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Arizona Arizona (i/ærɪˈzoʊnə/; Navajo: Hoozdo Hahoodzo) is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west. The capital and largest city is Phoenix. The second largest city is Tucson, followed in size by eight Phoenix metropolitan area cities: Mesa, Glendale, Chandler, Scottsdale, Gilbert,Tempe, Peoria, Surprise and then by Yuma in Yuma County. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ240N/B Battery Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912. Arizona is noted for its desert climate, exceptionally hot summers, and mild winters, but it also features pine forests and mountain ranges in the northern high country, with much cooler weather than in the lower deserts. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ240NB Battery Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. It borders New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, and California, touches Colorado, and has a 389-mile (626 km) international border with the states of Sonora and Baja California in Mexico. It is the largest landlocked U.S. state by population. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ25 Battery In addition to the Grand Canyon, many other national forests, parks, and monuments are located in the state, while more than a quarter[5] of its territory is Federal Trust Land which serves as the home of the Navajo Nation, the Hopi tribe, the Tohono O'odham, Apache and Yaqui people and various Yuman tribes, such as the Yavapai, Quechan andHualapai. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ250E Battery The general consensus is that the name of the state comes from an earlier Spanish name, Arizonac, derived from the O'odhamname alĭ ṣonak meaning "small spring", which initially applied only to an area near the Mexican silver mining camp ofPlanchas de Plata, Sonora Sony VAIO VGN-FZ250E/B Battery This is supported by the fact that that area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language.[10] Other possible origins that have been proposed are the Spanish phrase 'árida zona' (arid zone), shortened to Arizona or the Basque phrase aritz ona, "the good oak."[11][12][13]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ260E Battery Geography Arizona is located in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state in area, after New Mexico and before Nevada. Of the state's 113,998 square miles (295,000 km2), approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is publicforest and park land, state trust land and Native American reservations. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ27 Battery Arizona is best known for its desert landscape, which is rich in xerophyte plants such as thecactus. It is also known for its climate, which presents exceptionally hot summers and mild winters. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ280E Battery Less well known is the pine-covered high country of the Colorado Plateau in the north-central portion of the state, which contrasts with the desert Basin and Range region in the southern portions of the state (see Arizona Mountains forests). Sony VAIO VGN-FZ28 Battery Like other states of the Southwest, Arizona has an abundance of topographical characteristics in addition to its desertclimate. Mountains and plateaus are found in more than half of the state. Despite the state's aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest,[14] a percentage comparable to modern dayFrance or Germany. The largest stand in the world of Ponderosa pine trees is contained in Arizona.[15]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ280E/B Battery The Mogollon Rim, a 1,998-foot (609 m) escarpment, cuts across the central section of the state and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, where the state experienced its second worst forest fire ever in 2002. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ280EB Battery The Grand Canyon is a colorful, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River, in northern Arizona. The canyon is one of the seven natural wonders of the world and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park—one of the first national parks in the United States. PresidentTheodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon area, visiting on numerous occasions to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ283BN Battery The canyon was created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6 to 29 km) and attains a depth of more than 1 mile (1.6 km). Nearly 2 billion years of the Earth's history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateaus have uplifted. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ285U Battery Arizona is home to one of the most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world. The Barringer Meteorite Crater (better known simply as "Meteor Crater") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Winslow. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ285U/B Battery A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 150 feet (46 m) above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) wide, and 570 feet (170 m) deep. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ285UB Battery Arizona is one of two states that does not observe Daylight Saving Time, except in the Navajo Nation, located in the northeastern region of the state. The other state being Hawaii. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ290 Battery


Due to its large area and variations in elevation the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and hot summers. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 60 °F (16 °C). November through February are the coldest months with temperatures typically ranging from 40–75 °F (4–24 °C), although occasional frosts are not uncommon. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ290E Battery About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise again with warm days, and cool breezy nights. The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat ranging from 90–128 °F (32–53 °C), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 128 °F (53 °C) having been observed in the desert area.[16]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ290EAB Battery Arizona's all time record high is 128 °F (53 °C) recorded at Lake Havasu City on June 29, 1994 and July 5, 2007; the all time record low of −40 °F (−40 °C) was recorded at Hawley Lake on January 7, 1971. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ290EBB Battery Due to the primarily dry climate, large temperature swings often occur between day and night in less developed areas of the desert. The swings can be as large as 50 °F (28 °C) in the summer months. In the state's urban centers, the effects of local warming result in much higher measured nighttime lows than in the recent past. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ290EBW Battery Arizona has an average annual rainfall of 12.7 inches (323 mm),[17] which comes during two rainy seasons, with cold fronts coming from the Pacific Ocean during the winter and a monsoon in the summer.[18] The monsoon season occurs towards the end of summer. In July or August, the dewpoint rises dramatically for a brief period. During this time, the air contains large amounts of water vapor. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ290ECB Battery Dewpoints as high as 81°F (27 °C)[19] have been recorded during the Phoenix monsoon season. This hot moisture brings lightning, thunderstorms, wind, and torrential, if usually brief, downpours. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ290EGB Battery These downpours often cause flash floods, which can turn deadly. In an attempt to deter drivers from crossing flooding streams, the Arizona Legislature enacted the Stupid Motorist Law. It is rare for tornadoes and hurricanes to occur in Arizona, but there are records of both occurring. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ290EGE Battery The northern third of Arizona is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers. Extreme cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F (−18 °C) to the Northern parts of the state. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ290EGC Battery Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 °F (38 °C) (Phoenix), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with nearly the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff).[20]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ290EGS Battery History Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, explored parts of the area in 1539 and met some of its original native inhabitants, probably the Sobaipuri. The expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Father Kinowas the next European in the region. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ290N Battery A member of the Society of Jesus he lead the development of a chain of missions and converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora) in the 1690s and early 18th century. Spain founded presidios (fortified towns) at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ290U Battery When Mexico achieved its independence from Spain in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of the Territory of Nueva California, also known as Alta California.[21] In the Mexican–American War (1847), the U.S. occupied Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what later became Arizona. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ29VN Battery The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) specified that the sum of $15 million U.S. dollars in compensation (equivalent to about $380 million in present day terms[22]) be paid to the Republic of Mexico.[23] In 1853 the land below the Gila River was acquired from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery Arizona was administered as part of the Territory of New Mexico until southern New Mexico seceded[24] from the Union as the Confederate Territory of Arizona on March 16, 1861. Arizona was recognized as a Confederate Territory by presidential proclamation of Jefferson Davis on February 14, 1862. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery This is the first official use of the name. A new Arizona Territory, consisting of the western half of New Mexico Territory was declared in Washington, D.C., on February 24, 1863. The new boundaries would later form the basis of the state. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery Although names including "Gadsonia", "Pimeria", "Montezuma" and "Arizuma" had been considered for the territory,[25]when President Lincoln signed the final bill, it read "Arizona", and the name became permanent. (Montezuma was not the AztecEmperor, but the sacred name of a divine hero to the Pima people of the Gila valley, and was probably considered—and rejected—for its sentimental value before the name "Arizona" was settled upon.) Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery Brigham Young sent Mormons to Arizona in the mid-to-late 19th century. They founded Mesa, Snowflake, Heber, Safford and other towns. They also settled in the Phoenix Valley (or "Valley of the Sun"), Tempe, Prescott, and other areas. The Mormons settled what became known as Northern Arizona and northern New Mexico, but these areas were located in a part of the former New Mexico Territory. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ320E/B Battery During the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920, a few battles were fought in the Mexican towns just across the border from Arizona border settlements. Throughout the revolution, Arizonans were enlisting in one of the several armies fighting in Mexico. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ320EB Battery The Battle of Ambos Nogales in 1918, other than Pancho Villa's 1916 Columbus Raid in New Mexico, was the only significant engagement on U.S. soil between United States and Mexican forces. The battle resulted in an American victory. After U.S. soldiers were fired on by Mexican Federal troops, the American garrison then launched an assault into Nogales Mexico. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ32B Battery The Mexicans eventually surrendered after both sides sustained heavy casualties. A few months earlier, just west of Nogales, an Indian War battle occurred, thus being the last engagement in the American Indian Wars which lasted from 1775 to 1918. The participants in the fight were U.S. soldiers stationed on the border and Yaqui Indians who were using Arizona as a base to raid the nearby Mexican settlements, as part of their wars against Mexico. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery Arizona became a U.S. state on February 14, 1912. This resulted in the end to the territorial colonization of Continental America. Arizona was the 48th state admitted into the U.S. and the last of the contiguous states to be admitted. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ340E/B Battery Cotton farming and copper mining, two of Arizona's most important statewide industries, suffered heavily during the Great Depression, but it was during the 1920s and 1930s that tourism began to be the important Arizona industry it is today. Dude ranches such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg, along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ340N Battery gave tourists the chance to experience the flavor and life of the "old West." Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which are still top tourist draws to this day; they include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in central Phoenix (opened 1929) and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area (opened 1936). Sony VAIO VGN-FZ345E Battery Arizona was the site of German and Italian POW camps during World War II and Japanese U.S.-resident internment camps. The camps were abolished after World War II. The Phoenix area site was purchased after the war by the Maytag family (of major home appliancefame), and is currently utilized as the Phoenix Zoo. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ345E/B Battery A Japanese American internment camp was located on Mount Lemmon, just outside of the state's southeastern city of Tucson. Another POW camp was located near the Gila River in eastern Yuma County. Because of wartime fears of Japanese invasion of the west coast, all Japanese residents in western Arizona were required to reside in the war camps. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ345EB Battery Arizona was also home to the Phoenix Indian School, one of several federal institutions designed to forcibly assimilate native children into Anglo-American culture. Children were often enrolled into these schools against the wishes of their parents and families. Attempts to suppress native identities included forcing the children to cut their hair and take on English names.[26]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ348E Battery Arizona's population grew tremendously after World War II, in part because of the development of air conditioning, which made the intense summers more comfortable. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ348E/B Battery According to the Arizona Blue Book (published by the Arizona Secretary of State's office each year), the state population in 1910 was 294,353. By 1970, it was 1,752,122. The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20% in the earlier decades and about 60% each decade thereafter. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ348EB Battery The 1960s saw the establishment of retirement communities, special age-restricted subdivisions catering exclusively to the needs of senior citizens who wanted to escape the harsh winters of the Midwest and the Northeast. Sun City, established by developer Del Webb and opened in 1960, was one of the first such communities. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ35 Battery Green Valley, south of Tucson, was another such community and was designed to be a retirement subdivision for Arizona's teachers. (Many senior citizens arrive in Arizona each winter and stay only during the winter months; they are referred to as snowbirds.) Sony VAIO VGN-FZ37 Battery In March 2000, Arizona was the site of the first legally binding election to nominate a candidate for public office ever held over the internet.[27] In the 2000 Arizona Democratic Primary, under worldwide attention, Al Gore defeated Bill Bradley, and voter turnout increased more than 500% over the 1996 primary. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38 Battery Three ships named USS Arizona have been christened in honor of the state, although only USS Arizona (BB-39) was so named after statehood was achieved. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ390 Battery Arizona remained sparsely settled for most of the 19th century.[28] The 1860 census reported the population of "Arizona County" to be 6,482, of whom 4,040 were listed as "Indians", 21 as "free colored" and 2,421 as "white".[29] As of 2006, Arizona had an estimated population of 6,166,318.[30] Arizona's continued population growth is putting an enormous stress on the state's water supplies.[31]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ390EBB Battery The population of the Phoenix metropolitan area increased by 45.3% from 1991 through 2001, helping to make Arizona the second fastest growing state in the nation in the 1990s (the fastest was Nevada).[32] Currently, the population of the Phoenix metropolitan area is estimated to be over 4.3 million. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ4000 Battery According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Arizona had a population of 6,392,017. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 73.0% White (57.8% Non-Hispanic White Alone), 4.1% Black or African American, 4.6% American Indian and Alaska Native, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ410E Battery 2.8% Asian, 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 11.9% from Some Other Race, and 3.4% from Two or More Races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 29.6% of the state's population.[33]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ410E/B Battery Arizona is home to the largest number of speakers of Native American languages in the 48 contiguous states, with over 85,000 individuals speaking Navajo,[1] and 10,403 persons reporting Apache as the language spoken at home in 2005.[1]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ410EB Battery In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 7.9% of the population. This was the second highest percentage of any state in the nation.[34][35]


As of the year 2000, the RCMS[36] reported that the three largest denominational groups in Arizona are Catholic, Evangelical Protestant and Mainline Protestant. TheCatholic Church has the highest number of adherents in Arizona (at 974,883), followed by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 251, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ420E Battery 974 members reported and the Southern Baptist Convention, reporting 138,516 adherents. The religious body with the largest number of congregations is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints(with 643 congregations) followed by the Southern Baptist Convention (with 323 congregations). Sony VAIO VGN-FZ430E Battery The 2006 total gross state product was $232 billion. If Arizona (and each of the other U.S. states) were an independent country along with all existing countries (2005), it would have the 61st largest economy in the world (CIA - The World Factbook). This figure gives Arizona a larger economy than such countries as Ireland, Finland, and New Zealand. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ430E/B Battery Arizona currently has the 21st largest economy among states in the United States. As a percentage of its overall budget, Arizona's projected 1.7 billion deficit for '09 is one of the largest in the country, behind such states as Texas, California, Michigan, and Florida, to name a few.[38]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ430EB Battery The state's per capita income is $40,828, ranking 39th in the U.S. The state had a median household income of $50,958 making it 22nd in the country and just shy of the U.S. national median.[39] Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "five C's": copper (see Copper mining in Arizona), Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440E Battery cotton, cattle, citrus, andclimate (tourism). At one point Arizona was the largest producer of cotton in the country. Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440N Battery Arizona collects personal income taxes in five brackets: 2.87%, 3.20%, 3.74%, 4.72% and 5.04%. The state sales tax is 6.6%; however, county and municipal sales taxes generally add an additional 2%.Sony VAIO VGN-FZ445E Battery The state rate on transient lodging (hotel/motel) is 7.27%. The state of Arizona does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist. However, some cities in Arizona do levy a tax on food for home consumption. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ445E/B Battery All fifteen Arizona counties levy a tax. Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which, with the exception of their hotel/motel tax, are generally in the range of 1-to-3%. These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10.7%.Sony VAIO VGN-FZ445EB Battery

Public transportation, Amtrak, and intercity bus

The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems. Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems. Greyhound Lines serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ455E Battery A light rail system called Valley Metro Rail has recently been completed in Phoenix; it connects Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe. The system officially opened for service in December 2008. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ455E/B Battery In May 2006, voters in Tucson approved a Regional Transportation Plan (a comprehensive bus transit/streetcar/roadway improvement program), and its funding via a new half-cent sales tax increment. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ455EB Battery The centerpiece of the plan is a light rail streetcar system (possibly similar to the Portland Streetcar in Oregon) that will travel through the downtown area, connecting the main University of Arizona campus with the Rio Nuevo master plan area on the western edge of downtown.[41]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery Amtrak Southwest Chief route serves Northern AZ, stopping at Winslow, Flagstaff, Williams and Kingman. The Texas Eagleand Sunset Limited routes serve South-Central Arizona, stopping at Tucson, Maricopa, Yuma and Benson. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ460E/B Battery Airports with regularly scheduled commercial flights include: Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX) in Phoenix (the largest airport and the major international airport in the state); Tucson International Airport (IATA: TUS, ICAO: KTUS) in Tucson; Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (IATA: AZA, ICAO: KIWA) in Mesa; Yuma International Airport (IATA: NYL, ICAO: KNYL) in Yuma; Prescott Municipal Airport (PRC) in Prescott; Sony VAIO VGN-FZ460EB Battery Flagstaff Pulliam Airport (IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG) in Flagstaff, and Grand Canyon National Park Airport (IATA: GCN, ICAO: KGCN, FAA: GCN), a small, but busy, single-runway facility providing tourist flights, mostly from Las Vegas. Phoenix Sky Harbor is currently 7th busiest airport in the world in terms of aircraft movements, and 17th for passenger traffic.[42][43]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ470E Battery Other significant airports without regularly scheduled commercial flights include Scottsdale Municipal Airport (IATA: SCF, ICAO: KSDL) in Scottsdale, and Deer Valley Airport (IATA: DVT, ICAO: KDVT, FAA: DVT) home to two flight training academies and the Nation's busiest general aviation airport.[44]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ470E/B Battery

Capitol complex

The state capital of Arizona is Phoenix. The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900), when the area was still a territory. Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ470EB Battery The House of Representatives and Senate buildings were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located). The original Capitol building was converted into a museum. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza, named after Wesley Bolin, a governor who died in office in the 1970s. Numerous monuments and memorials are on the site, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor), a granite version of the Sony VAIO VGN-FZ480E/B Battery Arkansas Arkansas (i/ˈɑrkənsɔː/ ar-kən-saw)[4] is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Its name is anAlgonquian name of the Quapaw Indians. Arkansas shares a border with six states (clockwise: N:Missouri; E: Tennessee,Mississippi; S: Louisiana; W: Texas, Oklahoma) with its eastern border largely defined by the Mississippi River. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ480EB Battery Its diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River. The capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ485U Battery The name "Arkansas" derives from the same root as the name for the State of Franklin. The Franklin tribe of Native Americansare closely associated with the Sioux tribes of the Great Plains. The word "Arkansas" itself is a French pronunciation ("Arcansas") of a Quapaw (a related "Kaw" tribe) word "akakaze" meaning "land of downriver people" or the Sioux word "Akakaze" meaning "people of the south wind".Sony VAIO VGN-FZ485U/B Battery The pronunciation of Arkansas was made official by an act of the state legislature in 1881, after a dispute between the two U.S. Senators from Arkansas. One wanted to pronounce the name/ɑrˈkænzəs/ ar-kan-zəs and the other wanted /ˈɑrkənsɔː/ ar-kən-saw.[5]Sony VAIO VGN-FZ485UB Battery In 2007, the state legislature officially declared the possessive form of the state's name to be Arkansas's.[6]Geography The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay andGreene counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of theMissouri Bootheel, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ490 Battery and in dozens of places where the current channel of the Mississippi has meandered from where it had last been legally specified.[7] Arkansas shares its southern border with Louisiana, its northern border with Missouri, its eastern border with Tennessee and Mississippi, and its western border with Texas andOklahoma. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ490EAB Battery Arkansas is a land of lakes and rivers, thick forests and fertile soil. The Arkansas Delta is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape. Both are fertile agricultural areas. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ50B Battery The Delta region is bisected by an unusual geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet (150 m) above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ51B Battery Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains and these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; the southern and eastern parts of Arkansas are called the Lowlands. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ52B Battery These mountain ranges are part of the U.S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains.[8][9] The highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains ; it rises to 2,753 feet (839 m) above sea level. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ52B2 Battery Arkansas is home to many caves, such as Blanchard Springs Caverns. More than 43,000 Native American living, hunting and tool making sites, many of them Pre-Columbian burial mounds and rock shelters, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ61B Battery have been catalogued by the State Archeologist. Arkansas is currently the only U.S. state in which diamonds are mined—although by members of the public with primitive digging tools for a small daily fee, not by commercial interests.[10][11] (near Murfreesboro). Sony VAIO VGN-FZ62B Battery The Trail of Tears National Historic Trail also runs through Arkansas.[12] Arkansas is home to a dozen Wilderness Areas totaling around 150,000 acres (610 km2). These areas are set aside for outdoor recreation and are open to hunting, fishing, hiking, and primitive camping. No mechanized vehicles are allowed in these areas, some of which are rarely visited and can provide a good experience of feeling as if you are the only person to have ever stepped foot there. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ70B Battery


Arkansas generally has a humid subtropical climate, which borders on humid continental in some northern highland areas. While not bordering the Gulf of Mexico, Arkansas is still close enough to this warm, large body of water for it to influence the weather in the state. Generally, Arkansas has hot, humid summers and cold, slightly drier winters. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ71B Battery In Little Rock, the daily high temperatures average around 90 °F (32 °C) with lows around 70 °F (21 °C) in the month of July. In January highs average around 49 °F (9 °C) and lows around 30 °F (−1 °C). In Siloam Springs in the northwest part of the state, the average high and low temperatures in July are 89 °F (32 °C) and 67 °F (19 °C) and in January the average high and lows are 44 °F (7 °C) and 23 °F (−5 °C). Sony VAIO VGN-FZ72B Battery Annual precipitation throughout the state averages between about 40 and 60 inches (1,000 and 1,500 mm); somewhat wetter in the south and drier in the northern part of the state.[13] Snowfall is common, more so in the north half of the state, which usually gets several snowfalls each winter. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ90HS Battery This is not only due to its closer proximity to the plains states, but also to the higher elevations found throughout the Ozark and Ouachita mountains. The half of the state south of Little Rock gets less snow, and is more apt to see ice storms, however, sleet and freezing rain are expected throughout the state during the winter months, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ90NS Battery and can significantly impact travel and day to day life. Arkansas' all time record high is 120 °F (49 °C) at Ozark on August 10, 1936; the all time record low is −29 °F (−34 °C) at Pond on February 13, 1905. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ90S Battery Arkansas is known for extreme weather. A typical year will see thunderstorms, tornadoes, hail, snow and ice storms. Between both the Great Plains and the Gulf States, Arkansas receives around 60 days of thunderstorms. A few of the most destructive tornadoes in U.S. history have struck the state. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ91HS Battery While being sufficiently away from the coast to be safe from a direct hit from a hurricane, Arkansas can often get the remnants of a tropical system which dumps tremendous amounts of rain in a short time and often spawns smaller tornadoes. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ91NS Battery History The first European to reach Arkansas was the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto, a veteran of Pizarro's conquest of Peru who died near Lake Village on the Mississippi River in 1542 after almost a year traversing the southern part of the state in search of gold and a passage to China. Arkansas is one of several U.S. states formed from the territory purchased fromNapoleon Bonaparte in the Louisiana Purchase. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ91S Battery The early Spanish or French explorers of the state gave it its name, which is probably a phonetic spelling of the Illinois tribe's name for the Quapaw people, who lived downriver from them. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ92NS Battery OtherNative American tribes who lived in Arkansas before moving west were the Quapaw, Caddo, and Osage nations. In their forced move westward (under U.S. Indian removal policies), the Five Civilized Tribes inhabited Arkansas during its territorial period. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ92HS Battery The Territory of Arkansas[5] was organized on July 4, 1819. On June 15, 1836, the State of Arkansas was admitted to the Unionas the 25th state and the 13th slave state. Planters settled in the Delta to cultivate cotton; this was the area of the state where most enslaved African Americans were held. Other areas had more subsistence farmers and mixed farming. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ92S Battery Arkansas played a key role in aiding Texas in its war for independence from Mexico; it sent troops and materials to Texas to help fight the war. The proximity of the city of Washington to the Texas border involved the town in the Texas Revolution of 1835–36. Sony VAIO VGN-G118CN Battery Some evidence suggests Sam Houston and his compatriots planned the revolt in a tavern at Washington in 1834.[15] When the fighting began, a stream of volunteers from Arkansas and the southeastern states flowed through the town toward the Texas battle fields. Sony VAIO VGN-G118GN/B Battery When the Mexican-American War began in 1846, Washington became a rendezvous for volunteer troops. Governor Thomas S. Drew issued a proclamation calling on the state to furnish one regiment of cavalry and one battalion of infantry to join the United States Army. Ten companies of men assembled here, where they were formed into the first Regiment of Arkansas Cavalry. Sony VAIO VGN-G118GN/T Battery The state developed a cotton culture in the east in lands of the Mississippi Delta. This was where enslaved labor was used most extensively, as planters brought with them or imported slaves from the Upper South. On the eve of the Civil War in 1860, enslaved African Americans numbered 111,115 people, just over 25% of the state's population.[16]Sony VAIO VGN-G118TN/B Battery Arkansas refused to join the Confederate States of America until after United States President Abraham Lincoln called for troops to respond to the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, South Carolina. The State of Arkansas declared its secession from the Union on May 6, 1861. While not often cited in historical accounts, the state was the scene of numerous small-scale battles during the American Civil War. Sony VAIO VGN-G118TN/S Battery Arkansans of note who contributed to the Civil War included Confederate Major GeneralPatrick Cleburne. Considered by many to be one of the most brilliant Confederate division commanders of the war, Cleburne was often referred to as "The Stonewall of the West." Also of note was Major General Thomas C. Hindman. A former United States Representative, Hindman commanded Confederate forces at the Battle of Cane Hilland Battle of Prairie Grove. Sony VAIO VGN-G11VN/T Battery Under the Military Reconstruction Act, Congress restored Arkansas to the Union in June 1868. The Reconstruction legislature established universal male suffrage while disenfranchising former Confederates (mostly Democrats), a public education system, and other general issues to improve the state and help more of the population. Sony VAIO VGN-G11VN/TC Battery The state came under almost exclusive control of Radical Republicans, (those who emigrated from the North being derided as "carpetbaggers" by ex-Confederates based on allegations of corruption), led by newly elected Governor Powell Clayton, marking a time of great upheaval and racial violence in the state between state militia and the Ku Klux Klan. Sony VAIO VGN-G11XN/B Battery In 1874, the Brooks-Baxter War, a political struggle between factions of the Republican Party shook Little Rock and the state governorship. It was settled only when President Ulysses S. Grant ordered Joseph Brooks to disperse his militant supporters.[17]Sony VAIO VGN-G1AAPS Battery Following the Brooks-Baxter War, a new state constitution was ratified re-enfranchising former Confederates. In 1881, the Arkansas state legislature enacted a bill that adopted an official pronunciation of the state's name, to combat a controversy then simmering. (See Law and Government below.) Sony VAIO VGN-G1AAPSA Battery After Reconstruction, the state began to receive more immigrants and migrants. Chinese, Italian, and Syrian men were recruited for farm labor in the developing Delta region. None of these nationalities stayed long at farm labor; the Chinese especially quickly became small merchants in towns around the Delta. Some early 20th century immigration included people from eastern Europe. Sony VAIO VGN-G1AAPSB Battery Together, these immigrants made the Delta more diverse than the rest of the state. In the same years, some black migrants moved into the area because of opportunities to develop the bottomlands and own their own property. Many Chinese became such successful merchants in small towns that they were able to educate their children at college.[18]Sony VAIO VGN-G1AAPSC Battery Construction of railroads enabled more farmers to get their products to market. It also brought new development into different parts of the state, including the Ozarks, where some areas were developed as resorts. In a few years at the end of the 19th century, for instance, Eureka Springs in Carroll County grew to 10,000 people, rapidly becoming a tourist destination and the fourth largest city of the state. Sony VAIO VGN-G1ABNS Battery It featured newly constructed, elegant resort hotels and spas planned around its natural springs, considered to have healthful properties. The town's attractions included horse racing and other entertainment. It appealed to a wide variety of classes, becoming almost as popular as Hot Springs. Sony VAIO VGN-G1KAP Battery In the late 1880s, the worsening agricultural depression catalyzed Populist and third party movements, leading to interracial coalitions. Struggling to stay in power, in the 1890s the Democrats in Arkansas followed other Southern states in passing legislation and constitutional amendments that disfranchised blacks and poor whites. Democrats wanted to prevent their alliance. Sony VAIO VGN-G1KBN Battery In 1891 state legislators passed a requirement for a literacy test, knowing that many blacks and whites would be excluded, at a time when more than 25% of the population could neither read nor write. In 1892 they amended the state constitution to include a poll tax and more complex residency requirements, both of which adversely affected poor people and sharecroppers, and forced them from electoral rolls. Sony VAIO VGN-G1KBNA Battery By 1900 the Democratic Party expanded use of the white primary in county and state elections, further denying blacks a part in the political process. Only in the primary was there any competition among candidates, as Democrats held all the power. The state was a Democratic one-party state for decades, until after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 were passed.[19]Sony VAIO VGN-G1LAP Battery Between 1905 and 1911, Arkansas began to receive a small migration of German, Slovak, and Irish immigrants. The German and Slovak peoples settled in the eastern part of the state known as the Prairie, and the Irish founded small communities in the southeast part of the state. The Germans were mostly Catholic and the Slovaks were Lutheran. The Irish were mostly Protestant from Ulster. Sony VAIO VGN-G1LBN Battery After the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas in 1954, the Little Rock Nine brought Arkansas to national attention when the Federal government intervened to protect African-American students trying to integrate a high school in the Arkansas capital. Sony VAIO VGN-G218LN/T Battery Governor Orval Faubus ordered theArkansas National Guard to aid segregationists in preventing nine African-American students from enrolling at Little Rock's Central High School. After attempting three times to contact Faubus, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent 1000 troops from the active-duty 101st Airborne Division to escort and protect the African-American students as they entered school on September 25, 1957. Sony VAIO VGN-G218N/B Battery In defiance of federal court orders to integrate, the governor and city of Little Rock decided to close the high schools for the remainder of the school year. By the fall of 1959, the Little Rock high schools were completely integrated.[20]Sony VAIO VGN-G21XP/B Battery Bill Clinton, the 42nd President of the United States, was born in Hope, Arkansas. Before his presidency, Clinton served as the 40th and 42nd Governor of Arkansas, a total of nearly 12 years. Sony VAIO VGN-G2AANS Battery Demographics As of 2006, Arkansas has an estimated population of 2,810,872,[22] which is an increase of 29,154, or 1.1%, from the prior year and an increase of 105,756, or 4.0%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 52,214 people (that is 198,800 births minus 146,586 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 57,611 people into the state. Sony VAIO VGN-G2AAPS Battery Immigrati

on from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 21,947 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 35,664 people. It is estimated that about 48.8% is male, and 51.2% is female. From 2000 through 2006 Arkansas has had a population growth of 5.1% or 137,472.[23] The population density of the state is 51.3 people per square mile. Sony VAIO VGN-G2AAPSA Battery According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Arkansas had a population of 2,915,918. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 77.0% White, 15.4% Black or African American, 0.8% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.2% Asian, 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 3.4% from Some Other Race, and 2.0% from Two or More Races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 6.4% of the population.[24]Sony VAIO VGN-G2AAPSB Battery According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey,[25] the ten largest ancestry groups in the state African American(15.5%), Irish(13.6%), German (12.5%), American (11.1%), English (10.3%), French (2.4%), Scotch-Irish (2.1%), Dutch (1.9%), Scottish(1.9%) andItalian (1.7%).Sony VAIO VGN-G2AAPSC Battery European Americans have a strong presence in the northwestern Ozarks and the central part of the state. African Americans live mainly in the southern and eastern parts of the state. Arkansans of Irish, English and German ancestry are mostly found in the far northwestern Ozarks near the Missouri border. Ancestors of the Irish in the Ozarks were chiefly Scotch-Irish, Sony VAIO VGN-G2KAN Battery Protestants from Northern Ireland, the Scottish lowlands and northern England part of the largest group of immigrants from Great Britainand Ireland before the American Revolution. English and Scotch-Irish immigrants settled throughout the backcountry of the South and in the more mountainous areas. Americans of English stock are found throughout the state and make up roughly one tenth of all Arkansans.[26]Sony VAIO VGN-G2KANA Battery According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, 93.8% of Arkansas' population (over the age of five) spoke only Englishat home. About 4.5% of the state's population spoke Spanish at home. About 0.7% of the state's population spoke any other Indo-European language. About 0.8% of the state's population spoke an Asian language, and 0.2% spoke other languages. Sony VAIO VGN-G2KBNA Battery In 2006, Arkansas has a larger percentage of tobacco smokers than the national average, with 24.0% of adults smoking.[27] The state's gross domestic product for 2005 was $87 billion. Sony VAIO VGN-NR160E/S Battery Its per capita household median income (in current dollars) for 2004 was $35,295, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.[30] The state's agriculture outputs are poultry and eggs, soybeans, sorghum, cattle, cotton, rice, hogs, and milk. Its industrial outputs are food processing, electric equipment, fabricated metal products, machinery, paper products, bromine, and vanadium. Sony VAIO VGN-NR160E/T Battery As of January 2010, the state's unemployment rate is 7.6%.[31] Several global companies are headquartered in the northwest corner of Arkansas, including Wal-Mart (the world's largest public corporation by revenue in 2007),[32] J.B. Hunt and Tyson Foods. This area of the state has experienced an economic boom since the 1970s as a result. Sony VAIO VGN-NR160E/W Battery In recent years, automobile parts manufacturers have opened factories in eastern Arkansas to support auto plants in other states. Tourism is also very important to the Arkansas economy; the official state nickname "The Natural State" was originally created (as "Arkansas Is A Natural") for state tourism advertising in the 1970s, and is still regularly used to this day. Sony VAIO VGN-NR180E/S Battery According to Forbes.com[33] Arkansas currently ranks 21st for The Best States for Business, 9th for Business Cost, 40th for Labor, 22nd for Regulatory Environment, 17th for Economic Climate, 9th for Growth Prospects, 34th in Gross Domestic Product, and positive economic change of 3.8% or ranked 22nd. Sony VAIO VGN-NR180E/T Battery


The state also ranks third in terms of channel catfish aquaculture, with about 19200 acres under catfish farming in 2010. The peak of catfish farming in the state was in the year 2002, when 38000 acres were under farming. In 2007, the state’s catfish producers generated sales of $71.5 million – 16 percent of the total U.S. market.[34]Sony VAIO VGN-NR290E/S Battery Arkansas was the first state to develop commercial catfish farms in the late 1950s. The number of catfish farms in the state grew through the 1990s as farmers entered the catfish business as a way to provide additional income during a time of low prices for cotton and soybeans. Banks loaned money to support what they saw as a stable source of revenue.[35]Sony VAIO VGN-NR290E/T Battery Arkansas imposes a state income tax with six brackets, ranging from 1.0% to 7.0%. The first $9,000 of military pay of enlisted personnel is exempt from Arkansas tax; officers do not have to pay state income tax on the first $6,000 of their military pay. Retirees pay no tax on Social Security, or on the first $6,000 in gain on their pensions along with recovery of cost basis. Sony VAIO VGN-NR298E/S Battery Residents of Texarkana, Arkansas are exempt from Arkansas income tax; wages and business income earned there by residents ofTexarkana, Texas are also exempt. Arkansas's gross receipts (sales) tax and compensating (use) tax rate is currently 6%. The state has also mandated that various services be subject to sales tax collection. Sony VAIO VGN-NR460E/L Battery They include wrecker and towing services; dry cleaning and laundry; body piercing, tattooing and electrolysis; pest control; security and alarm monitoring; self-storage facilities; boat storage and docking; and pet grooming and kennel services. Sony VAIO VGN-NR460E/P Battery Along with the state sales tax, there are more than 300 local taxes in Arkansas. Cities and counties have the authority to enact additional local sales and use taxes if they are passed by the voters in their area. Sony VAIO VGN-NR498E/L Battery These local taxes have a ceiling or cap; they cannot exceed $25 for each 1% of tax assessed. These additional taxes are collected by the state, which distributes the money back to the local jurisdictions monthly. Low-income taxpayers with a total annual household income of less than $12,000 are permitted a sales tax exemption for electricity usage. Sony VAIO VGN-NR498E/S Battery Sales of alcoholic beverages account for added taxes. A 10% supplemental mixed drink tax is imposed on the sale of alcoholic beverages (excluding beer) atrestaurants. A 4% tax is due on the sale of all mixed drinks (except beer and wine) sold for "on-premises" consumption. A 3% tax is due on beer sold for off-premises consumption. Sony VAIO VGN-NR498E/T Battery The Interstate Highway system in Arkansas includes I-30, I-40, I-55, I-530, I-540, as well as three short connectors (I-430, I-440, and I-630). There are 20 U.S. Routes in Arkansas, and over 200 Arkansas state highways. Sony VAIO VGN-NR498E/W Battery There are four airports with commercial service: Little Rock National Airport, Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport, Fort Smith Regional Airport, and Texarkana Regional Airport, with dozens of smaller airports in the state. The Texas Eagle, an Amtrak passenger train, serves five stations in the state: Walnut Ridge, Little Rock, Malvern, Arkadelphia, and Texarkana. Sony VAIO VGN-NR50 Battery About two dozen railroadscarry freight in the state. Public transit and community transport services for the elderly or those with developmental disabilities are provided by agencies such as the Central Arkansas Transit Authority and the Ozark Regional Transit, organizations that are part of the Arkansas Transit Association. Sony VAIO VGN-NR50B Battery Law and government The Democratic Party holds majority status in the Arkansas General Assembly. A majority of local and statewide offices are also held by Democrats. This is rare in the modern South, where a majority of statewide offices are held by Republicans. Sony VAIO VGN-NR51 Battery Arkansas had the distinction in 1992 of being the only state in the country to give the majority of its vote to a single candidate in the presidential election—native son Bill Clinton—while every other state's electoral votes were won by pluralities of the vote among the three candidates. Arkansas has become more reliably Republican in presidential elections in recent years. Sony VAIO VGN-NR51B Battery The state voted forJohn McCainin 2008 by a margin of 20 percentage points, making it one of the few states in the country to vote more Republican than it had in 2004. (The others were Louisiana, Tennessee, Oklahoma and West Virginia.)[38]Sony VAIO VGN-NR52 Battery Obama's relatively poor showing in Arkansas was likely due to a lack of enthusiasm from state Democrats following former Arkansas First Lady Hillary Clinton's failure to win the nomination, and his relatively poor performance among rural white voters. However, the Democratic presence remains strong on the state level; in 2006, Sony VAIO VGN-NR52B Battery Democrats were elected to all statewide offices by the voters in a Democratic sweep that included the Democratic Party of Arkansas regaining the governorship, and in 2008, freshman Senator Mark Pryor was re-elected with nearly 80% of the vote against Green candidate Rebekah Kennedy with no Republican opposition. Sony VAIO VGN-NR71B Battery Most Republican strength lies mainly in the northwestern part of the state, particularly Fort Smith and Bentonville, as well as North Central Arkansas around the Mountain Home area. In the latter area, Republicans have been known to get 90 percent or more of the vote. The rest of the state is more Democratic. Arkansas has only elected two Republicans to the U.S. Senate sinceReconstruction, Sony VAIO VGN-NR71B2 Battery Tim Hutchinson, who was defeated after one term by Mark Pryor and John Boozman, who defeated incumbent Blanche Lincoln. The General Assembly has not been controlled by the Republican Party since Reconstruction and is the fourth most heavily Democratic Legislature in the country, after Massachusetts, Sony VAIO VGN-NR72B Battery Hawaii, and Connecticut. Arkansas was one of just three states among the states of the former Confederacy that sent two Democrats to the U.S. Senate (the others being Floridaand Virginia) during the first decade of the 21st century. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10E/S Battery Although Democrats have an overwhelming majority of registered voters, Arkansas Democrats tend to be slightly more conservative than their national counterparts, particularly outside Little Rock. Arkansas' Democratic congressman is a member of the Blue Dog Coalition, which tends to be more pro-business, pro-military, and socially conservative than the center-left Democratic mainstream. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10J/S Battery Reflecting the state's large evangelical population, the state has a strong social conservative bent. Under the Arkansas ConstitutionArkansas is a right to work state, its voters passed a ban on same-sex marriage with 75% voting yes, and the state is one of a handful with legislation on its books banning abortion in the event Roe v. Wade is ever overturned. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10L/S Battery In Arkansas, the lieutenant governor is elected separately from the governor and thus can be from a different political party. Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/L Battery Each officer's term is four years long. Office holders are term-limited to two full terms plus any partial terms before the first full term. Arkansas governors served two-year terms until a referendum lengthened the term to four years, effective with the 1986 general election. Statewide elections are held two years after presidential elections. Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/S Battery Some of Arkansas's counties have two county seats, as opposed to the usual one seat. The arrangement dates back to when travel was extremely difficult in the state. The seats are usually on opposite sides of the county. Though travel is no longer the difficulty it once was, there are few efforts to eliminate the two seat arrangement where it exists, since the county seat is a source of pride (and jobs) to the city involved. Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/W Battery Arkansas is the only state to specify the pronunciation of its name by law (AR-kan-saw).[5] Article 19 (Miscellaneous Provisions), Item 1 in the Arkansas Constitution is entitled "Atheists disqualified from holding office or testifying as witness," and states that "No person who denies the being of a God shall hold any office in the civil departments of this State, nor be competent to testify as a witness in any Court." Sony VAIO VGN-NS115N/S Battery However, in 1961, the United States Supreme Court in Torcaso v. Watkins (1961), held that a similar requirement in Maryland was unenforceable because violated the First and FourteenthAmendments to the US Constitution. Sony VAIO VGN-NS11J/S Battery The latter amendment, per current precedent, makes the federal Bill of Rights binding on the states. As a result, this provision has not been known to have been enforced in modern times, and it is understood that it would be struck down if challenged in court. Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/L Battery Yantai Yantai (simplified Chinese: 烟台; pinyin: Yāntái) is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Shandong province, People's Republic of China. Located on the southern coast of the Bohai Sea and the eastern coast of the Laizhou Bay, Yantai borders the cities of Qingdaoand Weihai to the southwest and east respectively. Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/S Battery The largest fishing seaport in Shandong and a robust economic center today, Yantai used to be known to the West as Chefoo, a misnomer which refers, in Chinese, solely to Zhifu Island, which is historically governed by Yantai. Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/W Battery The contemporary name of Yantai came from the watchtowers constructed on Mount Qi in 1398, during the reign of the Hongwu Emperor, founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty (yan—smoke; tai—tower). The towers served to raise alarms against invasions of Japanese pirates. Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/L Battery The region was inhabited by the non-Han people of the Eastern Yi (東夷), who were believed to have established a small state during the Xia Dynasty on the site of present-day Laizhou City. It became a feudal state called Lai (萊國) until the Warring States Period, when it was annexed by the State of Qi. Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/S Battery During the Qin Dynasty, Yantai belonged to the Qi Prefecture, later renamed Donglai Prefecture (東萊郡) during the Han Dynasty. The area was known as the Donglai Kingdom during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) but later returned to prefecture status (first jùn, then zhōu). Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/W Battery In the Tang Dynasty and following it was known as the Teng-chou prefecture, part of Henan Circuit. Next, the city became the Laizhou Subprefecture (萊州府) and, eventually, the Dengzhou Subprefecture (登州府) in the time of the Qing Dynasty. Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/L Battery In July 1858 the Chinese empire signed the Treaty of Tianjin and Dengzhou was renamed for the last time. Yantai opened its harbor for business in May 1861, but was not officially designated an international trading port until later that year on August 22. Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/S Battery This decree was accompanied by the construction of the Donghai Pass (東海關). 17 nations, including Britain, established embassies in Yantai. The Chefoo Convention was signed there in 1876. Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/W Battery Yantai literally means "smoky tower". In the Ming Dynasty, locals used wolf dung to light fires (Langyan) to warn the whole village of approaching Japanese Pirates (Wokou). The city was nothing but a small fishing village until the late 19th century when it became a treaty port for the British, handed over by the falling Qing Dynasty, which had been defeated in the Opium War. Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/L Battery Then with the Germans' power over the whole Shandong peninsula in early 20th century, Yantai was also controlled by Germans for about 20 years. After the Germans were defeated by Allied forces in World War I, Qingdao and Yantai were handed over to the Japanese. After Japan's defeat by the Americans in WW2 they turned Yantai into a summer station for their entire Asian fleet. Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/P Battery Then the Japanese set up a trading establishment in the town. You may be able to get an idea of the different influences at the western style Yantai Museum, which used to be a guild hall. However, the colourful history has not left a distinctive architectural mark, there has never been a foreign concession, Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/S Battery and though you will see an occasional nineteenth-century grand European building, most of the town is of much more recent origin. After liberation, the town's name was changed from the original, Chefoo, to Yantai and was opened to the world as an ice-free trade port in 1984. Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/W Battery On November 12, 1911, the eastern division of Tongmeng Hui declared itself a part of the revolutionary movement. The next day, it established the Shandong Military Government (山東軍政府) and, the day after that, renamed itself the Yantai Division of the Shandong Military Government (山東煙台軍政分府). Sony VAIO VGN-NS240E/L Battery In 1914, Jiaodong Circuit (膠東道) was established with Yantai as the capital. Jiaodong Circuit was renamed Donghai Circuit (東海道) in 1925. On January 19, 1938, Yantai participated as part of an anti-Japanese revolutionary committee. Sony VAIO VGN-NS290J/L Battery After the creation of the People's Republic of China, in 1950, Yantai was officially awarded city status with the outer lying towns of Laiyang and Wendeng (文登) tacked on as "Special Regions" (专区). Wendeng was merged into Laiyang six years later, and this larger Laiyang Special Region was combined with Yantai City to become simply Yantai Region (烟台地区). Sony VAIO VGN-NS290J/S Battery Yantai is of strategic importance to Chinese defence as it and the city ofDalian are primary coastal guard points for Beijing. In November 1983, the region became a prefecture-level city. Since then, Yantai has worked its way into becoming a modernized economic center in Shandong Province. Sony VAIO VGN-NS50B/L Battery Yantai Export Processing Zone (YTEPZ) is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council. The total construction area of YTEPZ is 4.17 m2, in which the initial zone covers 3 km2. After developing for several years, YTEPZ is completely constructed. Sony VAIO VGN-NS50B/W Battery At present, the infrastructure has been completed, standard workshops of 120,000 m2 and bonded warehouses of 40,000 m2 have been built up. Up to now, owning perfect investment environment and conditions, YTEPZ has attracted investors both from foreign countries and regions such as Japan, Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Sweden, USA, Canada, etc. and from the domestic to invest and operate in the zone. Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/L Battery Dongguan (simplified Chinese: 东莞; traditional Chinese: 東莞; pinyin: Dōngguǎn, Mandarin pronunciation: [tʊ́ŋkwàn];Cantonese: Dung1 gun2; old spelling Tung-kuan) is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong province, People's Republic of China. Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/P Battery An important industrial city located in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west. Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/W Battery It is also home to the world's largest, though mostly empty, shopping mall, New South China Mall. City administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment. The three neighboring municipalities ofGuangzhou, Dongguan, and Shenzhen are home to over 25 million residents, accounting for a large proportion of the Pearl River Delta Region's population.[2]Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/L Battery Many foreign travelers to Dongguan fly into Hong Kong, which gives visa on arrival to citizens of over 170 countries. After landing, visitors must apply for a visa to enter mainland China. Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/P Battery One can travel from Hong Kong to Dongguan by bus, ferry, or train. Passengers travelling overland must disembark from their transport at the Hong Kong/China border to go through customs and immigration, except for those traveling on the Mass Transit Railway intercity services (former Kowloon-Canton Railway) from Hung Hom Station to Dongguan, Guangzhou and beyond. Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/W Battery Depending on the time of day, using the ferry may be the most convenient way to travel from Hong Kong, as it allows one to avoid long queues at the land border checkpoint between Hong Kong and mainland China. Sony VAIO VGN-NS70B/W Battery Dongguan serves as one of the regional railway hub in Guangdong, where Guangzhou-Kowloon Railway, Guangzhou-Meizhou-Shantou Railway and Beijing-Kowloon converge. Sony VAIO VGN-NS71B/W Battery Rail services in and out of the city call at Dongguan railway station where there are direct train services to Guangzhou East railway station in Guangzhou; and Hung Hom Railway station in Hong Kong. Sony VAIO VGN-NS72JB/W Battery City administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment. In 2005, the city hosted the first-ever Sino-American Forum of Intellectual Property Rights, co-organized by the Patent Protection Association of China - PPAC and the International  Sony VAIO VGN-NS90HS Battery Association for Technology Trade (IATT) as well as what has been identified as the world's largest educational technology conference and expo, co-organized by IATT and the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), attracting nearly 40,000 attendees in its first year. Sony VAIO VGN-NS92JS Battery The Dongguan Science & Technology Museum (opened in December 2005), the high tech commerce park in the SongShan Lake district (which debuted in 2003) and a partnership with the Global IT Academy of the Brea Olinda Unified School District in Southern California have demonstrated the city's emphasis on attracting technology business. The city also announced in 2005 a planned investment of US$500-Million over five years for technology infrastructure improvements. Sony VAIO VGN-NS92XS Battery The city and province have been the recent focus of press and journalist attention with coverage of the arrival of teenaged Chinese workers, principally females (so-called factory girls), from agricultural areas to work in the area's factories and manufacturing/assembly facilities, where many are housed in large domitories, usually several to a room.[4]Sony VAIO VGN-NW21EF/S Battery An article in the High Tech Misery in China series reports research conducted, over 2008 - 2009, on working conditions at one of the city's major keyboard makers (Dongguan Meitai Plastics & Electronics Factory); Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF Battery in it, Meitai factory won some unwanted attention, due to the disappointing conditions for its young, mostly female workers. The PDF article[5] includes details of those conditions, photos, translations of employer's rules and evidence that well-known computer brands use this keyboard supplier's products. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF Battery While the city is the third largest exporting region in China, behind Shanghai and Shenzhen (and a major center for Taiwanese investment), outside of China, Dongguan has yet to gain the kind of name recognition realized by Shenzhen (just an hour away, and down-river from Dongguan). Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery This may be because the city has placed an emphasis on investing in infrastructure, rather than directly targeting major corporations with financial incentives for economic development. Still, Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF Battery Dongguan has been identified by high level representatives of the National Development and Reform Commission of the central government as being one of the most significant growth regions for technology in the coming years. As part of this plan the Dongguan local government has announced a plan to create and support a 100 Billion RMB photovoltaic manufacturing industry by 2015.[6]Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF/W Battery To cope with the strike of financial crisis, Dongguan city has developed the solutions to step out of the difficulties in order to push forward the city’s industrial restructuring, transformation and upgrade. The city starts a series of study and discussion activities on applying scientific concept on development of the four-pillar platforms - governmental service, supporting measures, technology upgrade and market expansion - to give strong support for Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF Battery transformation of processing trade enterprises in Guangdong province. Through a series of effective measures, Dongguan industrial restructuring has achieved preliminary results. Its industrial restructuring has already enhanced the city’s capability of independent innovation and the quantity of patent applications in 2008. Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/B Battery Such intention were further confirmed by the visit of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao in Dongguan back in July 2008 at some high technology enterprises where Wen gave strong encouragement and compliments on their innovative technologies, such as Dongguan Anwell Digital Machinery Co., Ltd. (a subsidiary of a Singapore listed company), Dongguan Konka Electronic Co., Ltd., and Hua Bao Shoes Co.,Ltd.[7][8]Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/TC Battery

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