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A second island type formed of coral is the uplifted coral platform, which is usually slightly larger than the low coral islands. Examples include Banaba (formerly Ocean Island) and Makatea in the Tuamotu group of French Polynesia.[27][28] DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard

he volume of the Pacific Ocean, representing about 50.1 percent of the world's oceanic water, has been estimated at some 714 million cubic kilometers.[29] Surface water temperatures in the Pacific can vary from −1.4 °C (29.5 °F), the freezing point of sea water, in the poleward areas to about 30 °C (86 °F) HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard

near the equator.[30] Salinity also varies latitudinally reaching a maximum of 37 parts per thousand in the southeastern area. The water near the equator, which can have a salinity as low as 34 parts per thousand, HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout the year. The lowest counts of less than 32 parts per thousand are found in the far north as less evaporation of seawater takes place in these frigid areas.[31]  DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

The motion of Pacific waters is generally clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (the North Pacific gyre) and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The North Equatorial Current, driven westward along latitude 15°N by the trade winds, turns north near thePhilippines to become the warm Japan or Kuroshio Current.[32] SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

Turning eastward at about 45°N, the Kuroshio forks and some water moves northward as the Aleutian Current, while the rest turns southward to rejoin the North Equatorial Current.[33] The Aleutian Current branches as it approaches North America and forms the base of a counter-clockwise circulation in the Bering Sea. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Its southern arm becomes the chilled slow, south-flowing California Current.[34] The South Equatorial Current, flowing west along the equator, swings southward east of New Guinea, turns east at about 50°S, HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

and joins the main westerly circulation of the Southern Pacific, which includes the Earth-circling Antarctic Circumpolar Current. As it approaches the Chilean coast, the South Equatorial Current divides; one branch flows around Cape Horn and the other turns north to form the Peru or Humboldt Current.[35]  TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

The ocean was mapped by Abraham Ortelius; he called it Maris Pacifici because of Ferdinand Magellan, who sailed the Pacific during his circumnavigation from 1519 to 1522 and said that it was much more calm than the Atlantic.[38] TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop Keyboard

The andesite line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific. A petrologic boundary, separates the deeper, mafic igneous rock of the Central Pacific Basin from the partially submerged continental areas of felsicigneous rock on its margins.[39] SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard

The andesite line follows the western edge of the islands off California and passes south of the Aleutian arc, along the eastern edge of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Japan, the Mariana Islands, the Solomon Islands, and New Zealand's North Island.[40][23] ACER TravelMate 6252 laptop keyboard

The dissimilarity continues northeastward along the western edge of the Andes Cordillera along South America to Mexico, returning then to the islands off California. Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, New Guinea, and New Zealand lie outside the andesite line. SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard

Within the closed loop of the andesite line are most of the deep troughs, submerged volcanic mountains, and oceanic volcanic islands that characterize the Pacific basin. Here basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4NX1 laptop keyboard

Outside the andesite line, volcanism is of the explosive type, and the Pacific Ring of Fire is the world's foremost belt of explosivevolcanism.[22] The Ring of Fire is named after the several hundred active volcanoes that sit above the various subduction zones. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

The Pacific Ocean is the only ocean which is almost totally bounded by subduction zones. Only the Antarctic and Australian coasts have no nearby subduction zones. Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

The weather systems in the Northern and Southern hemispheres generally mirror each other. The trade winds in the southern and eastern Pacific are remarkably steady while conditions in the North Pacific are far more varied with, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5107 laptop keyboard

for example, cold winter temperatures on the east coast of Russia contrasting with the milder weather off British Columbia during the winter months.[36] Cyclones are liable to form south ofMexico, striking Central America between June and October, as well as in southeast and east Asia from May to December, especially in August and September. In the western Pacific, HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

monsoons in the summer months contrast with dry winds in the winter which blow over the ocean from the Asian landmass. In the equatorial Pacific, El Niño, a band of warm ocean temperatures, affects weather conditions in the western Pacific. SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

In the far north, icing from October to May can present a hazard for shipping while persistent fog occurs from June to December.[37] The quantity of small plastic fragments floating in the north-east Pacific Ocean has increased a hundredfold over the past 40 years (2012).[46] HP Pavilion DV7-3067nr laptop keyboard

Marine pollution is a generic term for the harmful entry into the ocean of chemicals or particles. The main culprits are those using the rivers for disposing of their waste.[47] The rivers then empty into the Ocean, often also bringing chemicals used as fertilizers in agriculture. The excess of oxygen-depleting chemicals in the water leads to hypoxiaand the creation of a dead zone.[48] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is human-created waste that has ended up floating in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway. Oceanic debris tends to accumulate at the centre of gyres and coastlines, frequently washing aground where it is known as beach litter.[47] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5216 laptop keyboard

is the most recent of the 50U.S. states (joined the Union on August 21, 1959), and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean.  HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

Hawaii’s diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, and active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, (wind)surfers, biologists,  HP Pavilion dv6-3142se laptop keyboard

and volcanologists alike. Due to its mid-Pacific location, Hawaii has many North American and Asian influences along with its own vibrant native culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents along with many visitors and U.S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. TOSHIBA Satellite P300-ST3712 laptop keyboard

The state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian Island chain, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles (2,400 km). At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight "main islands" are (from the northwest to southeast) Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

Maui and the island of Hawaiʻi. The last is the largest and is often called "The Big Island" to avoid confusing the name of the island with the name of the state as a whole. The archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii is the 8th smallest, the 11th least populous, but the 13th most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. Hawaii's ocean coastline is approximately 750 miles (1,210 km) long, which is fourth in the United States after those of Alaska, Florida and California. GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii is one of two states that do not observe daylight saving time, the other being Arizona. It is also one of two states that are not in the Contiguous United States; the other is Alaska, however, Hawaii is the only U.S. state not to be located in the Americas. Hawaii is also the only state with an Asian plurality.  HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard

A somewhat divisive political issue arose when the constitution of the state of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language: the exact spelling of the state's name, which in the islands' language is Hawaiʻi  ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

(the ʻokina marking a Hawaiian consonant, a cut-off of breath before the final i). In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii to be the official state name. Official government publications, as well as department and office titles, HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

use the traditional Hawaiian spelling, with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length.[10] In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi, and some private entities, including a local newspaper, do use such symbols. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

The title of the state constitution is "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii". In Article XV, Section 1 uses "The State of Hawaii", Section 2 "the island of Oahu", Section 3 "The Hawaiian flag", and Section 5 specifies the state motto as "Ua mau ke ea o ka aina i ka pono". Since these documents predate the modern use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in Hawaiian orthography, the diacritics were not used.  HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii is the only state of the United States that is not geographically located in North America, grows coffee, is completely surrounded by water, is entirely an archipelago, has royal palaces, and does not have a straight line in its state boundary. APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii’s tallest mountain, Mauna Kea, stands at 13,796 ft (4,205 m)[22] but is taller than Mount Everest if followed to the base of the mountain, which, lying at the floor of the Pacific Ocean, rises about 33,500 ft(10,200 m).[23] ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

The eight main islands, Hawaiʻi, Maui, Oʻahu, Kahoʻolawe, Lanaʻi, Molokaʻi, Kauaʻi and Niʻihau are accompanied by many others. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau that is often overlooked. HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

The Northwest Hawaiian Islands are a series of nine small, older masses northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure that are remnants of once much larger volcanic mountains. There are also more than 100 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, that are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin, totaling 130 or so across the archipelago.[24] ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

The Hawaiian islands were (and continue to be) continuously formed from volcanic activity initiated at an underseamagma source called a hotspot. As the tectonic plate beneath much of the Pacific Ocean moves to the northwest, the hot spot remains stationary, slowly creating new volcanoes.  HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

Due to the hotspot’s location, the only active volcanoes are located around the southern half of the Big Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the Big Island’s coast. HP Mini 110-3180sv Laptop Keyboard

The last volcanic eruption outside the Big Island occurred at Haleakalā on Maui before the late 18th century, though it could have been hundreds of years earlier.[25] In 1790, Kīlauea exploded with the deadliest eruption (of the modern era) known to have occurred in what is now the United States.[26] As many as 5,405 warriors and their families marching on Kīlauea were killed by that eruption.[27] Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

Volcanic activity and subsequent erosion have created impressive geological features. The Big Island has the third highest point among the world’s islands.[28] DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Slope instability of the volcanoes has generated damaging earthquakes with related tsunamis, particularly in 1868 and 1975.[29] Steep cliffs have been caused by catastrophic debris avalanches on the submerged flanks of ocean island volcanos.[30][31]  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

by the “3 W’s”: wind (carried through the air), waves (brought by ocean currents), and wings (birds, insects, and whatever they brought with them). This isolation, and the wide range of environments (extreme altitude, tropical climate) produced a vast array of endemic flora and fauna (see Endemism in the Hawaiian Islands). HP Pavilion dv6-2125ef laptop keyboard

Hawaii has more endangered species and has lost a higher percentage of its endemic species than any other U.S. state.[32] The relatively short time that the existing main islands of the archipelago have been above the surface of the ocean (less than 10 million years) is only a fraction of time span over which biological colonization and evolution have occurred in the archipelago. HP Pavilion dv6-2110ev laptop keyboard

The islands are well known for the environmental diversity that occurs on high mountains within a trade winds field. On a single island, the climate can differ around the coast from dry tropical (< 20 in or 500 mm annual rainfall) to wet tropical; SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard

and up the slopes from tropical rainforest (> 200 in or 5000 mm per year) through a temperate climate into alpine conditions of cold and dry climate. The rainy climate impacts soil development, which largely determines ground permeability, which affects the distribution of streams, wetlands, and wet places.  HP G72-b60SF laptop keyboard

Several areas in Hawaii are under the protection of the National Park Service.[33] Hawaii has two national parks:Haleakala National Park near Kula, on Maui, includes Haleakalā, the dormant volcano that formed east Maui; and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in the southeast region of the island of Hawaiʻi, which includes the active volcano Kīlauea and its various rift zones. HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

There are three national historical parks: Kalaupapa National Historical Park in Kalaupapa, Molokaʻi, the site of a former Hansen’s disease colony; Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park in Kailua-Kona on the island of Hawaiʻi; LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

andPuʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park, an ancient place of refuge. Other areas under the control of the National Park Service include Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail on the Big Island and the USS Arizona Memorial atPearl Harbor on Oʻahu. HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument was proclaimed by President George W. Bush on June 15, 2006. The monument covers roughly 140,000 square miles (360,000 km2) of reefs, atolls and shallow and deep sea out to 50 miles (80 km) offshore in the Pacific Ocean, larger than all of America’s National Parks combined.[34] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E125 laptop keyboard

Hawaii’s climate is typical for the tropics, although temperatures and humidity tend to be a bit less extreme due to near-constant trade winds from the east. Summer highs are usually in the upper 80s °F, (around 31 °C) HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

during the day and mid 70s, (around 24 °C) at night. Winter day temperatures are usually in the low to mid 80s, (around 28 °C) and (at low elevation) seldom dipping below the mid 60s (18 °C) at night. ACER K052030A1 laptop keyboard

Snow, not usually associated with the tropics, falls at 4,205 metres (13,796 ft) on Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa on the Big Island in some winter months. Snow rarely falls on Haleakala. Mount Waiʻaleʻale, on Kauaʻi,  DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

has the second highest average annual rainfall on Earth, about 460 inches (11,684.0 mm). Most of Hawaii has only two seasons: the dry season from May to October, and the wet season from October to April.[35] TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

The warmest temperature recorded in the state is 100 °F (38 °C) (making it tied with Alaska as the lowest high temperature recorded in a U.S. state) in Pahala on April 27, 1931. Hawaii's all-time record low temperature is 12 °F(−11 °C) observed in May 1979 on the summit of Mauna Kea. Hawaii is the only state to have never recorded sub-zero Fahrenheit temperatures. ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

Local climates vary considerably on each island, grossly divisible into windward (Koʻolau) and leeward (Kona) areas based upon location relative to the higher mountains. Windward sides face cloud cover, so resorts concentrate on sunny leeward coasts. ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii is one of four states, besides the original thirteen, that were independent prior to becoming part of the United States, along with the Vermont Republic (1791), the Republic of Texas (1845), and the California Republic (1846), and one of two, along with Texas, that had formal diplomatic recognition internationally.[39] SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard

The Kingdom of Hawaii was sovereign from 1810 until 1893 when the monarchy was overthrown by resident American (and some European) businessmen. It was an independent republic from 1894 until 1898, when it was annexed by the United States as a territory, becoming a state in 1959.[40] HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii was the target of a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Imperial Japan on December 7, 1941. The attack on Pearl Harborand other military and naval installations on Oʻahu, carried out by aircraft and by midget submarines, brought the United States into World War II. HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard

The earliest habitation supported by archaeological evidence dates to as early as 300 CE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas, followed by a second wave of migration from Raiatea and Bora Bora in the 11th century.  TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard

Polynesians from the Marquesas and possibly the Society Islands may have first populated the Hawaiian Islands between 300 and 500 CE. There is a great deal of debate regarding these dates.[41] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

Some archaeologists and historians believe that an early settlement from the Marquesas and a later wave of immigrants fromTahiti, c. 1000, introduced a new line of high chiefs, the Kapu system, TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5141 laptop keyboard

the practice of human sacrifice and the building ofheiaus. This later immigration is detailed in folk tales about Paʻao. Other authors argue that there is no archaeological or linguistic evidence for a later influx of Tahitian settlers, and that Paʻao must be regarded as a myth. HP Pavilion dv6-2160ep laptop keyboard

Regardless of the question of Paʻao, historians agree that the history of the islands was marked by a slow but steady growth in population and the size of the chiefdoms, which grew to encompass whole islands. Local chiefs, Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard

called aliʻi, ruled their settlements and launched wars to extend their sway and defend their communities from predatory rivals. Ancient Hawaii was acaste-based society much like that of the Hindus in India.[42] HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard

There are questions as to whether Spanish explorers arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the 16th century, two centuries before Captain James Cook's first documented visit in 1778. Ruy López de Villalobos commanded a fleet of six ships that left Acapulco in 1542 bound for the Philippines, with a Spanish sailor named Juan Gaetano aboard as pilot. DELL 0M711P laptop keyboard

Depending on the interpretation, Gaetano's reports seemed to describe the discovery of Hawaii or the Marshall Islands.[43] If it was Hawaii, Gaetano would have been the first European to find the islands. SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B laptop keyboard

Some scholars have dismissed these claims as lacking credibility.[44][45] However, Spanish archives contain a chart that depicts islands in the latitude of Hawaii but with the longitude ten degrees east of the Islands. SONY 148701322 laptop keyboard

In this manuscript, the Island of Maui is named "La Desgraciada" (the unfortunate), and what appears to be the Island of Hawaii is named "La Mesa" (the table). Islands resembling Kahoolawe, Lanai, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

and Molokai are named "Los Monjes" (the monks).[46] For two and a half centuries Spanish galleons crossed the Pacific along a route that passed south of Hawaii on their way to Manila. The exact route was kept secret to protect the Spanish trade monopoly against competing powers. HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

The 1778 arrival of British explorer James Cook was Hawaii’s first documented contact with European explorers. Cook named the islands the "Sandwich Islands" in honor of his sponsor John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. HP HDX18-1100 CTO laptop keyboard

He published the islands' location and reported the native name as Owyhee. This spelling lives on in Owyhee County, Idaho, after three Hawaiian members of a trapping party that went missing in that area. SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

Cook visited the islands twice. Upon his departure during his second visit in 1779, a quarrel ensued, involving Cook's taking of temple idols and fencing as "firewood",[47] and the taking of a ship's boat by a minor chief and his men. Cook then abducted the King of the Big Island of Hawaii, Kalaniʻōpuʻu, HP Pavilion dv5-1118tx laptop keyboard

and held him as ransom aboard his ship for the return of the boat, a tactic that had worked for Cook in Tahiti and other islands.[48] Kalaniʻōpuʻu's supporters fought back and Cook and four Marines were killed as Cook's party retreated to the beach and launched their boats. HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard

After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, the Hawaiian islands received many European visitors: explorers, traders, and eventually whalers who found the islands a convenient harbor and source of supplies. Early British influence can be seen in the design of the flag of Hawaii which has the British Union Flag in the corner. HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

These visitors introduced diseases to the once-isolated islands and the Hawaiian population plunged precipitously[49] because native Hawaiians had no resistance to influenza, smallpox, and measles, among others. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard

By 1820, Eurasian diseases, famine, and wars among the chiefs killed more than half of the Native Hawaiian population.[50] During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii's people.[51] Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard

Historical records indicated that the earliest immigration of the Chinese came from Guangdong province: a few sailors in 1778 with Captain Cook's journey, more in 1788 with Kaina, and some in 1789 with an American trader who settled in Hawaii in the late 18th century. Lenovo IdeaPad Y710 Laptop Keyboard

During the 1780s and 1790s, chiefs often fought for power. After a series of battles that ended in 1795 and forced cession of the island of Kauaʻi in 1810, all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler who became known asKing Kamehameha the Great. He established the House of Kamehameha, a dynasty that ruled the kingdom until 1872. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

After Kamehameha II inherited the throne in 1819, American Protestant missionaries to Hawaii converted many Hawaiians to Christianity. Their influence ended many ancient practices, and Kamehameha III was the first Christian king. One prominent Protestant missionary, Hiram Bingham I, TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard

was a trusted adviser to the monarchy during this period. Other missionaries and their descendants became active in commercial and political affairs, leading to future conflicts between the monarchy and its restive American subjects. GATEWAY M-6319 Laptop Keyboard

Missionaries from other Christian denominations (such as Catholics, Mormons, and Episcopalians) were active, but never converted more than a minority of the Native Hawaiian population. Ezra T. Benson appeared to have been the earliest Mormon missionary to the islands. HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard

The death of the bachelor King Kamehameha V—who did not name an heir—resulted in the popular election of Lunaliloover Kalākaua. Lunalilo died the next year, also without naming an heir. Perhaps "the People's King" (Lunalilo) wanted the people to choose his successor as they had chosen him. In 1874 the election was contested within the legislature TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 Laptop Keyboard

In 1887, Kalākaua was forced to sign the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii, which stripped the king of much of his authority. There was a property qualification for voting, which disenfranchised most Hawaiians and immigrant laborers, and favored the wealthier white community.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

Resident whites were allowed to vote, but resident Asians were excluded. Because the 1887 Constitution was signed under threat of violence, it is known as the "Bayonet Constitution". King Kalākaua, reduced to a figurehead, reigned until his death in 1891. His sister, Liliʻuokalani, succeeded him on the throne. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

In January 1893, Queen Liliʻuokalani was overthrown and replaced by a Provisional Government composed of members of the Committee of Safety. Controversy filled the following years as the queen tried to re-establish her throne. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard

The administration of President Grover Cleveland commissioned the Blount Report, which concluded that the removal of Liliʻuokalani was illegal. The U.S. government first demanded that Queen Liliʻuokalani be reinstated, but the Provisional Government refused. Congress followed with another investigation, TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

and submitted the Morgan Report on February 26, 1894, which found all parties (including Minister Stevens) with the exception of the queen "not guilty" from any responsibility for the overthrow.[53] The accuracy and impartiality of both the Blount and Morgan reports has been questioned by partisans on both sides of the debate over the events of 1893. SONY VGN-FE670G Laptop Keyboard

In 1993, a joint Apology Resolution regarding the overthrow was passed by Congress and signed by President Clinton, apologizing for the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom.[56] HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

The Provisional Government of Hawaii ended on July 4, 1894, replaced by the Republic of Hawaii. The first Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii in 1885 as contract laborers for the sugar cane and pineapple plantations.  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

After William McKinley won the presidential election in 1896, Hawaii's annexation to the U.S. was again discussed. The previous president, Grover Cleveland, was a friend of Queen Liliʻuokalani. McKinley was open to persuasion by U.S. HP Pavilion dv6-3050tx laptop keyboard

expansionists and by annexationists from Hawaii. He met with three annexationists from Hawaii: Lorrin Thurston, Francis March Hatch and William Ansel Kinney. After negotiations, in June 1897, Secretary of State John Sherman agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii.[57] SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

The treaty was never ratified by the U.S. Senate. Instead, despite the opposition of a majority of Native Hawaiians,[58] the Newlands Resolution was used to annex the Republic to the United States and it became the Territory of Hawaii. The Newlands Resolution was passed by the House June 15, 1898, by a vote of 209 to 91, and by the Senate on July 6, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21.  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii began when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes in 1899. The devastation caused a world-wide shortage of sugar and a huge demand for the product from Hawaii. Hawaiian sugar plantation owners began to recruit the jobless, Compaq Presario CQ71-403SA laptop keyboard

but experienced, laborers in Puerto Rico. Two distinct waves of Korean immigration to Hawaii have occurred in the last century. The first arrived in between 1903 and 1924; the second wave began in 1965. HP Pavilion dv6-2150us laptop keyboard

In 1900, Hawaii was granted self-governance and retained ʻIolani Palace as the territorial capitol building. Despite several attempts to become a state, Hawaii remained a territory for sixty years. Plantation owners and key capitalists, who maintained control through financial institutions, or "factors", known as the "Big Five", HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

found territorial status convenient, enabling them to continue importing cheap foreign labor; such immigration was prohibited in various TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard

In the 1950s the power of the plantation owners was finally broken by descendants of immigrant laborers. Because they were born in a U.S. territory, they were legal U.S. citizens. The Hawaii Republican Party, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

strongly supported by plantation owners, was voted out of office. The Democratic Party of Hawaii dominated politics for 40 years. Expecting to gain full voting rights, Hawaii's residents actively campaigned for statehood. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

In March 1959, Congress passed the Hawaii Admission Act and U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed it into law.[59] (The act excluded Palmyra Atoll, part of the Kingdom and Territory of Hawaii, from the new state.) On June 27 of that year, a referendum asked residents of Hawaii to vote on the statehood bill. Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard

Hawaii voted 17 to 1 to accept. The choices were to accept the Act or to remain a territory, without the option of independence.[60][61] The United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization later removed Hawaii from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

After statehood, Hawaii quickly modernized via construction and a rapidly growing tourism economy. Later, state programs promoted Hawaiian culture. TheHawaii State Constitutional Convention of 1978 incorporated programs such as the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to promote indigenous language and culture. HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Hawaii was 1,374,810 on July 1, 2011, a 1.07% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[2] Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

As of 2005, Hawaii has an estimated population of 1,275,194, an increase of 13,070, or 1.0%, from the prior year and an increase of 63,657, or 5.3%, since 2000. This includes a natural increase of 48,111 people (that is 96,028 births minus 47,917 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 16,956 people into the state. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard

Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 30,068 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,112 people. The center of population of Hawaii is located between the two islands of Oʻahu and Molokaʻi.[62] So many Hawaiianresidents have moved to Las Vegas that it has been referred to as the "ninth island" of Hawaii.[63][64] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii has a de facto population of over 1.3 million, due to large military and tourist populations. Oʻahu, nicknamed "The Gathering Place", is the most populous island (and has the highest population density), ASUS F3Sr laptop keyboard

with a resident population of just under one million in 597 square miles (1,546 km2), about 1,650 people per square mile (for comparison, New Jersey, which has 8,717,925 people in 7,417 square miles (19,210 km2) is the most-densely populated state in the Union with 1,134 people per square mile.)[65] TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

Hawaii's 1,275,194 people, spread over 6,423 square miles (16,640 km2) (including many unpopulated islands), results in an average population density of 188.6 persons per square mile,[66] which makes Hawaii less densely populated than Ohio and Illinois.[67] TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard

The average projected lifespan of those born in Hawaii in 2000 was 79.8 years (77.1 years if male, 82.5 if female), longer than any other state.[68] HP Mini 1010LA laptop keyboard

According to the 2010 United States Census, Hawaii had a population of 1,360,301. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 38.6% Asian, 24.7% White (22.7% Non-Hispanic White Alone), 23.6% from Two or More Races, 10.0% Native Hawaiians and OtherPacific Islanders, 8.9% Hispanics and Latinos of any race, 1.6% Black or African American, 1.2% from Some Other race, and 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native.[70] TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5993 laptop keyboard

Hawaii is demographically unique because it has the highest percentage of Asian Americans and Multiracial Americans, as well as the lowest percentage of White Americans of any state. In 2011, non-Hispanic whites were involved in 14.5% of all the births.[71] Hawaii's Asian population mainly consists of 198,000 (14.6%) SONY VAIO VGN-CS160J/W laptop keyboard

Filipino Americans and 185,000 (13.6%) Japanese Americans. In addition, there are roughly 55,000 (4.0%) Chinese Americans and 24,000 (1.8%) Korean Americans. Indigenous Hawaiians number over 80,000,  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ52B laptop keyboard

which is 5.9% of the population.[72] Including those with partial ancestry, Samoan Americansmake up 2.8% of Hawaii's population, and Tongan Americans comprise 0.6% of the state population.[73] SONY Vaio VGN-FW139E laptop keyboard

Over 120,000 (8.8%) Hispanic and Latino Americans make Hawaii their home. Mexicans number over 35,000 (2.6%); Puerto Ricansexceed 44,000 (3.2%). Multiracial Americans form almost one-quarter of Hawaii's population, exceeding 320,000 people.Eurasian Americans are a prominent mixed-race group; there are roughly 66,000 (4.9%) ACER Aspire 3022WLMi laptop keyboard

Eurasian Americans in Hawaii. The Non-Hispanic White population numbers at 310,000 and forms just over one-fifth of the population. The multiracial population outnumbers the non-Hispanic white population by about 10,000 people.[72] In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Hawaii's population as 38.8% white and 57.7% Asian and Pacific Islander.[74] TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST5N02 laptop keyboard

The five largest European ancestries in Hawaii are German (7.4%), Irish (5.2%), English (4.6%), Portuguese (4.3%), andItalian (2.7%). Approximately 82.2% of Hawaii's residents were born in the United States. SONY VAIO VGN-FS195VP laptop keyboard

Roughly 75.0% of the foreign-born residents hail from Asia. Hawaii is a majority-minority state, and is expected to be one of three states that will not have a white plurality in 2014, the other two being California and New Mexico.[75] HP Pavilion DV6-1160ed laptop keyboard

A large proportion of Hawaii's population is now of Asian ancestry (especially Chinese, Japanese andFilipino.) Many are descendants of those immigrants brought to work on the sugar plantations in the 1850s and after. The first 153 Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii on June 19, 1868. IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard

They were not "legally" approved by the Japanese government because the contract was between a broker and theTokugawa shogunate, by then replaced by the Meiji Restoration. The first Japanese government-approved immigrants arrived on February 9, 1885 after Kalākaua's petition to Emperor Meiji when Kalākaua visited Japan in 1881.[78][79] DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

Almost 13,000 Portuguese had come by 1899. They too worked on the sugar plantations.[80] By 1901, over 5,000 Puerto Ricans had made new homes on the four islands.[81] GATEWAY MT3707 laptop keyboard

The Hawaiian language has about 2000 native speakers, less than 0.1% of the total population.[83] According to theUnited States Census, there were over 24,000 total speakers of the language in Hawaii in 2006-2008.[84] HP Pavilion dv5-1211tx Laptop Keyboard

Hawaiian is a Polynesian member of the Austronesian language family.[83] It is closely related to other Polynesian languages, such as Marquesan, Tahitian, Māori, Rapa Nui (the language of Easter Island), and less closely to Samoan, and Tongan. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

According to Schütz (1994), the Marquesans colonized the archipelago in roughly 300 AD[85] followed by later waves of immigration from the Society Islands and Samoa-Tonga. Those Polynesians remained in the islands, SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

thereby becoming the Hawaiian people. Their languages, over time, became the Hawaiian language.[86] Kimura and Wilson (1983) also state, "Linguists agree that Hawaiian is closely related to Eastern Polynesian,  HP Mini 1010LA Laptop Keyboard

with a particularly strong link in the Southern Marquesas, and a secondary link in Tahiti, which may be explained by voyaging between the Hawaiian and Society Islands."[87] Before the arrival of Captain James Cook, SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

the Hawaiian language had no written form. That form was developed mainly by American Protestant missionaries during 1820–1826. They assigned letters from the Latin alphabet that corresponded to the Hawaiian sounds.  HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard

Interest in Hawaiian increased significantly in the late 20th century. With the help of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, specially designated immersion schools were established where all subjects would be taught in Hawaiian. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

Also, the University of Hawaii developed a Hawaiian language graduate studies program. Municipal codes were altered to favor Hawaiian place and street names for new civic developments. ACER Aspire 3022WLMi Laptop Keyboard

Hawaiian distinguishes between long and short vowels. In modern practice, vowel length is indicated with a macron (kahakō). Also, Hawaiian uses theglottal stop as a consonant (ʻokina). It is written as a symbol similar to the apostrophe or opening single quote. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Hawaiian-language newspapers published from 1834–1948 and traditional native speakers of Hawaiian generally omit the marks in their own writing. Theʻokina and kahakō are intended to help non-native speakers. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

The cost of living in Hawaii, specifically Honolulu, is quite high compared to most major cities in the United States. However, the cost of living in Honolulu is 6.7% lower than in New York City and 3.6% lower than in San Francisco.[99] TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

These numbers may not take into account certain costs, such as increased travel costs for longer flights, additional shipping fees, and the loss of promotional participation opportunities for customers "outside the continental United States". HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

While some online stores do offer free shipping on orders to Hawaii,[100] many merchants exclude Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico and certain other US territories. ACER Aspire 5738ZG laptop keyboard

The median home value in Hawaii in the 2000 US Census was $272,700 while the national median home value was less than half of that, at $119,600. Hawaii home values were the highest of all states, including California with a median home value of $211,500.[101] More recent research from the National Association of Realtors places the 2010 median sale price of a single family home in Honolulu, ACER Aspire 4810T-8480 laptop keyboard

Hawaii at $607,600 and the US median sales price at $173,200. The sale price of single family homes in Hawaii was the highest of any US city in 2010, just above the "Silicon Valley" area of California ($602,000).[102] Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

One of the most significant contributors to the high cost of living in Hawaii is the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (also known as the Jones Act), which prevents foreign-flagged ships from carrying cargo between two American ports (a practice known as cabotage). Most U.S.  HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl Laptop Keyboard

consumer goods are manufactured in East Asia at present, but because of the Jones Act, foreign ships inbound with those goods cannot stop in Honolulu, offload Hawaii-bound goods, load mainland-bound Hawaii-manufactured goods, IBM Thinkpad T60 Laptop Keyboard

and continue to West Coast ports. Instead, they must proceed directly to the West Coast, where distributorsbreak bulk and send Hawaiian-bound Asian-manufactured goods back west across the ocean by U.S.-flagged ships. HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

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Hawaiian consumers ultimately bear the expense of transporting goods again across the Pacific on U.S.-flagged ships subject to the extremely high operating costs imposed by the Jones Act.  ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

This also makes Hawaii less competitive with West Coast ports as a shopping destination for tourists from home countries with much higher taxes (like Japan), even though prices for Asian-manufactured goods in theory should be cheaper since Hawaii is much closer to Asia.[103][104] ACER AEZG5R00010 Laptop Keyboard

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