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26 juin 2012 2 26 /06 /juin /2012 04:37

Aneurin Bevan 

Aneurin "Nye" Bevan (pronounced /əˈnaɪrɪn/; Welsh: [aˈnəɨ.rin]; 15 November 1897 – 6 July 1960) was aWelsh Labour Party politician who was the Deputy Leader of the Labour Party from 1959 until his death in 1960. HP G62-b25ST Keyboard 

The son of a coal miner, Bevan was a lifelong champion of social justice and the rights of working people. He was a long-time Member of Parliament (MP), representing Ebbw Vale for 31 years, and became recognised as one of the leaders of the party’s left wing, HP G62-b26EO Keyboard

and of left-wing British thought generally. His most famous accomplishment came when, as Minister of Health in the post-war Attlee government, he spearheaded the establishment of the National Health Service, which provides medical care free at point-of-need to all Britons. HP G62-b26ER Keyboard

Bevan was born in Tredegar, Monmouthshire, in the South Wales Valleys and on the northern edge of theSouth Wales coalfield, the son of miner David Bevan and Phoebe née Prothero, a seamstress. Both Bevan's parents were Nonconformists; HP G62-b26SA Keyboard

his father was a Baptist and his mother a Methodist. One of ten children, Bevan did poorly at school and his academic performance was so bad that his headmaster made him repeat a year. At age 13, Bevan left school and began working in the local Tytryst Colliery. HP G62-b26ST Keyboard

David Bevan had been a supporter of the Liberal Party in his youth, but was converted to socialism by the writings of Robert Blatchford in the Clarion and joined the Independent Labour Party. HP G62-b27EA Keyboard

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His son (Aneurin Bevan) also joined the Tredegar branch of the South Wales Miners' Federation and became atrade union activist: he was head of his local Miners' Lodge at only 19. Bevan became a well-known local orator and was seen by his employers, HP G62-b27ER Keyboard

the Tredegar Iron & Coal Company, as a revolutionary. The manager of the colliery found an excuse to get him sacked. But, with the support of the Miners' Federation, the case was judged as one of victimisation and the company was forced to re-employ him. HP G62-b27SA Keyboard

In 1919, he won a scholarship to the Central Labour College in London, sponsored by the South Wales Miners' Federation. At the college he gained his life-long respect for Karl Marx. Reciting long passages byWilliam Morris, Bevan gradually began to overcome the stammer that he had had since he was a child. HP G62-b27ST Keyboard

Bevan was one of the founding members of the "Query Club" with his brother Billy and Walter Conway. The club started in 1920 or 1921 and they met in Tredegar. They would collect money each week for any member who needed it. The club intended to break the hold that the Tredegar Iron and Coal Company had on the town by becoming members of pivotal groups in the community.[1] HP G62-b28SA Keyboard

Upon returning home in 1921, he found that the Tredegar Iron & Coal Company refused to re-hire him. He did not find work until 1924 and his employer, the Bedwellty Colliery, closed down only ten months later. Bevan then had to endure another year of unemployment. In February 1925, his father died ofpneumoconiosis. HP G62-b28ST Keyboard

In 1926, he found work again, this time as a paid union official. His wage of £5 a week was paid by the members of the local Miners' Lodge. His new job arrived in time for him to head the local miners against the colliery companies in what would become the General Strike. HP G62-b29ET Keyboard

When the strike started on 3 May 1926, Bevan soon emerged as one of the leaders of the South Wales miners. The miners remained on strike for six months. Bevan was largely responsible for the distribution of strike pay in Tredegar and the formation of the Council of Action, an organisation that helped to raise money and provided food for the miners. HP G62-b29SA Keyboard

He was a member of the Cottage Hospital Management Committee around 1928 and was chairman in 1929/30. HP G62-b29SO Keyboard

Parliament

Party candidate for Ebbw Vale (displacing the sitting MP), and easily held the seat at the 1929 General Election. In Parliament he soon became noticed as a harsh critic of those he felt opposed the working man. His targets included the Conservative Winston Churchill and the Liberal David Lloyd George, HP G62-b29ST Keyboard

as well asRamsay MacDonald and Margaret Bondfield from his own Labour party (he targeted the latter for her unwillingness to increase unemployment benefits). He had solid support from his constituency, being one of the few Labour MPs to be unopposed in the 1931 General Election and this support grew through the 1930s and the period of the Great Depression in the United Kingdom. HP G62-b30EB Keyboard

Soon after he entered parliament Bevan was briefly attracted to Oswald Mosley's arguments, in the context of Macdonald's government's incompetent handling of rising unemployment. However, in the words of his biographer John Campbell, HP G62-b30EH Keyboard

"he breached with Mosley as soon as Mosley breached with the Labour Party". This is symptomatic of his lifelong commitment to the Labour Party, which was a result of his firm belief that only a Party supported by the British Labour Movement could have a realistic chance of attaining political power for the working class. Thus, for Bevan, joining Mosley's New Party was not an option. HP G62-b30EI Keyboard

He married fellow socialist MP Jennie Lee in 1934. He was an early supporter of the socialists in Spain and visited the country in the 1930s. In 1936 he joined the board of the new socialist newspaper Tribune. His agitations for a united socialist front of all parties of the left (including the Communist Party of Great Britain) HP G62-b30EO Keyboard

led to his brief expulsion from the Labour Party in March to November 1939 (along with Stafford Cripps andC.P. Trevelyan). But, he was readmitted in November 1939 after agreeing "to refrain from conducting or taking part in campaigns in opposition to the declared policy of the Party." HP G62-b30ES Keyboard

He was a strong critic of the policies of Neville Chamberlain, arguing that his old enemy Winston Churchillshould be given power. During the war he was one of the main leaders of the left in the Commons, opposing the wartime Coalition government. HP G62-b30EW Keyboard

Bevan opposed the heavy censorship imposed on radio and newspapersand wartime Defence Regulation 18B,

which gave the Home Secretary the powers to intern citizens without trial. Bevan called for the nationalisation of the coal industry and advocated the opening of a Second Front in Western Europe in order to help the Soviet Union in its fight with Germany. Churchill responded by calling Bevan "... a squalid nuisance".HP G62-b30SA Keyboard

Bevan was also critical of the leadership of the British Army which he felt was class bound and inflexible. After Auchinleck's defeat by Rommel and his disastrous retreat across Cyrenaica in 1942, HP G62-b30SC Keyboard

Bevan made one of his most memorable speeches in the Commons in support of a motion of censure against the Churchill government. In this he said, "The Prime Minister must realise that in this country there is a taunt on everyone's lips that if Rommel had been in the British Army he would still have been a sergeant... HP G62-b30SD Keyboard

There is a man in the British Army who flung 150,000 men across the Ebro in Spain, Michael Dunbar. He is at present a sergeant...He was Chief of Staff in Spain, he won the Battle of the Ebro, and he is a sergeant." How angry this criticism made Churchill can be seen from the following. HP G62-b30SG Keyboard

Churchill devotes almost an entire page in his history "The Second World War" to a lengthy quotation of this speech, yet he never mentions Bevan as the speaker, referring to him only as, "One Member."[2] In fact, Michael Dunbar had been recommended for a commission, but he had himself turned the commission down. HP G62-b30SJ Keyboard

Bevan believed that the Second World War would give Britain the opportunity to create "a new society". He often quoted an 1855 passage from Karl Marx: "The redeeming feature of war is that it puts a nation to the test. As exposure to the atmosphere reduces all mummies to instant dissolution, HP G62-b30SM Keyboard

so war passes supreme judgment upon social systems that have outlived their vitality." At the beginning of the 1945 general electioncampaign Bevan told his audience: "We have been the dreamers, we have been the sufferers, now we are the builders. HP G62-b30SQ Keyboard

We enter this campaign at this general election, not merely to get rid of the Tory majority. We want the complete political extinction of the Tory Party." HP G62-b30SW Keyboard

After World War II, when the Communists took control of China, Parliament debated the merits of recognising the Communist government. Churchill, HP G62-b31EE Keyboard

no friend of Bevan or Mao Zedong, commented that recognition would be advantageous to the United Kingdom for various reasons and added, "Just because you recognise someone does not mean you like him. We all, for example, recognise the Right Honourable Member from Ebbw Vale." HP G62-b31EO Keyboard

Government

The 1945 General Election proved to be a landslide victory for the Labour Party, giving it a large enough majority to allow the implementation of the party's manifesto commitments and to introduce a programme of far-reaching social reforms that were collectively dubbed the 'Welfare State' (see 1945 Labour Election Manifesto). HP G62-b32EO Keyboard

These reforms were achieved in the face of great financial difficulty following the war. The new Prime Minister, Clement Attlee, appointed Aneurin Bevan as Minister of Health, with a remit that also covered Housing. HP G62-b33EE Keyboard

Thus, the responsibility for instituting a new and comprehensive National Health Service, as well as tackling the country's severe post-war housing shortage, fell to the youngest member of Attlee's Cabinet in his first ministerial position. HP G62-b33EO Keyboard

The free health service was paid for directly through public money. Government income was increased for the Welfare state expenditure by a severe increase in marginal tax rates for wealthy business owners in particular, HP G62-b33SZ Keyboard

as part of what the Labour government largely saw as the redistribution of the wealth created by the working class from the owners of large-scale industry to the workers.[3] HP G62-b34EE Keyboard

The collective principle asserts that... no society can legitimately call itself civilised if a sick person is denied medical aid because of lack of means. HP G62-b34EO Keyboard

—Aneurin Bevan, In Place of Fear, p100

On the "appointed day", 5 July 1948, having overcome political opposition from both the Conservative Party and from within his own party, and after a dramatic showdown with the British Medical Association, which had threatened to derail the National Health Service scheme before it had even begun, HP G62-b34ET Keyboard

as medical practitioners continued to withhold their support just months before the launch of the service, Bevan'sNational Health Service Act of 1946 came into force. After 18 months of ongoing dispute between theMinistry of Health and the BMA, HP G62-b34EZ Keyboard

Bevan finally managed to win over the support of the vast majority of the medical profession by offering a couple of minor concessions, but without compromising on the fundamental principles of his NHS proposals. Bevan later gave the famous quote that, HP G62-b35EE Keyboard

in order to broker the deal, he had "stuffed their mouths with gold". Some 2,688 voluntary and municipal hospitals in England and Wales were nationalised and came under Bevan's supervisory control as Health Minister. HP G62-b35EO Keyboard

Bevan said:

The National Health service and the Welfare State have come to be used as interchangeable terms, and in the mouths of some people as terms of reproach. Why this is so it is not difficult to understand, if you view everything from the angle of a strictly individualistic competitive society. A free health service is pure Socialism and as such it is opposed to the hedonism of capitalist society. HP G62-b35EZ Keyboard

Substantial bombing damage and the continued existence of pre-war slums in many parts of the country made the task of housing reform particularly challenging for Bevan. Indeed, these factors, exacerbated by post-war restrictions on the availability of building materials and skilled labour, HP G62-b35SG Keyboard

collectively served to limit Bevan's achievements in this area. 1946 saw the completion of 55,600 new homes; this rose to 139,600 in 1947, and 227,600 in 1948. While this was not an insignificant achievement, Bevan's rate of housebuilding was seen as less of an achievement than that of his Conservative (indirect) successor, HP G62-b36EE Keyboard

Harold Macmillan, who was able to complete some 300,000 a year as Minister for Housing in the 1950s. Macmillan was able to concentrate full-time on Housing, instead of being obliged, like Bevan, to combine his housing portfolio with that for Health (which for Bevan took the higher priority). HP G62-b36EO Keyboard

However critics said that the cheaper housing built by Macmillan was exactly the poor standard of housing that Bevan was aiming to replace. Macmillan's policies led to the building of cheap, mass-production high-rise tower blocks, which have been heavily criticised since (arguably due to many of them degenerating into new slums). HP G62-b36EZ Keyboard

Bevan was appointed Minister of Labour (during which he helped to secure a deal for railwaymen which provided them with a big pay increase[4]) in 1951 but soon resigned in protest at Hugh Gaitskell's introduction of prescription charges for dental care and spectacles—HP G62-b37EE Keyboard

created in order to meet the financial demands imposed by the Korean War. Two other Ministers, John Freeman and Harold Wilson resigned at the same time. See Bevan's speeches Later the same year, the Labour party lost power in a general election. HP G62-b37EO Keyboard

Opposition

In 1952 Bevan published In Place of Fear, "the most widely read socialist book" of the period, according to a highly critical right-wing Labour MP Anthony Crosland.[5] Bevan begins: "A young miner in a South Wales colliery, HP G62-b37ET Keyboard

my concern was with the one practical question: Where does power lie in this particular state of Great Britain, and how can it be attained by the workers?" HP G62-b37SO Keyboard

In March 1952, a poorly prepared (and possibly inebriated) Bevan came off the worse in an evening Commons debate on health with Conservative backbencher Iain Macleod: Macleod's performance led Churchill to appoint him Minister of Health some six weeks after his debate with Bevan. HP G62-b37ST Keyboard

Out of office, Bevan soon initiated a split within the Labour Party between the right and the left. For the next five years, Bevan was the leader of the left-wing of the Labour Party, who became known as Bevanites. HP G62-b38EE Keyboard

They criticised high defence expenditure (especially for nuclear weapons) and opposed the more reformist stance of Clement Attlee. In 1954, Gaitskell beat Bevan in a hard fought contest to be the Treasurer of the Labour Party. HP G62-b38ET Keyboard

When the first British hydrogen bomb was exploded in 1955, Bevan led a revolt of 57 Labour MPs and abstained on a key vote. The Parliamentary Labour Party voted 141 to 113 to withdraw the whip from him, but it was restored within a month due to his popularity. HP G62-b38ST Keyboard

After the 1955 general election, Attlee retired as leader. Bevan contested the leadership against bothMorrison and Labour right-winger Hugh Gaitskell, but it was Gaitskell who emerged victorious. HP G62-b39EE Keyboard

Bevan's remark that "I know the right kind of political Leader for the Labour Party is a kind of desiccated calculating machine" was assumed to refer to Gaitskell, although Bevan denied it (commenting upon Gaitskell's record asChancellor of the Exchequer as having "proved" this). HP G62-b39EZ Keyboard

However, Gaitskell was prepared to make Bevan Shadow Colonial Secretary, and then Shadow Foreign Secretary in 1956. Bevan was as critical of the Egyptian dictator Colonel Nasser's seizure of the Suez Canal on 26 July 1956 as he was of the subsequent Anglo-French military response. HP G62-b39SE Keyboard

He was a vocal critic of the government's actions in the Suez Crisis, noticeably delivering high profile speeches in Trafalgar Square on 4 November 1956 at a protest rally, and devastating the government's actions and arguments in the House of Commons on 5 December 1956. HP G62-b40EM Keyboard

At the Trafalgar rally, Bevan accused the government of a "policy of bankrupcty and despair"”.[6] Bevan stated at the Trafalgar rally: HP G62-b40EQ Keyboard

"We are stronger than Egypt but there are other countries stronger than us. Are we prepared to accept for ourselves the logic we are applying to Egypt? If nations more powerful than ourselves accept the absence of principle, the anarchistic attitude of Eden and launch bombs on London, HP G62-b40EY Keyboardwhat answer have we got, what complaint have we got? If we are going to appeal to force, if force is to be the arbiter to which we appeal, it would at least make common sense to try to make sure beforehand that we have got it, even if you accept that abysmal logic, that decadent point of view. HP G62-b40SF KeyboardWe are in fact in the position today of having appealed to force in the case of a small nation, where if it is appealed to against us it will result in the destruction of Great Britain, not only as a nation, but as an island containing living men and women. Therefore I say to Anthony, I say to the British government, there is no count at all upon which they can be defended. HP G62-b40SG KeyboardThey have besmirched the name of Britain. They have made us ashamed of the things of which formerly we were proud. They have offended against every principle of decency and there is only way in which they can even begin to restore their tarnished reputation and that is to get out! Get out! Get out!"[7] HP G62-b40SH Keyboard That year, he was finally elected as party treasurer, beating George Brown.

In 1957, Bevan joined Richard Crossman and Morgan Phillips in a controversial lawsuit for libel against The Spectator magazine, which had described the men as drinking heavily during a socialist conference in Italy. Having sworn that the charges were untrue, HP G62-b40SJ Keyboard

the three collected damages from the magazine. Many years later, Crossman's posthumously published diaries confirmed the truth of The Spectator's charges. HP G62-b40SM Keyboard

Bevan dismayed many of his supporters when, speaking at the 1957 Labour Party conference, he decried unilateral nuclear disarmament, saying "It would send a British Foreign Secretary naked into the conference-chamber". HP G62-b40SS Keyboard

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This statement is often misconstrued: Bevan argued that unilateralism would result in Britain's loss of allies, and one interpretation of his metaphor is that nakedness would come from the lack of allies, not the lack of weapons.[citation needed] HP G62-b41EB Keyboard

According to the journalist Paul Routledge, Donald Bruce, a former MP and Parliamentary Private Secretary and adviser to Bevan, HP G62-b42SF Keyboard

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had told him that Bevan's shift on the disarmament issue was the result of discussions with the Soviet government where they advised him to push for British retention of nuclear weapons so they could possibly be used as a bargaining chip in negotiations with the United States.[8] HP G62-b45EB Keyboard

In 1959, Bevan was elected as Deputy Leader of the Labour Party. In pain, he checked into a hospital at the end of 1959 to undergo surgery for an ulcer, HP G62-b45EE Keyboard

but malignant stomach cancer was discovered instead.[9] Bevan died the following year at the age of 62 at his home Asheridge Farm, Chesham, Buckinghamshire. His remains were cremated at Gwent Crematorium in Croesyceiliog. HP G62-b45EF Keyboard

His last speech in the House of Commons, in the Debate of the 3 November 1959 on the Queen's Speech,[10]in which Bevan referred to the difficulties of persuading the electorate to support a policy which would make them less well-off in the short term but more prosperous in the long term, was quoted extensively in subsequent years. HP G62-b45EM Keyboard

In 2004, over 40 years after his death, he was voted first in a list of 100 Welsh Heroes, this being credited much to his contribution to the Welfare State after World War Two. HP G62-b45EW Keyboard

William Wallace

Sir William Wallace (Medieval Gaelic: Uilliam Uallas; modern Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas; Latin:Guillelmum le Walois de Scotia militem; born c. 1272, died 23 August 1305) was a Scottish knight andlandowner who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence.[2] HP G62-b45SE Keyboard

Along with Andrew Moray, Wallace defeated an English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297, and wasGuardian of Scotland, serving until his defeat at the Battle of Falkirk. HP G62-b45SF Keyboard

In 1305, Wallace was captured inRobroyston near Glasgow and handed over to King Edward I of England, who had him hanged, drawn, and quartered for high treason and crimes against English civilians. HP G62-b48SF Keyboard

Since his death, Wallace has obtained an iconic status far beyond his homeland. He is the protagonist of the 15th century epic poem The Acts and Deeds of Sir William Wallace, Knight of Elderslie, by Blind Harry. Wallace is also the subject of literary works by Sir Walter Scott and Jane Porter and of the Academy Awardwinning epic film Braveheart. HP G62-b50EB Keyboard

Although he was a minor member of the Scottish nobility, little is known for certain of William Wallace's family history. Records show early members of the family as holding estates at Riccarton, Tarbolton, andAuchincruive in Kyle, HP G62-b50EM Keyboard

and Stenton in Haddingtonshire.[3] They were vassals of James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland as their lands fell within his territory. William Wallace is possibly descended from a Richard Wallace who came to Scotland in the 1130s in the service of Walter fitz Alan, who had been appointed Steward by King David I. HP G62-b50EP Keyboard

Some sources give the name of William Wallace's father as Malcolm Wallace, however the seal attached to a letter sent to the Hanse city of Lübeck in 1297[4] appears to give his father's name as Alan.[5][6] His brothers Malcolm and John are known from other sources.[7]HP G62-b50EQ Keyboard

An Alan Wallace appears in the Ragman Rolls as a crown tenant in Ayrshire, but there is no additional confirmation.[8] The traditional view regards Wallace's birthplace as Elderslie in Renfrewshire, and this is still the view of most historians,[9]HP G62-b50ET Keyboard

but there have been recent claims that he came from Ellerslie in Ayrshire. There is no contemporary evidence linking him with either location, although both areas had connections with the wider Wallace family.[10] HP G62-b50EV Keyboard

Wallace's year of birth can only be guessed at, although he was probably a relatively young man at the time of his military exploits and death. HP G62-b50EW Keyboard

Political crisis in Scotland

When Wallace was growing up, King Alexander III[11] ruled Scotland. His reign had seen a period of peace and economic stability. In 1286, however, Alexander died after falling from his horse. HP G62-b50SA Keyboard

The heir to the throne was Alexander's granddaughter, Margaret, Maid of Norway. As she was still a child and in Norway, the Scottish lords set up a government of guardians. Margaret fell ill on the voyage to Scotland and died in Orkney. The lack of a clear heir led to a period known as the 'Great Cause', with several families laying claim to the throne. HP G62-b50SC Keyboard

With Scotland threatening to descend into civil war, King Edward was invited in by the Scottish nobility to arbitrate. Before the process could begin, he insisted that all of the contenders recognise him as Lord Paramount of Scotland. HP G62-b50SD Keyboard

In early November 1292, at a great feudal court held in the castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, judgement was given in favour of John Balliol having the strongest claim in law. HP G62-b50SE Keyboard

Edward proceeded to reverse the rulings of the Scottish Lords and even summoned King John Balliol to stand before the English court as a common plaintiff. John was a weak king, known as "Toom Tabard", or "Empty Coat".HP G62-b50SF Keyboard

John renounced his homage in March 1296 and by the end of the month Edward stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then-Scottish border town. In April, the Scots were defeated at the Battle of Dunbarin East Lothian and by July, HP G62-b50SG Keyboard

Edward had forced John to abdicate. Edward then instructed his officers to receive formal homage from some 1,800 Scottish nobles (many of the rest being prisoners of war at that time). HP G62-b50SH Keyboard

Some historians such as Andrew Fisher believe Wallace must have had some earlier military experience; campaigns like Edward I of England's wars in Wales provided a good opportunity for a younger son of a landholder, with no other prospects in life than becoming a monk or priest, to become a mercenary soldier.[12] HP G62-b50SI Keyboard

This theory suggests that it would have taken military knowledge to defeat the English at Stirling bridge. Wallace's personal seal attached to a letter sent to the Hanse city of Lübeck in 1297 may not only reveal the name of his father but also bears the archers' insignia.[13]HP G62-b50SJ Keyboard

If Wallace was indeed an archer he must have been a professional, worth paying a reasonable sum of money for military services. The first class long bow (as probably used by Wallace) had a draw weight of up to 170 lbs. HP G62-b50SQ Keyboard

This is in accordance with Bower who states that Wallace was " a tall man with the body of a giant ... with lengthy flanks ...broad in the hips, with strong arms and legs ... with all his limbs very strong and firm"[14]. Blind Harry's Wallace reaches seven feet.[15] HP G62-b50SR Keyboard

The start of the uprising

The first act definitely known to have been carried out by Wallace was his assassination of William de Heselrig, the English High Sheriff of Lanark, in May 1297. He then joined with William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, HP G62-b50SV Keyboard

and they carried out the raid of Scone. This was one of several rebellions taking place across Scotland, including those of several Scottish nobles and Andrew Moray in the north.[9] HP G62-b51EB Keyboard

The uprising suffered a blow when the nobles submitted to the English at Irvine in July. Wallace and Moray were not involved, and continued their rebellions. Wallace used the Ettrick Forest as a base for raiding, and attacked Wishart's palace at Ancrum. Wallace and Moray met and joined their forces, possibly at the siege of Dundee in early September.[9] HP G62-b51EE Keyboard

On 11 September 1297, an army jointly led by Wallace and Andrew Moray won the Battle of Stirling Bridge. Although vastly outnumbered, the Scottish army routed the English army. John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey's professional army of 3,000 cavalry and 8,000 to 10,000 infantry met disaster as they crossed over to the north side of the river. HP G62-b51SE Keyboard

The narrowness of the bridge prevented many soldiers from crossing together (possibly as few as three men abreast), so while the English soldiers crossed, the Scots held back until half of them had passed and then killed the English as quickly as they could cross. HP G62-b51SF Keyboard

The infantry were sent on first, followed by heavy cavalry. But the Scots' sheltron formations forced the infantry back into the advancing cavalry. A pivotal charge, led by one of Wallace's captains, caused some of the English soldiers to retreat as others pushed forward, HP G62-b51SG Keyboard

and under the overwhelming weight, the bridge collapsed and many English soldiers drowned. Thus the Scots won a significant victory which boosted the confidence of their army. Hugh Cressingham, Edward's treasurer in Scotland, HP G62-b51SI Keyboard

died in the fighting and it is reputed that his body was subsequently flayed and the skin cut into small pieces as tokens of the victory. The Lanercost Chronicle records that Wallace had "a broad strip [of Cressingham’s skin] ... taken from the head to the heel, to make therewith a baldrick for his sword".[16] HP G62-b51SR Keyboard

After the battle, Moray and Wallace assumed the title of Guardians of the Kingdom of Scotland on behalf of King John Balliol. Moray died of wounds suffered on the battlefield sometime in late 1297. HP G62-b51ST Keyboard

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The type of engagement used by Wallace was characterized by tactical engagements and strategic use of terrain. This was in stark contrast to the contemporary views on chivalric warfare which were characterized by strength of arms and knightly combat. HP G62-b52SF Keyboard

The battle therefore embittered relations between the two antagonistic nations, whilst also perhaps providing a new departure in the type of warfare with which England had hitherto engaged. HP G62-b52SG Keyboard

The numerical and material inferiority of the Scottish forces would be mirrored by that of the English in the Hundred Years' War, who, in turn, abandoned chivalric warfare to achieve decisive victory in similar engagements such as Crécy and Poitiers. HP G62-b52SR Keyboard

Around November 1297, Wallace led a large-scale raid into northern England, through Northumberland and Cumberland.[9] HP G62-b52ST Keyboard

Around then Wallace was knighted. This would have been carried out by one of three Scottish earls: Carrick,Strathearn or Lennox.[9][17][18] HP G62-b53EF Keyboard

Battle of Falkirk

In 1298, Wallace lost the Battle of Falkirk. On 1 April 1298, the English invaded Scotland at Edinburgh. They plundered Lothian and regained some castles, but failed to bring Wallace to combat. The Scots adopted ascorched earth policy and hit and run tactics. HP G62-b53SE Keyboard

The English quartermasters' failure to prepare for the expedition left morale and food supplies low, but Edward's search for Wallace would not end at Falkirk. HP G62-b53SF Keyboard

Wallace arranged his spearmen in four schiltrons — circular, hedgehog formations surrounded by a defensive wall of wooden stakes. The English however employed Welsh longbowmen who swung strategic superiority in their favour.

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The English proceeded to attack with cavalry, and break up the Scottish archers. Under the command of the Scottish nobles, the Scottish knights withdrew, and Edward's men began to attack the schiltrons. It remains unclear whether the infantry shooting bolts, HP G62-b53SR Keyboard

arrows and stones at the spearmen proved the deciding factor, although it is very likely that it was the arrows of Edward's bowmen. Gaps in the schiltrons soon appeared, and the English exploited these to crush the remaining resistance. HP G62-b53ST Keyboard

The Scots lost many men, including John de Graham. Wallace escaped, though his military reputation suffered badly. HP G62-b54EF Keyboard

By September 1298, Wallace had decided to resign as Guardian of Scotland in favour of Robert the Bruce, Earl of Carrick and future king, and John Comyn of Badenoch, King John Balliol's nephew. HP G62-b54SE Keyboard

Details of Wallace's activities after this are vague, but there is some evidence that he left on a mission to the court of King Philip IV of France to plead the case for assistance in the Scottish struggle for independence. HP G62-b54SF Keyboard

There is a surviving letter from the French king dated 7 November 1300 to his envoys in Rome demanding that they should help Sir William.[19] HP G62-b55EV Keyboard

It also suggests that Wallace may have intended to travel to Rome, although it is not known if he did.[20] There is also a report from an English spy at a meeting of Scottish leaders, where they said Wallace was in France. HP G62-b54SG Keyboard

By 1304 he was back in Scotland, and involved in skirmishes at Happrew and Earnside.

Wallace evaded capture by the English until 5 August 1305 when John de Menteith, a Scottish knight loyal to Edward, turned Wallace over to English soldiers at Robroyston near Glasgow. Documents found on Wallace, and delivered to Edward by John de Segrave, included safe-conduct letters from Haco of Norway, Philip of France, and John Balliol, with other documents.[21] HP G62-b55EW Keyboard

Wallace was transported to London and taken to Westminster Hall, where he was tried for treason and for atrocities against civilians in war, "sparing neither age nor sex, monk nor nun."[22][23] He was crowned with a garland of oak to suggest he was the king of outlaws. HP G62-b55SE Keyboard

He responded to the treason charge, "I could not be a traitor to Edward, for I was never his subject." With this, Wallace asserted that the absent John Balliol was officially his king.[citation needed] HP G62-b55SF Keyboard

Following the trial, on 23 August 1305, Wallace was taken from the hall, stripped naked and dragged through the city at the heels of a horse to the Elms at Smithfield. He was hanged, drawn and quartered — strangled by hanging but released while he was still alive, HP G62-b55SG Keyboard

castrated, eviscerated and his bowels burnt before him,beheaded, then cut into four parts. His preserved head (dipped in tar) was placed on a pike atop London Bridge.[24] It was later joined by the heads of the brothers, John and Simon Fraser. HP G62-b55SM Keyboard

His limbs were displayed, separately, in Newcastle upon Tyne, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Stirling, and Perth. A plaque stands in a wall of St. Bartholomew's Hospital near the site of Wallace's execution at Smithfield. HP G62-b55SV Keyboard

In 1869 the Wallace Monument was erected, very close to the site of his victory at Stirling Bridge. The Wallace Sword, which supposedly belonged to Wallace, although some parts were made at least 160 years later, was held for many years in Dumbarton Castle and is now in the Wallace Monument. HP G62-b56EF Keyboard

Although there are problems with writing a satisfactory biography of many medieval persons, the problems with Wallace are greater than usual. Not much is known about him beyond his military campaign of 1297–98, and the last few weeks of his life in 1305. Even in recent years, his birthplace and his father's name have been disputed. HP G62-b56SF Keyboard

To compound this, the legacy of subsequent 'biographical' accounts, sometimes written as propaganda, other times simply as entertainment, has clouded much scholarship until relatively recently. Some accounts have uncritically copied elements from the epic poem, HP G62-b56SG Keyboard

The Acts and Deeds of Sir William Wallace, Knight of Elderslie, written around 1470 by Blind Harry the minstrel. Harry wrote from oral tradition describing events 170 years earlier, and is not in any sense an authoritative descriptor of Wallace's exploits. HP G62-b57EE Keyboard

Much of the poem is clearly at variance with known historical facts and records of the period and is either fabricated using traditional chivalric motifs or 'borrowed' from the exploits of others and attributed to Wallace. HP G62-b57SG Keyboard

In the early 19th century, Walter Scott wrote of Wallace in Exploits and Death of William Wallace, the "Hero of Scotland", and Jane Porter penned a romantic version of the Wallace legend in The Scottish Chiefs in 1810. G. A. HP G62-b58SF Keyboard

Henty wrote a novel in 1885 about this time period titled In Freedom's Cause. Henty, a producer of theBoy's Own Paper fiction who wrote for that magazine, portrays the life of William Wallace, Robert the Bruce,The Black Douglas, and others, HP G62-b58SG Keyboard

while dovetailing the events of his novel with historical fiction. Nigel Tranterwrote a historical novel titled The Wallace, published in 1975, which is said to be more accurate than its literary predecessors. In 2010, the novelist Jack Whyte gave another fictionalized account of Wallace’s life, particularly his early life, in The Forest Laird, the first book in The Guardians of Scotland trilogy. HP G62-b58SS Keyboard

A well-known account is presented in the film Braveheart, directed by and starring Mel Gibson, written byRandall Wallace, and filmed in both Scotland and Ireland. The film, a highly fictionalized account of Wallace's life, was a commercial success and won five Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director. HP G62-b59EE Keyboard

Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic (Scottish Gaelic: Gàidhlig [ˈgaːlikʲ] listen (help·info)) is a Celtic language native toScotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish andManx, developed out of Middle Irish, and thus descends ultimately from Primitive Irish. HP G62-b60EE Keyboard

The 2001 UK Census showed that a total of 58,652 (1.2% of the Scottish population aged over three years old)[7] in Scotland had some Gaelic ability at that time,[2] with the Outer Hebrides being the main stronghold of the language. HP G62-b60EM Keyboard

The census results indicate a decline of 7,300 Gaelic speakers from 1991. Despite this decline, revival efforts exist and the number of younger speakers of the language has increased.[8] HP G62-b60EQ Keyboard

Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of the European Union, nor of the United Kingdom. (The only language that is de jure official in any part of the United Kingdom is Welsh.) However, it is classed as anautochthonous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, HP G62-b60ES Keyboard

which the British government has ratified.[9] In addition, the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005 gave official recognition to the language and established an official language development body Bòrd na Gàidhlig.[10] HP G62-b60EV Keyboard

Outside of Scotland, dialects of the language known as Canadian Gaelic exist in Canada on Cape Breton Island, Glengarry County in present-day Eastern Ontario and other isolated areas of the Nova Scotiamainland. The number of present day speakers in Cape Breton is around 2,000, amounting to 1.3% of the population of Cape Breton Island.[11] HP G62-b60EW Keyboard

Aside from Scottish Gaelic the language may also be referred to simply as Gaelic. In Scotland, the word Gaelicin reference to Scottish Gaelic specifically is pronounced ɡalɪk], while outside Scotland it is often pronounced /ˈɡeɪlɨk/.HP G62-b60SB Keyboard

Scottish Gaelic should not be confused with Scots, which refers to the Anglic language variety traditionally spoken in the Lowlands of Scotland. Prior to the 15th century, the Anglic speech of the Lowlands was known as Inglis ("English"), HP G62-b60SD Keyboard

with Gaelic being called Scottis ("Scottish"). From the late 15th century, however, it became increasingly common to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse ("Irish") to disassociate it from Scotland, and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis.[12] Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. HP G62-b60SF Keyboard

History

The Gaelic language was introduced to Scotland by settlers from Ireland, probably in the 4th century.[13][14]Scottish Gaelic itself developed after the 12th century, along with the other modern Goidelic languages. HP G62-b60SG Keyboard

Scottish Gaelic and its predecessors became the language of the majority of Scotland after it replacedCumbric, Pictish and in considerable areas Old English.[15] There is no definitive date indicating how long Gaelic has been spoken in today's Scotland, HP G62-b60SH Keyboard

though it has been proposed that it was spoken in its ancient form in Argyll before the Roman period.[16]

No consensus has been reached on this question; however, the consolidation of the kingdom of Dál Riataaround the 4th century, linking the ancient province of Ulster in the north of Ireland and western Scotland, accelerated the expansion of the language, HP G62-b60SI Keyboard

as did the success of the Gaelic-speaking church establishment, started by St Columba, and place-name evidence shows that Gaelic was spoken in the Rhinns of Galloway by the 5th or 6th century.[citation needed] The language was maintained by the trade empire of the Lordship of the Isles, which continued to control parts of Ulster until the 16th century. HP G62-b60SJ Keyboard

The Gaelic language eventually displaced Pictish north of the River Forth, and until the late 15th century was known in Scots (then known as Inglis) as Scottis, and in England as Scottish. HP G62-b60SM Keyboard

From around the early 16th century, Scots language speakers gave the Gaelic language the name Erse (meaning Irish in Scots), and thereafter it was invariably the collection of Middle English dialects spoken within the Kingdom of Scotland, HP G62-b60SP Keyboard

that they referred to as Scottis (see Scots language). This in itself was ironic, as it was at this time that Gaelic was developing its distinct and characteristic Scottish forms of the modern period.[17] HP G62-b60SQ Keyboard

Scottish Gaelic was called "Erse" partly because educated Gaelic speakers in Ireland and Scotland all used the literary dialect (sometimes called Classical Gaelic) so that there was little or no difference in usage. When Classical Gaelic stopped being used in schools in both countries, colloquial usage began to predominate, and the languages diverged. HP G62-b60SV Keyboard

Modern era

Scottish Gaelic has a rich oral and written tradition, referred to as beul-aithris in Scottish Gaelic, having been the language of the bardic culture of the Highland clans for many years. The language preserves knowledge of and adherence to pre-feudal 'tribal' laws and customs (as represented, for example, by the expressionstuatha and dùthchas). HP G62-b61EE Keyboard

The language suffered particularly as Highlanders and their traditions were persecuted after the Battle of Culloden in 1746, and during the Highland Clearances, but pre-feudal attitudes were still evident in the complaints and claims of the Highland Land League of the late 19th century. HP G62-b61ES Keyboard

This political movement was successful in getting members elected to the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Land League was dissipated as a parliamentary force by the 1886 Crofters' Act and by the way the Liberal Party was seen to become supportive of Land League objectives.[18] HP G62-b61SG Keyboard

An Irish Gaelic translation of the Bible dating from the Elizabethan period was in use until the Bible was translated into Scottish Gaelic.[19] Author David Ross notes in his 2002 history of Scotland that a Scottish Gaelic version of the Bible was published in London in 1690 by the Rev. HP G62-b62SB Keyboard

Robert Kirk, minister of Aberfoyle; however it was not widely circulated.[20] The first well-known translation of the Bible into Scottish Gaelic was made in 1767 when Dr James Stuart of Killin and Dugald Buchanan of Rannoch produced a translation of the New Testament. HP G62-b62SG Keyboard

Very few European languages have made the transition to a modern literary language without an early modern translation of the Bible. The lack of a well-known translation until the late 18th century may have contributed to the decline of Scottish Gaelic.[19] HP G62-b62SS Keyboard

In the 21st Century, Scottish Gaelic literature has seen development and challenges within the area of prose fiction publication.[21] HP G62-b63EG Keyboard

Phrases such as Alba gu bràth may be used today as a catch-phrase or rallying cry.

Defunct dialects

Scottish Gaelic may be more correctly known as Highland Gaelic to distinguish it from the now defunct dialects of Lowland Gaelic. Of these Galwegian Gaelic was spoken in Galloway and seems to have been the last dialect of Gaelic to have been spoken in Lowland Scotland, HP G62-b63SB Keyboard

surviving until the Modern Period. By the 18th century, Lowland Gaelic had been largely replaced by Lowland Scots[citation needed] across much of Lowland Scotland, while the Brythonic language had disappeared. According to a reference in The Carrick Covenantersby James Crichton,[22]HP G62-b63SG Keyboard

the last place in the Lowlands where Scottish Gaelic was still spoken was the village of Barr in Carrick (only a few miles inland to the east of Girvan, but at one time very isolated). Crichton gives neither date nor details. HP G62-b64EF Keyboard

For further discussion on the subject of Gaelic in the South of Scotland, see articles Gàidhlig Ghallghallaibh agus Alba-a-Deas ("Gaelic of Galloway and Southern Scotland") and Gàidhlig ann an Siorramachd Inbhir-Àir("Gaelic in Ayrshire") by Garbhan MacAoidh, published in GAIRM Numbers 101 and 106. HP G62-b64SG Keyboard

There is, however, no evidence of a linguistic border following the topographical north-south differences. Similarly, HP G62-b65EG Keyboard

there is no evidence from placenames of significant linguistic differences between, for example,Argyll and Galloway. Dialects on both sides of the Straits of Moyle (the North Channel) linking Scottish Gaelic with Irish are now extinct. HP G62-b65EV Keyboard

Today, the closest tied Irish dialect with Highland Gaelic is Ulster Irish, spoken in County Donegal – most notably the Gaoth Dobhair Gaeltacht. Written Ulster Irish as well as common grammatical and vocabulary traits reflects more archaic Classical Gaelic still providing more of a solid link between the two languages than with Official Standard Irish, HP G62-b65SP Keyboard

based on the dialects of southern provinces. However, to claim that Ulster Irish is a perfect intermediate between the Irish and Scottish forms of Gaelic still remains perhaps an over-exaggerated statement. HP G62-b65SS Keyboard

What is known as Scottish Gaelic today seems to have evolved from the Gaelic spoken in The Outer Hebrides and on Skye. Generally speaking, the Gaelic spoken across The Western Isles (with perhaps exception to that of Arran and Kintyre) is similar enough to be classed as one major dialect group, HP G62-b66EG Keyboard

although there is still regional variation, for example the pronunciation of the slender 'r' as [ð] in Lewis, where the Gaelic has a unique Nordic accent, and is described as being 'toned'. HP G62-b66SS Keyboard

Gaelic in Eastern Scotland is now largely defunct, although the dialects which were spoken in the east tended to preserve a more archaic tone, which had been lost further west. For example, Gaelic speakers in East Sutherland prefer to say Cà 'd robh tu m' oidhche a-raoir? (where were you about last night), rather than the more common càit an robh thu (oidhche) a-raoir?. HP G62-b67ES Keyboard

Prehistoric (or Ogham) Irish, the precursor to Old Irish, in turn the precursor to Modern Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx, was written in a carved writing called Ogham. Ogham consisted of marks made above or below a horizontal line. HP G62-b67SS Keyboard

With the advent of Christianity in the 5th century the Latin alphabet was introduced to Ireland. The Goidelic languages have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. HP G62-b70EB Keyboard

The letter h, now mostly used to indicate lenition of a consonant, was in general not used in the oldestorthography, as lenition was instead indicated with a dot over the lenited consonant. The letters of the alphabet were traditionally named after trees (see Scottish Gaelic alphabet), but this custom has fallen out of use. HP G62-b70EG Keyboard

Long vowels are either marked with a grave accent (à, è, ì, ò, ù) or are indicated through digraphs (e.g. ao is[ɯː]) or conditioned by certain consonant environments (e.g. a u preceding a non-intervocalic nn is [uː]). HP G62-b70EP Keyboard

Traditional spelling systems also use the acute accent on the letters á, é and ó to denote a change in vowel quality rather than length, but reform from within the Scottish schools system has abandoned these in parts of Gaelic speaking society. HP G62-b70EQ Keyboard

Certain early sources used only an acute accent along the lines of Irish, particularly in the 18th century sources such as in the writings of Alex MacDonald (1741–51) and the earliest editions (1768–90) of Donnchadh Bán Mac an tSaoir.[25] HP G62-b70EV Keyboard

Orthography

Main article: Scottish Gaelic orthography

Classical Gaelic was used as a literary language in Scotland until the 18th century. Orthographic divergence between Scottish Gaelic and Irish is the result of more recent orthographic reforms resulting in a pluricentric language situation. HP G62-b70EW Keyboard

The 1767 New Testament historically set the standard for Scottish Gaelic. Around the time of World War II, Irish spelling was reformed and the Official Standard or Caighdeán Oifigiúil introduced. Further reform in 1957 eliminated some of the silent letters which are still used in Scottish Gaelic. HP G62-b70SC Keyboard

The 1981 Scottish Examination Board recommendations for Scottish Gaelic, the Gaelic Orthographic Conventions, were adopted by most publishers and agencies, although they remain controversial among some academics, most notably Ronald Black.[26] HP G62-b70SP Keyboard

The quality of consonants is indicated in writing by the vowels surrounding them. So-called "slender" consonants are palatalised while "broad" consonants are neutral or velarised. The vowels e and i are classified as slender, and a, o, and u as broad. HP G62-b70SQ Keyboard

The spelling rule known as caol ri caol agus leathann ri leathann ("slender to slender and broad to broad") requires that a word-medial consonant or consonant group followed by a written i or e be also preceded by an i or e; and similarly if followed by a, o or u be also preceded by an a, o, or u. HP G62-b70SR Keyboard

Consonant quality (palatalised or non-palatalised) is then indicated by the vowels written adjacent to a consonant, and the spelling rule gives the benefit of removing possible uncertainty about consonant quality at the expense of adding additional purely graphic vowels that may not be pronounced. For example, compare the t in slàinte [s̪lˠ̪aːɲtʲə] with the t in bàta [paːʰt̪ə]. HP G62-b70SS Keyboard

The rule has no effect on the pronunciation of vowels. For example, plurals in Gaelic are often formed with the suffix -an, for example, bròg [prɔːk] (shoe) / brògan [prɔːkən] (shoes). But because of the spelling rule, the suffix is spelled -ean (but pronounced the same) after a slender consonant, HP G62-b71SR Keyboard

as in taigh [tʰɤj] (house) /taighean [tʰɛhən] (houses) where the written e is purely a graphic vowel inserted to conform with the spelling rule because an i precedes the gh. HP G62-b72SR Keyboard

In changes promoted by the Scottish Examination Board from 1976 onwards, certain modifications were made to this rule. For example, the suffix of the past participle is always spelled -te, even after a broad consonant, as in togte "raised" (rather than the traditional togta). HP G62-b74SR Keyboard

Once Gaelic orthographic rules have been learned, HP G62-b73SR Keyboard

the pronunciation of the written language is in general quite predictable. However learners must be careful not to try to apply English sound-to-letter correspondences to written Gaelic, otherwise mispronunciations will result. Gaelic personal names such asSeònaid ʃɔːnɛdʲ] are especially likely to be mispronounced by English speakers. HP G62-b75EV Keyboard

Scots English orthographic rules have also been used at various times in Gaelic writing. Notable examples of Gaelic verse composed in this manner are the Book of the Dean of Lismore and the Fernaig manuscript. HP G62-b75SR Keyboard

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Pronunciation

Main article: Scottish Gaelic phonology

Most varieties of Gaelic have between 8 and 9 cardinal vowels ([i e ɛ a o ɔ u ɤ ɯ]) that can be either long or short. There are also two reduced vowels ([ə ɪ]) which only occur short. Although some vowels are strongly nasal, instances of distinctive nasality are rare. There are about nine diphthongs and a few triphthongs. HP G62-b80ES Keyboard

Most consonants have both palatal and non-palatal counterparts, including a very rich system of liquids,nasals and trills (i.e. 3 contrasting l sounds, 3 contrasting n sounds and 3 contrasting r sounds). The historically voiced stops [b d̪ ɡ] have lost their voicing, HP G62-b80EV Keyboard

so the phonemic contrast today is between unaspirated [p t̪ k] and aspirated [pʰ t̪ʰ kʰ]. In many dialects, these stops may however gain voicing through secondary articulation through a preceding nasal, for examples doras [t̪ɔɾəs̪] "door"HP G62-b80SB Keyboard

Following a consultation period, in which the government received many submissions, the majority of which asked that the bill be strengthened, a revised bill was published with the main improvement that the guidance of the Bòrd is now statutory (rather than advisory). HP G62-b80SC Keyboard

In the committee stages in the Scottish Parliament, there was much debate over whether Gaelic should be given 'equal validity' with English. Due to Executive concerns about resourcing implications if this wording was used, the Education Committee settled on the concept of 'equal respect'. It is not clear what the legal force of this wording is. HP G62-b80SG Keyboard

The Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament unanimously, with support from all sectors of the Scottish political spectrum on the 21st of April 2005. HP G62-b80SQ Keyboard

Some commentators, such as Éamonn Ó Gribín (2006) argue that the Gaelic Act falls so far short of the status accorded Welsh that one would be foolish or naïve to believe that any substantial change will occur in the fortunes of the language as a result of Bòrd na Gàidhlig’s efforts.[29] HP G62-b80SS Keyboard

Under the provisions of the 2005 Act, it will ultimately fall to BnG to secure the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland. HP G62-b81EE Keyboard

On 10 December 2008 to celebrate the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, theScottish Human Rights Commission had the UDHR translated into Gaelic for the first time [1]. HP G62-b82EE Keyboard

Education

The Education (Scotland) Act 1872, which completely ignored Gaelic, and led to generations of Gaels being forbidden to speak their native language in the classroom, is now recognised as having dealt a major blow to the language. People still living can recall being beaten for speaking Gaelic in school.[34] The first modern solely Gaelic-medium secondary school, Sgoil Ghàidhlig Ghlaschu ("Glasgow Gaelic School"), HP G62-b82EP Keyboard

was opened at Woodside in Glasgow in 2006 (61 partially Gaelic-medium primary schools and approximately a dozen Gaelic-medium secondary schools also exist). According to Bòrd na Gàidhlig, a total of 2,092 primary pupils were enrolled in Gaelic-medium primary education in 2008–09, as opposed to 24 in 1985.[35] HP G62-b82SP Keyboard

In Nova Scotia, Canada, there are somewhere between 500 and 1,000 native speakers, most of whom are now elderly. In May 2004, the Provincial government announced the funding of an initiative to support the language and its culture within the province. HP G62-b84EP Keyboard

Maxville Public School in Maxville, Glengarry, Ontario, Canada offers Scottish Gaelic lessons weekly.

In Prince Edward Island, Canada, the Colonel Gray High School is now offering two courses in Gaelic, an introductory and an advanced course; both language and history are taught in these classes. This is the first recorded time that Gaelic has ever been taught as an official course on Prince Edward Island. HP G62-b85EQ Keyboard

The UK government has ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in respect of Gaelic. Along with Irish and Welsh, Gaelic is designated under Part III of the Charter, which requires the UK Government to take a range of concrete measures in the fields of education, justice, public administration, broadcasting and culture. HP G62-b85EV Keyboard

The Columba Initiative, also known as colmcille (formerly Iomairt Cholm Cille), is a body that seeks to promote links between speakers of Scottish Gaelic and Irish. HP G62-b85SS Keyboard

However, given there are no longer any monolingual Gaelic speakers,[36] following an appeal in the court case of Taylor v Haughney (1982), involving the status of Gaelic in judicial proceedings, the High Court ruled against a general right to use Gaelic in court proceedings.[37] HP G62-b86SS Keyboard

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