over on January 1, 2005, after being appointed by MSU's governing board, the Board of Trustees. Compaq Presario A916NR CPU Fan

The Board receives its mandate from the Michigan Constitution since MSU is a state-owned school. The constitution allows for eight trustees who are elected by statewide referendum every two years. Trustees have eight-year terms, with two of the eight elected every other year.[186] As of 2007, the Board is made up of three Republicans and five Democrats. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Important College leaders in the 19th century include John C. Holmes, who kept the Agriculture School from being a part of the University of Michigan and is widely credited with being the prime mover for the school's founding;[9] Joseph R. Williams, the first president;[11] and Theophilus C. Abbot, the third president who stabilized the College after the Civil War.[188] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Also of importance was botany professorWilliam J. Beal, an early plant (hybrid corn) geneticist who championed the laboratory teaching method.[189] Another distinguished faculty member of the era was the alumnus/professor Liberty Hyde Bailey.[190] Bailey was the first to raise the study of horticulture to a science, paralleling botany, which earned him the title of "Father of American Horticulture".[191] SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

William L. Carpenter, a jurist who was elected to the Third Judicial Circuit of Michigan in 1894, and member of the Michigan Supreme Court from 1902 until 1904. Other famous 19th-century graduates include Ray Stannard Baker,[192] a famed "muckraker" journalist and Pulitzer Prize winning biographer; Minakata Kumagusu,[193] a renowned environmental scientist; and William Chandler Bagley, a pioneering education reformer.  HP 489126-001 CPU Fan

There are currently around 442,000 living MSU alumni worldwide giving the school one of the largest number of alumni of any institution of higher learning.[3] Famous MSU alumni include former Michigan governors James Blanchard[195] and John Engler,[196] U.S. Senators Debbie Stabenow[197] and Tim Johnson, U.S. Ambassador to Brazil Donna Hrinak, former Jordan prime minister Adnan Badran,  HP Envy 17-2290nr CPU Fan

billionaire philanthropists Tom Goresand Eli Broad,[198] Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court Wallace B. Jefferson,[199] trial lawyer Geoffrey Feiger, former Food and Drug Administration official Peter Rheinstein, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist Richard Ford, Teamsters president James P. Hoffa,[200] Quicken Loans founder and Cleveland Cavaliers owner and billionaire Dan Gilbert,[201] ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

Sergeant at Arms of the U.S. House of Representatives Wilson Livingood,[202] former Michigan U.S. Senator and Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham,[203] former Vice President of the Republic of Liberia Harry Moniba, and former U.S. Ambassador to Italy Peter Secchia.

Alumni in Hollywood include actors such as Anthony Heald,[204] Robert Urich[205] and William Fawcett;[20FUJITSU Lifebook T5010 Series CPU Fan

6] comedian Dick Martin, comedian Jackie Martling, film directors Michael Cimino and Sam Raimi, and film editor Bob Murawski,[207] as well as screenwriter David Magee[208] Puerto Rican comedian Sunshine Logroño (who has played the occasional Hollywood movie) was a graduate student at MSU.

Composer Dika Newlin received her undergraduate degree from MSU,[209] while lyricist, theatrical director and clinical psychologist Jacques Levy earned a doctorate in psychology.[2Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

10] The university has also produced such jazz luminaries as pianist Henry Butler,[211] vibraphonist Milt Jackson,[212] and keyboardist/composer-arranger Clare Fischer.[213]

Journalists include NBC reporter Chris Hansen,[214] AP White House correspondent Nedra Pickler, and NPR Washington correspondent Don Gonyea. Novelist Michael Kimball graduated in 1990.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

Novelist and true crime author R. Barri Flowers, who in 1977 a bachelors and in 1980 a masters in criminal justice, was inducted in 2006 into the MSU Criminal Justice Wall of Fame.[215] Author Erik Qualman graduated with honors in 1994 and was also Academic Big-Ten in basketball. Susan K. Avery, the first woman president and director of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, received an MSU bachelor's degree in physics.[216HP Probook 4325s laptop keyboard

] In addition, two of the Little Rock Nine attended Michigan State, including Ernest Green,[217] the first black student to graduate from Little Rock Central High School, and Carlotta Walls LaNier.[218] The University awarded an honorary degree to Robert Mugabe in 1990, but revoked it in 2008.[219]

Spartans formerly or currently in the NBA include Earvin "Magic" Johnson,[139] HP Pavilion dv6-3004tu laptop keyboard

Greg Kelser,[140] Jay Vincent,[141] Steve Smith,[220] Scott Skiles,[221] Jason Richardson,[222] Mateen Cleaves,[144] Alan Anderson,[223] Zach Randolph,[224] Morris Peterson,[142] Charlie Bell[143] Johnny Green, Maurice Ager, and Shannon Brown.On the American Football League's All-Time Team are tight-end Fred Arbanas[226] and safety George Saimes.[227] Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

In the National Football League, MSU alumni include Carl Banks, who was a member of the Giants teams that won Super Bowls XXI and XXV. Banks was a standout in their Super Bowl XXI victory in which he recorded 14 total tackles, including ten solo tackles, as well as being part of the NFL's 1980's All-Decade Team Morten Andersen,[228] Plaxico Burress,[229] Andre Rison,[230] Derrick Mason,[231] HP Mini 110-3004tu laptop keyboard

Muhsin Muhammad,[232] T. J. Duckett,[233] Flozell Adams,[234] Julian Peterson,[235] Charles Rogers,[236] Jim Miller,[237] Earl Morrall,[238] Wayne Fontes,[239] Bubba Smith[240] and Drew Stanton.[241] Former MSU quarterback Jeff Smoker now plays in the Arena Football League.[242]

Former Michigan State players in the National Hockey League include All Star Defensemen Duncan Keith, HP Pavilion dv5-1114ez laptop keyboard

Rod Brind'Amour,[243] Anson Carter,[244] Donald McSween,[245]Adam Hall,[246] John-Michael Liles, Justin Abdelkader, Corey Tropp, brothers Kelly Miller[247] and Kip Miller,[248] as well as their cousins, brothers Ryan Miller[249] and Drew Miller.[250]

Former Michigan State players in Major League Baseball include Hall of Fame inductee Robin Roberts,[251TOSHIBA Satellite L40-17U laptop keyboard

] Kirk Gibson,[252] Steve Garvey[253] and Mark Mulder.[254]Olympic gold medalists include Savatheda Fynes[255] and Fred Alderman.[256] The Spartans are also contributing athletes to Major League Soccer, as Kevin Reiman, Doug DeMartin, Dave Hertel, Greg Janicki, Kenzo Webster, Rauwshan McKenzie, John Minagawa-Webster and Ryan McMahen have all played in Major League Soccer.[257 Lenovo 25-011670 laptop keyboard

] In addition, Alex Skotarek, Steve Twellman and Buzz Demling played in the North American Soccer League, with Demling playing in the 1972 Summer Olympics and the United States Men's National Soccer Team in the 1970s.

NCAA Gymnastics Champion and formerSesame Street Muppet performer Toby Towson is a MSU graduate.HP Mini 210-1109TU Laptop Keyboard,HP G71t-300 CTO Laptop Keyboard,HP Pavilion DV6-1040ev Laptop Keyboard

Published by batterys
commenter cet article
28 octobre 2014 2 28 /10 /octobre /2014 08:05

He developed Lamarck's and Erasmus Darwin's ideas of transmutation and evolutionism, and investigated homology, even proposing that plants and animals had a common evolutionary starting point. As a young student Charles Darwin joined Grant in investigations of the life cycle of marine animals. In 1826 an anonymous paper, probably written by Robert Jameson, Sony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery

praised Lamarck for explaining how higher animals had "evolved" from the simplest worms; this was the first use of the word "evolved" in a modern sense.[54][55]

In 1844 the Scottish publisher Robert Chambers anonymously published an extremely controversial but widely read book entitledVestiges of the Natural History of CreationSony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery

This book proposed an evolutionary scenario for the origins of the Solar System and of life on Earth. It claimed that the fossil record showed a progressive ascent of animals, with current animals branching off a main line that leads progressively to humanity. It implied that the transmutations lead to the unfolding of a preordained plan that had been woven into the laws that governed the universe. Sony VAIO PCG-61111L battery

In this sense it was less completely materialistic than the ideas of radicals like Robert Grant, but its implication that humans were only the last step in the ascent of animal life incensed many conservative thinkers. The high profile of the public debate over Vestiges, with its depiction of evolution as a progressive process, would greatly influence the perception of Darwin's theory a decade later.[56][57] Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery

Ideas about the transmutation of species were associated with the radical materialism of the Enlightenment and were attacked by more conservative thinkers. Georges Cuvier attacked the ideas of Lamarck and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, agreeing with Aristotle that species were immutable. Cuvier believed that the individual parts of an animal were too closely correlated with one another to allow for one part of the anatomy to change in isolation from the others, Sony VAIO PCG-61411L battery

and argued that the fossil record showed patterns of catastrophic extinctions followed by re-population, rather than gradual change over time. He also noted that drawings of animals and animal mummies from Egypt, which were thousands of years old, showed no signs of change when compared with modern animals. The strength of Cuvier's arguments and his scientific reputation helped keep transmutational ideas out of the mainstream for decades. Sony VAIO PCG-71111L battery

In Britain the philosophy of natural theology remained influential. William Paley's 1802 book Natural Theology with its famouswatchmaker analogy had been written at least in part as a response to the transmutational ideas of Erasmus Darwin.[59] Geologists influenced by natural theology, such as Buckland and Sedgwick, made a regular practice of attacking the evolutionary ideas of Lamarck, Grant, and The Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation.Sony VAIO PCG-7141L battery

Although the geologist Charles Lyell opposed scriptural geology, he also believed in the immutability of species, and in his Principles of Geology (1830–1833), he criticized Lamarck's theories of development.[51] Idealists such as Louis Agassiz and Richard Owen believed that each species was fixed and unchangeable because it represented an idea in the mind of the creator. Sony VAIO PCG-7142L battery

They believed that relationships between species could be discerned from developmental patterns in embryology, as well as in the fossil record, but that these relationships represented an underlying pattern of divine thought, with progressive creation leading to increasing complexity and culminating in humanity. Owen developed the idea of "archetypes" in the Divine mind that would produce a sequence of species related by anatomical homologies, Sony VAIO PCG-81113L battery

such as vertebrate limbs. Owen led a public campaign that successfully marginalized Robert Grant in the scientific community. Darwin would make good use of the homologies analyzed by Owen in his own theory, but the harsh treatment of Grant, and the controversy surrounding Vestiges, showed him the need to ensure that his own ideas were scientifically sound. Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery

It is possible to look through the history of biology from the ancient Greeks onwards and discover anticipations of almost all of Charles Darwin's key ideas. For example, Loren Eiseley has found isolated passages written by Buffon suggesting he was almost ready to piece together a theory of natural selection, but such anticipations should not be taken out of the full context of the writings or of cultural values of the time which could make Darwinian ideas of evolution unthinkable.[64] Sony VAIO PCG-81115L battery

When Darwin was developing his theory, he investigated selective breeding and was impressed by Sebright's observation that "A severe winter, or a scarcity of food, by destroying the weak and the unhealthy, has all the good effects of the most skilful selection" so that "the weak and the unhealthy do not live to propagate their infirmities".[65] Sony VAIO PCG-81214L battery

Darwin was influenced by Charles Lyell's ideas of environmental change causing ecological shifts, leading to what Augustin de Candolle had called a war between competing plant species, competition well described by the botanist W. Herbert. Darwin was struck by Malthus's phrase "struggle for existence" used of warring human tribes.[66][67] Sony VAIO PCG-81312L battery

Several writers anticipated evolutionary aspects of Darwin's theory, and in the third edition of On the Origin of Species published in 1861 Darwin named those he knew about in an introductory appendix, An Historical Sketch of the Recent Progress of Opinion on the Origin of Species, which he expanded in later editions.[68]

In 1813, William Charles Wells read before the Royal Society essays assuming that there had been evolution of humans, and recognising the principle of natural selection. Sony VAIO PCG-8131L battery

Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace were unaware of this work when they jointly published the theory in 1858, but Darwin later acknowledged that Wells had recognised the principle before them, writing that the paper "An Account of a White Female, part of whose Skin resembles that of a Negro" was published in 1818, and "he distinctly recognises the principle of natural selection, and this is the first recognition which has been indicated; Sony VAIO PCG-8141L battery

but he applies it only to the races of man, and to certain characters alone."[69]

Patrick Matthew wrote in the obscure book Naval Timber & Arboriculture (1831) of "continual balancing of life to circumstance. ... [The] progeny of the same parents, under great differences of circumstance, might, in several generations, even become distinct species, incapable of co-reproduction."[70] Sony VAIO PCG-8152L battery

Charles Darwin discovered this work after the initial publication of the Origin. In the brief historical sketch that Darwin included in the 3rd edition he says "Unfortunately the view was given by Mr. Matthew very briefly in an Appendix to a work on a different subject ... He clearly saw, however, the full force of the principle of natural selection."[71] Sony VAIO PCG-8161L battery

However, as historian of science Peter J. Bowler says, "Through a combination of bold theorizing and comprehensive evaluation, Darwin came up with a concept of evolution that was unique for the time." Bowler goes on to say that simple priority alone is not enough to secure a place in the history of science; someone has to develop an idea and convince others of its importance to have a real impact.[72Sony VAIO PCG-9131L battery

] T. H. Huxley said in his essay on the reception of the Origin of Species:

The suggestion that new species may result from the selective action of external conditions upon the variations from their specific type which individuals present and which we call spontaneous because we are ignorant of their causation is as wholly unknown to the historian of scientific ideas as it was to biological specialists before 1858. But that suggestion is the central idea of the Origin of Species, and contains the quintessence ofDarwinism. Sony VAIO PCG-3E1M battery

The biogeographical patterns Charles Darwin observed in places such as the Galapagos islands during the voyage of the Beaglecaused him to doubt the fixity of species, and in 1837 Darwin started the first of a series of secret notebooks ontransmutation. Darwin's observations led him to view transmutation as a process of divergence and branching, rather than the ladder-like progression envisioned by Lamarck and others. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery

In 1838 he read the new 6th edition of An Essay on the Principle of Population, written in the late 18th century by Thomas Malthus. Malthus' idea of population growth leading to a struggle for survival combined with Darwin's knowledge on how breeders selected traits, led to the inception of Darwin's theory of natural selection. Darwin did not publish his ideas on evolution for 20 years. Sony VAIO PCG-7148L battery

However he did share them with certain other naturalists and friends, starting with Joseph Hooker, with whom he discussed his unpublished 1844 essay on natural selection. During this period he used the time he could spare from his other scientific work to slowly refine his ideas and, aware of the intense controversy around transmutation, amass evidence to support them. Sony VAIO PCG-7151L battery

In September 1854 he began full-time work on writing his book on natural selection.[63][74][75]

Unlike Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace, influenced by the book Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, already suspected that transmutation of species occurred when he began his career as a naturalist. Sony VAIO PCG-7152L battery

By 1855 his biogeographical observations during his field work in South America and the Malay Archipelago made him confident enough in a branching pattern of evolution to publish a paper stating that every species originated in close proximity to an already existing closely allied species. Like Darwin, it was Wallace's consideration of how the ideas of Malthus might apply to animal populations that led him to conclusions very similar to those reached by Darwin about the role of natural selection. Sony VAIO PCG-7153L battery

In February 1858 Wallace, unaware of Darwin's unpublished ideas, composed his thoughts into an essay and mailed them to Darwin, asking for his opinion. The result was the joint publication in July of an extract from Darwin's 1844 essay along with Wallace's letter. Darwin also began work on a short abstract summarising his theory, which he would publish in 1859 as On the Origin of SpeciesSony VAIO PCG-7154L battery

By the 1850s, whether or not species evolved was a subject of intense debate, with prominent scientists arguing both sides of the issue.[77] The publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) fundamentally transformed the discussion over biological origins.[78] Darwin argued that his branching version of evolution explained a wealth of facts in biogeography, anatomy, embryology, and other fields of biology. Sony VAIO PCG-7161L battery

He also provided the first cogent mechanism by which evolutionary change could persist: his theory ofnatural selection.One of the first and most important naturalists to be convinced by Origin of the reality of evolution was the British anatomist Thomas Henry Huxley. Huxley recognized that unlike the earlier transmutational ideas of Lamarck and VestigesSony VAIO PCG-7162L battery

Darwin's theory provided a mechanism for evolution without supernatural involvement, even if Huxley himself was not completely convinced that natural selection was the key evolutionary mechanism. Huxley would make advocacy of evolution a cornerstone of the program of the X Club to reform and professionalise science by displacing natural theology with naturalism and to end the domination of British natural science by the clergy. Sony VAIO PCG-7171L battery

By the early 1870s in English-speaking countries, thanks partly to these efforts, evolution had become the mainstream scientific explanation for the origin of species.[79] In his campaign for public and scientific acceptance of Darwin's theory, Huxley made extensive use of new evidence for evolution from paleontology. Sony VAIO PCG-7172L battery

This included evidence that birds had evolved from reptiles, including the discovery of Archaeopteryx in Europe, and a number of fossils of primitive birds with teeth found in North America. Another important line of evidence was the finding of fossils that helped trace the evolution of the horse from its small five-toed ancestors.[80] However, acceptance of evolution among scientists in non-Sony VAIO PCG-7173L battery

English speaking nations such as France, and the countries of southern Europe and Latin America was slower. An exception to this was Germany, where both August Weismann and Ernst Haeckelchampioned this idea: Haeckel used evolution to challenge the established tradition of metaphysical idealism in German biology, much as Huxley used it to challenge natural theology in Britain.[81] Sony VAIO PCG-7174L battery

Haeckel and other German scientists would take the lead in launching an ambitious programme to reconstruct the evolutionary history of life based on morphology and embryology.[82]

Darwin's theory succeeded in profoundly altering scientific opinion regarding the development of life and in producing a small philosophical revolution.[83] Sony VAIO PCG-7181L battery

However, this theory could not explain several critical components of the evolutionary process. Specifically, Darwin was unable to explain the source of variation in traits within a species, and could not identify a mechanism that could pass traits faithfully from one generation to the next. Darwin's hypothesis of pangenesis, while relying in part on the inheritance of acquired characteristics, Sony VAIO PCG-7182L battery

proved to be useful for statistical models of evolution that were developed by his cousinFrancis Galton and the "biometric" school of evolutionary thought. However, this idea proved to be of little use to other biologists.

Charles Darwin was aware of the severe reaction in some parts of the scientific community against the suggestion made inVestiges of the Natural History of Creation that humans had arisen from animals by a process of transmutation. Sony VAIO PCG-7183L battery

Therefore he almost completely ignored the topic of human evolution in The Origin of Species. Despite this precaution, the issue featured prominently in the debate that followed the book's publication. For most of the first half of the 19th century, the scientific community believed that, although geology had shown that the Earth and life were very old, human beings had appeared suddenly just a few thousand years before the present. Sony VAIO PCG-7184L battery

However, a series of archaeological discoveries in the 1840s and 1850s showed stone tools associated with the remains of extinct animals. By the early 1860s, as summarized in Charles Lyell's 1863 bookGeological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man, it had become widely accepted that humans had existed during a prehistoric period – which stretched many thousands of years before the start of written history. Sony VAIO PCG-7185L battery

This view of human history was more compatible with an evolutionary origin for humanity than was the older view. On the other hand, at that time there was no fossil evidence to demonstrate human evolution. The only human fossils found before the discovery of Java man in the 1890s were either of anatomically modern humans or of Neanderthals that were too close, Sony VAIO PCG-381L battery

especially in the critical characteristic of cranial capacity, to modern humans for them to be convincing intermediates between humans and other primates.[86]

Therefore the debate that immediately followed the publication of The Origin of Species centered on the similarities and differences between humans and modern apes. Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery

Carolus Linnaeus had been criticised in the 18th century for grouping humans and apes together as primates in his ground breaking classification system.[87] Richard Owen vigorously defended the classification suggested by Cuvier and Johann Friedrich Blumenbach that placed humans in a separate order from any of the other mammals, which by the early 19th century had become the orthodox view. Sony VAIO PCG-383L battery

On the other hand, Thomas Henry Huxley sought to demonstrate a close anatomical relationship between humans and apes. In one famous incident, which became known as the Great Hippocampus Question, Huxley showed that Owen was mistaken in claiming that the brains of gorillaslacked a structure present in human brains. Huxley summarized his argument in his highly influential 1863 book Evidence as to Man's Place in NatureSony VAIO PCG-384L battery

Another viewpoint was advocated by Charles Lyell and Alfred Russel Wallace. They agreed that humans shared a common ancestor with apes, but questioned whether any purely materialistic mechanism could account for all the differences between humans and apes, especially some aspects of the human mind.[86]

In 1871, Darwin published The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, which contained his views on human evolution.Sony VAIO PCG-391L battery

Darwin argued that the differences between the human mind and the minds of the higher animals were a matter of degree rather than of kind. For example, he viewed morality as a natural outgrowth of instincts that were beneficial to animals living in social groups. He argued that all the differences between humans and apes were explained by a combination of the selective pressures that came from our ancestors moving from the trees to the plains, Sony VAIO PCG-393L battery

and sexual selection. The debate over human origins, and over the degree of human uniqueness continued well into the 20th century.

The concept of evolution was widely accepted in scientific circles within a few years of the publication of Origin, but the acceptance of natural selection as its driving mechanism was much less widespread. Sony VAIO PCG-394L battery

The four major alternatives to natural selection in the late 19th century were theistic evolution, neo-Lamarckism, orthogenesis, and saltationism.

Theistic evolution was the idea that God intervened in the process of evolution, to guide it in such a way that the living world could still be considered to be designed. The term was promoted by Darwin's greatest American advocate Asa Gray. Sony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery

However, this idea gradually fell out of favor among scientists, as they became more and more committed to the idea of methodological naturalism and came to believe that direct appeals to supernatural involvement were scientifically unproductive. By 1900, theistic evolution had largely disappeared from professional scientific discussions, although it retained a strong popular following. Sony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery

In the late 19th century, the term neo-Lamarckism came to be associated with the position of naturalists who viewed the inheritance of acquired characteristics as the most important evolutionary mechanism. Advocates of this position included the British writer and Darwin critic Samuel Butler, the German biologist Ernst Haeckel, and the American paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope. Sony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery

They considered Lamarckism to be philosophically superior to Darwin's idea of selection acting on random variation. Cope looked for, and thought he found, patterns of linear progression in the fossil record. Inheritance of acquired characteristics was part of Haeckel'srecapitulation theory of evolution, which held that the embryological development of an organism repeats its evolutionary history.[88][89] Sony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery

Critics of neo-Lamarckism, such as the German biologist August Weismann and Alfred Russel Wallace, pointed out that no one had ever produced solid evidence for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Despite these criticisms, neo-Lamarckism remained the most popular alternative to natural selection at the end of the 19th century, and would remain the position of some naturalists well into the 20th century.[88][89] Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery

Orthogenesis was the hypothesis that life has an innate tendency to change, in a unilinear fashion, towards ever-greater perfection. It had a significant following in the 19th century, and its proponents included the Russian biologist Leo S. Berg and the American paleontologist Henry Fairfield Osborn. Orthogenesis was popular among some paleontologists, who believed that the fossil record showed a gradual and constant unidirectional change. Sony VAIO PCG-51211L battery

Saltationism was the idea that new species arise as a result of large mutations. It was seen as a much faster alternative to the Darwinian concept of a gradual process of small random variations being acted on by natural selection, and was popular with early geneticists such as Hugo de Vries, William Bateson, and early in his career, T. H. Morgan. It became the basis of the mutation theory of evolution. Sony VAIO PCG-51311L battery

The rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's laws of inheritance in 1900 ignited a fierce debate between two camps of biologists. In one camp were the Mendelians, who were focused on discrete variations and the laws of inheritance. They were led by William Bateson (who coined the word genetics) and Hugo de Vries (who coined the word mutation). Sony VAIO PCG-51312L battery

Their opponents were the biometricians, who were interested in the continuous variation of characteristics within populations. Their leaders, Karl Pearson and Walter Frank Raphael Weldon, followed in the tradition of Francis Galton, who had focused on measurement and statistical analysis of variation within a population. The biometricians rejected Mendelian genetics on the basis that discrete units of heredity, Sony VAIO PCG-51411L battery

such as genes, could not explain the continuous range of variation seen in real populations. Weldon's work with crabs and snails provided evidence that selection pressure from the environment could shift the range of variation in wild populations, but the Mendelians maintained that the variations measured by biometricians were too insignificant to account for the evolution of new species.[90][91] Sony VAIO PCG-51412L battery

When T. H. Morgan began experimenting with breeding the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, he was a saltationist who hoped to demonstrate that a new species could be created in the lab by mutation alone. Instead, the work at his lab between 1910 and 1915 reconfirmed Mendelian genetics and provided solid experimental evidence linking it to chromosomal inheritance. Sony VAIO PCG-51511L battery

His work also demonstrated that most mutations had relatively small effects, such as a change in eye color, and that rather than creating a new species in a single step, mutations served to increase variation within the existing population.

The Mendelian and biometrician models were eventually reconciled with the development of population genetics. Sony VAIO PCG-51513L battery

A key step was the work of the British biologist and statistician R.A. Fisher. In a series of papers starting in 1918 and culminating in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Fisher showed that the continuous variation measured by the biometricians could be produced by the combined action of many discrete genes, and that natural selection could change gene frequencies in a population, resulting in evolution. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery

In a series of papers beginning in 1924, another British geneticist, J.B.S. Haldane, applied statistical analysis to real-world examples of natural selection, such as the evolution of industrial melanism in peppered moths, and showed that natural selection worked at an even faster rate than Fisher assumed.[92][93] Sony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery

The American biologist Sewall Wright, who had a background in animal breeding experiments, focused on combinations of interacting genes, and the effects of inbreeding on small, relatively isolated populations that exhibited genetic drift. In 1932, Wright introduced the concept of an adaptive landscape and argued that genetic drift and inbreeding could drive a small, Sony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery

isolated sub-population away from an adaptive peak, allowing natural selection to drive it towards different adaptive peaks. The work of Fisher, Haldane and Wright founded the discipline of population genetics. This integrated natural selection with Mendelian genetics, which was the critical first step in developing a unified theory of how evolution worked. Sony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery

In the first few decades of the 20th century, most field naturalists continued to believe that Lamarckian and orthogenetic mechanisms of evolution provided the best explanation for the complexity they observed in the living world. But as the field of genetics continued to develop, those views became less tenable.[94] Theodosius Dobzhansky, Sony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery

a postdoctoral worker in T. H. Morgan's lab, had been influenced by the work on genetic diversity by Russian geneticists such as Sergei Chetverikov. He helped to bridge the divide between the foundations of microevolution developed by the population geneticists and the patterns of macroevolution observed by field biologists, with his 1937 book Genetics and the Origin of Species.Sony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery

Dobzhansky examined the genetic diversity of wild populations and showed that, contrary to the assumptions of the population geneticists, these populations had large amounts of genetic diversity, with marked differences between sub-populations. The book also took the highly mathematical work of the population geneticists and put it into a more accessible form. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery

In Great Britain E.B. Ford, the pioneer of ecological genetics, continued throughout the 1930s and 1940s to demonstrate the power of selection due to ecological factors including the ability to maintain genetic diversity through genetic polymorphisms such as human blood types. Ford's work would contribute to a shift in emphasis during the course of the modern synthesis towards natural selection over genetic drift.[ Sony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery

Evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr was influenced by the work of the German biologist Bernhard Rensch showing the influence of local environmental factors on the geographic distribution of sub-species and closely related species. Mayr followed up on Dobzhansky's work with the 1942 book Systematics and the Origin of Species, which emphasized the importance of allopatric speciation in the formation of new species. Sony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery

This form of speciation occurs when the geographical isolation of a sub-population is followed by the development of mechanisms for reproductive isolation. Mayr also formulated the biological species concept that defined a species as a group of interbreeding or potentially interbreeding populations that were reproductively isolated from all other populations.[92][93][97] Sony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery

In the 1944 book Tempo and Mode in Evolution, George Gaylord Simpson showed that the fossil record was consistent with the irregular non-directional pattern predicted by the developing evolutionary synthesis, and that the linear trends that earlier paleontologists had claimed supported orthogenesis and neo-Lamarckism did not hold up to closer examination. Sony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery

In 1950, G. Ledyard Stebbins published Variation and Evolution in Plants, which helped to integrate botany into the synthesis. The emerging cross-disciplinary consensus on the workings of evolution would be known as the modern evolutionary synthesis. It received its name from the 1942 book Evolution: The Modern Synthesis by Julian Huxley.[92][93] Sony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery

The evolutionary synthesis provided a conceptual core—in particular, natural selection and Mendelian population genetics—that tied together many, but not all, biological disciplines. It helped establish the legitimacy of evolutionary biology, a primarily historical science, in a scientific climate that favored experimental methods over historical ones.[98] Sony VAIO PCG-61111L battery

The synthesis also resulted in a considerable narrowing of the range of mainstream evolutionary thought (what Stephen Jay Gould called the "hardening of the synthesis"): by the 1950s, natural selection acting on genetic variation was virtually the only acceptable mechanism of evolutionary change (panselectionism), and macroevolution was simply considered the result of extensive microevolution. Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery

The middle decades of the 20th century saw the rise of molecular biology, and with it an understanding of the chemical nature of genes as sequences of DNA and of their relationship – through the genetic code – to protein sequences. At the same time, increasingly powerful techniques for analyzing proteins, such as protein electrophoresis and sequencing, brought biochemical phenomena into realm of the synthetic theory of evolution. Sony VAIO PCG-61411L battery

In the early 1960s, biochemists Linus Pauling andEmile Zuckerkandl proposed the molecular clock hypothesis: that sequence differences between homologous proteins could be used to calculate the time since two species diverged. By 1969, Motoo Kimura and others provided a theoretical basis for the molecular clock, arguing that—at the molecular level at least—Sony VAIO PCG-71111L battery

most genetic mutations are neither harmful nor helpful and that mutation and genetic drift (rather than natural selection) cause a large portion of genetic change: the neutral theory of molecular evolution.[101] Studies of protein differences within species also brought molecular data to bear on population genetics by providing estimates of the level of heterozygosity in natural populations.[102] Sony VAIO PCG-7141L battery

From the early 1960s, molecular biology was increasingly seen as a threat to the traditional core of evolutionary biology. Established evolutionary biologists—particularly Ernst Mayr, Theodosius Dobzhansky and G. G. Simpson, three of the architects of the modern synthesis—were extremely skeptical of molecular approaches, especially when it came to the connection (or lack thereof) to natural selection. Sony VAIO PCG-7142L battery

The molecular-clock hypothesis and the neutral theory were particularly controversial, spawning the neutralist-selectionist debate over the relative importance of mutation, drift and selection, which continued into the 1980s without a clear resolution.

In the mid-1960s, George C. Williams strongly critiqued explanations of adaptations worded in terms of "survival of the species" (group selection arguments). Sony VAIO PCG-81113L battery

Such explanations were largely replaced by a gene-centered view of evolution, epitomized by the kin selection arguments of W. D. Hamilton, George R. Price and John Maynard Smith.[105] This viewpoint would be summarized and popularized in the influential 1976 book The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins.[106] Models of the period seemed to show that group selection was severely limited in its strength; though newer models do admit the possibility of significant multi-level selection.[107] Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery

In 1973, Leigh Van Valen proposed the term "Red Queen", which he took from Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis Carroll, to describe a scenario where a species involved in one or more evolutionary arms races would have to constantly change just to keep pace with the species with which it was co-evolving. Hamilton, Williams and others suggested that this idea might explain the evolution of sexual reproduction: Sony VAIO PCG-81115L battery

the increased genetic diversity caused by sexual reproduction would help maintain resistance against rapidly evolving parasites, thus making sexual reproduction common, despite the tremendous cost from the gene-centric point of view of a system where only half of an organism's genome is passed on during reproduction.[108][109]

However, contrary to the expectations of the red queen hypothesis, Hanley et al. found that the prevalence, Sony VAIO PCG-81214L battery

abundance and mean intensity of mites was significantly higher in sexual geckos than in asexuals sharing the same habitat.[110] Furthermore, Parker, after reviewing numerous genetic studies on plant disease resistance, failed to find a single example consistent with the concept that pathogens are the primary selective agent responsible for sexual reproduction in their host.[111Sony VAIO PCG-81312L battery

]At an even more fundamental level, Heng[112] and Gorelick and Heng[113] reviewed evidence that sex, rather than enhancing diversity, acts as a constraint on genetic diversity. They considered that sex acts as a coarse filter, weeding out major genetic changes, such as chromosomal rearrangements, but permitting minor variation, such as changes at the nucleotide or gene level (that are often neutral) to pass through the sexual sieve. Sony VAIO PCG-8131L battery

The adaptive function of sex, today, remains a major unresolved issue in biology. The competing models to explain the adaptive function of sex were reviewed by Birdsell and Wills.[114] A principal alternative view to the red queen hypothesis is that sex arose, and is maintained, as a process for repairing DNA damage, and that genetic variation is produced as a byproduct.[115][116] (Also see Evolution of sexual reproduction.) Sony VAIO PCG-8141L battery

The gene-centric view has also led to an increased interest in Darwin's old idea of sexual selection,[117] and more recently in topics such as sexual conflict andintragenomic conflict.

W. D. Hamilton's work on kin selection contributed to the emergence of the discipline of sociobiology. The existence of altruistic behaviors has been a difficult problem for evolutionary theorists from the beginning.[118] Sony VAIO PCG-8152L battery

Significant progress was made in 1964 when Hamilton formulated the inequality in kin selection known asHamilton's rule, which showed how eusociality in insects (the existence of sterile worker classes) and many other examples of altruistic behavior could have evolved through kin selection. Other theories followed, some derived from game theory, such as reciprocal altruism.[119]Sony VAIO PCG-8161L battery

In 1975, E.O. Wilson published the influential and highly controversial book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis which claimed evolutionary theory could help explain many aspects of animal, including human, behavior. Critics of sociobiology, including Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin, claimed that sociobiology greatly overstated the degree to which complex human behaviors could be determined by genetic factors. Sony VAIO PCG-9131L battery

They also claimed that the theories of sociobiologists often reflected their own ideological biases. Despite these criticisms, work has continued in sociobiology and the related discipline of evolutionary psychology, including work on other aspects of the altruism problem.

One of the most prominent debates arising during the 1970s was over the theory of punctuated equilibrium. Sony VAIO PCG-3E1M battery

Niles Eldredge andStephen Jay Gould proposed that there was a pattern of fossil species that remained largely unchanged for long periods (what they termed stasis), interspersed with relatively brief periods of rapid change during speciation.[122][123] (Also seeSpeciation.) Improvements in sequencing methods resulted in a large increase of sequenced genomes, Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery

allowing the testing and refining of evolutionary theories using this huge amount of genome data.[124] Comparisons between these genomes provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of speciation and adaptation.[125][126] These genomic analyses have produced fundamental changes in the understanding of the evolutionary history of life, such as the proposal of the three-domain system by Carl Woese.[127] SONY VAIO PCG-81111V battery

Advances in computational hardware and software allow the testing and extrapolation of increasingly advanced evolutionary modelsand the development of the field of systems biology.[128] One of the results has been an exchange of ideas between theories of biological evolution and the field of computer science known as evolutionary computation, SONY VAIO PCG-81211V battery

which attempts to mimic biological evolution for the purpose of developing new computer algorithms. Discoveries in biotechnology now allow the modification of entire genomes, advancing evolutionary studies to the level where future experiments may involve the creation of entirely synthetic organisms.

Microbiology was largely ignored by early evolutionary theory. SONY VAIO PCG-51111V battery

This was due to the paucity of morphological traits and the lack of a species concept in microbiology, particularly amongst prokaryotes.[130] Now, evolutionary researchers are taking advantage of their improved understanding of microbial physiology and ecology, produced by the comparative ease of microbial genomics, to explore the taxonomy and evolution of these organisms.[131] SONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery

These studies are revealing unanticipated levels of diversity amongst microbes.[132][133]

One important development in the study of microbial evolution came with the discovery in Japan in 1959 of horizontal gene transfer.[134] This transfer of genetic material between different species of bacteria came to the attention of scientists because it played a major role in the spread of antibiotic resistance.[135SONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery

] More recently, as knowledge of genomes has continued to expand, it has been suggested that lateral transfer of genetic material has played an important role in the evolution of all organisms.[136] These high levels of horizontal gene transfer have led to suggestions that the family tree of today's organisms, the so-called "tree of life", is more similar to an interconnected web or net.[137][138] SONY VAIO PCG-51211M battery

Indeed, the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of organelles sees a form of horizontal gene transfer as a critical step in the evolution of eukaryotes such as fungi, plants, and animals.[139][140] The endosymbiotic theory holds that organelles within the cells of eukorytes such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, had descended from independent bacteria that came to live symbiotically within other cells. SONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery

It had been suggested in the late 19th century when similarities between mitochondria and bacteria were noted, but largely dismissed until it was revived and championed by Lynn Margulis in the 1960s and 70s; Margulis was able to make use of new evidence that such organelles had their own DNA that was inherited independently from that in the cell's nucleus. SONY PCG-7134M battery

In the 1980s and 1990s the tenets of the modern evolutionary synthesis came under increasing scrutiny. There was a renewal of structuralist themes in evolutionary biology in the work of biologists such as Brian Goodwin and Stuart Kauffman, which incorporated ideas from cybernetics and systems theory, and emphasized the self-organizing processes of development as factors directing the course of evolution. SONY PCG-7131M battery

The evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould revived earlier ideas ofheterochrony, alterations in the relative rates of developmental processes over the course of evolution, to account for the generation of novel forms, and, with the evolutionary biologist Richard Lewontin, wrote an influential paper in 1979 suggesting that a change in one biological structure, or even a structural novelty, Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/W Battery

could arise incidentally as an accidental result of selection on another structure, rather than through direct selection for that particular adaptation. They called such incidental structural changes "spandrels" after an architectural feature.[142] Later, Gould and Vrba discussed the acquisition of new functions by novel structures arising in this fashion, calling them "exaptations".[143]Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G Battery

Molecular data regarding the mechanisms underlying development accumulated rapidly during the 1980s and '90s. It became clear that the diversity of animal morphology was not the result of different sets of proteins regulating the development of different animals, but from changes in the deployment of a small set of proteins that were common to all animals.[144] Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/B Battery

These proteins became known as the "developmental toolkit".[145] Such perspectives influenced the disciplines ofphylogenetics, paleontology and comparative developmental biology, and spawned the new discipline of evolutionary developmental biology also known as evo-devo.

One of the tenets of the modern evolutionary synthesis was that macroevolution Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/L Battery

(the evolution of phylogenic clades at the species level and above) was solely the result of the mechanisms of microevolution (changes in gene frequency within populations) operating over an extended period of time. During the last decades of the 20th century some paleontologists raised questions about whether other factors, Sony VAIO PCG-5N1M battery

such as punctuated equilibrium and group selection operating on the level of entire species and even higher level phylogenic clades, needed to be considered to explain patterns in evolution revealed by statistical analysis of the fossil record. Near the end of the 20th century some researchers in evolutionary developmental biology suggested that interactions between the environment and the developmental process might have been the source of some of the structural innovations seen in macroevolution, Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery

but other evo-devo researchers maintained that genetic mechanisms visible at the population level are fully sufficient to explain all macroevolution.Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. By the first decade of the 21st century it had become accepted that Epigenetic mechanisms were a necessary part of the evolutionary origin of cell differentiation.[150] Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/W Battery

Although epigenetics in multicellular organisms is generally thought to be a mechanism involved in differentiation, with epigenetic patterns "reset" when organisms reproduce, there have been some observations of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. This shows that in some cases non genetic changes to an organism can be inherited and it has been suggested that such inheritance can help with adaptation to local conditions and affect evolution.[151][1Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/P Battery

52] Some have suggested that in certain cases a form of Lamarckian evolution may occur.

Teilhard de Chardin's ideas have been seen by advocates of the Gaia theory proposed by James Lovelock, which holds that the living and nonliving parts of Earth can be viewed as a complex interacting system with similarities to a single organism,[154] as being connected to Lovelock's ideas.[155] Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/R Battery

The Gaia hypothesis has also been viewed by Lynn Margulis[156] and others as an extension of endosymbiosis and exosymbiosis.[157] This modified hypothesis postulates that all living things have a regulatory effect on the Earth's environment that promotes life overall.Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery,Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery,Sony VAIO PCG-31113M battery

Published by batterys
commenter cet article
28 octobre 2014 2 28 /10 /octobre /2014 08:04

http://www.all-laptopfan.com/,http://www.all-keyboard.com/,http://www.laptopbattery-shop.co.uk/

Evolutionary thought, the conception that species change over time, has roots in antiquity, in the ideas of the ancient Greeks,Romans, and Chinese as well as in medieval Islamic science. With the beginnings of biological taxonomy in the late 17th century, Western biological thinking was influenced by two opposed ideas. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion -Matty's

One was essentialism, the belief that every species has essential characteristics that are unalterable, a concept which had developed from medieval Aristotelian metaphysics, and that fit well with natural theology. The other one was the development of the new anti-Aristotelian approach to modern science: as theEnlightenment progressed, evolutionary cosmology and the mechanical philosophy spread from the physical sciences to natural history. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion -Matty's

Naturalists began to focus on the variability of species; the emergence of paleontology with the concept of extinctionfurther undermined the static view of nature. In the early 19th century, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed his theory of thetransmutation of species, the first fully formed theory of evolution.

In 1858, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace published a new evolutionary theory that was explained in detail in Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859). SONY PCG-7122M battery

Unlike Lamarck, Darwin proposed common descent and a branching tree of life, meaning that two very different species could share a common ancestor. The theory was based on the idea of natural selection, and it synthesized a broad range of evidence from animal husbandry, biogeography, geology, morphology, and embryology. SONY PCG-7121M battery

The debate over Darwin's work led to the rapid acceptance of the general concept of evolution, but the specific mechanism he proposed, natural selection, was not widely accepted until it was revived by developments in biology that occurred during the 1920s through the 1940s. Before that time most biologists argued that other factors were responsible for evolution. SONY VAIO PCG-7192M battery

Alternatives to natural selection suggested during "the eclipse of Darwinism" (circa 1880 to 1920) included inheritance of acquired characteristics (neo-Lamarckism), an innate drive for change (orthogenesis), and sudden large mutations (saltationism). The synthesis of natural selection with Mendelian genetics during the 1920s and 1930s founded the new discipline of population genetics. SONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery

Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, population genetics became integrated with other biological fields, resulting in a widely applicable theory of evolution that encompassed much of biology—the modern evolutionary synthesis.

Following the establishment of evolutionary biology, studies of mutation and variation in natural populations, combined withbiogeography and systematics, led to sophisticated mathematical and causal models of evolution.SONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery

Paleontology and comparative anatomy allowed more detailed reconstructions of the history of life. After the rise of molecular genetics in the 1950s, the field of molecular evolution developed, based on protein sequences and immunological tests, and later incorporating RNA and DNA studies. The gene-centered view of evolution rose to prominence in the 1960s, followed by the neutral theory of molecular evolution, SONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery

sparking debates over adaptationism, the units of selection, and the relative importance of genetic drift versus natural selection. In the late 20th century, DNA sequencing led to molecular phylogenetics and the reorganization of the tree of life into the three-domain system. In addition, the newly recognized factors of symbiogenesis and horizontal gene transfer introduced yet more complexity into evolutionary theory. SONY VAIO PCG-7191V battery

Discoveries in evolutionary biology have made a significant impact not just within the traditional branches of biology, but also in other academic disciplines (e.g., anthropology and psychology) and on society at large.

Proposals that one type of animal, even humans, could descend from other types of animals, are known to go back to the first pre-Socratic Greek philosophers. SONY VAIO PCG-7192V battery

Anaximander of Miletus (c.610–546 BC) proposed that the first animals lived in water, during a wet phase of the Earth's past, and that the first land-dwelling ancestors of mankind must have been born in water, and only spent part of their life on land. He also argued that the first human of the form known today must have been the child of a different type of animal, because man needs prolonged nursing to live.[2] SONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery

Empedocles (c. 490–430 BC), argued that what we call birth and death in animals are just the mingling and separations of elements which cause the countless "tribes of mortal things".[3] Specifically, the first animals and plants were like disjointed parts of the ones we see today, some of which survived by joining in different combinations, and then intermixing, and wherever "everything turned out as it would have if it were on purpose, there the creatures survived, being accidentally compounded in a suitable way".[4] Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery

Other philosophers who became more influential in the Middle Ages, including Plato, Aristotle, and members of the stoic school of philosophy, believed that the species of all things, not only living things, were fixed by divine design.

Plato (c. 428–348 BC) was called by biologist Ernst Mayr "the great antihero of evolutionism",[5] because he promoted belief inessentialism, which is also referred to as the Theory of Forms. Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery

This theory holds that each natural type of object in the observed world is an imperfect manifestation of the ideal, form or "species" which defines that type. In his Timaeus for example, Plato has a character tell a story that the Demiurge created the cosmos and everything in it because, being good, and hence, "... free from jealousy, He desired that all things should be as like Himself as they could be". SONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery

The creator created all conceivable forms of life, since "... without them the universe will be incomplete, for it will not contain every kind of animal which it ought to contain, if it is to be perfect". This "plenitude principle"—the idea that all potential forms of life are essential to a perfect creation—greatly influenced Christian thought.[6] SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery

However some historians of science have questioned how much influence Plato's essentialism had on natural philosophy by stating that many philosophers after Plato believed that species might be capable of transformation and that the idea that biologic species were fixed and possessed unchangeable essential characteristics did not become important until the beginning of biologic taxonomy in the 17th and 18th centuries.[7] SONY VAIO PCG-21212V battery

Aristotle (384–322 BC), the most influential of the Greek philosophers in Europe in the Middle Ages, was a student of Plato and is also the earliest natural historian whose work has been preserved in any real detail. His writings on biology resulted from his research into natural history on and around the isle of Lesbos, and have survived in the form of four books, usually known by theirLatin names, Sony VGN-NR11S Battery

De anima (on the essence of life), Historia animalium (inquiries about animals), De generatione animalium(reproduction), and De partibus animalium (anatomy). Aristotle's works contain some remarkably astute observations and interpretations—along with sundry myths and mistakes—reflecting the uneven state of knowledge during his time.[8] However, forCharles Singer, SONY VAIO PCG-21213V battery

"Nothing is more remarkable than [Aristotle's] efforts to [exhibit] the relationships of living things as a scala naturæ."[8] This scala naturæ, described in Historia animalium, classified organisms in relation to a hierarchical "Ladder of Life" or "Chain of Being", placing them according to their complexity of structure and function, with organisms that showed greater vitality and ability to move described as "higher organisms".[6] SONY VAIO PCG-21214V battery

Aristotle believed that features of living organisms showed clearly that they must have had what he called a final cause, that is to say that they had been designed for a purpose.[9] He explicitly rejected the view of Empedocles that living creatures might have originated by chance.[10]

Other Greek philosophers, such as Zeno of Citium (334–262 BC) the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

agreed with Aristotle and other earlier philosophers that nature showed clear evidence of being designed for a purpose; this view is known as teleology.[11] The Roman stoic philosopher Cicero wrote that Zeno was known to have held the view, central to Stoic physics, that nature is primarily "directed and concentrated...to secure for the world...the structure best fitted for survival."[12]Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery

Epicurus (341–270 BC) anticipated the idea of natural selection. Lucretius explicated these ideas in his De rerum natura. In the Epicurean system, it was assumed that many species had been spontaneously generated from "Gaia" in the past, but that only the most functional forms survived to have off-spring. The Epicureans do not seem to have anticipated the full theory of evolution as we now know it and seem to have postulated a separate abiogenetic Sony VAIO PCG-8152M battery

events for each species rather than postulating a single abiogenetic event coupled with the differentiation of species over time from a single (or small number of) originating parent organism(s).

Ancient Chinese thinkers such as Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu), a Taoist philosopher who lived around the 4th century BC, expressed ideas on changing biologic species. According to Joseph Needham, Sony VAIO PCG-8131M battery

Taoism explicitly denies the fixity of biological species and Taoist philosophers speculated that species had developed differing attributes in response to differing environments.[13] Taoism regards humans, nature and the heavens as existing in a state of "constant transformation" known as theTao, in contrast with the more static view of nature typical of Western thought. Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery

Titus Lucretius Carus (d. 50 BC), the Roman philosopher and atomist, wrote the poem On the Nature of Things (De rerum natura), which provides the best surviving explanation of the ideas of the Greek Epicurean philosophers. It describes the development of the cosmos, the Earth, living things, and human society through purely naturalistic mechanisms, without any reference to supernatural involvement. SONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery

On the Nature of things would influence the cosmological and evolutionary speculations of philosophers and scientists during and after the Renaissance.[15][16] This view was in strong contrast with the views of Roman philosophers of the stoic school such as Marcus Tullius Cicero, Seneca, and Pliny the Elder who had a strongly teleological view of the natural world that influenced Christian theology.[11] Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/R Battery

Cicero reports that the peripatetic and stoic view of nature as an agency concerned most basically with producing life "best fitted for survival" was taken for granted among the Hellenistic elite.

In line with earlier Greek thought, the 4th-century bishop and theologian, Augustine of Hippo, wrote that the creation story in Genesis should not be read too literally. SONY PCG-8113M battery

In his book De Genesi ad litteram ("On The Literal Interpretation of Genesis"), he stated that in some cases new creatures may have come about through the "decomposition" of earlier forms of life.[17] For Augustine, "plant, fowl and animal life are not perfect ... but created in a state of potentiality", unlike what he considered the theologically perfect forms of angels, the firmament and the human soul.[18] SONY PCG-8112M battery

Augustine's idea 'that forms of life had been transformed "slowly over time"' prompted Father Giuseppe Tanzella-Nitti, Professor of Theology at the Pontifical Santa Croce University in Rome, to claim that Augustine had suggested a form of evolution.[19][20]

Henry Fairfield Osborn wrote in From the Greeks to Darwin (1894):If the orthodoxy of Augustine had remained the teaching of the Church, Sony VAIO PCG-7148L battery

the final establishment of Evolution would have come far earlier than it did, certainly during the eighteenth instead of the nineteenth century, and the bitter controversy over this truth of Nature would never have arisen. ...Plainly as the direct or instantaneous Creation of animals and plants appeared to be taught in Genesis, Augustine read this in the light of primary causation and the gradual development from the imperfect to the perfect of Aristotle. Sony VAIO PCG-7151L battery

This most influential teacher thus handed down to his followers opinions which closely conform to the progressive views of those theologians of the present day who have accepted the Evolution theory.[21]

In A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (1896), Andrew Dickson White wrote about Augustine's attempts to preserve the ancient evolutionary approach to the creation as follows. Sony VAIO PCG-7152L battery

For ages a widely accepted doctrine of spontaneous generation had been that water, filth, and carrion had received power from the Creator to generate worms, insects, and a multitude of the smaller animals; and this doctrine had been especially welcomed by St. Augustine and many of the fathers, since it relieved the Almighty of making, Adam of naming, and Noah of living in the ark with these innumerable despised species. Sony VAIO PCG-7153L battery

In Augustine's great treatise, De Cenesi contra Manichæos, on Genesis he says: "To suppose that God formed man from the dust with bodily hands is very childish. ...God neither formed man with bodily hands nor did he breathe upon him with throat and lips." Augustine suggests in other work his theory of the later development of insects out of carrion, and the adoption of the old emanation or evolution theory, Sony VAIO PCG-7154L battery

showing that "certain very small animals may not have been created on the fifth and sixth days, but may have originated later from putrefying matter." In his great treatise De Trinitate (on the Trinity) he develops at length the view that in the creation of living beings there was something like a growth—that God is the ultimate author, but works through secondary causes; Sony VAIO PCG-7161L battery

and finally argues that certain substances are endowed by God with the power of producing certain classes of plants and animals.

Although Greek and Roman evolutionary ideas died out in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire, they were not lost to Islamic philosophers and scientists. In the Islamic Golden Age of the 8th to the 13th centuries, philosophers explored ideas about natural history. Sony VAIO PCG-7162L battery

These ideas included transmutation from non-living to living: "from mineral to plant, from plant to animal, and from animal to man".[24]

In the medieval Islamic world, the scholar al-Jahiz wrote his Book of Animals in the 9th century. Conway Zirkle, writing about the history of natural selection in 1941, said that an excerpt from this work was the only relevant passage he had found from an Arabian scholar. Sony VAIO PCG-7171L battery

He provided a quotation describing the struggle for existence, citing a Spanish translation of this work: "The rat goes out for its food, and is clever in getting it, for it eats all animals inferior to it in strength", and in turn, it "has to avoid snakes and birds and serpents of prey, who look for it in order to devour it" and are stronger than the rat. Sony VAIO PCG-7172L battery

Mosquitos "know instinctively that blood is the thing which makes them live" and when they see an animal, "they know that the skin has been fashioned to serve them as food". In turn, flies hunt the mosquito "which is the food that they like best", and predators eat the flies. "All animals, in short, can not exist without food, neither can the hunting animal escape being hunted in his turn. Sony VAIO PCG-7173L battery

Every weak animal devours those weaker than itself. Strong animals cannot escape being devoured by other animals stronger than they. And in this respect, men do not differ from animals, some with respect to others, although they do not arrive at the same extremes. In short, God has disposed some human beings as a cause of life for others, and likewise, he has disposed the latter as a cause of the death of the former."[25] Sony VAIO PCG-7174L battery

Al-Jahiz also wrote descriptions of food chains.[26]

Some of Ibn Khaldun's thoughts, according to some commentators, anticipate the biological theory of evolution.[27] In 1377 Ibn Khaldun wrote the Muqaddimah in which he asserted that humans developed from "the world of the monkeys", in a process by which "species become more numerous"[27] Sony VAIO PCG-7181L battery

In chapter 1 he writes: "This world with all the created things in it has a certain order and solid construction. It shows nexuses between causes and things caused, combinations of some parts of creation with others, and transformations of some existent things into others, in a pattern that is both remarkable and endless."[28]

The Muqaddimah also states in Chapter 6: Sony VAIO PCG-7182L battery

We explained there that the whole of existence in (all) its simple and composite worlds is arranged in a natural order of ascent and descent, so that everything constitutes an uninterrupted continuum. The essences at the end of each particular stage of the worlds are by nature prepared to be transformed into the essence adjacent to them, either above or below them. Sony VAIO PCG-7183L battery

This is the case with the simple material elements; it is the case with palms and vines, (which constitute) the last stage of plants, in their relation to snails and shellfish, (which constitute) the (lowest) stage of animals. It is also the case with monkeys, creatures combining in themselves cleverness and perception, in their relation to man, the being who has the ability to think and to reflect.Sony VAIO PCG-7184L battery

The preparedness (for transformation) that exists on either side, at each stage of the worlds, is meant when (we speak about) their connection.

During the Early Middle Ages, Greek classical learning was all but lost to the West. However, contact with the Islamic world, where Greek manuscripts were preserved and expanded, soon led to a massive spate of Latin translations in the 12th century. Sony VAIO PCG-7185L battery

Europeans were re-introduced to the works of Plato and Aristotle, as well as to Islamic thought. Christian thinkers of the scholastic school, in particular Abelard and Thomas Aquinas, combined Aristotelian classification with Plato's ideas of the goodness of God, and of all potential life forms being present in a perfect creation, to organize all inanimate, Sony VAIO PCG-381L battery

animate, and spiritual beings into a huge interconnected system: the scala naturæ, or great chain of being.[6][30]

Within this system, everything that existed could be placed in order, from "lowest" to "highest", with Hell at the bottom and God at the top—below God, an angelic hierarchy marked by the orbits of the planets, mankind in an intermediate position, and worms the lowest of the animals. Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery

As the universe was ultimately perfect, the great chain was also perfect. There were no empty links in the chain, and no link was represented by more than one species. Therefore no species could ever move from one position to another. Thus, in this Christianized version of Plato's perfect universe, species could never change, but remained forever fixed, in accordance with the text of GenesisSony VAIO PCG-383L battery

For humans to forget their position was seen as sinful, whether they behaved like lower animals or aspired to a higher station than was given them by their Creator.[6]

Creatures on adjacent steps were expected to closely resemble each other, an idea expressed in the saying: natura non facit saltum("nature does not make leaps").[6] Sony VAIO PCG-384L battery

This basic concept of the great chain of being greatly influenced the thinking of Western civilization for centuries (and still has an influence today). It formed a part of the argument from design presented by natural theology. As a classification system, it became the major organizing principle and foundation of the emerging science of biology in the 17th and 18th centuries. Sony VAIO PCG-391L battery

While the development of the great chain of being and the argument from design by Christian theologians contributed to the view that the natural world fit into an unchanging designed hierarchy, some theologians were more open to the possibility that the world might have developed through natural processes. Sony VAIO PCG-393L battery

Thomas Aquinas went even farther than Augustine of Hippo in arguing that scriptural texts like Genesis should not be interpreted in a literal way that conflicted with or constrained what natural philosophers learned about the workings of the natural world. He felt that the autonomy of nature was a sign of God's goodness and that there was no conflict between the concept of a divinely created universe, and the idea that the universe may have evolved over time through natural mechanisms.[31] Sony VAIO PCG-394L battery

However, Aquinas disputed the views of those like the ancient Greek philosopher Empedocles who held that such natural processes showed that the universe could have developed without an underlying purpose. Rather holding that: "Hence, it is clear that nature is nothing but a certain kind of art, i.e., the divine art, impressed upon things, by which these things are moved to a determinate end. Sony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery

It is as if the shipbuilder were able to give to timbers that by which they would move themselves to take the form of a ship."In the first half of the 17th century, René Descartes's mechanical philosophy encouraged the use of the metaphor of the universe as a machine, a concept that would come to characterise the scientific revolution.[33] Between 1650 and 1800 some evolutionists, such as Benoît de Maillet, Sony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery

produced theories that maintained that the universe, the earth, and life, had developed mechanically, without divine guidance.[34] In contrast, most contemporary theories of evolution, such of those of Gottfried Leibniz and J. G. Herder, regarded evolution as a fundamentally spiritual process.[35] In 1751, Pierre Louis Maupertuis veered toward more materialist ground. Sony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery

He wrote of natural modifications occurring during reproduction and accumulating over the course of many generations, producing races and even new species, a description that anticipated in general terms the concept of natural selection.[36]

Maupertuis's ideas were in opposition to the influence of early taxonomists like John Ray. Sony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery

In the late 17th century Ray had given the first formal definition of a biological species, which he described as being characterized by essential unchanging features, and stated the seed of one species could never give rise to another.[7] The ideas of Ray and other 17th century taxonomists were influenced by natural theology and the argument from design.[37] Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery

The word evolution (from the Latin evolutio, meaning "to unroll like a scroll") was initially used to refer to embryological development; its first use in relation to development of species came in 1762, when Charles Bonnet used it for his concept of "pre-formation", in which females carried a miniature form of all future generations. The term gradually gained a more general meaning of growth or progressive development.[38] Sony VAIO PCG-51211L battery

Later in the 18th century, the French philosopher G. L. L. Buffon, one of the leading naturalists of the time, suggested that what most people referred to as species were really just well-marked varieties, modified from an original form by environmental factors. For example, he believed that lions, tigers, leopards and house cats might all have a common ancestor. Sony VAIO PCG-51311L battery

He further speculated that the 200 or so species of mammals then known might have descended from as few as 38 original animal forms. Buffon's evolutionary ideas were limited; he believed each of the original forms had arisen through spontaneous generation and that each was shaped by "internal moulds" that limited the amount of change. Buffon's works, Sony VAIO PCG-51312L battery

Natural History and The Epochs of Nature, containing well developed theories about a completely materialistic origin for the Earth and his ideas questioning the fixity of species, were extremely influential.[39][40] Another French philosopher, Denis Diderot, also wrote that living things might have first arisen through spontaneous generation, Sony VAIO PCG-51411L battery

and that species were always changing through a constant process of experiment where new forms arose and survived or not based on trial and error; an idea that can be considered a partial anticipation of natural selection.[41] Between 1767 and 1792, James Burnett, Lord Monboddo included in his writings not only the concept that man had descended from primates, but also that, in response to the environment, Sony VAIO PCG-51412L battery

creatures had found methods of transforming their characteristics over long time intervals.[42] Charles Darwin's grandfather, Erasmus Darwin, publishedZoönomia in 1796, which suggested that "all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament".[43] In his 1802 poem Temple of Nature, he described the rise of life from minute organisms living in mud to all of its modern diversity. Sony VAIO PCG-51511L battery

In 1796 Georges Cuvier published his findings on the differences between living elephants and those found in the fossil record. His analysis identified mammoths and mastodons as distinct species, different from any living animal, and effectively ended a long-running debate over whether a species could go extinct.[45] In 1788, James Hutton described gradual geological processes operating continuously over deep time.[46] Sony VAIO PCG-51513L battery

In the 1790s William Smith began the process of ordering rock strata by examining fossils in the layers while he worked on his geologic map of England. Independently, in 1811, Georges Cuvier and Alexandre Brongniart published an influential study of the geologic history of the region around Paris, based on the stratigraphic succession of rock layers. These works helped establish the antiquity of the Earth.[47] Sony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery

Cuvier advocated catastrophism to explain the patterns of extinction andfaunal succession revealed by the fossil record.

Knowledge of the fossil record continued to advance rapidly during the first few decades of the 19th century. By the 1840s, the outlines of the geologic timescale were becoming clear, and in 1841 John Phillips named three major eras, Sony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery

based on the predominantfauna of each: the Paleozoic, dominated by marine invertebrates and fish, the Mesozoic, the age of reptiles, and the currentCenozoic age of mammals. This progressive picture of the history of life was accepted even by conservative English geologists likeAdam Sedgwick and William Buckland; however, like Cuvier, they attributed the progression to repeated catastrophic episodes of extinction followed by new episodes of creation.[48] Sony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery

Unlike Cuvier, Buckland and some other advocates of natural theology among British geologists made efforts to explicitly link the last catastrophic episode proposed by Cuvier to the biblical flood.[49][50]

From 1830 to 1833, Charles Lyell published his multi-volume work Principles of Geology, which, building on Hutton's ideas, advocated a uniformitarian alternative to the catastrophic theory of geology. Sony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery

Lyell claimed that, rather than being the products of cataclysmic (and possibly supernatural) events, the geologic features of the Earth are better explained as the result of the same gradual geologic forces observable in the present day—but acting over immensely long periods of time. Although Lyell opposed evolutionary ideas (even questioning the consensus that the fossil record demonstrates a true progression), Sony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery

his concept that the Earth was shaped by forces working gradually over an extended period, and the immense age of the Earth assumed by his theories, would strongly influence future evolutionary thinkers such as Charles Darwin.

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed, in his Philosophie Zoologique of 1809, a theory of the transmutation of species. Sony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery

Lamarck did not believe that all living things shared a common ancestor but rather that simple forms of life were created continuously byspontaneous generation. He also believed that an innate life force drove species to become more complex over time, advancing up a linear ladder of complexity that was related to the great chain of being. Lamarck recognized that species adapted to their environment. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery

He explained this by saying that the same innate force driving increasing complexity caused the organs of an animal (or a plant) to change based on the use or disuse of those organs, just as exercise affects muscles. He argued that these changes would be inherited by the next generation and produce slow adaptation to the environment. Sony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery

It was this secondary mechanism of adaptation through the inheritance of acquired characteristics that would become known as Lamarckism and would influence discussions of evolution into the 20th century.[52][53]

A radical British school of comparative anatomy that included the anatomist Robert Grant was closely in touch with Lamarck's French school of TransformationismSony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery

One of the French scientists who influenced Grant was the anatomist Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, whose ideas on the unity of various animal body plans and the homology of certain anatomical structures would be widely influential and lead to intense debate with his colleague Georges Cuvier. Grant became an authority on the anatomy and reproduction of marineinvertebrates.Sony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery

Published by batterys
commenter cet article