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16 mars 2012 5 16 /03 /mars /2012 13:28

After adoption by Wang Jian

With Wang Jian's forces capturing Dongchuan's prefectures one by one and eventually putting Dongchuan's capital Zi Prefecture (??) under siege, Gu Yanhui committed suicide with his family members in summer 897. Sony VGN-CS60B/R Battery

Wang Jian took over Dongchuan and made Wang Zongdi the acting military governor. (Emperor Zhaozong initially tried to make the imperial official Liu Chongwang (???) the new military governor of Dongchuan, Sony VGN-CS60B Battery

but recalled Liu upon hearing that Wang Jian already made Wang Zongdi the acting military governor; he also confirmed Wang Zongdi as acting military governor.) Meanwhile, Wang Zongdi, Sony VGN-CS61B/P Battery

believing that Dongchuan's territories were too vast to be effectively governed as one circuit, suggested that five prefectures be carved out of Dongchuan and be made into a circuit of their own; Sony VGN-CS61B/Q Battery

subsequently, Wang Jian suggested it to the imperial government, which approved of the proposal, so five prefectures were carved out into a new Wuxin Circuit (??), with its capital at Sui Prefecture (??, in modern Suining, Sichuan).[6] Sony VGN-CS61B/R Battery

Sony VGN-CS61B Battery

In winter 898, Emperor Zhaozong officially commissioned Wang Zongdi as the military governor of Dongchuan.[6] Sony VGN-CS62JB/P Battery

In 900, Wang Zongdi was given the honorary chancellordesignation of Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi (????????). In 901, Wang Zongdi offered to resign on account of illness, and Wang Jian sent Wang Zongyu to replace him.[7]Sony VGN-CS62JB/Q Battery

Later in 901, after the powerful eunuch Han Quanhui forced then-reigning Emperor Zhaozong of Tang to leave Chang'an to go to the territory of Han's ally Li Maozhenthe military governor of Fengxiang Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), Sony VGN-CS62JB/R Battery

Sony VGN-CS62JB Battery

Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan), whom Emperor Zhaozong's chancellor Cui Yin had just summoned in order to carry out Cui's plot of slaughtering the eunuchs (and whose plot Han was reacting to), Sony VGN-CS71B/W Battery

attacked Fengxiang to try to recapture the emperor. Both Li and Zhu sought aid from Wang Jian. Wang Jian tried to play both sides by outwardly agreeing with Zhu and rebuking Li, Sony VGN-CS71B Battery

but sent secret messengers to Fengxiang to encourage Li to hold out — while sending Wang Zongdi and another adoptive son, Wang Zongji, north to attack Shannan West Circuit, which Li possessed at the time.[7] Sony VGN-CS72JB/W Battery

In 902, after a siege in which Wang Zongdi and his soldiers scaled the walls of Shannan West's capital Xingyuan (??), Li's adoptive son Li Jimi (???) the military governor of Shannan West surrendered it, allowing Wang Jian to take it under possession.[8] Sony VGN-CS72JB Battery


Wang Jian initially commissioned Wang Zongdi as the military governor of Shannan West, but Wang Zongji and several other generals, jealous of Wang Zongdi, submitted false accusations against Wang Zongdi. Sony VGN-CS90HS Battery

Wang Jian, who was already apprehensive of Wang Zongdi because Wang Zongdi's bravery impressed the soldiers, further was apprehensive that his own headquarters, which were painted red, Sony VGN-CS90NS Battery

were referred to by the people as the "Red Paint Tower" (???, Hua Hong Lou). Wang Jian thus recalled Wang Zongdi to Chengdu and rebuked him over the accusations that Wang Zongji and the others laid against him. Wang Zongdi responded, Sony VGN-CS90S Battery

Sony VGN-CS91HS Battery

"The Three Shus [(i.e., Xichuan, Dongchuan, and Shannan West)] have been pacified, while the Prince [(i.e., Wang Jian, who had been created the Prince of Shu by Emperor Zhaozong)] listens to false accusations. Sony VGN-CS91NS Battery

It is time to kill those with accomplishments." Wang Jian subsequently had his close associate Tang Daoxi (???) get Wang Zongdi drunk, and then strangle him to death. Sony VGN-CS91S Battery

It was said that when the people heard of Wang Zongdi's death, the merchants stopped their trades, and the soldiers in the barracks all cried.[8] After Wang Jian established his own state of Former Shu in 907 as its emperor, Sony VGN-CS92DS Battery

he issued an edict in which, while continuing to blame Wang Zongdi for having improper ambitions, also recounted his accomplishments and posthumously restored his offices.[1] Sony VGN-CS92JS Battery

Wang Zongbi

Wang Zongbi (???) (d. December 28, 925[1][2]), né Wei Hongfu (???), known as Gu Chen (??) during the time he served under Gu Yanhui, formally the Prince of Qi (??), Sony VGN-CS92XS Battery

was a major general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Former Shu. He was an adoptive son of the founding emperor Wang Jian, Sony VGN-NS11M/S Battery

who later came to control the military during the reign of Wang Jian's son Wang Yan. In 925, after Former Shu suffered a number of key defeats at the hands of an invading Later Tang army, Wang Zongbi forced Wang Yan to surrender to Later Tang, Sony VGN-NS11S/S Battery

hoping that Wang Yan's surrender would allow him to retain power in the Xichuan (??, i.e., the region around the Former Shu capital Chengdu) region. The deputy commander of the Later Tang army, Guo Chongtao, however, viewed Wang Zongbi as untrustworthy and put him to death. Sony VGN-NS12M/W Battery


It is not known when Wei Hongfu was born, but it is known that he was from Xu Prefecture (??, in modern Xuchang, Henan). It is unclear when he was adopted by Wang Jian —Sony VGN-NS15G/S Battery

who adopted many officers serving under him as sons — and had his name changed to Wang Zongbi, although it must be before 887, when Wang Jian, who then ruled Lang Prefecture (??, in modern Nanchong, Sichuan) as its self-proclaimed prefect, Sony VGN-NS15H/S Battery

decided to answer the summons of his own adoptive father, the eunuchgeneral Tian Lingzi, to serve under Tian's brother Chen Jingxuan the military governor of Xichuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Chengdu, Sichuan). Sony VGN-NS190J/S Battery

Sony VGN-NS190J/W Battery

As a result, Wang Jian left most of his family with his ally Gu Yanlang the military governor of Dongchuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Mianyang, Sichuan) Sony VGN-NS21M/P Battery

and headed toward Xichuan's capital Chengdu with Wang Zongbi, other adoptive sons Wang Zongyao (???), Wang Zongkan (???), Wang Zongji, and Wang Zongbian (???), Sony VGN-NS21M/W Battery

and nephew Wang Zonghui (???). (Subsequently, when Chen regretted his decision and tried to stop Wang Jian from coming to Chengdu, Wang Jian broke with him,[3]igniting a war that eventually resulted in Wang Jian's victory and seizure of Xichuan Circuit in 891.)[4] Sony VGN-NS21S/S Battery

Sony VGN-NS21S/W Battery

Service under Wang Jian (and briefly under Gu Yanhui) during Tang Dynasty

During Wang Jian's campaign to capture Xichuan, Gu Yanlang died and was succeeded by his brother Gu Yanhui at Dongchuan.[4] Wang Jian and Gu Yanlang were friends while both served in the imperial Shence Army, Sony VGN-NS21Z/S Battery

and therefore while Gu Yanlang was alive he did not consider seizing Dongchuan, but he began considering so after Gu Yanlang's death, but he outwardly remained Gu Yanhui's ally.[5] Sony VGN-NS230DP Battery

In late 891, when Dongchuan came under the attack of Yang Shouliang the military governor of Shannan West Circuit (????, headquartered in modern Hanzhong, Shaanxi), Sony VGN-NS230DW Battery

Gu Yanhui sought aid from Wang Jian. Wang Jian sent Hua Hong, Li Jian (??), Wang Zongkan, and Wang Zongbi to aid Dongchuan, but secretly instructed them, "After you defeat the enemy, Sony VGN-NS235J/L Battery

Gu Yanhui will surely invite you to a feast. You should ask that it be held in the military camp, and then use the opportunity to seize him, so that we do not need another campaign." Sony VGN-NS235J/P Battery

After the Xichuan army defeated the Shannan West army and forced its withdrawal, Gu was indeed planning on holding such a feast, but Wang Zongbi, for reasons lost to history, Sony VGN-NS235J/S Battery

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revealed the plan to Gu, so Gu claimed an illness and refused to exit Dongchuan's capital Zi Prefecture (??). This incident ended the alliance between Wang's Xichuan and Gu's Dongchuan.[4] Sony VGN-NS235J/W Battery

In 895, while Wang Jian and Gu were locked in a war, there was a battle in which Wang Zongbi, then attacking Dongchuan, was captured.[6] Gu, remembering what Wang Zongbi had revealed to him, Sony VGN-NS240DS Battery

spared him and adopted him as a son, changing his name to Gu Chen.[5] By 897, however, Gu was in desperate straits, as his own forces and those of his ally Li Maozhen the military governor of Fengxiang Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi) Sony VGN-NS240DW Battery

Sony VGN-NS255DS Battery

had been repeatedly defeated by Wang Jian's forces, leaving Zi Prefecture under siege with no forthcoming aid.[7] Gu gathered his family members, including adoptive sons, Sony VGN-NS25G/E1 Battery

and prepared for group suicide. Prior to committing suicide, however, Gu stated that Gu Chen had not been his adoptive son for a long time and had no need to die with them, Sony VGN-NS25G/P Battery

so he pointed at the breaches in the city wall and told Gu Chen to leave.[5] He then had his adoptive son Gu Yao (??) kill him and the other Gu family members, and Gu Yao then committed suicide himself.[7] After this, Gu Chen, who then again used the name Wang Zongbi, served under Wang Jian again.[8] Sony VGN-NS25G/S Battery

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During Wang Jian's reign

In 907, in response to the seizing of the Tang throne by Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan), Sony VGN-NS290J/S Battery

who started a new Later Liang Dynasty as its Emperor Taizu, Wang Jian, who then carried the title of Prince of Shu, initially issued declaration, along with Yang Wo the Prince of Hongnong the military governor of Huainan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu), Sony VGN-NS31M/P Battery

Sony VGN-NS31M/W Battery

seeking to align with Li Keyong the Prince of Jin the military governor of Hedong Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi) and Li Maozhen (who then carried the title of Prince of Qi) to start a campaign against Later Liang and restore Tang. Sony VGN-NS31S/S Battery

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However, when Later Liang vassals did not defect in accordance with the declarations, Wang Jian himself declared a new state of Shu (known historically as Former Shu) with himself as emperor.[9] Sony VGN-NS50B/W Battery

Wang Zongbi continued to serve in the military of the new Former Shu state, although his initial responsibilities were not recorded in history.[8] Sony VGN-NS51B/L Battery

In 911, Li Maozhen's state of Qi, which had been an ally of Former Shu's, broke that alliance and attacked Former Shu. Wang Zongbi served in the campaign against Qi and was successful in repelling the Qi general Liu Zhijun. With other Former Shu generals also defeating other Qi generals, Qi forces were forced to withdraw.[10] Sony VGN-NS51B/P Battery

As of 918, Wang Zongbi was serving as the commander of the forces against Qi, when Wang Jian became seriously ill. Because Wang Jian considered Wang Zongbi to be calm and full of strategies, Sony VGN-NS51B/W Battery

Sony VGN-NS51B Battery

he considered Wang Zongbi someone appropriate to assist his designated heir, the Crown Prince Wang Zongyan in ruling the state. He thus summoned Wang Zongbi back from the northern border with Qi and put him in command of the palace guards. Sony VGN-NS52JB Battery

While Wang Jian was near death, his overseer of imperial stables, Tang Wenyi (???) tried to start a coup to monopolize power, but Tang's plot was reported to Wang Zongbi and the other senior officials by Tang's subordinate Pan Zaiying (???). Sony VGN-NS70B/W Battery

Sony VGN-NS70B Battery

As a result, Tang was exiled (and later executed), and Wang Jian subsequently entrusted Wang Zongyan to Wang Zongbi, Wang Zongyao, as well as other adoptive sons Wang Zongwan (???) and Wang Zongkui (???) and the eunuch Song Guangsi (???). He then died, and Wang Zongyan, who then changed his name to Wang Yan, took the throne.[11] Sony VGN-NS71B/W Battery

Sony VGN-NS71B Battery

During Wang Yan's reign

Wang Yan created Wang Zongbi the Prince of Julu; he also entrusted the governmental affairs to Wang Zongbi. Wang Zongbi was said to govern based on the bribes he received and his own likes and dislikes, Sony VGN-NS72JB/W Battery

with Wang Yan not involving himself in administering the affairs of the state, and this was said to be the beginning of the Former Shu state's decline. Subsequently, Song Guangsi yielded the command of the military to him as well.[11] At some point, Wang Zongbi's title was further upgraded to Prince of Qi.[8] Sony VGN-NS72JB Battery

By 923, Former Shu's previous main enemy, Later Liang Dynasty to the northeast, had been destroyed by Later Tang Dynasty's founding emperor Emperor Zhuangzong.[12] Sony VGN-NS90HS Battery

In 924, the Later Tang emperor sent his official Li Yan (??) as an emissary to Former Shu, ostensibly to establish peaceful relations, while instead intending to spy on Former Shu's readiness. Sony VGN-NS92JS Battery

When Li returned to Later Tang, he reported to Emperor Zhuangzong that the Former Shu government, headed by Wang Zongbi and Song, was corrupt and easily defeated, Sony VGN-NS92XS Battery

while Wang Yan was himself incompetent. Meanwhile, another adoptive son of Wang Jian's, Wang Zongchou (???), had become convinced that Wang Yan did not have the ability to govern the state, and he suggested to Wang Zongbi that Wang Yan be removed and replaced. Sony VGN-NW130J/T Battery

Wang Zongbi hesitated, and Wang Zongchou subsequently died in distress. Wang Zongbi, instead, informed Song and Song's fellow eunuch Jing Runcheng (???) that Wang Zongchou wanted to kill them and that he stopped Wang Zongchou from doing so, to cause them to be grateful to him.[13] Sony VGN-NW21EF/S Battery

Sony VGN-NW21JF Battery

In late 924, Wang Yan had Xu Yanqiong (???), a relative of his mother Empress Dowager Xu, replace Wang Zongbi as the commander of the imperial forces around the capital Chengdu, Sony VGN-NW21MF/W Battery

thus causing dissent among the generals,[13] as Wang Jian had left instructions not to let the Xu family members hold military commands,[11] although it was unclear what Wang Zongbi's own reaction was. Sony VGN-NW21MF Battery

As of summer 925, Later Tang's Emperor Zhuangzong was ready to launch a major attack to conquer Former Shu, commanded nominally by his son Li Jiji the Prince of Wei and actually commanded by the major general Guo Chongtao (nominally Li Jiji's deputy). Sony VGN-NW21ZF Battery

The Former Shu administration was unaware of the impending attack, and Wang Yan, against the advice by Wang Zongbi and Empress Dowager Xu, was insistent on visiting Tianxiong Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Tianshui, Gansu), Sony VGN-NW31EF/W Battery

and he departed in winter 925, just as the Later Tang forces were entering Former Shu territory. Wang Chengjie (???) the military governor of Wuxing Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), after reported the emergency to Wang Yan and receiving no response, Sony VGN-NW31JF Battery

quickly surrendered. Only after the fall of Wuxing did Wang Yan become alarmed, but pursuant to the advice of Wang Zongbi and Song, he stayed at Li Prefecture (??, in modern Guangyuan, Sichuan), while sending Wang Zongxun (???), Sony VGN-NW320F/B Battery

Wang Zongyan (???, note different character than Wang Yan's original name), and Wang Zongyu (???) against the Later Tang forces. When they engaged the Later Tang forward commander Li Shaochen, Sony VGN-NW320F/TC Battery

however, Li Shaochen defeated them. Wang Yan, in fear, fled back to Chengdu while leaving Wang Zongbi in charge at Li Prefecture to continue the resistance, while ordering him to execute Wang Zongxun, Wang Zongyan, and Wang Zongyu. Sony VGN-NW35E/B Battery

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Subsequently, however, a number of Former Shu generals — including Song's brother Song Guangbao (???) the acting military governor of Wude Circuit (??, i.e., Dongchuan), Sony VGN-NW35E/W Battery

Wang Chengzhao (???, Wang Zongkan's son) the military governor of Wuding Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Hanzhong, Shaanxi), and Wang Zongwei (???) the military governor of Shannan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Hanzhong) — surrendered in drovesSony VGN-NW35E Battery

subsequently wrote Wang Zongbi to persuade him to surrender, and Wang Zongbi began to consider doing so. When he then abandoned Li Prefecture and then rendezvoused with Wang Zongxun, Sony VGN-NS52JB/L Battery

Wang Zongyan, and Wang Zongyu at Baitiao (??, in modern Chengdu), he showed them the order to execute them and then planned with them to surrender.[13] Sony VGN-NS52JB/P Battery

Wang Zongbi, resolved to surrender Wang Yan to Guo, thereafter returned to Chengdu. He seized Wang Yan, Empress Dowager Xu, and all of Wang Yan's sons, putting them under house arrest in the western palace. Sony VGN-NS52JB/W Battery

He then claimed the title of acting military governor of Xichuan and sent emissaries with gifts and food to comfort the Later Tang army. He also wrote a letter to Li Yan in Wang Yan's name, Sony VGN-NW380F/S Battery

stating that Wang Yan was ready to surrender. Li Yan subsequently arrived in Chengdu to meet with Wang Yan, and he also ordered Wang Zongbi to leave Chengdu defenseless to show the good faith in surrendering. Sony VGN-NW380F/T Battery

Meanwhile, Wang Zongbi, blaming the failure to surrender earlier on Song Guangsi, Jing, as well as their fellow eunuchs Li Zhoulu (???) and Ouyang Huang (???), executed them and presented their heads to Li Jiji; Sony VGN-NW50JB Battery

he also executed a number of other officials that he did not like. Many other officials, in fear, bribed him to avoid death. Wang Zongbi subsequently sent his son Wang Chengban (???) to submit a number of Wang Yan's beautiful concubines and ladies in waiting, Sony VGN-NW51FB/N Battery

as well as treasure, to Li Jiji and Guo, while making the request to be made the military governor of Xichuan. Li Jiji, however, responded, "These are all things that belong to my family now. It is not up to you to submit them as gifts."[2]Sony VGN-NW51FB/W Battery

On December 15,[1] Li Jiji and Guo arrived at Chengdu. Wang Yan, with Li Yan leading the procession, formally surrendered to Li Jiji, along with the Former Shu officials, thus ending Former Shu's existence as a state.[2] Sony VGN-NW51FB Battery

After surrender to Later Tang

Meanwhile, Wang Zongbi stepped the efforts to lobby Guo Chongtao to let him become the military governor of Xichuan, sending much bribe to Guo to encourage Guo to recommend him. Guo pretended to agree to do so, but did not actually do so. Sony VGN-NW70JB Battery

To further step up the pressure (and to create distrust between Li Jiji and Guo), Wang Zongbi then led a group of Former Shu officials to meet with Li Jiji, requesting that Guo be made the military governor of Xichuan. This caused Li Jiji to distrust Guo, Sony VGN-NW71FB/N Battery

as his trusted eunuch Li Congxi (???) was already fostering doubt of Guo's loyalty in his mind. Meanwhile, Song Guangbao also submitted an accusation to Guo that Wang Zongbi had falsely accused Song Guangsi and the others. Sony VGN-NW71FB/W Battery

Sony VGN-NW71FB Battery

Wang Zongbi was also not submitting enough treasure for Guo to distribute to the Later Tang soldiers as rewards, and the Later Tang soldiers were becoming angry that they were not being rewarded to their satisfaction. All of these led Guo to decide to kill Wang Zongbi. Sony VGN-NW91FS Battery

On December 28, after requesting and receiving permission from Li Jiji, Guo arrested Wang Zongbi, Wang Zongxun, and Wang Zongwo (???) under the accusations of disloyalty, Sony VGN-NW91GS Battery

and then executed them and their families. It was said that the Former Shu officials, hating Wang Zongbi for selling out the state, rushed to eat his flesh.[2] Sony VGN-NW91VS Battery

Empress Dowager Xu (???, personal name unknown) (d. 926), honored as Empress Dowager Shunsheng (????) during the reign of her son Wang Yan, known asConsort Xu with the imperial consort rank Xianfei (???) during the reign of her husband Wang Jian, Sony VGN-SR11M Battery

was an empress dowager of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Former Shu. She was one of the favorite concubines of Wang Jian,Sony VGN-SR12G/B Battery

the founder of Former Shu, and through her palace machinations was able to have her son Wang Yan (who was then named Wang Zongyan) made Wang Jian's heir. She was described as beautiful and capable of writing poems, Sony VGN-SR12G/P Battery

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but corrupt. After Former Shu's destruction by Later Tang Dynasty, she, her son, as well as the rest of the Former Shu imperial family, were executed by Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang. Sony VGN-SR130EB Battery

It is not known when the future Empress Dowager Xu was born. It is known that her father was Xu Geng (??), who at one point served as the Tang Dynasty prefect of Mei Prefecture (??, in modern Meishan, Sichuan) Sony VGN-SR130EP Battery

under Chen Jingxuan the military governor (Jiedushi) of Xichuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Chengdu,Sichuan). Sony VGN-SR130ES Battery

Xu Geng was known for being kind and benevolent while serving under Chen, and during Chen's struggles against Wang Jian in 891 as Wang sieged Xichuan's capital Chengdu Municipality, Sony VGN-SR130NB Battery

Xu Geng spared many people who considered surrendering to Wang.[1] She was Xu Geng's oldest daughter, and both she and her younger sister (who would also become a concubine to Wang Jian) were very beautiful.[2] Sony VGN-SR13GN/B Battery

As imperial consort

It is not known when the future Empress Dowager Xu became Wang Jian's concubine, but it is known that in 908, shortly after he declared himself the Emperor Shu and created his wife Lady Zhou as his empress, Sony VGN-SR13GN/P Battery

he created both her (who became known as Consort Xu the Greater) and her sister (who became known as Consort Xu the Lesser) as imperial consorts — her title being Xianfei (??) and her sister's title being Defei (??).[3] Sony VGN-SR13GN/S Battery

(Consort Xu the Lesser would later receive the title ofShufei.)[2] Both of them became Wang Jian's favorites, and Consort Xu the Greater would bear Wang Jian's youngest of 11 sons, Wang Zongyan the Prince of Zheng,[4] The Consorts Xu formed a close alliance with the eunuch Tang Wenyi (???) and influenced Wang Jian's policy decisions.[2] Sony VGN-SR140E/S Battery

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In 913, Wang Jian's first crown prince Wang Yuanying, believing that the powerful official Tang Daoxi was about to attack him, attacked and killed Tang Daoxi first. Subsequently, Wang Jian's imperial troops struck back, and Wang Yuanying was killed. Sony VGN-SR140EP Battery

AFter Wang Yuanying's death, Wang Jian considered whom to create as crown prince, and initially considered Wang Zonglu (???) the Prince of Ya (whom he considered to be very much like himself) and Wang Zongjie (???) the Prince of Xin (whom he considered highly talented). Sony VGN-SR140ES Battery

However, Consort Xu the Greater wanted her son Wang Zongyan to become crown prince, and therefore had Tang Wenyi persuade the chancellor Zhang Ge to support Wang Zongyan. Sony VGN-SR140NS Battery

Zhang, in turn, falsely informed all of the major officials that Wang Jian had already settled on Wang Zongyan and that they should submit petitions supporting Wang Zongyan. Sony VGN-SR150FN Battery

The major officials did so. Wang Jian, even though he doubted Wang Zongyan's abilities, thought that the officials in fact all supported Wang Zongyan. He thus created Wang Zongyan crown prince.[5] Sony VGN-SR165E/B Battery

(Wang Jian would later despise Zhang after he realized what Zhang did, particularly because he considered Wang Zongyan overly indulgent in feasting and games, but with Consort Xu the Greater having so much influence on his governance, he allowed Zhang to remain chancellor despite his anger at Zhang.)[6] Sony VGN-SR165E/P Battery

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As empress dowager

Wang Jian died in 918, and Wang Zongyan took the throne[6] (and changed his name to Wang Yan).[4] He honored his mother Consort Xu the Greater as empress dowager and his aunt Consort Xu the Lesser as consort dowager. Sony VGN-SR165EB Battery

It was said that Wang Yan, Empress Dowager Xu, and Consort Dowager Xu often spent much time visiting the nobles' mansions, at great expense; Sony VGN-SR165EP Battery

Sony VGN-SR165ES Battery

further, Empress Dowager Xu and Consort Dowager Xu both made offices positions for sale, including offices as high as prefect positions, allowing people to post bids and accepting the high bids.[6] Sony VGN-SR165NB Battery

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In 920, when the minor official Zhang Shiqiao (???) tried to correct Wang Yan's overindulgence in his sacrifices to his father Wang Jian's temple, Wang Yan wanted to put Zhang to death. It was only at Empress Dowager Xu's intercession that Zhang was only exiled. Sony VGN-SR175NB Battery

(However, Zhang committed suicide on the way to exile.) She later allowed him to take her niece as an imperial consort, although, as he did not want to familial relationship to be known, he changed her niece's name to Wei, claiming that Consort Wei was a granddaughter of the Tang chancellor Wei Zhaodu.[7] Sony VGN-SR190EBJ Battery

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In fall 925, Wang Yan, Empress Dowager Xu, and Consort Dowager Xu left Chengdu and toured Mount Qingcheng. They then continued their tour and went as far as Peng (??, in modern Chengdu) and Han (??, in modern Deyang, Sichuan) before returning to Chengdu — this, Sony VGN-SR190F Battery

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while (without their knowledge) Former Shu's northern neighborLater Tang was preparing a major military operation to destroy Former Shu. Subsequently, Sony VGN-SR19XN Battery

Wang Yan wanted to tour as far as Qin Prefecture (??, in modern Tianshui,Gansu); Empress Dowager Xu tried to stop him by refusing to eat, but even her actions could not stop him from leaving Chengdu, Sony VGN-SR21M/S Battery

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leaving the empire completely unprepared for the subsequent Later Tang assault, commanded by Li Jiji the Prince of Wei (the oldest son of Later Tang's Emperor Zhuangzong) and the major generalGuo Chongtao.[8] Sony VGN-SR220J/H Battery

Within two months, the Former Shu troops suffered many losses, which mounted even after Wang Yan returned to Chengdu.[8][9] Believing that Former Shu was doomed, Sony VGN-SR23H/B Battery

the major general Wang Zongbi (Wang Yan's adoptive brother) seized control of Chengdu, in effect holding Wang Yan and the imperial household under house arrest, before Wang Yan formally surrendered the empire to Li Jiji and Guo.[9]Sony VGN-SR240J/B Battery

Sony VGN-SR240N/B Battery

Emperor Zhuangzong initially made assurances that Wang Yan, by virtue of his surrender, would be given an honorable title as a Later Tang subject. He required them to leave Chengdu, however, and head for the Later Tang capital Luoyang. Sony VGN-SR25G/B Battery


Soon thereafter, with Later Tang's northern circuits seized by yet another mutiny, led by the major general, Li Siyuan, Emperor Zhuangzong's favorite court actor, Sony VGN-SR25G/P Battery

Jing Jin (??), persuaded Emperor Zhuangzong that, as Wang had more than 1,000 people following him on the trek to Luoyang, he might mutiny as well. Emperor Zhuangzong therefore issued orders to eunuch Xiang Yansi (???) to have Wang and his household put to death. Sony VGN-SR25G/S Battery

Sony VGN-SR25M/B Battery

It was said that as Empress Dowager Xu was to be executed, she cried out in cursing Emperor Zhuangzong, "My son surrendered an empire to you but could not avoid having his clan slaughtered. Sony VGN-SR25S/B Battery

You abandoned your faith and your righteousness, and I know that you will soon suffer disaster as well!" (Her curse came true, as mutineers supporting Li Siyuan would rise at Luoyang shortly after, killing Emperor Zhuangzong in battle.)[9] Sony VGN-SR25T/P Battery,Sony VGN-SR25T/S Battery,Sony VGN-SR26/B Battery,Sony VGN-SR26/P Battery,Sony VGN-SR26/S Battery,Sony VGN-SR26GN/B Battery,Sony VGN-SR26MN/B Battery

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