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22 janvier 2014 3 22 /01 /janvier /2014 05:13

After a 35-minute battle, Guerriere had been dis-masted and captured and was later burned. The Constitution earned the nickname "Old Ironsides" following this battle as many of the British cannonballs were seen to bounce off her hull. Hull returned to Boston with news of this significant victory. On October 25, the United States, commanded by Captain Decatur, captured the British frigate HMS Macedonian, which he then carried back to port.[ COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

At the close of the month, the Constitution sailed south, now under the command of Captain William Bainbridge. On December 29, off Bahia, Brazil, she met the British frigateHMS Java. After a battle lasting three hours, Java struck her colours and was burned after being judged unsalvageable. TheConstitution, however, was relatively undamaged in the battle.[ HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

The successes gained by the three big American frigates forced Britain to construct five 40-gun, 24-pounder heavy frigates[78] and two "spar-decked" frigates (the 60-gun HMS Leander and HMS Newcastle[79]) and to razee three old 74-gun ships of the line to convert them to heavy frigates.[80] The Royal Navy acknowledged that there were factors other than greater size and heavier guns. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The United States Navy's sloops and brigs had also won several victories over Royal Navy vessels of approximately equal strength. While the American ships had experienced and well-drilled volunteer crews, the enormous size of the overstretched Royal Navy meant that many ships were shorthanded and the average quality of crews suffered. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The constant sea duties of those serving in North America interfered with their training and exercises.[81]

The capture of the three British frigates stimulated the British to greater exertions. More vessels were deployed on the American seaboard and the blockade tightened. On June 1, 1813, SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

off Boston Harbor, the frigate Chesapeake, commanded by Captain James Lawrence, was captured by the British frigate HMS Shannonunder Captain Sir Philip Broke. Lawrence was mortally wounded and famously cried out, "Don't give up the ship! Hold on, men!"[81] The two frigates were of near-identical size. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

Chesapeake 's crew was larger but most had not served or trained together. British citizens reacted with celebration and relief that the run of American victories had ended.[82] Notably, this action was by ratio one of the bloodiest contests recorded during this age of sail, with more dead and wounded than HMS Victory suffered in four hours of combat at Trafalgar.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Captain Lawrence was killed and Captain Broke was so badly wounded that he never again held a sea command.

In January 1813, the American frigate Essex, under the command of Captain David Porter, sailed into the Pacific to harass British shipping. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

Many British whaling ships carried letters of marque allowing them to prey on American whalers, and they nearly destroyed the industry. The Essex challenged this practice. She inflicted considerable damage on British interests before she and her tender, Essex Junior ( armed with twenty guns) were captured off Valparaiso, HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

Chile by the British frigateHMS Phoebe and the sloop HMS Cherub on March 28, 1814.[84]

The British 6th-rate Cruizer-class brig-sloops did not fare well against the American ship-rigged sloops of war. The Hornetand Wasp constructed before the war were notably powerful vessels, and the Frolic class built during the war even more so (although Frolic was trapped and captured by a British frigate and a schooner). HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

The British brig-rigged sloops tended to suffer fire to their rigging more frequently than the American ship-rigged sloops. In addition, the ship-rigged sloops could back their sails in action, giving them another advantage in manoeuvring.[85]

Following their earlier losses, the British Admiralty instituted a new policy that the three American heavy frigates should not be engaged except by a ship of the line or smaller vessels in squadron strength. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

An example of this was the capture of the President by a squadron of four British frigates in January 1815. But, a month later, the Constitution engaged and captured two smaller British warships, HMS Cyane and HMS Levant, sailing in company.[86]

Success in single ship battles raised American morale after the repeated failed invasion attempts in Upper and Lower Canada. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

However these single ship victories had no military effect on the war at sea as they did not alter the balance of naval power, impede British supplies and reinforcements, or even raise insurance rates for British trade.

The operations of American privateers proved a more significant threat to British trade than the U.S. Navy. HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

They operated throughout the Atlantic and continued until the close of the war, most notably from ports such as Baltimore. American privateers reported taking 1300 British merchant vessels, compared to 254 taken by the U.S. Navy.although the insurer Lloyd's of London reported that only 1,175 British ships were taken, 373 of which were recaptured, for a total loss of 802.[91] SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

However the British were able to limit privateering losses by the strict enforcement of convoy by the Royal Navy and by capturing 278 American privateers. Due to the massive size of the British merchant fleet, American captures only affected 7.5% of the British merchant fleet, resulting no supply shortages or lack of reinforcements for British forces in North America.[92] IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

Due to the large size of their navy, the British did not rely as much on privateering. The majority of the 1,407 captured American merchant ships were taken by the Royal Navy. The war was the last time the British allowed privateering, since the practice was coming to be seen as politically inexpedient and of diminishing value in maintaining its naval supremacy. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

However privateering remained popular in British colonies. It was the last hurrah for privateers Bermudawho vigorously returned to the practice after experience in previous wars.[93] The nimble Bermuda sloops captured 298 American ships. Privateer schooners based in British North America, especially from Nova Scotia took 250 American ships and proved especially effective in crippling American coastal trade and capturing American ships closer to shore than the Royal Navy cruisers. SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

The small British North American squadron had difficulty at the beginning of the war in blockading the entire U.S. coast, faced by the need to convoy vessels against American privateers. However as additional ships were sent to North America in 1813, the Royal Navy was able to tighten the blockade and extend it, first to the coast south of Narragansett by November 1813 and to the entire American coast on May 31, 1814. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

The British government, having need of American foodstuffs for its army in Spain, benefited from the willingness of the New Englanders to trade with them, so no blockade of New England was at first attempted. The Delaware River and Chesapeake Baywere declared in a state of blockade on December 26, 1812. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

Illicit trade was carried on by collusive captures arranged between American traders and British officers. American ships were fraudulently transferred to neutral flags. Eventually, the U.S. government was driven to issue orders to stop illicit trading; this put only a further strain on the commerce of the country. Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

The overpowering strength of the British fleet enabled it to occupy the Chesapeake and to attack and destroy numerous docks and harbours.

The blockade of American ports later tightened to the extent that most American merchant ships and naval vessels were confined to port. The American frigates United States and Macedonian ended the war blockaded and hulked in New London, Connecticut.ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

Some merchant ships were based in Europe or Asia and continued operations. Others, mainly from New England, were issued licences to trade by Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren, commander in chief on the American station in 1813. This allowed Wellington's army in Spain to receive American goods and to maintain the New Englanders' opposition to the war. IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

The blockade nevertheless resulted in American exports decreasing from $130 million in 1807 to $7 million in 1814. Most of these were food exports that ironically went to supply their enemies in Britain or British colonies.[95]

As the Royal Navy base that supervised the blockade, Halifax profited greatly during the war. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

From that base British privateers seized many French and American ships and sold their prizes in Halifax.

The blockading British fleet in Chesapeake Bay, based at Bermuda, received increasing numbers of enslaved black Americans during 1813. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

They were welcomed by Royal Navy officers holding anti-slavery sentiments and, by British government order, were treated as free persons when reaching British hands. In 1814, the British government changed from a policy of passively accepting refugees to actively encouraging slaves to emigrate. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

It was imperfectly implemented by Admiral Alexander Cochrane's proclamation of April 2, 1814, which offered freedom to slaves reaching British lines or ships. It was similar to the Crown's offers of freedom to slaves during the Revolutionary War.

Thousands of enslaved Americans went over to the British with their families during the two years from March 1813, a migration known as the Black Refugees. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

From May 1814, younger men among the volunteers were recruited into a new Corps of Colonial Marines, initially based on occupied Tangier Island in the Chesapeake. The Corps' companies joined several companies of Royal Marines in September 1814 to become part of the 3rd Battalion Royal and Colonial Marines. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

Earning praise from commanders, the freedmen fought for Britain throughout the Atlantic campaign, including the Battle of Bladensburg and the attacks on Washington, D.C. andBaltimore. Following garrison service in the new Royal Naval Dockyard at Bermuda after the war, the men of the Corps were settled in Trinidad in August 1816. ASUS F80S CPU Fan

Seven hundred of these ex-marines were granted land and organized in villages according to their military companies, in the area since known as The Company Villages.[96] A small number of other freed Americans were recruited into the Second West India regiment  Of those men who did not enlist, the British settled most with their families in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

In 1815, the British resettled 200 black American slaves from the Gulf of Mexico area to Trinidad.

Maine, then part of Massachusetts, was a base for smuggling and illegal trade between the U.S. and the British. IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

Until 1813 the region was generally quiet except for privateer actions near the coast. In September 1813, there was a notable naval action when the U.S. Navy's brig Enterprise fought and captured the Royal Navy brig Boxer off Pemaquid Point.[97] The first British assault came in July 1814, when Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy took Moose Island (Eastport, Maine) IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

without a shot, with the entire American garrison of Fort Sullivan surrendering.[98] Next, from his base in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in September 1814, Sir John Coape Sherbrooke led 3,000 British troops in the "Penobscot Expedition". In 26 days, he raided and looted Hampden, Bangor, and Machias, destroying or capturing 17 American ships. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

He won the Battle of Hampden (losing two killed while the Americans lost one killed). Retreating American forces were forced to destroy the frigate Adams. The British occupied the town of Castine and most of eastern Maine for the rest of the war. The Treaty of Ghent returned this territory to the United States. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

The British left in April 1815, at which time they took ₤10,750 pounds obtained from tariff duties at Castine. This money, called the "Castine Fund", was used to establish Dalhousie University, in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

The strategic location of the Chesapeake Bay near America's capital made it a prime target for the British. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

Starting in March 1813, a squadron under Rear Admiral George Cockburn started a blockade of the bay and raided towns along the bay fromNorfolk to Havre de Grace.

On July 4, 1813, Commodore Joshua Barney, a Revolutionary War naval hero, convinced the Navy Department to build theChesapeake Bay Flotilla, a squadron of twenty barges to defend the Chesapeake Bay. HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

Launched in April 1814, the squadron was quickly cornered in the Patuxent River, and while successful in harassing the Royal Navy, they were powerless to stop the British campaign that ultimately led to the "Burning of Washington". This expedition, led by Cockburn and General Robert Ross, IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

was carried out between August 19 and 29, 1814, as the result of the hardened British policy of 1814 (although British and American commissioners had convened peace negotiations at Ghent in June of that year). As part of this, Admiral Warren had been replaced as commander in chief by Admiral Alexander Cochrane, with reinforcements and orders to coerce the Americans into a favourable peace. ASUS A8H CPU Fan

Governor-in-chief of British North America Sir George Prevost had written to the Admirals in Bermuda, calling for retaliation for the American sacking of York (now Toronto). A force of 2,500 soldiers under General Ross had just arrived in Bermuda aboard HMS Royal Oak, three frigates, three sloops and ten other vessels. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

Released from the Peninsular War by British victory, the British intended to use them for diversionary raids along the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. In response to Prevost's request, they decided to employ this force, together with the naval and military units already on the station, to strike at Washington, D.C. HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

On August 24, U.S. Secretary of War John Armstrong insisted that the British would attack Baltimore rather than Washington, even when the British army was obviously on its way to the capital. The inexperienced American militia, which had congregated at Bladensburg, Maryland, to protect the capital, was routed in the Battle of Bladensburg, opening the route to Washington.APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

While Dolley Madison saved valuables from the Presidential Mansion, President James Madison was forced to flee to Virginia.[100]

The British commanders ate the supper that had been prepared for the President before they burned the Presidential Mansion; American morale was reduced to an all-time low. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

The British viewed their actions as retaliation for destructive American raids into Canada, most notably the Americans' burning of York (now Toronto) in 1813. Later that same evening, a furious storm swept into Washington, D.C., sending one or more tornadoes into the city that caused more damage but finally extinguished the fires with torrential rains.[ HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The naval yards were set afire at the direction of U.S. officials to prevent the capture of naval ships and supplies.[100] The British left Washington, D.C. as soon as the storm subsided. Having destroyed Washington's public buildings, including the President's Mansion and the Treasury, the British army next moved to capture Baltimore, a busy port and a key base for American privateers. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

The subsequent Battle of Baltimore began with the British landing at North Point, where they were met by American militia. An exchange of fire began, with casualties on both sides. General Ross was killed by an American sniper as he attempted to rally his troops. The sniper himself was killed moments later, and the British withdrew. SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

The British also attempted to attack Baltimore by sea on September 13 but were unable to reduce Fort McHenry, at the entrance to Baltimore Harbor.

The Battle of Fort McHenry was no battle at all. British guns had range on American cannon, and stood off out of U.S. range, bombarding the fort, which returned no fire. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

Their plan was to coordinate with a land force, but from that distance coordination proved impossible, so the British called off the attack and left. All the lights were extinguished in Baltimore the night of the attack, and the fort was bombarded for 25 hours. The only light was given off by the exploding shells over Fort McHenry, illuminating the flag that was still flying over the fort. SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

The defence of the fort inspired the American lawyer Francis Scott Key to write a poem that would eventually supply the lyrics to "The Star-Spangled Banner".

None of the actions of the Chesapeake campaign were deemed worthy of a British army medal clasp (Fort Detroit, Chateauguay, Chrysler's Farm being the three clasps for the war), but participants in the attack in Washington were paid prize money by the War Office.[ HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

In addition, prize-money arising from the booty captured by the expedition in the River Patuxent, at Fort Washington, and Alexandria, between August 22 and 29, 1814 was paid in November 1817. Three companies of Corps of Colonial Marines were among the recipients. A first-class share was worth ₤183 9s 1¾d; a sixth-class share, which was what probably an ordinary marine would receive, was worth ₤1 9s 3½d.[ HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

A second and final payment came in May 1819. A first-class share was worth ₤42 13s 10¾d; a sixth-class share was worth 9s 1¾d.

American leaders assumed that Canada could be easily overrun. Former President Jefferson optimistically referred to the conquest of Canada as "a matter of marching".[SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

Many Loyalist Americans had migrated to Upper Canada after the Revolutionary War. There was also significant non-Loyalist American immigration to the area due to the offer of land grants to immigrants, and the U.S. assumed the latter would favour the American cause, but they did not. In prewar Upper Canada, SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

General Prevost was in the unusual position of having to purchase many provisions for his troops from the American side. This peculiar trade persisted throughout the war in spite of an abortive attempt by the U.S. government to curtail it. In Lower Canada, which was much more populous, support for Britain came from the English elite with strong loyalty to the Empire, Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

and from the Canadien elite, who feared American conquest would destroy the old order by introducing Protestantism, Anglicization, republican democracy, and commercial capitalism; and weakening the Catholic Church. The Canadien inhabitants feared the loss of a shrinking area of good lands to potential American immigrants.[105] Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

In 1812–13, British military experience prevailed over inexperienced American commanders. Geography dictated that operations would take place in the west: principally around Lake Erie, near the Niagara River between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, and near theSaint Lawrence River area and Lake Champlain. ASUS G2P CPU Fan

This was the focus of the three-pronged attacks by the Americans in 1812. Although cutting the St. Lawrence River through the capture of Montreal and Quebec would have made Britain's hold in North America unsustainable, the United States began operations first in the western frontier because of the general popularity there of a war with the British, who had sold arms to the Native Americans opposing the settlers. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

The British scored an important early success when their detachment at St. Joseph Island, on Lake Huron, learned of the declaration of war before the nearby American garrison at the important trading post at Mackinac Island in Michigan. A scratch force landed on the island on July 17, 1812 and mounted a gun overlooking Fort Mackinac. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

After the British fired one shot from their gun, the Americans, taken by surprise, surrendered. This early victory encouraged the natives, and large numbers moved to help the British at Amherstburg.The island totally controlled access to the Old Northwest, giving the British nominal control of this area, and, more vitally,a monopoly on the fur trade. HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

An American army under the command of William Hull invaded Canada on July 12, with his forces chiefly composed of untrained and ill-disciplined militiamen.[106] Once on Canadian soil, Hull issued a proclamation ordering all British subjects to surrender, or "the horrors, and calamities of war will stalk before you".[Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

He also threatened to kill any British prisoner caught fighting alongside a native. The proclamation helped stiffen resistance to the American attacks. Hull's army was too weak in artillery and badly supplied to achieve its objectives, and had to fight just to maintain its own lines of communication.[ Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

The senior British officer in Upper Canada, Major General Isaac Brock, felt that he should take bold measures to calm the settler population in Canada, and to convince the aboriginals who were needed to defend the region that Britain was strong.[106] He moved rapidly to Amherstburg near the western end of Lake Erie with reinforcements and immediately decided toattack Detroit.HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Hull, fearing that the British possessed superior numbers and that the Indians attached to Brock's force would commit massacres if fighting began, surrendered Detroit without a fight on August 16. Knowing of British-instigated indigenous attacks on other locations, Hull ordered the evacuation of the inhabitants of Fort Dearborn (Chicago) to Fort Wayne. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

After initially being granted safe passage, the inhabitants (soldiers and civilians) were attacked by Potowatomis on August 15 after travelling only 2 miles (3.2 km) in what is known as the Battle of Fort Dearborn.[107] The fort was subsequently burned.

Brock promptly transferred himself to the eastern end of Lake Erie, where American General Stephen Van Rensselaer was attempting a second invasion. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

An armistice (arranged by Prevost in the hope the British renunciation of the Orders in Council to which the United States objected might lead to peace) prevented Brock from invading American territory. When the armistice ended, the Americans attempted an attack across the Niagara River on October 13, but suffered a crushing defeat at Queenston Heights. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

Brock was killed during the battle. While the professionalism of the American forces would improve by the war's end, British leadership suffered after Brock's death. A final attempt in 1812 by American General Henry Dearborn to advance north from Lake Champlain failed when his militia refused to advance beyond American territory. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

In contrast to the American militia, the Canadian militia performed well. French Canadians, who found the anti-Catholic stance of most of the United States troublesome, and United Empire Loyalists, who had fought for the Crown during the American Revolutionary War, strongly opposed the American invasion. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

However, many in Upper Canada were recent settlers from the United States who had no obvious loyalties to the Crown. Nevertheless, while there were some who sympathized with the invaders, the American forces found strong opposition from men loyal to the Empire.

After Hull's surrender of Detroit, General William Henry Harrison was given command of the U.S. Army of the Northwest. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

He set out to retake the city, which was now defended by Colonel Henry Procter in conjunction with Tecumseh. A detachment of Harrison's army was defeated at Frenchtown along the River Raisin on January 22, 1813. Procter left the prisoners with an inadequate guard, Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

who could not prevent some of his North American aboriginal allies from attacking and killing perhaps as many as sixty Americans, many of whom were Kentucky militiamen.[109] The incident became known as the River Raisin Massacre. The defeat ended Harrison's campaign against Detroit, Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

and the phrase "Remember the River Raisin!" became a rallying cry for the Americans.

In May 1813, Procter and Tecumseh set siege to Fort Meigs in northern Ohio. American reinforcements arriving during the siege were defeated by the natives, but the fort held out. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

The Indians eventually began to disperse, forcing Procter and Tecumseh to return to Canada. A second offensive against Fort Meigs also failed in July. In an attempt to improve Indian morale, Procter and Tecumseh attempted to storm Fort Stephenson, a small American post on the Sandusky River, only to be repulsed with serious losses, marking the end of the Ohio campaign.Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

On Lake Erie, American commander Captain Oliver Hazard Perry fought the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813. His decisive victory ensured American control of the lake, improved American morale after a series of defeats, and compelled the British to fall back from Detroit. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

This paved the way for General Harrison to launch another invasion of Upper Canada, which culminated in the U.S. victory at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813, in which Tecumseh was killed. Tecumseh's death effectively ended the North American indigenous alliance with the British in the Detroit region. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

American control of Lake Erie meant the British could no longer provide essential military supplies to their aboriginal allies, who therefore dropped out of the war. The Americans controlled the area during the conflict.

Because of the difficulties of land communications, control of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River corridor was crucial. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

When the war began, the British already had a small squadron of warships on Lake Ontario and had the initial advantage. To redress the situation, the Americans established a Navy yard at Sackett's Harbor, New York. Commodore Isaac Chauncey took charge of the large number of sailors and shipwrights sent there from New York; Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

they completed the second warship built there in a mere 45 days. Ultimately, 3,000 men worked at the shipyard, building eleven warships and many smaller boats and transports. Having regained the advantage by their rapid building program, Chauncey and Dearborn attacked York, the capital of Upper Canada, on April 27, 1813. HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

The Battle of Yorkwas an American victory, marred by looting and the burning of the Parliament buildings and a library. However, Kingston was strategically more valuable to British supply and communications along the St. Lawrence. Without control of Kingston, the U.S. navy could not effectively control Lake Ontario or sever the British supply line from Lower Canada.HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

On May 27, 1813, an American amphibious force from Lake Ontario assaulted Fort George on the northern end of the Niagara River and captured it without serious losses. The retreating British forces were not pursued, however, until they had largely escaped and organized a counteroffensive against the advancing Americans at the Battle of Stoney Creek on June 5. HP G60-230us CPU Fan

On June 24, with the help of advance warning by Laura Secord, another American force was forced to surrender by a much smaller British and native force at the Battle of Beaver Dams, marking the end of the American offensive into Upper Canada. Meanwhile, Commodore James Lucas Yeohad taken charge of the British ships on the lake and mounted a counterattack, which was nevertheless repulsed at the Battle of Sackett's Harbor. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

Thereafter, Chauncey and Yeo's squadrons fought two indecisive actions, neither commander seeking a fight to the finish.

Late in 1813, the Americans abandoned the Canadian territory they occupied around Fort George. They set fire to the village of Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake) on December 15, HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

1813, incensing the Canadians and politicians in control. Many of the inhabitants were left without shelter, freezing to death in the snow. This led to British retaliation following the Capture of Fort Niagara on December 18, 1813. Early the next morning on December 19, the British and their native allies stormed the neighbouring town of Lewiston, COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

New York, torching homes and buildings and killing about a dozen civilians. As the British were chasing the surviving residents out of town, a small force of Tuscarora natives intervened and stopped the pursuit, buying enough time for the locals to escape to safer ground. It is notable in that the Tuscaroras defended the Americans against their own Iroquois brothers, the Mohawks, who sided with the British.[ IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

Later, the British attacked and burned Buffalo on December 30, 1813.

In 1814, the contest for Lake Ontario turned into a building race. Naval superiority shifted between the opposing fleets as each built new, bigger ships. However, neither was able to bring the other to battle when in a position of superiority. HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

The Engagements on Lake Ontario were a draw.

The British were potentially most vulnerable over the stretch of the St. Lawrence where it formed the frontier between Upper Canada and the United States. During the early days of the war, there was illicit commerce across the river. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Over the winter of 1812 and 1813, the Americans launched a series of raids from Ogdensburg on the American side of the river, which hampered British supply traffic up the river. On February 21, Sir George Prevost passed through Prescott on the opposite bank of the river with reinforcements for Upper Canada. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

When he left the next day, the reinforcements and local militia attacked. At theBattle of Ogdensburg, the Americans were forced to retire.

For the rest of the year, Ogdensburg had no American garrison, and many residents of Ogdensburg resumed visits and trade with Prescott. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

This British victory removed the last American regular troops from the Upper St. Lawrence frontier and helped secure British communications with Montreal. Late in 1813, after much argument, the Americans made two thrusts against Montreal. The plan eventually agreed upon was for Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

Major General Wade Hampton to march north from Lake Champlain and join a force under General James Wilkinson that would embark in boats and sail from Sackett's Harbor on Lake Ontario and descend the St. Lawrence. Hampton was delayed by bad roads and supply problems and also had an intense dislike of Wilkinson, Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

which limited his desire to support his plan. On October 25, his 4,000-strong force was defeated at the Chateauguay River byCharles de Salaberry's smaller force of -Canadian Voltigeurs and Mohawks. Wilkinson's force of 8,000 set out on October 17, but was also delayed by bad weather. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

After learning that Hampton had been checked, Wilkinson heard that a British force under Captain William Mulcaster and Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Wanton Morrison was pursuing him, and by November 10, he was forced to land near Morrisburg, about 150 kilometres (90 mi.) from Montreal. Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

On November 11, Wilkinson's rear guard, numbering 2,500, attacked Morrison's force of 800 at Crysler's Farm and was repulsed with heavy losses. After learning that Hampton could not renew his advance, Wilkinson retreated to the U.S. and settled into winter quarters. He resigned his command after a failed attack on a British outpost at Lacolle Mills. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

By the middle of 1814, American generals, including Major Generals Jacob Brown and Winfield Scott, had drastically improved the fighting abilities and discipline of the army. Their renewed attack on the Niagara peninsula quickly captured Fort Erie. Winfield Scott then gained a victory over an inferior British force at the Battle of Chippawa on July 5. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

An attempt to advance further ended with a hard-fought but inconclusive battle at Lundy's Lane on July 25.

The outnumbered Americans withdrew but withstood a prolonged Siege of Fort Erie. The British suffered heavy casualties in a failed assault and were weakened by exposure and shortage of supplies in their siege lines. SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

Eventually the British raised the siege, but American Major General George Izard took over command on the Niagara front and followed up only halfheartedly. The Americans lacked provisions, and eventually destroyed the fort and retreated across the Niagara.

Meanwhile, following the abdication of Napoleon, 15,000 British troops were sent to North America under four of Wellington's ablest brigade commanders. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

Fewer than half were veterans of the Peninsula and the rest came from garrisons. Prevost was ordered to neutralize American power on the lakes by burning Sackets Harbor, gain naval control of Lake Erie, Lake Ontario and the Upper Lakes, and defend Lower Canada from attack. He did defend Lower Canada but otherwise failed to achieve his objectives.[ HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

Given the late season he decided to invade New York State. His army outnumbered the American defenders of Plattsburgh, but he was worried about his flanks so he decided he needed naval control of Lake Champlain. On the lake, the British squadron under Captain George Downie and the Americans under Master Commandant Thomas Macdonough were more evenly matched. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

On reaching Plattsburgh, Prevost delayed the assault until the arrival of Downie in the hastily completed 36-gun frigate HMS Confiance. Prevost forced Downie into a premature attack, but then unaccountably failed to provide the promised military backing. Downie was killed and his naval force defeated at the naval Battle of Plattsburgh in Plattsburgh Bay on September 11, HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

1814. The Americans now had control of Lake Champlain; Theodore Roosevelt later termed it "the greatest naval battle of the war". The successful land defence was led by Alexander Macomb. To the astonishment of his senior officers, Prevost then turned back, saying it would be too hazardous to remain on enemy territory after the loss of naval supremacy. Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

Prevost was recalled and in London, a naval court-martial decided that defeat had been caused principally by Prevost's urging the squadron into premature action and then failing to afford the promised support from the land forces. Prevost died suddenly, just before his own court-martial was to convene. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

Prevost's reputation sank to a new low, as Canadians claimed that their militia under Brock did the job and he failed. Recently, however, historians have been more kindly, measuring him not against Wellington but against his American foes. They judge Prevost's preparations for defending the Canadas with limited means to be energetic, well-conceived, and comprehensive; HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

and against the odds, he had achieved the primary objective of preventing an American conquest.

The Mississippi River valley was the western frontier of the United States in 1812. The territory acquired in theLouisiana Purchase of 1803 contained almost no U.S. settlements west of the Mississippi except around Saint Louisand a few forts and trading posts. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

Fort Bellefontaine, an old trading post converted to a U.S. Army post in 1804, served as regional headquarters. Fort Osage, built in 1808 along the Missouri was the western-most U.S. outpost, it was abandoned at the start of the war.[113] Fort Madison, built along the Mississippi in what is now Iowa, Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

was also built in 1808, and had been repeatedly attacked by British-allied Sauk since its construction. In September 1813 Fort Madison was abandoned after it was attacked and besieged by natives, who had support from the British. This was one of the few battles fought west of the Mississippi. Black Hawk played a leadership role.[114] HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

Little of note took place on Lake Huron in 1813, but the American victory on Lake Erie and the recapture of Detroit isolated the British there. During the ensuing winter, a Canadian party under Lieutenant Colonel Robert McDouall established a new supply line from York to Nottawasaga Bay on Georgian Bay. HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

When he arrived at Fort Mackinac with supplies and reinforcements, he sent an expedition to recapture the trading post of Prairie du Chien in the far west. The Siege of Prairie du Chien ended in a British victory on July 20, 1814.

Earlier in July, the Americans sent a force of five vessels from Detroit to recapture Mackinac. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

A mixed force of regulars and volunteers from the militia landed on the island on August 4. They did not attempt to achieve surprise, and at the brief Battle of Mackinac Island, they were ambushed by natives and forced to re-embark. The Americans discovered the new base at Nottawasaga Bay, and on August 13, they destroyed its fortifications and a schooner that they found there. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

They then returned to Detroit, leaving two gunboats to blockade Mackinac. On September 4, these gunboats were taken unawares and captured by British boarding parties from canoes and small boats. This Engagement on Lake Huron left Mackinac under British control. HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan,HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

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