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Anglicanism

Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising churches with historical connections to the Church of England or similar beliefs, worship and church structures.[1] The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 that means the English Church. HP Mini 110-1118NR Keyboard 

Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans. The great majority of Anglicans are members of churches which are part of the international Anglican Communion.[2] There are, however, a number of churches outside of the Anglican Communion which also consider themselves to be Anglican, most notably those referred to as Continuing Anglican churches.[3] HP Mini 110-1118VU Keyboard 

The faith of Anglicans is founded in the scriptures, the traditions of the apostolic church, the apostolic succession – "historic episcopate" and the early Church Fathers.[1] Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity; having definitively declared its independence from the Roman pontiff at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, HP Mini 110-1119NR Keyboard

in what has been otherwise termed the British monachism.[4][5] Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid 16th century corresponded closely to those of contemporary Reformed Protestantism and these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, HP Mini 110-1119TU Keyboard

the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism.[6] By the end of the century, the retention in Anglicanism of many traditional liturgical forms and of the episcopate was already seen as unacceptable by those promoting the most developed Protestant principles. HP Mini 110-1119VU Keyboard

In the first half of the 17th century the Church of England and associated episcopal churches in Ireland and in England's American colonies were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies, structures and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, HP Mini 110-1120ES Keyboard

or via media, between Reformed Protestantism and Roman Catholicism — a perspective that came to be highly influential in later theories of Anglican identity, and was expressed in the description "Catholic and Reformed".[7] Following the American Revolution, HP Mini 110-1120EZ Keyboard

Anglican congregations in the United States and Canada were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures; which, through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches, HP Mini 110-1120LA Keyboard

especially in Africa, Australasia and the regions of the Pacific. In the 19th century the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches; as also that of the Scottish Episcopal Church, which, though originating earlier within the Church of Scotland, had come to be recognised as sharing this common identity. HP Mini 110-1120SA Keyboard

The degree of distinction between Reformed and western Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is routinely a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is theBook of Common Prayer, HP Mini 110-1120SL Keyboard

the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches used for centuries. While it has since undergone many revisions and Anglican churches in different countries have developed other service books, thePrayer Book is still acknowledged as one of the ties that bind the Anglican Communion together. HP Mini 110-1120TU Keyboard

There is no single Anglican Church with universal juridical authority, since each national or regional church has full autonomy. As the name suggests, the Churches of the Anglican Communion are linked by affection and common loyalty. They are in full communion with the Seeof Canterbury and thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, in his person, is a unique focus of Anglican unity. HP Mini 110-1121BR Keyboard

He calls the once-a-decade Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of Primates, and is President of the Anglican Consultative Council[8][9]With a membership estimated at around 80 million members[10] the Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches. HP Mini 110-1121TU Keyboard

Terminology

For more details on the universal Church of which Anglicanism is a part, see Christian Church.

The word Anglicanism is a neologism from the 19th century; constructed from the older word Anglican.[9] The word refers to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury. HP Mini 110-1122BR Keyboard

It has come to be used to refer to the claim of these churches to a unique religious and theological tradition apart from all other Christian churches, be they Orthodox, Roman Catholic or Protestant; and is entirely distinct from the allegiance of some of these churches to the British Crown.[9] HP Mini 110-1122TU Keyboard

The word "Anglican" originates in ecclesia anglicana, a Medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 meaning the "English Church".[11] As an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people, institutions and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts, developed by the Church of England.[9]HP Mini 110-1123TU Keyboard

As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion. The word is also used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, though this is sometimes considered as a misuse.[12] HP Mini 110-1124TU Keyboard

Although the term "Anglican" is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century. In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, HP Mini 110-1125BR Keyboard

it is described as the "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing it from the counterpart established "Protestant Presbyterian Church" in Scotland. High Churchmen, who objected to the term "Protestant", initially promoted the term "Reformed Episcopal ChurchHP Mini 110-1125LA Keyboard

it remains the case that the word "Episcopal" is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church(the province of the Anglican Communion covering the United States) and the Scottish Episcopal Church. Outside the British Isles, however, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred; HP Mini 110-1125NR Keyboard

as it distinguished these churches from others that claimed an episcopal polity; although some churches, in particular the Scottish Episcopal Church, the Church of Ireland and the Church in Wales continue to use the term only with reservations. HP Mini 110-1125SA Keyboard

Anglicanism, in its structures, theology and forms of worship, is commonly understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th century Roman Catholicism and the Lutheran and Reformed varieties of Protestantism of that era. HP Mini 110-1126LA Keyboard

As such, it is often referred to as being a via media(or "middle way") between these traditions. The faith of Anglicans is founded in the Scriptures and the Gospels, the traditions of the Apostolic Church, the historical episcopate, the first seven ecumenical councils and the early Church Fathers. HP Mini 110-1126NR Keyboard

Anglicans understand the Old and New Testaments as "containing all things necessary for salvation" and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith. Anglicans understand the Apostles' Creed as the baptismal symbol and the Nicene Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. HP Mini 110-1127LA Keyboard

Anglicans believe the Catholic and apostolic faith is revealed in Holy Scripture and the Catholic creeds and interpret these in light of the Christian tradition of the historic church, scholarship, reason and experience. HP Mini 110-1127NR Keyboard

Anglicans celebrate the traditional sacraments, with special emphasis being given to theHoly Eucharist, also called Holy Communion, the Lord's Supper or the Mass. The Eucharist is central to worship for most Anglicans as a communal offering of prayer and praise in which the life, HP Mini 110-1127TU Keyboard

death and resurrection of Jesus Christ are proclaimed through prayer, reading of the Bible, singing, giving God thanks over the bread and wine for the innumerable benefits obtained through the passion of Christ, the breaking of the bread, and reception of the bread and wine as representing the body and blood of Christ as instituted at the Last Supper. HP Mini 110-1128TU Keyboard

While many Anglicans celebrate the Eucharist in similar ways to the predominant western Catholic tradition, a considerable degree of liturgical freedom is permitted, and worship styles range from the simple to elaborate. HP Mini 110-1129NR Keyboard

Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer (BCP), the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches used for centuries. It was called common prayer originally because it was intended for use in all Church of England churches which had previously followed differing local liturgies. HP Mini 110-1130LA Keyboard

The term was kept when the church became international because all Anglicans used to share in its use around the world. In 1549, the first Book of Common Prayer was compiled by Thomas Cranmer, who was then Archbishop of Canterbury. HP Mini 110-1130SA Keyboard

While it has since undergone many revisions and Anglican churches in different countries have developed other service books, the Prayer Book is still acknowledged as one of the ties that bind the Anglican Communion together. HP Mini 110-1130SL Keyboard

Development

By the Elizabethan Settlement, the Churches of England and Ireland had been established through legislation in their respective Parliaments; and assumed allegiance and loyalty to the British Crown in all their members. However, from the first, HP Mini 110-1131DX Keyboard

the Elizabethan Church began to develop distinct religious traditions; assimilating some of the theology of Reformed churches with the services in the Book of Common Prayer, under the leadership and organisation of a continuing episcopate;[13] and over the years these traditions themselves came to command adherence and loyalty. HP Mini 110-1131LA Keyboard

Potentially this would create a crisis of identity, were secular and religious loyalties to conflict – and such a crisis indeed occurred in 1776 with the American Declaration of Independence, most of whose signatories were, at least nominally, Anglican.[14] For these American Patriots, HP Mini 110-1132NR Keyboard

even the forms of Anglican services were in doubt, since the Prayer Book rites of Matins, Evensong and Holy Communion, all included specific prayers for the British Royal Family. Consequently, the conclusion of the War of Independence resulted in the creation of two new Anglican churches, HP Mini 110-1132TU Keyboard

The Episcopal Church in the United States of America in those States that had achieved independence; and The Church of England in Canada in those North American colonies remaining under British control and to which many Loyalist churchmen had migrated. Reluctantly, HP Mini 110-1133NR Keyboard

legislation was passed in the British Parliament (the Consecration of Bishops Abroad Act 1786) to allow bishops to be consecrated for an American church outside of allegiance to the British Crown (whereas no bishoprics had ever been established in the former American colonies).[15]HP Mini 110-1133TU Keyboard

Both in the United States and in Canada, the new Anglican churches developed novel models of self-government, collective decision-making, and self-supported financing; that would be consistent with separation of religious and secular identities.[16] HP Mini 110-1134CL Keyboard

In the following century, two further factors acted to accelerate the development of a distinct Anglican identity. From 1828 and 1829, Dissenters and Roman Catholics could be elected to the House of Commons,[17] which consequently ceased to be a body drawn purely from the established churches of Scotland, HP Mini 110-1134TU Keyboard

England and Ireland; but which nevertheless, over the following ten years, engaged in extensive reforming legislation affecting the interests of the established United Church of England and Ireland. The propriety of this legislation was bitterly contested by the Oxford Movement (Tractarians),[18] HP Mini 110-1135CA Keyboard

who in response developed a vision of Anglicanism as religious tradition deriving ultimately from the Ecumenical Councils of the patristic church. Those within the Church of England opposed to the Tractarians, and to their revived ritual practices, HP Mini 110-1135NR Keyboard

introduced a stream of Parliamentary Bills aimed to control innovations in worship;[19] but this only made the dilemma more acute, with consequent continual litigation in the secular and ecclesiastical courts. HP Mini 110-1135TU Keyboard

Over the same period Anglican churches engaged vigorously in Christian missions, resulting in the creation, by the end of the century, of over ninety colonial bishoprics;[20] which gradually coalesced into new self-governing churches on the Canadian and American models. HP Mini 110-1136TU Keyboard

However, the case of John William Colenso Bishop of Natal, reinstated in 1865 by the English Judicial Committee of the Privy Council over the heads of the Church in South Africa,[21] demonstrated acutely that the extension of episcopacy had to be accompanied by a recognised Anglican ecclesiology of ecclesiastical authority, distinct from secular power. HP Mini 110-1137TU Keyboard

Consequently, at the instigation of the bishops of Canada and South Africa, the first Lambeth Conference was called in 1867;[22] to be followed by further conferences in 1878 and 1888, and thereafter at ten year intervals. The various papers and declarations of successive Lambeth Conferences, HP Mini 110-1138TU Keyboard

have served to frame the continued Anglican debate on identity, especially as relating to the possibility of ecumenical discussion with other churches. This ecumenical aspiration became much more of a possibility, HP Mini 110-1139TU Keyboard

as other denominational groups rapidly followed the example of the Anglican Communion in founding their own transnational alliances: the Alliance of Reformed Churches, the Ecumenical Methodist Council, the International Congregational Council, and the Baptist World Alliance. HP Mini 110-1140EA Keyboard

Theories

In their rejection of absolute parliamentary authority, the Tractarians – and in particular John Henry Newman – looked back to the writings of 17th century Anglican divines, finding in these texts the idea of the English church as a via media between the Protestant and Catholic traditions.[23] HP Mini 110-1140EL Keyboard

This view was associated – especially in the writings of Edward Bouverie Pusey – with the theory of Anglicanism as one of three "branches" (alongside the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches) historically arising out of the common tradition of the earliest Ecumenical Councils. HP Mini 110-1140EP Keyboard

Newman himself subsequently rejected the theory of thevia media, as essentially historicist and static; and hence unable to accommodate any dynamic development within the church.[23] Nevertheless, the aspiration to ground Anglican identity in the writings of the 17th century divines, HP Mini 110-1140LA Keyboard

and in faithfulness to the traditions of the Church Fathers reflects a continuing theme of Anglican ecclesiology, most recently in the writings of Henry Robert McAdoo.[24] HP Mini 110-1140SA Keyboard

The Tractarian formulation of the theory of the via media was essentially a party platform, and not acceptable to Anglicans outside the confines of the Oxford Movement. However, the theory of the via media was reworked in the ecclesiological writings of Frederick Denison Maurice, in a more dynamic form that became widely influential. HP Mini 110-1140SS Keyboard

Both Maurice and Newman saw the Church of England of their day as sorely deficient in faith; but whereas Newman had looked back to a distant past when the light of faith might have appeared to burn brighter, Maurice looked forward to the possibility of a brighter revelation of faith in the future. HP Mini 110-1140TU Keyboard

Maurice saw the Protestant and Catholic strands within the Church of England as contrary but complementary, both maintaining elements of the true church, but incomplete without the other; such that a true catholic and evangelical church might come into being by a union of opposites.[25]HP Mini 110-1141TU Keyboard

Central to Maurice's perspective, is his belief that the collective elements of family, nation and church represent a divine order of structures through which God unfolds his continuing work of creation. Hence, for Maurice, the Protestant tradition has maintained the elements of national distinction which are amongst the marks of the true universal church, HP Mini 110-1142TU Keyboard

but which have been lost within Roman Catholicism in the internationalism of centralised Papal Authority. Within the coming universal church that Maurice foresaw, national churches would each maintain the six signs of Catholicity: baptism, Eucharist, the creeds, Scripture, an episcopally ordered ministry, HP Mini 110-1144EZ Keyboard

and a fixed liturgy (which could take a variety of forms in accordance with divinely ordained distinctions in national characteristics).[23]Not surprisingly, this vision of a becoming universal church as a congregation of autonomous national churches, proved highly congenial in Anglican circles; and Maurice's six signs were adapted to form the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888.[26] HP Mini 110-1144NR Keyboard

In the latter decades of the 20th century, Maurice's theory, and the various strands of Anglican thought that derived from it, have been criticised by Stephen Sykes;[27] who argues that the terms Protestant and Catholic as used in these approaches are synthetic constructs denoting ecclesiastic identities unacceptable to those to whom the labels are applied. HP Mini 110-1145NR Keyboard

Hence, the Roman Catholic Church does not regard itself as a party or strand within the universal church – but rather identifies itself as the universal church. Moreover, Sykes criticises the proposition, implicit in theories of via media, that there is no distinctive body of Anglican doctrine, HP Mini 110-1145SS Keyboard

other than those of the universal church; accusing this of being an excuse not to undertake systematic doctrine at all.[28] Contrariwise, Sykes notes a high degree of commonality in Anglican liturgical forms, and in the doctrinal understandings expressed within those liturgies. HP Mini 110-1146SS Keyboard

He proposes that Anglican identity might rather be found within a shared consistent pattern of prescriptive liturgies, established and maintained through canon law, and embodying both a historic deposit of formal statements of doctrine, and also framing the regular reading and proclamation of scripture.[29]HP Mini 110-1146TU Keyboard

Sykes nevertheless agrees with those heirs of Maurice who emphasise the incompleteness of Anglicanism as a positive feature, and quotes with qualified approval the words ofMichael Ramsay: HP Mini 110-1147SS Keyboard

For while the Anglican church is vindicated by its place in history, with a strikingly balanced witness to Gospel and Church and sound learning, its greater vindication lies in its pointing through its own history to something of which it is a fragment. Its credentials are its incompleteness, HP Mini 110-1147TU Keyboard

with the tension and the travail of its soul. It is clumsy and untidy, it baffles neatness and logic. For it is not sent to commend itself as ‘the best type of Christianity,’ but by its very brokenness to point to the universal Church wherein all have died.[30] HP Mini 110-1148TU Keyboard

Catholic and Reformed

In the time of Henry VIII the nature of Anglicanism was based on questions of jurisdiction – specifically, the belief of the Crown that national churchesshould be autonomous – rather than theological disagreement. The effort was to create a national church in legal continuity with its traditions, HP Mini 110-1149TU Keyboard

but inclusive of certain doctrinal and liturgical beliefs of the Reformers. The result has been a movement with a distinctive self-image among Christian movements. The question often arises as to whether the Anglican Communion should be identified as a Protestant or Catholic church, or perhaps as a distinct branch of Christianity altogether. HP Mini 110-1150BR Keyboard

The distinction between Reformed and Catholic, and the coherence of the two, is routinely a matter of debate both within specific Anglican Churches and throughout the Anglican Communion by members themselves. Since the Oxford Movement of the mid-19th century, HP Mini 110-1150CA Keyboard

many Churches of the Communion have revived and extended liturgical and pastoral practices similar to Roman Catholic theology. This extends beyond the ceremony of High Church services to even more theologically significant territory, such as sacramental theology (see Anglican sacraments). HP Mini 110-1150EB Keyboard

While Anglo-Catholic practices, particularly liturgical ones, have resurfaced and become more common within the tradition over the last century, there remain many places where practices and beliefs remain on the more Reformed or Evangelical side (see Sydney Anglicanism). HP Mini 110-1150ED Keyboard

For 'High Church' Anglicans, doctrine is neither established by a magisterium, nor derived from the theology of an eponymousfounder (such as Calvinism), nor summed up in a confession of faith beyond the ecumenical creeds (such as the Lutheran Book of HP Mini 110-1150EF Keyboard

For them, the earliest Anglican theological documents are its prayer books, which they see as the products of profound theological reflection, compromise, and synthesis. They emphasise the Book of Common Prayer as a key expression of Anglican doctrine. THP Mini 110-1150EG Keyboard

he principle of looking to the prayer books as a guide to the parameters of belief and practice is called by the Latin name lex orandi, lex credendi ("the law of prayer is the law of belief"). Within the prayer books are the fundamentals of Anglican doctrine: THP Mini 110-1150EP Keyboard

he Apostles' and Nicene Creeds, the Athanasian Creed (rarely recited today), the scriptures (via the lectionary), the sacraments, daily prayer, the catechism, and apostolic succession in the context of the historic threefold ministry. For some 'Low Church' Anglicans, the 16th-century Reformed Thirty-Nine Articles form the basis of doctrine. HP Mini 110-1150EV Keyboard

Specific Anglican Beliefs

The Thirty-Nine Articles initially played a significant role in Anglican doctrine and practice. Following the passing of the 1604 Canons, all Anglican clergy had to formally subscribe to the Articles. Today, however, the articles are no longer binding, HP Mini 110-1150LA Keyboard

but are seen as a historical document that has played a significant role in the shaping of Anglican identity. The degree to which each of the Articles has remained influential varies. On the doctrine of justification, for example, there is a wide range of beliefs within the Anglican Communion, HP Mini 110-1150NR Keyboard

with some Anglo-Catholics arguing for a faith with good works and the Sacraments. At the same time, however, some Evangelical Anglicans ascribe to the Reformed emphasis on Sola fide in their doctrine of justification (see Sydney Anglicanism.) HP Mini 110-1150SA Keyboard

Still, other Anglicans adopt a nuanced view of justification, taking elements from the early Church Fathers, Catholicism, Protestantism, liberal theology and latitudinarian thought. Arguably, the most influential of the original Articles has been Article VI on the sufficiency of Scripture, which states that Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation: HP Mini 110-1150SF Keyboard

so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man, that it should be believed as an article of the Faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation. This article has informed Anglican biblical exegesis and hermeneutics since earliest times. HP Mini 110-1150SL Keyboard

Anglicans look for authority in their "standard divines" (see below). Historically, the most influential of these – apart from Cranmer – has been the 16th century cleric and theologian Richard Hooker who after 1660 was increasingly portrayed as the founding father of Anglicanism. HP Mini 110-1150SS Keyboard

Hooker's description of Anglican authority as being derived primarily from Scripture, informed by reason (the intellect and the experience of God) and tradition (the practices and beliefs of the historical church), has influenced Anglican self-identity and doctrinal reflection perhaps more powerfully than any other formula. HP Mini 110-1150TU Keyboard

The analogy of the "three-legged stool" of scripture, reason, and tradition is often incorrectly attributed to Hooker. Rather Hooker's description is a hierarchy of authority, with scripture as foundational, and reason and tradition as vitally important, but secondary, authorities. HP Mini 110-1151TU Keyboard

Finally, the extension of Anglicanism into non-English cultures, the growing diversity of prayer books, and the increasing interest in ecumenical dialogue, has led to further reflection on the parameters of the Anglican identity. Many Anglicans look to the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888 as the "sine qua non" of Communal identity.[31] HP Mini 110-1152TU Keyboard

In brief, the Quadrilateral's four points are the Holy Scriptures, as containing all things necessary to salvation; the Creeds (specifically, the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds), as the sufficient statement of Christian faith; the dominical sacraments of Baptism and Holy Communion; and the historic episcopate.[31] HP Mini 110-1153TU Keyboard

Within the Anglican tradition, divines are theological writers whose works have been considered standards for faith, doctrine, worship, and spirituality. While there is no authoritative list of these Anglican divines, there are some whose names would likely be found on most lists – those who are commemorated in lesser feasts of the Church, and those whose works are frequently anthologised.[32] HP Mini 110-1154TU Keyboard

The corpus produced by Anglican divines is diverse. What they have in common is a commitment to the faith as conveyed by Scripture and the Book of Common Prayer, thus regarding prayer and theology in a manner akin to that of the Apostolic Fathers.[33]HP Mini 110-1155EV Keyboard

On the whole, Anglican divines view the via media of Anglicanism, not as a compromise, but "a positive position, witnessing to the universality of God and God's kingdom working through the fallible, earthly ecclesia Anglicana."[34] These theologians regard Scripture as interpreted through tradition and reason as authoritative in matters concerning salvationHP Mini 110-1155LA Keyboard

co-operation between God and humanity, God and nature, and between the sacred and secular. Faith is thus regarded as incarnational, and authority as dispersed. HP Mini 110-1155SS Keyboard

Among the early Anglican divines of the 16th and 17th centuries, the names of Thomas Cranmer, John Jewel, Matthew Parker, Richard Hooker, Lancelot Andrewes, and Jeremy Taylor predominate. The influential character of Hooker's Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity cannot be overestimated. HP Mini 110-1155TU Keyboard

Published in 1593 and subsequently, Hooker's eight volume work is primarily a treatise on Church-state relations, but it deals comprehensively with issues of biblical interpretation, soteriology, ethics, and sanctification. Throughout the work, Hooker makes clear that theology involves prayer and is concerned with ultimate issues, and that theology is relevant to the social mission of the church. HP Mini 110-1156TU Keyboard

The 18th century saw the rise of two important movements in Anglicanism: Cambridge Platonism, with its mystical understanding of reason as the "candle of the Lord," and the Evangelical Revival, with its emphasis on the personal experience of the Holy Spirit. HP Mini 110-1157TU Keyboard

The Cambridge Platonist movement evolved into a school calledLatitudinarianism, which emphasised reason as the barometer of discernment and took a stance of indifference towards doctrinal and ecclesiological differences. The Evangelical Revival, HP Mini 110-1158LA Keyboard

influenced by such figures as John Wesley and Charles Simeon, re-emphasised the importance of justification through faith and the consequent importance of personal conversion. Some in this movement, such as Wesley and George Whitefield, took the message to the United States, HP Mini 110-1158TU Keyboard

influencing the First Great Awakening, and created an Anglo-American movement called Methodism that would eventually break away, structurally, from the Anglican churches after the American Revolution. HP Mini 110-1159TU Keyboard

By the 19th century, there was a renewed interest in pre-Reformation English religious thought and practice: Theologians such as John Keble, Edward Bouverie Pusey, and John Henry Newman had widespread influence in the realm of polemics, homiletics, HP Mini 110-1160EA Keyboard

l:lang="en-us">and theological and devotional works, not least because they largely repudiated the Old High Church tradition and replaced it with a dynamic appeal to antiquity which looked beyond the Reformers and Anglican formularies.[35] Their work is largely credited with the development of the Oxford Movement, HP Mini 110-1160EP Keyboard

which sought to reassert Catholic identity and practice in the Anglican Church.[36] In contrast to this movement, such churchmen as the Bishop of Liverpool, John Charles Ryle sought to uphold the distinctly Protestant identity of the Church of England. He was not a servant of the status quo, but argued for a lively religion which emphasised grace, HP Mini 110-1160EV Keyboard

holy and charitable living, and for the plain use of the 1662 Common Prayer without additional rituals. Frederick Denison Maurice, through such works as The Kingdom of Christ, played a pivotal role in inaugurating another movement, Christian socialism. HP Mini 110-1160SA Keyboard

In this, Maurice transformed Hooker's emphasis on the incarnationalnature of Anglican spirituality to an imperative for social justice. In the 19th century, Anglican biblical scholarship began to assume a distinct character, represented by the so-called "Cambridge triumvirate" of Joseph Lightfoot, F. J. A. HP Mini 110-1160SB Keyboard

Hort, and Brooke Foss Westcott. Their orientation is best summed up by Lightfoot's observation that "Life which Christ is and which Christ communicates, the life which fills our whole beings as we realise its capacities, is active fellowship with God." HP Mini 110-1160SF Keyboard

The 20th century is marked by figures such as Charles Gore, with his emphasis on natural revelation, William Temple's focus on Christianity and society, J.A.T. Robinson's provocative discussions of deism and theism, Darwell Stone's and E. L. Mascall's Thomism and defence of Catholic orthodoxy, HP Mini 110-1160SL Keyboard

and Kenneth Kirk's Moral Theology.[37] Outside England, one sees such figures as William Porcher DuBose, William Meade, and Charles Henry Brent in the United States. More recently, theologians such as Henry Chadwick, John Macquarrie and Don Cupitt, who rejected all the doctrines of historic Christianity in favour of a "Christian Buddhism",[38] Jeffrey John, N. T. Wright, and Rowan Williams have added to the mix. HP Mini 110-1160TU Keyboard

Churchmanship

"Churchmanship" can be defined as the manifestation of theology in the realms of liturgy, piety and, to some extent, spirituality. Anglican diversity in this respect has tended to reflect the diversity in the tradition's Reformed and Catholic identity. Different individuals, groups, parishes, dioceses and provinces may identify more closely with one or the other, or some mixture of the two. HP Mini 110-1161EV Keyboard

The range of Anglican belief and practice became particularly divisive during the 19th century when some clergy were disciplined and even imprisoned on charges of ritual heresy while, at the same time, others were criticised for engaging in public worship services with ministers of Reformed churches. HP Mini 110-1161TU Keyboard

Resistance to the growing acceptance and restoration of traditional Catholic ceremonial by the mainstream of Anglicanism ultimately led to the formation of small breakaway churches such as the Free Church of England in England (1844) and the Reformed Episcopal Church in North America (1873).[39][40] HP Mini 110-1162EV Keyboard

Anglo-Catholic (and some Broad Church) Anglicans celebrate public liturgy in ways that understand worship to be something very special and of utmost importance. Vestments are worn by the clergy, sung settings are often used and incense may be used. Nowadays, in most Anglican churches, HP Mini 110-1162TU Keyboard

the Eucharist is celebrated in a manner similar to the usage of Roman Catholics and some Lutherans though, in many churches, more traditional, "pre-Vatican II", models of worship are common, (e.g. an "eastward orientation" at the altar). Whilst many Anglo-Catholics derive much of their liturgical practice from that of the pre-Reformation English church, HP Mini 110-1163EV Keyboard

others more closely follow traditional Roman Catholic practices. The Eucharist may be sometimes be celebrated, in the form known as High Mass, with a priest, deacon and subdeacon dressed in traditional vestments, with incense and sanctus bells and with prayers adapted from the Roman missal or other sources by the celebrant. HP Mini 110-1165EP Keyboard

Such churches may also have forms of Eucharistic adoration such as Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. In terms of personal piety some Anglicans may recite the rosary and angelus, be involved in a devotional society dedicated to "Our Lady" (the Blessed Virgin Mary) and seek the intercession of the saints. HP Mini 110-1165EV Keyboard

In recent years the prayer books of several provinces have, out of deference to a greater agreement with Eastern Conciliarism (and a perceived greater respect accorded Anglicanism by Eastern Orthodoxy than by Roman Catholicism), instituted a number of historically Eastern and Oriental Orthodox elements in their liturgies, including introduction of the Trisagion and deletion of the filioque clause from the Nicene Creed. HP Mini 110-1165SB Keyboard

HP Mini 110-1169TU Keyboard

For their part, those Evangelical (and some Broad Church) Anglicans who emphasise the more Protestant aspects of the Church stress the Reformation theme ofsalvation by grace through faith. They emphasise the two dominical sacraments of Baptism and Eucharist, viewing the other five as "lesser rites". HP Mini 110-1170ES Keyboard

Some Evangelical Anglicans may even tend to take the inerrancy of Scripture literally, adopting the view of Article VI that it contains all things necessary to salvation in an explicit sense. Worship in churches influenced by these principles tends to be significantly less elaborate, HP Mini 110-1170SF Keyboard

with greater emphasis on theLiturgy of the Word (the reading of the scriptures, the sermon and the intercessory prayers). The Order for Holy Communion may be celebrated bi-weekly or monthly (in preference to the daily offices), by priests attired in choir habit, or more regular clothes, rather than Eucharistic vestments. HP Mini 110-1170SV Keyboard

Ceremony may be in keeping with their view of the provisions of the 17th century Puritans – being a Reformed interpretation of the Ornaments Rubric – no candles, no incense, no bells and a minimum of manual actions by the presiding celebrant (such as touching the elements at the Words of Institution). HP Mini 110-1170TU Keyboard

In recent decades there has been a growth of charismatic worship among Anglicans. Both Anglo-Catholics and Evangelicals have been affected by this movement such that it is not uncommon to find typically charismatic postures, music, and other themes evident during the services of otherwise Anglo-Catholic or Evangelical parishes. HP Mini 110-1171SV Keyboard

The spectrum of Anglican beliefs and practice is too large to be fit into these labels. Many Anglicans locate themselves somewhere in the spectrum of the Broad Church tradition and consider themselves an amalgam of Evangelical and Catholic. HP Mini 110-1171TU Keyboard

Such Anglicans stress that Anglicanism is the "via media" (middle way) between the two major strains of Western Christianity and that Anglicanism is like a "bridge" between the two strains. HP Mini 110-1174TU Keyboard

Sacramental doctrine and practice

Main article: Anglican sacraments

In accord with its prevailing self-identity as a via media or "middle path" of Western Christianity, Anglican sacramental theology expresses elements in keeping with its status as being both a church in the Catholic tradition as well as a Reformed church. HP Mini 110-1175TU Keyboard

With respect to sacramental theology the Catholic heritage is perhaps most strongly asserted in the importance Anglicanism places on the sacraments as a means of grace, sanctification and salvation as expressed in the church's liturgy and doctrine. HP Mini 110-1177TU Keyboard

Of the seven sacraments, all Anglicans recognise Baptism and the Eucharist as being directly instituted by Christ. The other five — Confession and absolution,Matrimony, Confirmation, Holy Orders (also called Ordination) and Anointing of the Sick (also called Unction) — are regarded variously as full sacraments byAnglo-Catholics, HP Mini 110-1178TU Keyboard

many High Church and some Broad Church Anglicans, but merely as "sacramental rites" by other Broad Church and Low Church Anglicans, especiallyEvangelicals associated with Reform UK and the Diocese of Sydney. HP Mini 110-1179TU Keyboard

Anglican Eucharistic theology is divergent in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. Some Low Church Anglicans take a strictly memorialist (Zwinglian) view of the sacrament. In other words, they see Holy Communion as a memorial to Christ's suffering, HP Mini 110-1180EF Keyboard

and participation in the Eucharist as both a re-enactment of the Last Supper and a foreshadowing of the heavenly banquet – the fulfilment of the Eucharistic promise. Other Low Church Anglicans believe in the Real Presence but deny that the presence of Christ is carnal or is necessarily localised in the bread and wine. Despite explicit criticism in theThirty-Nine Articles, HP Mini 110-1180SF Keyboard

many High Church or Anglo-Catholic Anglicans hold, more or less, the Roman Catholic view of the Real Presence, as expressed in the doctrine of transubstantiation, seeing the Eucharist as a liturgical representation of Christ's atoning sacrifice with the elements actually transformed into Christ's Body and Blood. HP Mini 110-1180TU Keyboard

The majority of Anglicans, however, have in common a belief in the Real Presence, defined in one way or another. To that extent, they are in the company of the continental reformer Martin Luther rather than Ulrich Zwingli. HP Mini 110-1183TU Keyboard

In Anglicanism there is a distinction between liturgy, which is the formal public and communal worship of the Church, and personal prayer and devotion which may be public or private. Liturgy is regulated by the prayer books and consists of the Holy Eucharist (some call it Holy Communion or Mass), the other six Sacraments, and the Divine Office or Liturgy of the Hours. HP Mini 110-1184TU Keyboard

The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the foundational prayer book of Anglicanism. The original book of 1549 (revised 1552) was one of the instruments of the English Reformation, replacing the various 'uses' or rites in Latin that had been used in different parts of the country with a single compact volume in the language of the people, so that "now from henceforth all the Realm shall have but one use". HP Mini 110-1185TU Keyboard

Suppressed under Queen Mary I, it was revised in 1559, and then again in 1662, after theRestoration of Charles II. This version was made mandatory in England and Wales by the Act of Uniformity and was in standard use until the mid 20th century. HP Mini 110-1190BR Keyboard

With British colonial expansion from the 17th century onwards, the Anglican church was planted around the globe. These churches at first used and then revised the Book of Common Prayer, until they, like their parent church, produced prayer books which took into account the developments in liturgical study and practice in the 19th and 20th centuries, which come under the general heading of the Liturgical Movement. HP Mini 110-1190EO Keyboard

Worship

Anglican worship services are open to all visitors. Anglican worship originates principally in the reforms of Thomas Cranmer, who aimed to create a set order of service like that of the pre-Reformation church but less complex in its seasonal variety and said in English rather than Latin. HP Mini 110-1190LA Keyboard

This use of a set order of service is not unlike the Roman Catholic tradition. Traditionally the pattern was that laid out in the Book of Common Prayer. Although many Anglican churches now use a wide range of modern service books written in the local language, the structures of the Book of Common Prayer are largely retained. HP Mini 110-1190SF Keyboard

Churches which call themselves Anglican will have identified themselves so because they use some form or variant of the Book of Common Prayer in the shaping of their worship. HP Mini 110-1191EO Keyboard

Anglican worship, however, is as diverse as Anglican theology. A contemporary "low church" or Evangelical service may differ little from the worship of many mainstream non-Anglican Protestant churches. The service is constructed around a sermon focused on Biblical exposition and opened with one or more Bible readings and closed by a series of prayers (both set and extemporised) and hymns or songs. HP Mini 110-1191SL Keyboard

A "high church" or Anglo-Catholic service, by contrast, is usually a more formal liturgy celebrated by clergy in distinctive vestments and may be almost indistinguishable from a Roman Catholic service, often resembling the "pre-Vatican II" Tridentine rite. HP Mini 110-1192EO Keyboard

Between these extremes are a variety of styles of worship, often involving a robed choir and the use of the organ to accompany the singing and to provide music before and after the service. HP Mini 110-1192TU Keyboard

Anglican churches tend to have pews or chairs and it is usual for the congregation to kneel for some prayers but to stand for hymns and other parts of the service such as the Gloria, Collect, Gospel reading, Creed and either the Preface or all of the Eucharistic Prayer. High Anglicans may genuflect or cross themselves in the same way as Roman Catholics. HP Mini 110-1193EO Keyboard

Until the mid-20th century the main Sunday service was typically morning prayer, but the Eucharist has once again become the standard form of Sunday worship in many Anglican churches; this again is similar to Roman Catholic practice. Other common Sunday services include an early morning Eucharist without music, HP Mini 110-1193TU Keyboard

an abbreviated Eucharist following a service of morning prayer and a service of evening prayer, sometimes in the form of sung Evensong, usually celebrated between 3 and 6 pm The late-evening service of Compline was revived in parish use in the early 20th century. Many Anglican churches will also have daily morning and evening prayer and some have midweek or even daily celebration of the Eucharist. HP Mini 110-1194TU Keyboard

An Anglican service (whether or not a Eucharist) will include readings from the Bible that are generally taken from a standardised lectionary, which provides for much of the Bible (and some passages from the Apocrypha) to be read out loud in the church over a three year cycle. HP Mini 110-1195TU Keyboard

The sermon (or homily) is typically about ten to twenty minutes in length, though it may be much longer in Evangelical churches. Even in the most informal Evangelical services it is common for set prayers such as the weekly Collect to be read. There are also set forms for intercessory prayer, though this is now more often extemporaneous. In high and Anglo-Catholic churches there are generally prayers for the dead. HP Mini 110-1196TU Keyboard

Although Anglican public worship is usually ordered according to the canonically approved services, in practice many Anglican churches use forms of service outside these norms. Many Evangelical churches, as well as extreme Anglo-Catholic ones, sit lightly to the set forms of morning and evening prayer, HP Mini 110-1197TU Keyboard

though generally respecting the canonical order of Holy Communion. Liberal churches may use freely structured or experimental forms of worship, including patterns borrowed from ecumenical traditions such as those of Taizé Community or the Iona Community. HP Mini 110-1199EA Keyboard

Anglo-Catholic parishes might use the modern Roman Catholic liturgy of the Mass or more traditional forms, such as the Tridentine Mass (which is translated into English in the English Missal), the Anglican Missal, or, less commonly, the Sarum Rite. Catholic devotions such as the Rosary, Angelus and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament are also common among Anglo-Catholics. HP Mini 110-1199EC Keyboard

Eucharistic discipline

Only baptised persons are eligible to receive communion,[42] although in many churches communion is restricted to those who have not only been baptised but alsoconfirmed. In many Anglican provinces, however, all baptised Christians are now often invited to receive communion and some dioceses have regularised a system for admitting baptised young people to communion before they are confirmed. HP Mini 110-1199ED Keyboard

The discipline of fasting before communion is practised by some Anglicans. Most Anglican priests require the presence of at least one other person for the celebration of the Eucharist (referring back to Christ's statement in Math 18:20 "When two or more are gathered in my name, I will be in the midst of them"), though some Anglo-Catholic priests (like Roman Catholic priests) may say private Masses. HP Mini 110-1199EF Keyboard

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As in the Roman Catholic Church, it is a canonical requirement to use fermented wine for the Communion; unlike in mainstream Roman Catholicism, however, the consecrated bread and wine are always offered together to the congregation in a Eucharistic service ("Communion in Both Kinds"). HP Mini 110-1199EM Keyboard

This practice is gradually being adopted in the Roman Catholic Church too, especially through the Neocatechumenal Way. In some churches the sacrament is reserved in a tabernacle or aumbry with a lighted candle or lamp nearby. In Anglican churches, only a priest or a bishop may be the celebrant at the Eucharist. HP Mini 110-1199EO Keyboard

All Anglican prayer books contain offices for Morning Prayer (Matins) and Evening Prayer (Evensong). In the original Book of Common Prayer these were derived from combinations of the ancient monastic offices of Matins and Lauds; and Vespers andCompline respectively. HP Mini 110-1199ES Keyboard

The prayer offices have an important place in Anglican history. Prior to the Catholic revival of the 19th century, which eventually restored the Holy Eucharist as the principal Sunday liturgy, and especially during the 18th century, a morning service combining Matins, HP Mini 110-1199EV Keyboard

the Litany and ante-Communion comprised the usual expression of common worship; while Matins and Evensong were sung daily in cathedrals and some collegiate chapels. This nurtured a tradition of distinctiveAnglican chant applied to the canticles and psalms used at the offices (although plainsong is often used as well). HP Mini 110-1199EZ Keyboard

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In some official and many unofficial Anglican service books these offices are supplemented by other offices such as theLittle Hours of Prime and prayer during the day such as (Terce, Sext, None and Compline). Some Anglican monastic communities have a Daily Office based on that of the Book of Common Prayer but with additional antiphons and canticles, etc. HP Mini 110-1212NR Keyboard

for specific days of the week, specific psalms, etc. See, for example, Order of the Holy Cross[43] and Order of St Helena, editors, A Monastic Breviary (Wilton, Conn.: Morehouse-Barlow, 1976). The All Saints Sisters of the Poor,[44] with convents in Catonsville, Maryland and elsewhere use an elaborated version of the Anglican Daily Office. The Society of St. Francis publishes Celebrating Common Prayer which has become especially popular for use among Anglicans. HP Mini 110-3000 CTO Keyboard

In England, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and some other Anglican provinces the modern prayer books contain four offices:

In addition, most prayer books include a section of prayers and devotions for family use. In the US, these offices are further supplemented by an "Order of Worship for the Evening", a prelude to or an abbreviated form of Evensong, partly derived from Orthodox prayers. In the United Kingdom, the publication of Daily Prayer, the third volume of Common Worship was published in 2005. HP Mini 110-3000ca Keyboard

It retains the services for Morning and Evening Prayer and Compline and includes a section entitled "Prayer during the Day". 'A New Zealand Prayer Book' of 1989 provides different outlines for Matins and Evensong on each day of the week, as well as "Midday Prayer", "Night Prayer" and "Family Prayer".HP Mini 110-3000ea Keyboard

Some Anglicans who pray the office on daily basis use the present Divine Office of the Roman Catholic Church. In many cities, especially in England, Anglican and Roman Catholic priests and lay people often meet several times a week to pray the office in common. HP Mini 110-3000ei Keyboard

A small but enthusiastic minority use the Anglican Breviary, or other translations and adaptations of the Pre-Vatican II Roman Rite and Sarum Rite, along with supplemental material from cognate western sources, to provide such things as a common of Octaves, a common of Holy Women and other additional material. Others may privately use idiosyncratic forms borrowed from a wide range of Christian traditions. HP Mini 110-3000et Keyboard

"Quires and Places where they sing"

Main article: Anglican church music

In the late medieval period, many English cathedrals and monasteries had established small choirs of trained lay clerks and boy choristers to perform polyphonicsettings of the Mass in their Lady Chapels. Although these "Lady Masses" were discontinued at the Reformation, HP Mini 110-3000sa Keyboard

the associated musical tradition was maintained in the Elizabethan Settlement through the establishment of choral foundations for daily singing of the Divine Office by expanded choirs of men and boys. HP Mini 110-3000sb Keyboard

This resulted from an explicit addition by Elizabeth herself to the injunctions accompanying the 1559 Book of Common Prayer (that had itself made no mention of choral worship) by which existing choral foundations and choir schools were instructed to be continued, and their endowments secured. HP Mini 110-3000sd Keyboard

Consequently, some thirty-four cathedrals, collegiate churches and royal chapels maintained paid establishments of lay singing men and choristers in the late 16th century.[45] All save four of these have – with an interruption during the Commonwealth – continued daily choral prayer and praise to this day. In the Offices of Matins andEvensong in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, these choral establishments are specified as "Quires and Places where they sing".HP Mini 110-3000tu Keyboard

For nearly three centuries, this round of daily professional choral worship represented a tradition entirely distinct from that embodied in the intoning ofParish Clerks, and the singing of "west gallery choirs" which commonly accompanied weekly worship in English parish churches. HP Mini 110-3001ev Keyboard

However, in 1841, the rebuiltLeeds Parish Church established a surpliced choir to accompany parish services; drawing explicitly on the musical traditions of the ancient choral foundations; and over the next century, the Leeds example proved immensely popular and influential for choirs in cathedrals, HP Mini 110-3001sg Keyboard

parish churches and schools throughout the Anglican communion.[46] More or less extensively adapted, this choral tradition also became the direct inspiration for robed choirs leading congregational worship in a wide range of Christian denominations.

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In 1719 the cathedral choirs of Gloucester, Hereford and Worcester combined to establish the annual Three Choirs Festival, the precursor for the multitude of summer music festivals since. By the 20th century, the choral tradition had become for many the most accessible face of worldwide Anglicanism – especially as promoted through the regular broadcasting of choral evensong by the BBC; HP Mini 110-3001sv Keyboard

and also in the annual televising of the festival of Nine lessons and carols fromKing's College, Cambridge. Composers closely concerned with this tradition include Edward Elgar, Ralph Vaughan Williams, HP Mini 110-3001tu Keyboard

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Gustav Holst, Charles Villiers Stanfordand Benjamin Britten. A number of important 20th century works by non-Anglican composers were originally commissioned for the Anglican choral tradition – for example the Chichester Psalms of Leonard Bernstein, and the Nunc dimittis of Arvo Pärt. HP Mini 110-3002sg Keyboard

Principles of governance

Contrary to popular misconception, the British monarch is not the constitutional "head" but in law the "Supreme Governor" of the Church of England, nor does he or she have any role in provinces outside England. The role of the crown in the Church of England is practically limited to the appointment of bishops, HP Mini 110-3002sl Keyboard

including the Archbishop of Canterbury, and even this role is limited, as the Church presents the government with a short list of candidates to choose from. This process is accomplished through collaboration with and consent of ecclesial representatives (see Ecclesiastical Commissioners). HP Mini 110-3002sv Keyboard

The monarch has no constitutional role in Anglican churches in other parts of the world, although the prayer books of several countries where she is head of state maintain prayers for her as sovereign. HP Mini 110-3003eg Keyboard

A characteristic of Anglicanism is that it has no international juridical authority. All thirty-nine provinces of the Anglican Communion are autonomous, each with their own primate and governing structure. These provinces may take the form of national churches (such as in Canada, Uganda, or Japan) or a collection of nations (such as the West Indies, HP Mini 110-3003tu Keyboard

Central Africa, or South Asia), or geographical regions (such as Vanuatu and Solomon Islands) etc. Within these Communion provinces may exist subdivisions, called ecclesiastical provinces, under the jurisdiction of a metropolitan archbishop. All provinces of the Anglican Communion consist of dioceses, each under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the Anglican tradition, bishops must be consecrated according to the strictures of apostolic succession, HP Mini 110-3003xx Keyboard

which Anglicans consider one of the marks of Catholicity. Apart from bishops, there are two other orders of ordained ministry: deacon and priest. No requirement is made for clerical celibacy, though many Anglo-Catholic priests have traditionally been bachelors. HP Mini 110-3004tu Keyboard

Because of innovations that occurred at various points after the latter half of the 20th century, women may be ordained as deacons in almost all provinces, HP Mini 110-3005ei Keyboard

as priests in some, and as bishops in a few provinces. Anglican religious orders and communities, suppressed in England during the Reformation, have re-emerged, especially since the mid-19th century, and now have an international presence and influence. HP Mini 110-3005et Keyboard

Government in the Anglican Communion is synodical, consisting of three houses of laity (usually elected parish representatives), clergy, and bishops. National, provincial, and diocesan synods maintain different scopes of authority, depending on their canons and constitutions. HP Mini 110-3005so Keyboard

Anglicanism is not congregational in its polity: It is the diocese, not the parish church, which is the smallest unit of authority in the church. (See Episcopal polity). HP Mini 110-3005ss Keyboard

The Archbishop of Canterbury has a precedence of honour over the other primates of the Anglican Communion, and for a province to be considered a part of the Communion means specifically to be in full communion with the See of Canterbury. The Archbishop is, therefore, recognised as primus inter pares, HP Mini 110-3006so Keyboard

or first amongst equals even though he does not exercise any direct authority in any province outside England, of which he is chief primate. Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury since 2003, was the first archbishop appointed from outside the Church of England since the Reformation: he was formerly the Archbishop of Wales. HP Mini 110-3006tu Keyboard

As "spiritual head" of the Communion, the Archbishop of Canterbury maintains a certain moral authority, and has the right to determine which churches will be in communion with his See. He hosts and chairs the Lambeth Conferences of Anglican Communion bishops, HP Mini 110-3007tu Keyboard

and decides who will be invited to them. He also hosts and chairs the Anglican Communion Primates' Meeting and is responsible for the invitations to it. He acts as president of the secretariat of the Anglican Communion Office, and its deliberative body, the Anglican Consultative Council. HP Mini 110-3009ca Keyboard

Conferences

Bishops are assisted by priests and deacons. Most ordained ministers in the Anglican Communion are priests, who usually work in parishes within a diocese. Priests are in charge of the spiritual life of parishes and are usually called the rector orvicar. HP Mini 110-3009tu Keyboard

A curate (or, more correctly, an 'assistant curate') is a term often used for a priest or deacon who assists the parish priest. Non-parochial priests may earn their living by any vocation, although employment by educational institutions or charitable organisations is most common. Priests also serve as chaplains of hospitals, schools, prisons, and in the armed forces. HP Mini 110-3010ee Keyboard

An archdeacon is a priest or deacon responsible for administration of an archdeaconry, which is often the name given to the principal subdivisions of a diocese. An archdeacon represents the diocesan bishop in his or her archdeaconry. In the Church of England the position of archdeacon can only be held by someone in priestly orders who has been ordained for at least six years. HP Mini 110-3010ei Keyboard

In some other parts of the Anglican Communion the position can also be held by deacons. In parts of the Anglican Communion where women cannot be ordained as priests or bishops but can be ordained as deacons, the position of archdeacon is effectively the most senior office an ordained woman can be appointed to. HP Mini 110-3010ep Keyboard

A dean is a priest who is the principal cleric of a cathedral or other collegiate church and the head of the chapter of canons. If the cathedral or collegiate church has its own parish, the dean is usually also rector of the parish. However, in the Church of Ireland the roles are often separated and most cathedrals in the Church of England do not have associated parishes. In the Church in Wales, however, most cathedrals are parish churches and their deans are now also vicars of their parishes. HP Mini 110-3010sa Keyboard

The Anglican Communion recognises Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox ordinations as valid. Outside the Anglican Communion, Anglican ordinations (at least of male priests) are recognised by the Old Catholic Church and various Independent Catholic churches. HP Mini 110-3010sb Keyboard

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