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Abbey National The National Freehold Land Society, officially named the National Permanent Mutual Benefit Building Society to give it legal existence under the Building Societies Act 1836, was established by two Liberal Members of Parliament, Sir Joshua Walmsley and Richard Cobden, in 1849, joined a year later by John Bright. In 1856, it formed the British Land Company, HP Pavilion dv6-3047eo Laptop Keyboard which separated in 1878. Meanwhile, the Abbey Road & St. John's Wood Permanent Benefit Building Society was founded in 1874, based in a Baptist church on Abbey Road in Kilburn. In 1932 the society moved into new headquarters, Abbey House, at 219–229 Baker Street, London, which it occupied until 2002. The site was thought to include 221B Baker Street, the fictional home of Sherlock Holmes,[2][3] and for many years Abbey employed a secretary charged with answering mail sent to Holmes at that address. HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard The Abbey National Building Society was formed following the merger in 1944 of what had become Abbey Road Building Society (already the second largest) and National Building Society (at the time the sixth largest). The Swansea Thrift Permanent transferred engagements in 1949, followed by the Definite Permanent in 1968, The State Building Society in 1970, Highgate Building Society in 1974 and the Oak Co-operative in 1979.[4]HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard During the 1970s and 1980s, Abbey National gained a reputation for innovation and, sometimes disruptive, change. It was an early user of computer systems and in the late 1970s, all branches became on-line to a real-time system that maintained customer accounts. Under Chief General Manager Clive Thornton, new types of savings accounts were introduced as well as a cheque account. The administration of the cheque account was restricted by building society rules and the need to find a partner that could clear Abbey's cheques (The Co-operative Bank). Later, Abbey became a full member of the BACS and APACS. Thornton also acted to break the building societies' interest rate consensus. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard In 1989 the Abbey National Building Society demutualised and became a public limited company – Abbey National plc. It was the first of the UK building societies to demutualise, doing so on 12 July. Abbey floated on the London Stock Exchange at £1.30 per share, resulting in an unusually large number of small shareholders – approximately 1.8 million initially. The demutualisation process was marred by the discovery of a large number of undelivered share certificates awaiting destruction at a contractor's premises. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard x In 1994, Abbey National purchased “James Hay” one of the UK’s foremost independent provider of self-administered pensions and is one of the pioneer development of SIPP’s with the launch in 1996 of the James Hay SIPP.[6] James Hay then went on to grow in straight and launched Abbey Wrap, the first Wrap a service in which IFA’s can keep the clients ISA’s, Peps, Offshore bonds and SIPP in one place. Abbey Wrap Managers was FSA approved in 2003. This was relaunched as James Hay Wrap in 2005.[7]TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Two life assurance companies were demutualised and acquired, Scottish Mutual in 1992 and Scottish Provident in 2001, which enabled Abbey to pursue the bancassurance model.[8]HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard In August 1996, Abbey National merged with the National & Provincial Building Society, which was itself the product of a 1984 merger between the Provincial Building Society and the Burnley Building Society. This merger increased Abbey National's branch network by almost two hundred branches and brought in three million more customers.[9]HP Pavilion dv6-3047eo Laptop Keyboard In April 2000 Abbey bought Porterbrook from Stagecoach Group for £773 million. Porterbrook was one of the three railwayrolling stock operating companies created from by the privatisation of British Rail, leasing rolling stock to the UK train operating companies.[10] The bank launched its online bank, cahoot, in June 2000.[11]HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard Abbey also ventured into the wholesale loans business. At first this provided a good profit stream, despite the criticisms of some analysts. This eventually undid the company, however, when Enron turned out to be unsafe and the 11 September attacks in New York damaged confidence in various financial areas. From this point, Abbey struggled from financial losses and a tarnished image. The Chief Executive, Ian Harley, a long-time Abbey employee, resigned and his post was filled by an outsider, Luqman Arnold.[12]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard On 26 July 2004 Abbey National plc and Banco Santander Central Hispano, SA announced that they had reached agreement on the terms of a recommended acquisition by Banco Santander of Abbey. Following shareholders' approval at the EGMs of Abbey (95 per cent voted in favour, despite vocal opposition from most of those present) and Santander, the acquisition was formally approved by the courts and Abbey became part of the Santander Group on 12 November 2004.[14] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard3 Francisco Gómez Roldán took over as Chief Executive from Luqman Arnold, who received a rumoured £5 million, made up of pay off and share options. Gómez-Roldán died suddenly in July 2006, three weeks before being succeeded by Antonio Horta Osorio.[15]HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard As a result of the 2008 banking crisis, Abbey purchased the savings business and branches of Bradford & Bingley in September 2008 following the nationalisation of B&B by HM Government.[16] The purchase of Alliance & Leicester by Santander had been agreed earlier that month.[1] Abbey migrated all customer accounts to the Partenon computer software used by Santander in June 2008.[17]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The Santander Group announced in May 2009 that Abbey and the Bradford & Bingley branch network would be renamed under the Santander brand on 11 January 2010. Credit cards issued by Abbey were the first to change to Santander.[1] The Abbey name has been retained for the Abbey for Intermediaries business and was retained for a time for Abbey International before the latter was subsequently rebranded asSantander Private Banking. The Cater Allen, James Hay and Cahoot brands have remained.[18]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In June 2006 Abbey agreed to sell its life businesses to Resolution plc.[19] The businesses sold to Resolution were Scottish Mutual Assurance, Scottish Provident Limited and Abbey National Life, two offshore life companies, Scottish Mutual International and Scottish Provident International Life Assurance Limited. Abbey retained all of its branch based investment and asset management business, James Hay, Abbey's self-invested personal pension company and James Hay Wrap. HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard The James Hay business was later sold by Santander to IFG Group on 9 March 2010 for £35m.[20][21] Abbey's registered office was in London (built on the site of the former Thames Television studios in Euston Road) and its main corporate centre in Milton Keynes. Its savings and banking administration departments were in Bradford, with mortgage centres in Thornaby-on-Tees and Whiteley (which was due to close later in 2010).[23] Abbey currently has Banking Contact Centres in Belfast, Glasgow, Sheffield, and Bootle. Business Banking operations, both administrative and telephony, were also based in Glasgow, having been moved from Taunton and Newport early in 2005. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Abbey previously operated contact centres in Derby, Liverpool and Gateshead. The Derby and Liverpool centres were closed as part of a cost-cutting exercise. Those jobs moved to Bangalore and Pune in India in 2003. Following the takeover by the Santander Group, the Gateshead operations also closed in March 2005. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5114 Laptop Keyboard Investments were previously branded as Inscape but were renamed Premium Investments in late 2008, provided by Santander Portfolio Management.[24] This was subsequently subsumed into the more general telephony operations and the original contact centre based in Billericay was closed in April 2009. In February 1995 Abbey National Baring Derivatives were taken down along with Barings Bank due to failures in regulation and control, especially in regards to Nick Leeson of Barings Bank. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In July 2007 Abbey admitted that errors that it made in the 1980s have contributed to many borrowers mortgage terms being extended by up to 15 years. During this period – which saw considerable turbulence in interest rates – Abbey extended the terms on customers repayment style mortgages without their knowledge. The Financial Ombudsman Service stated that Abbey customers may be eligible for compensation.[22]DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard Santander UK plc is a United Kingdom bank, wholly owned by the Spanish Santander Group. Santander is the third largest bank in the UK in terms of deposits, the second largest in terms of mortgages held, and the fourth largest in terms of branches operated, with over 25 million customers.[2] In total, the UK arm now has more than 1,300 branches, employing more than 20,000 people throughout the UK. HP G56-126NR Laptop Keyboard The bank was formed in January 2010 when Abbey National plc, which also by then included the savings business and branches of Bradford & Bingley plc, was renamed Santander UK plc. Alliance & Leicester plc merged into the renamed business in May 2010. In 2012, Santander pulled out a deal to buy the Royal Bank of Scotland, citing technical difficulties and a series of delays as a factor in their decision to end the deal. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215B Laptop Keyboard In 2012, Moody rated Santander UK as being in a more financially healthy position that it's parent company, Banco Santander; less than 1% of Santander UK's business is held abroad. [3] The three constituent companies—Abbey National, Alliance & Leicester and Bradford & Bingley—had roots dating back to 1849 as mutual building societies. SONY VAIO VGN-CS31S/V Laptop Keyboard The National Freehold Land Society was established by two Liberal Members of Parliament, Sir Joshua Walmsley and Richard Cobden, in 1849. The Abbey Road & St. John's Wood Permanent Benefit Building Society was founded in 1874, based in aBaptist church on Abbey Road in Kilburn. The Abbey National Building Society was formed following the merger in 1944 of what had become Abbey Road Building Society (already the second largest) and National Building Society (at the time the sixth largest).[4] It was the first to demutualise in 1989. SONY 148096222 Laptop Keyboard Bradford & Bingley Building Society was formed in 1964 as a result of the merger of the Bradford Equitable Building Society and the Bingley Permanent Building Society, both of which had been established in 1851.[5] It was the last to demutualise, against the board's recommendation, in 2000.  TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Alliance & Leicester Building Society had its roots in the formation of the Leicester Permanent Benefit Society in 1852 [6] which had changed its name to the Leicester Permanent Building Society by the time it started trading in 1853.[7] The Leicester Building Society (which it had become in 1974 on its merger with the Leicester Temperance Building Society) merged with the Alliance (originally Brighton and Sussex) Building Society in 1985 and subsequently demutualised in 1997.[8]SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W Laptop Keyboard Abbey National plc, trading as Abbey, was purchased by the Santander Group in 2004 for £9 billion. Santander purchasedAlliance & Leicester in mid-September 2008,[9] followed by the branches and savings business of Bradford & Bingley which had been nationalised by HM Government during the 2008 banking crisis.[10]Compaq Presario CQ71-401SA Laptop Keyboard Santander UK plc was formed by the renaming of Abbey National plc which also included the branch network and savings business of Bradford & Bingley plc on 11 January 2010. Formula One driver Lewis Hamilton unveiled the first rebranded Santander branch that day in central London. A further 300 Abbey and Bradford & Bingley branches in London and south east England were rebranded that day, with branches in the rest of the UK following by the end of the month, by which time there were 1,045 Santander branches.[11] Alliance & Leicester plc merged into the bank on 28 May 2010,[12] and was rebranded by the end of the year.[13]TOSHIBA NB100-11G Laptop Keyboard The bank retained the London headquarters of Abbey National and renamed other regional buildings under its own name.[14] The Abbey name was retained initially for Abbey International (now Santander Private Banking), and remains for Abbey for Intermediaries, a division of the bank offering Abbey branded mortgages provided by Santander UK plc.[15] The charitable divisions of Abbey, Bradford & Bingley and Alliance & Leicester were brought together to form the Santander Foundation.[16]HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard Due to the three-way merger, Santander has the unusual position of having more than one branch in many British high streets. In Northumerland Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, for example, there are three branches, which were formerly Abbey, Alliance & Leicester and Bradford & Bingley respectively. Plymouth city centre has four branches within 300 metres, two of which are adjacent to each other. In 2012, the bank began to reduce the number of duplicate branches, identifying 56 that would close. Staff in the branches selected for closure would be moved to other nearby branches.[17]DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard Santander launched the UK's first current account without fees (including unauthorised overdrafts) for its current and future mortgage customers.[18] Also, all Santander customers are not charged fees for using Santander's automated teller machines in Spain, which traditionally would incur fees for transactions in a foreign currency.[19]HP Pavilion dv6-2021el Laptop Keyboard On 4 August 2010 it was confirmed that Santander would be purchasing the ex-Williams & Glyn's Bank branded English branches of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group, as well as the National Westminster Bank branches in Scotland, after much speculation.[20] The deal collapsed on 12 October 2012.[21] APPLE A1181 Laptop Keyboard Throughout 2012 and 2013, Santander invested a keen interest in the world of Sport. They sponsor golfer Rory McIlroy, and in February 2013, announced that British Olympian Jessica Ennis would become a Brand Ambassador. [22] DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard A census is taken simultaneously in all parts of the UK every ten years.[260] The Office for National Statistics is responsible for collecting data for England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency each being responsible for censuses in their respective countries.[261] In the 2011 census the total population of the United Kingdom was 63,181,775.[262] It is the third largest in the European Union, the fifth largest in the Commonwealth and the twenty-first largest in the world. 2010 was the third successive year in which natural change contributed more to population growth than net long-term international migration.[263][263]  APPLE A1181 Laptop Keyboard Between 2001 and 2011 the population increased by an average annual rate of approximately 0.7 per cent.[262] This compares to 0.3 per cent per year in the period 1991 to 2001 and 0.2 per cent in the decade 1981 to 1991.[263] The 2011 census also confirmed that the proportion of the population aged 0–14 has nearly halved (31 per cent in 1911 compared to 18 in 2011) and the proportion of older people aged 65 and over has more than trebled (from 5 to 16 per cent).[262] It has been estimated that the number of people aged 100 or over will rise steeply to reach over 626,000 by 2080.[264]DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard England's population in 2011 was found to be 53 million.[265] It is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with 383 people resident per square kilometre in mid-2003,[266] with a particular concentration in London and the south-east.[267] The 2011 census put Scotland's population at 5.3 million,[268]Wales at 3.06 million and Northern Ireland at 1.81 million.[265] In percentage terms England has had the fastest growing population of any country of the UK in the period from 2001 to 2011, with an increase of 7.9%. SONY VAIO VGN-AW11Z Laptop Keyboard In 2009 the average total fertility rate (TFR) across the UK was 1.94 children per woman.[269] While a rising birth rate is contributing to current population growth, it remains considerably below the 'baby boom' peak of 2.95 children per woman in 1964,[270] below the replacement rate of 2.1, but higher than the 2001 record low of 1.63.[269] In 2010, Scotland had the lowest TFR at only 1.75, followed by Wales at 1.98, England at 2.00, and Northern Ireland at 2.06.[271] A government figure estimated that there are 3.6 million gays in Britain comprising 6 percent of the population.[272]SONY VAIO VGN-AW11Z Laptop Keyboard Historically, indigenous British people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groupsthat settled there before the 11th century: the Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Norse and the Normans.Welsh people could be the oldest ethnic group in the UK.[276] Recent genetic studies have shown that more than 50 percent of England's gene pool contains Germanic Y chromosomes,[277] though other recent genetic analysis indicates that "about 75 per cent of the traceable ancestors of the modern British population had arrived in the British isles by about 6,200 years ago, at the start of the British Neolithic or Stone Age", and that the British broadly share a common ancestry with the Basque people.[278][279][280] HP G56-126NR Laptop Keyboard The UK has a history of small-scale non-white immigration, with Liverpool having the oldest Black population in the country dating back to at least the 1730s,[281] and the oldest Chinese community in Europe, dating to the arrival of Chinese seamen in the 19th century.[282] In 1950 there were probably fewer than 20,000 non-white residents in Britain, almost all born overseas.[283] DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard Since 1945 substantial immigration from Africa, the Caribbean and South Asia has been a legacy of ties forged by the British Empire. Migration from new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe since 2004 has resulted in growth in these population groups but, as of 2008, the trend is reversing and many of these migrants are returning home, leaving the size of these groups unknown.[284] As of 2001, 92.1% of the population identified themselves as White, leaving 7.9%[285] of the UK population identifying themselves as mixed race or of an ethnic minority. DELL Inspiron N4050 Keyboard Ethnic diversity varies significantly across the UK. 30.4% of London's population[286] and 37.4% of Leicester's[287] was estimated to be non-white as of June 2005, whereas less than 5% of the populations of North East England, Wales and the South West were from ethnic minorities according to the 2001 census.[288] As of 2011, 26.5% of primary and 22.2% of secondary pupils at state schools in England are members of an ethnic minority.[289]TOSHIBA Satellite A75-S206 Keyboard Dell Latitude D400 Keyboard In 2009,[290] official estimates have shown that the non-white British population of England and Wales has increased by 38% from 6.6 million in 2001 to 9.1 million in 2009. The fastest growing group is the mixed-race population that doubled from 672,000 in 2001 to 986,600 in 2009. Also in the same period, a decrease of 36,000 white British people was recorded.[291]Dell Latitude D410 Keyboard The UK's de facto official language is English (British English).[1][2] It is estimated that 95% of the UK's population are monolingual English speakers.[294] 5.5% of the population are estimated to speak languages brought to the UK as a result of relatively recent immigration.[294] South Asian languages, including Bengali, Punjabi, Hindi and Gujarati, are the largest grouping and are spoken by 2.7% of the UK population.[294] According to the 2011 census, Polish has become the second largest language spoken in England and has 546,000 speakers.[295]HP 407857-001 Keyboard SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Keyboard Four Celtic languages are spoken in the UK: Welsh; Irish; Scottish Gaelic; and Cornish. The first three are recognised as regional or minority languages, subject to specific measures of protection and promotion under relevant European law. Cornish, although recognised, is not specifically protected. In the 2001 Census over a fifth (21%) of the population of Wales said they could speak Welsh,[296] an increase from the 1991 Census (18%).[297] In addition it is estimated that about 200,000 Welsh speakers live in England.[298] HP 576835-001 Keyboard In the same census in Northern Ireland 167,487 people (10.4%) stated that they had "some knowledge of Irish" (see Irish language in Northern Ireland), almost exclusively in the nationalist (mainly Catholic) population. Over 92,000 people in Scotland (just under 2% of the population) had some Gaelic language ability, including 72% of those living in the Outer Hebrides.[299] The number of schoolchildren being taught through Welsh, Scottish Gaelic and Irish is increasing.[300] Among emigrant-descended populations some Scottish Gaelic is stillspoken in Canada (principally Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island),[301] and Welsh in Patagonia, Argentina.[302] Scots, a language descended from early northern Middle English, has limited recognition alongside its regional variant, Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland, without specific commitments to protection and promotion.[303]ACER Aspire 5336 Keyboard It is compulsory for pupils to study a second language up to the age of 14 in England,[304] and up to age 16 in Scotland. French and German are the two most commonly taught second languages in England and Scotland. In Wales, all pupils up to age 16 are taught Welsh as a second language, or taught in Welsh.[305]TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Keyboard Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in what is now the United Kingdom for over 1,400 years.[306] Although a majority of citizens still identify with Christianity in many surveys, regular church attendance has fallen dramatically since the middle of the 20th century,[307] while immigration and demographic change have contributed to the growth of other faiths, most notably Islam.[308] This has led some commentators to variously describe the UK as a multi-faith,[309] secularised,[310] or post-Christiansociety.[311]DELL Inspiron 6400 Keyboard In the 2001 census 71.6% of all respondents indicated that they were Christians, with the next largest faiths (by number of adherents) being Islam (2.8%), Hinduism (1.0%), Sikhism (0.6%), Judaism (0.5%), Buddhism (0.3%) and all other religions (0.3%).[312]15% of respondents stated that they had no religion, with a further 7% not stating a religious preference.[313] A Tearfund survey in 2007 showed only one in ten Britons actually attend church weekly.[314]Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Keyboard The (Anglican) Church of England is the established church in England.[315] It retains a representation in the UK Parliament and theBritish monarch is its Supreme Governor.[316] In Scotland the Presbyterian Church of Scotland is recognised as the national church. It is not subject to state control, and the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government" upon his or her accession.[317][318] DELL Inspiron 6400 Keyboard The (Anglican) Church in Wales was disestablished in 1920 and, as the (Anglican) Church of Ireland was disestablished in 1870 before the partition of Ireland, there is no established church in Northern Ireland.[319] Although there are no UK-wide data in the 2001 census on adherence to individual Christian denominations, Ceri Peach has estimated that 62% of Christians are Anglican, 13.5% Catholic (both Roman Catholic and Eastern Rite), 6% Presbyterian, 3.4% Methodist with small numbers of other Protestant denominations such as Open Brethren, and Orthodoxchurches.[320]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Keyboard The United Kingdom has experienced successive waves of migration. The Great Famine in Ireland resulted in perhaps a million people migrating to the UK.[321] Over 120,000 Polish veterans settled in Britain after World War II, unable to return home.[322] After World War II, there was significant immigration from the colonies and newly independent former colonies, partly as a legacy of empire and partly driven by labour shortages. Many of these migrants came from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent.[323]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Keyboard One of the more recent trends in migration has been the arrival of workers from the new EU member states in Eastern Europe. In 2010, there were 7.0 million foreign-born residents in the UK, corresponding to 11.3% of the total population. Of these, 4.76 million (7.7%) were born outside the EU and 2.24 million (3.6%) were born in another EU Member State.[324] The proportion of foreign-born people in the UK remains slightly below that of many other European countries.[325] HP 9J.N0Y82.H01 Keyboard However, immigration is now contributing to a rising population[326] with arrivals and UK-born children of migrants accounting for about half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001. Analysis of Office for National Statistics (ONS) data shows that a net total of 2.3 million migrants moved to the UK in the 15 years from 1991 to 2006.[327][328]In 2008 it was predicted that migration would add 7 million to the UK population by 2031,[329] though these figures are disputed.[330] The ONS reported that net migration rose from 2009 to 2010 by 21 percent to 239,000.[331] In 2011 the net increase was 251,000: immigration was 589,000, while the number of people emigrating (for more than 12 months) was 338,000.[332][333]HP 516884-001 Keyboard 195,046 foreign nationals became British citizens in 2010,[334] compared to 54,902 in 1999.[334][335] A record 241,192 people were granted permanent settlement rights in 2010, of whom 51 per cent were from Asia and 27 per cent from Africa.[336] 25.5 per cent of babies born in England and Wales in 2011 were born to mothers born outside the UK, according to official statistics released in 2012.[337]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Keyboard Citizens of the European Union, including those of the UK, have the right to live and work in any EU member state.[338] The UK applied temporary restrictions to citizens of Romania and Bulgaria which joined the EU in January 2007.[339] Research conducted by the Migration Policy Institute for the Equality and Human Rights Commission suggests that, between May 2004 and September 2009, 1.5 million workers migrated from the new EU member states to the UK, two-thirds of them Polish, but that many subsequently returned home, SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Keyboard resulting in a net increase in the number of nationals of the new member states in the UK of some 700,000 over that period.[340][341] The late-2000s recession in the UK reduced the economic incentive for Poles to migrate to the UK,[342] with the migration becoming temporary and circular.[343] In 2009, for the first time since enlargement, more nationals of the eight central and eastern European states that had joined the EU in 2004 left the UK than arrived.[344] In 2011, citizens of the new EU member states made up 13% of the immigrants entering the country.[332]HP 516884-001 Keyboard The UK government has introduced a points-based immigration system for immigration from outside the European Economic Area to replace former schemes, including the Scottish Government's Fresh Talent Initiative.[345] In June 2010 the UK government introduced a temporary limit of 24,000 on immigration from outside the EU, aiming to discourage applications before a permanent cap was imposed in April 2011.[346] The cap has caused tension within the coalition: business secretary Vince Cable has argued that it is harming British businesses.[347]HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Keyboard Emigration was an important feature of British society in the 19th century. Between 1815 and 1930 around 11.4 million people emigrated from Britain and 7.3 million from Ireland. Estimates show that by the end of the 20th century some 300 million people of British and Irish descent were permanently settled around the globe.[348]Today, at least 5.5 million UK-born people live abroad,[349][350][351] mainly in Australia, Spain, the United States and Canada.[349][352]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Keyboard Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter, with each country having a separate education system. Whilst education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Education, the day-to-day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of local authorities.[353] Universally free of charge state education was introduced piecemeal between 1870 and 1944.[354][355] Education is now mandatory from ages five to sixteen (15 if born in late July or August). In 2011, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) rated 13-14 year old pupils in England and Wales 10th in the world for maths and 9th for science.[356] SONY V072078BS1 Keyboard The majority of children are educated in state-sector schools, a small proportion of which select on the grounds of academic ability. Two of the top ten performing schools in terms of GCSE results in 2006 were state-run grammar schools. Over half of students at the leading universities of Cambridge and Oxford had attended state schools.[357] HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Keyboard Despite a fall in actual numbers the proportion of children in England attending private schools has risen to over 7%.[358] In 2010, more than 45% of places at the University of Oxford and 40% at theUniversity of Cambridge were taken by students from private schools, even though they educate just 7% of the population.[359]The universities of England are among some of the top universities in the world; the University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford, the University College London and Imperial College London are all ranked in the global top 10 in the 2010 QS World University Rankings, with Cambridge ranked first.[360]SAMSUNG NP-N150-KA03 Keyboard Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning, with day-to-day administration and funding of state schools the responsibility of Local Authorities. Two non-departmental public bodies have key roles in Scottish education. The Scottish Qualifications Authority is responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees which are delivered at secondary schools, post-secondarycolleges of further education and other centres.[362] SAMSUNG Q320 Keyboard The Learning and Teaching Scotland provides advice, resources and staff development to education professionals.[363] Scotland first legislated for compulsory education in 1496.[364] The proportion of children in Scotland attending private schools is just over 4%, and it has been rising slowly in recent years.[365]Scottish students who attend Scottish universities pay neither tuition fees nor graduate endowment charges, as fees were abolished in 2001 and the graduate endowment scheme was abolished in 2008.[366]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Keyboard The Welsh Government has responsibility for education in Wales. A significant number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or largely in the Welsh language; lessons in Welsh are compulsory for all until the age of 16.[367] There are plans to increase the provision of Welsh-medium schools as part of the policy of creating a fully bilingual Wales. ACER Aspire 5810T Keyboard Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister of Education and the Minister for Employment and Learning, although responsibility at a local level is administered by five education and library boards covering different geographical areas. The Council for the Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment (CCEA) is the body responsible for advising the government on what should be taught in Northern Ireland's schools, monitoring standards and awarding qualifications.[368]HP G42-459TX Keyboard Healthcare in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter and each country has its own system of private and publicly funded health care, together with alternative, holistic and complementary treatments. Public healthcare is provided to all UK permanent residents and is free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. The World Health Organization, in 2000, ranked the provision of healthcare in the United Kingdom as fifteenth best in Europe and eighteenth in the world.[369][370]HP 597635-001 Keyboard Regulatory bodies are organised on a UK-wide basis such as the General Medical Council, the Nursing and Midwifery Council and non-governmental-based, such as the Royal Colleges. However, political and operational responsibility for healthcare lies with four national executives; healthcare in England is the responsibility of the UK Government; healthcare in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Northern Ireland Executive; healthcare in Scotland is the responsibility of the Scottish Government; and healthcare in Wales is the responsibility of the Welsh Assembly Government. Each National Health Service has different policies and priorities, resulting in contrasts.[371][372]TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01 Keyboard Since 1979 expenditure on healthcare has been increased significantly to bring it closer to the European Union average.[373]The UK spends around 8.4 per cent of its gross domestic product on healthcare, which is 0.5 percentage points below theOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development average and about one percentage point below the average of the European Union.[374]SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Keyboard 'British literature' refers to literature associated with the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. Most British literature is in the English language. In 2005, some 206,000 books were published in the United Kingdom and in 2006 it was thelargest publisher of books in the world.[377]Compaq 6720s Keyboard The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest dramatist of all time,[378][379][380] and his contemporaries Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson have also been held in continuous high esteem. More recently the playwrights Alan Ayckbourn, Harold Pinter, Michael Frayn, Tom Stoppard and David Edgar have combined elements of surrealism, realism and radicalism. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard Notable pre-modern and early-modern English writers include Geoffrey Chaucer (14th century), Thomas Malory (15th century), Sir Thomas More (16th century), John Bunyan (17th century) and John Milton (17th century). In the 18th century Daniel Defoe (author ofRobinson Crusoe) and Samuel Richardson were pioneers of the modern novel. In the 19th century there followed further innovation byJane Austen, the gothic novelist Mary Shelley, children's writer Lewis Carroll, the Brontë sisters, HP 640436-001 Keyboard the social campaigner Charles Dickens, the naturalist Thomas Hardy, the realist George Eliot, the visionary poet William Blake and romantic poet William Wordsworth. 20th century English writers include: science-fiction novelist H. G. Wells; the writers of children's classics Rudyard Kipling, A. A. Milne (the creator of Winnie-the-Pooh), HP 597635-001 Keyboard Roald Dahl and Enid Blyton; the controversial D. H. Lawrence; modernistVirginia Woolf; the satirist Evelyn Waugh; the prophetic novelist George Orwell; the popular novelists W. Somerset Maugham andGraham Greene; the crime writer Agatha Christie (the best-selling novelist of all time);[381] Ian Fleming (the creator of James Bond); the poets T. S. Eliot, Philip Larkin and Ted Hughes; and the fantasy writers J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis and J. K. Rowling. SONY VGN-FE550G Keyboard Scotland's contributions include the detective writer Arthur Conan Doyle (the creator of Sherlock Holmes), romantic literature bySir Walter Scott, children's writer J. M. Barrie, the epic adventures of Robert Louis Stevenson and the celebrated poet Robert Burns. More recently the modernist and nationalist Hugh MacDiarmid and Neil M. Gunn contributed to the Scottish Renaissance. A more grim outlook is found in Ian Rankin's stories and the psychological horror-comedy of Iain Banks. Scotland's capital, Edinburgh, was UNESCO's first worldwide City of Literature.[382]HP 605344-001 Keyboard Britain's oldest known poem, Y Gododdin, was composed in Yr Hen Ogledd (The Old North), most likely in the late 6th century. It was written in Cumbric or Old Welsh and contains the earliest known reference to King Arthur.[383] From around the seventh century, the connection between Wales and the Old North was lost, and the focus of Welsh-language culture shifted to Wales, where Arthurian legend was further developed by Geoffrey of Monmouth.[384] DELL INSPIRON 1464 Keyboard Wales's most celebrated medieval poet, Dafydd ap Gwilym (fl 1320–1370), composed poetry on themes including nature, religion and especially love. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest European poets of his age.[385] Until the late 19th century the majority of Welsh literature was in Welsh and much of the prose was religious in character. Daniel Owen is credited as the first Welsh-language novelist, publishing Rhys Lewis in 1885. The best-known of theAnglo-HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Keyboard Welsh poets are both Thomases. Dylan Thomas became famous on both sides of the Atlantic in the mid-20th century. He is remembered for his poetry – his "Do not go gentle into that good night; Rage, rage against the dying of the light." is one of the most quoted couplets of English language verse – and for his 'play for voices', Under Milk Wood. Influential Church in Wales 'poet-priest' and Welsh nationalist, R. S. Thomas, was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1996. Leading Welsh novelists of the twentieth century includeRichard Llewellyn and Kate Roberts.[386][387]HP 516884-001 Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Keyboard Authors of other nationalities, particularly from Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland and the United States, have lived and worked in the UK. Significant examples through the centuries include Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Bram Stoker, George Bernard Shaw, Joseph Conrad, T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound and more recently British authors born abroad such as Kazuo Ishiguro and Sir Salman Rushdie.[388][389]HP G42-164LA Keyboard Various styles of music are popular in the UK from the indigenous folk music of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland toheavy metal. Notable composers of classical music from the United Kingdom and the countries that preceded it include William Byrd,Henry Purcell, Sir Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, Sir Arthur Sullivan (most famous for working with librettist Sir W.S. Gilbert), DELL Latitude E5410 Keyboard Ralph Vaughan Williams and Benjamin Britten, pioneer of modern British opera. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies is one of the foremost living composers and current Master of the Queen's Music. The UK is also home to world-renowned symphonic orchestras and choruses such as the BBC Symphony Orchestra and the London Symphony Chorus. Notable conductors include Sir Simon Rattle, John Barbirolli andSir Malcolm Sargent. Some of the notable film score composers include John Barry, DELL Latitude D531 Keyboard Clint Mansell, Mike Oldfield, John Powell, Craig Armstrong, David Arnold, John Murphy, Monty Norman and Harry Gregson-Williams. George Frideric Handel, although born German, was anaturalised British citizen[393] and some of his best works, such as Messiah, were written in the English language.[394] Andrew Lloyd Webber has achieved enormous worldwide commercial success and is a prolific composer of musical theatre, works which have dominated London's West End for a number of years and have travelled to Broadway in New York.[395]lENOVO IdeaPad G550 Keyboard The Beatles have international sales of over one billion units and are the biggest-selling and most influential band in the history of popular music.[390][391][392][396] Other prominent British contributors to have influenced popular music over the last 50 years include; The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Queen, the Bee Gees, and Elton John, all of whom have world wide record sales of 200 million or more.[397][398][399][400][401][402] The Brit Awards are the BPI's annual music awards, and some of the British recipients of the Outstanding Contribution to Music award include; The Who, David Bowie, Eric Clapton, Rod Stewart and The Police.[403] More recent UK music acts that have had international success include Coldplay, Radiohead, Oasis, Muse, Spice Girlsand Adele.[404]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Keyboard A number of UK cities are known for their music. Acts from Liverpool have had more UK chart number one hit singles per capita (54) than any other city worldwide.[405] Glasgow's contribution to music was recognised in 2008 when it was named a UNESCO City of Music, one of only three cities in the world to have this honour.[406]HP 605344-001 Keyboard The history of British visual art forms part of western art history. Major British artists include: the Romantics William Blake, John Constable, Samuel Palmer and J.M.W. Turner; the portrait painters Sir Joshua Reynolds and Lucian Freud; the landscape artists Thomas Gainsborough and L. S. Lowry; the pioneer of the Arts and Crafts Movement William Morris; the figurative painter Francis Bacon; the Pop artists Peter Blake, Richard Hamilton and David Hockney; HP Pavilion DV7-2200 Keyboard the collaborative duo Gilbert and George; the abstract artist Howard Hodgkin; and the sculptors Antony Gormley, Anish Kapoor and Henry Moore. During the late 1980s and 1990s the Saatchi Gallery in London helped to bring to public attention a group of multi-genre artists who would become known as the "Young British Artists": Damien Hirst, Chris Ofili, Rachel Whiteread, Tracey Emin, Mark Wallinger, Steve McQueen, Sam Taylor-Wood and the Chapman Brothers are among the better-known members of this loosely affiliated movement. HP G62-355DX Keyboard The Royal Academy in London is a key organisation for the promotion of the visual arts in the United Kingdom. Major schools of art in the UK include: the six-school University of the Arts London, which includes the Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design andChelsea College of Art and Design; Goldsmiths, University of London; the Slade School of Fine Art (part of University College London); the Glasgow School of Art; the Royal College of Art; and The Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art (part of the University of Oxford). The Courtauld Institute of Art is a leading centre for the teaching of the history of art. Important art galleries in the United Kingdom include the National Gallery, National Portrait Gallery, Tate Britain and Tate Modern (the most-visited modern art gallery in the world, with around 4.7 million visitors per year).[407]HP Mini 311-1037NR Keyboard The United Kingdom has had a considerable influence on the history of the cinema. The British directors Alfred Hitchcock and David Lean are among the most critically acclaimed of all-time,[408] with other important directors including Charlie Chaplin,[409] Michael Powell,[410] Carol Reed[411] and Ridley Scott.[412] Many British actors have achieved international fame and critical success, including: Julie Andrews,[413] Richard Burton,[414] Michael Caine,[415] Charlie Chaplin,[416] Sean Connery,[417] Vivien Leigh,[418]David Niven,[419] Laurence Olivier,[420] TOSHIBA Portege M200 Keyboard Peter Sellers[421] and Kate Winslet.[422] Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in the United Kingdom, including the two highest-grossing film franchises (Harry Potter and James Bond).[423] Ealing Studios has a claim to being the oldest continuously working film studio in the world.[424]ACER Aspire 5742Z Keyboard Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry has often been characterised by a debate about its identity and the level of American and European influence. Many British films are co-productions with American producers, often using both British and American actors, and British actors feature regularly in Hollywood films. Many successful Hollywood films have been based on British people, stories or events, including TitanicThe Lord of the RingsPirates of the Caribbean, and the 'English Cycle' of Disney animated films which include, Alice in WonderlandPeter Pan and Robin Hood.[425]HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Keyboard In 2009 British films grossed around $2 billion worldwide and achieved a market share of around 7% globally and 17% in the United Kingdom.[426] UK box-office takings totalled £944 million in 2009, with around 173 million admissions.[426] The British Film Institute has produced a poll ranking of what it considers to be the 100 greatest British films of all time, the BFI Top 100 British films.[427] The annualBritish Academy Film Awards, hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, are the British equivalent of the Oscars.[428]SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Keyboard The BBC, founded in 1922, is the UK's publicly funded radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. It operates numerous television and radio stations in the UK and abroad and its domestic services are funded by the television licence.[429][430] Other major players in the UK media include ITV plc, which operates 11 of the 15 regional television broadcasters that make up the ITV Network,[431] and News Corporation, which owns a number of national newspapers through News International such as the most popular tabloid The Sun and the longest-established daily "broadsheet" The Times,[432FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard ] as well as holding a large stake in satellite broadcaster British Sky Broadcasting.[433] London dominates the media sector in the UK: national newspapers and television and radio are largely based there, although Manchester is also a significant national media centre. Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Cardiff, are important centres of newspaper and broadcasting production in Scotland and Wales respectively.[434] The UK publishing sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover of around £20 billion and employs around 167,000 people.[435]ACER Aspire 5810T Keyboard In 2009 it was estimated that individuals viewed a mean of 3.75 hours of television per day and 2.81 hours of radio. In that year the main BBC public service broadcasting channels accounted for an estimated 28.4% of all television viewing; the three main independent channels accounted for 29.5% and the increasingly important other satellite and digital channels for the remaining 42.1%.[436] Sales of newspapers have fallen since the 1970s and in 2009 42% of people reported reading a daily national newspaper.[437] In 2010 82.5% of the UK population were Internet users, the highest proportion amongst the 20 countries with the largest total number of users in that year.[438]HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Keyboard Philosophy Main article: British philosophy The United Kingdom is famous for the tradition of 'British Empiricism', a branch of the philosophy of knowledge that states that only knowledge verified by experience is valid, and 'Scottish Philosophy', sometimes referred to as the 'Scottish School of Common Sense'.[439] The most famous philosophers of British Empiricism are John Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume; while Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid and William Hamilton were major exponents of the Scottish "common sense" school. DELL NSK-D9001 Keyboard Two Britons are

also notable for a theory of moral philosophy utilitarianism, first used by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill in his short work Utilitarianism.[440][441] Other eminent philosophers from the UK and the unions and countries that preceded it include Duns Scotus, John Lilburne, Mary Wollstonecraft, Sir Francis Bacon, Adam Smith, Thomas Hobbes, William of Ockham, Bertrand Russell and A.J. "Freddie" Ayer. Foreign-born philosophers who settled in the UK include Isaiah Berlin, Karl Marx, Karl Popper and Ludwig Wittgenstein. DELL XPS 15 L502X Keyboard Major sports, including association football, rugby league, rugby union, rowing, boxing, badminton, cricket, tennis, dartsand golf, originated or were substantially developed in the United Kingdom and the states that preceded it. In most international competitions, separate teams represent England, Scotland and Wales. Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland usually field a single team representing all of Ireland, with notable exceptions being association football and theCommonwealth Games. In sporting contexts, the English, Scottish, TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Keyboard Welsh and Northern Irish teams are often referred to collectively as the Home Nations. There are some sports in which a single team represents the whole of United Kingdom, including the Olympics, where the UK is represented by the Great Britain team. The 1908, 1948 Olympic Games and 2012 were held in London, making it the first city to play host for a third time. ACER Aspire 7741ZG Keyboard A 2003 poll found that football is the most popular sport in the United Kingdom.[443] Each of the Home Nations has its own football association, national team and league system. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland compete as separate countries in international competitions.[444] A Great Britain Olympic football team was assembled for the first time to compete in the London 2012 Olympic Games. However, the Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish football associations declined to participate, fearing that it would undermine their independent status – a fear confirmed by FIFA president Sepp Blatter.[445]DELL AEFM8U00310 Keyboard Cricket was invented in England. The England cricket team, controlled by the England and Wales Cricket Board,[446] is the only national team in the UK with Test status. Team members are drawn from the main county sides, and include both English and Welsh players. Cricket is distinct from football and rugby where Wales and England field separate national teams, HP 605344-001 Keyboard although Wales had fielded its own team in the past. Irish and Scottish players have played for England because neither Scotland norIreland have Test status and have only recently started to play in One Day Internationals.[447][448] Scotland, England (and Wales), and Ireland (including Northern Ireland) have competed at the Cricket World Cup, with England reaching the finals on three occasions. There is a professional league championship in which clubs representing 17 English counties and 1 Welsh county compete.[449]HP AEUT3U00140 Keyboard Rugby league is a popular sport in some regions of the UK. It originated in Huddersfield and is generally played in Northern England.[450] A single 'Great Britain Lions' team had competed in the Rugby League World Cup and Test match games, but this changed in 2008 when England, Scotland and Ireland competed as separate nations.[451] Great Britain is still being retained as the full national team for Ashes tours against Australia, New Zealand and France. Super League is the highest level of professional rugby league in the UK and Europe. It consists of 11 teams from Northern England, 1 from London, 1 from Wales and 1 from France. HP  keyboard In rugby union, England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, France and Italy compete in the Six Nations Championship; the premier international tournament in the northern hemisphere. Sport governing bodies in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland organise and regulate the game separately.[452] If any of the British teams or the Irish team beat the other three in a tournament, then it is awarded the Triple Crown.[453]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Keyboard Thoroughbred racing, which originated under Charles II of England as the "sport of kings", is popular throughout the UK with world-famous races including the Grand National, the Epsom Derby, Royal Ascot and the Cheltenham National Hunt Festival(including the Cheltenham Gold Cup). The UK has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing. The UK is closely associated with motorsport. Many teams and drivers in Formula One (F1) are based in the UK, and drivers from Britain have won more world titles than any other country. The UK hosted the very first F1 Grand Prix in 1950 at Silverstone, the current location of the British Grand Prix held each year in July. The country also hosts legs of the World Rally Championship and has its own touring car racing championship, the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC).[454]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard Golf is the sixth most popular sport, by participation, in the UK. Although The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews in Scotland is the sport's home course,[455] the world's oldest golf course is actually Musselburgh Links' Old Golf Course.[456]HP G42-164LA Keyboard Snooker is one of the UK's popular sporting exports, with the world championships held annually in Sheffield.[457] The modern game of lawn tennis first originated in the city of Birmingham between 1859 and 1865.[458] The Championships, Wimbledon are international tennis events held in Wimbledon in south London every summer and are regarded as the most prestigious event of the global tennis calendar. In Northern Ireland Gaelic football and hurling are popular team sports, both in terms of participation and spectating, and Irish expatriates in the UK and the US also play them.[459] Shinty (or camanachd) is popular in the Scottish Highlands.[460]ACER NSK-H3V1D Keyboard The flag of the United Kingdom is the Union Flag (also referred to as the Union Jack). It was created in 1606 by the superimposition of the Flag of England on the Flag of Scotland and updated in 1801 with the addition of Saint Patrick's Flag. Wales is not represented in the Union Flag, as Wales had been conquered and annexed to England prior to the formation of the United Kingdom. The possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Wales has not been completely ruled out.[461] The national anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the King", with "King" replaced with "Queen" in the lyrics whenever the monarch is a woman. HP 550 Keyboard Britannia is a national personification of the United Kingdom, originating from Roman Britain.[462] Britannia is symbolised as a young woman with brown or golden hair, wearing a Corinthian helmet and white robes. She holds Poseidon's three-pronged trident and a shield, bearing the Union Flag. Sometimes she is depicted as riding on the back of a lion. Since the height of the British Empire in the late 19th century, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Keyboard Britannia has often been associated with British maritime dominance, as in the patriotic song "Rule, Britannia!". Up until 2008, the lion symbol was depicted behind Britannia on the British fifty pence coin and on the back of theBritish ten pence coin. It is also used as a symbol on the non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. The bulldog is sometimes used as a symbol of the United Kingdom and has been associated with Winston Churchill's defiance of Nazi Germany.[463]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Keyboard HP G42-164LA Keyboard

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