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(ARVN, the regular army of South Vietnam) and the United States military between 30 March and 22 October 1972, during the Vietnam War.[39] This conventional invasion (the largest offensive operation since 300,000 Chinese volunteers had crossed the Yalu River into North Korea during the Korean War) was led by armoured forces. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ645P3 Battery

Two PAVN divisions (the 304th and 308th - approximately 30,000 troops) supported by more than 100 tanks (in two regiments) rolled over the Demilitarized Zone to attack I Corps, the five northernmost provinces of South Vietnam. The North Vietnamese moved out of Laos along Route 9, past Khe Sanh, and east into the Quảng Trị River Valley of South Vietnam. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ650N/C Battery

The PAVN advance was followed by antiaircraft units armed with new ZSU-57-2 tracked weapon platforms and man-portable, shoulder-firedGrail missiles, which made low-level bombing attacks against the columns of tanks hazardous. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ660N/C Battery

On May 9, 1972, the North Vietnamese tanks unwillingly participated in changing the story of armoured warfare.[34] On April 24, 1972, a US special experimental UH-1B helicopter team, consisting of two helicopters mounting the new XM26 TOWanti-tank missile Sony VAIO VGN-SZ670N/C Battery

(Tube Launched, Optically Tracked, Wire guided), accompanied by technicians from Bell Helicopters and the Hughes Aircraft Corporation, arrived in the country. The team, labelled the 1st Combat Aerial TOW Team, deployed to the Central Highlands in Vietnam and commenced gunnery training. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ680ND Battery

From May 2, the team made daily flights in search of enemy armour. On May 9, NVA armoured units attacked the Ranger camp at Ben Het; the TOW team destroyed three PT-76s and broke up the attack.[34]

On May 26, 1972, the North Vietnamese Army moved with armoured forces on the city of Kon Tum. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ691N/X Battery

TOW aircraft were brought in at first light and found NVA tanks moving almost at will through portions of the city. Conventional air strikes would prove risky to friendly forces, but the TOW proved to be ideal for picking off enemy tanks.[34] At the end of the first day, Sony VAIO VGN-SZ71E/B Battery

the two TOW helicopters had destroyed nine tanks and damaged one more. Five of the destroyed tanks had been T-54/55s and the remaining four destroyed and one damaged were PT-76s. By the end of the month, TOW missiles launched from helicopters had 47 confirmed kills, of which 24 were tanks.[35] Sony VAIO VGN-SZ71VN/X Battery

But in the end, as South Vietnamese forces crumbled, it was a T-54 tank of the North Vietnamese Army that bulldozed through the main gate of the Presidents at 10:45 on 30 April 1975, ending the Vietnam War.

Prior to the Six-Day War, the Arab armies had fought with a mixture of weapons mostly British, Sony VAIO VGN-SZ71WN/C Battery

although Egypt acquired American M4A4 tanks and fitted them with the diesel engine of M4A2 and the FL-10 turret of the French AMX-13 light tank. Syria possessed at least one M4A1 chassis at some time during 1948-1956. But after the Suez Crisis in 1956 they built up their arsenal mainly with Soviet arms. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ74B/B Battery

It is known the Syrians got upgraded T-34-85's which they called T-34/55. This unit was a Syrian modernization of Soviet-made T-34-85s earlier with an anti-aircraft machine gun fitted to the commander's copula and other upgrades. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ750N/C Battery

The Syrians also acquired a T-34 tank conversions desinated a T-34/122 made into a self-propelled howitzer armed with a 122 mm D-30 howitzer.

The Six-Day War was fought between June 5 and June 10, 1967, by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt [known then as the United Arab Republic (UAR)], Sony VAIO VGN-SZ75B/B Battery

Jordan, and Syria. In the war, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq had over 2,504 tanks against Israel 800 tanks.[40] However, Israel completed a decisive air offensive in the first two days, which crippled the Egyptian, Syrian and Iraqi air forces, destroyed Jordan's Air Force, and rapidly established complete air supremacy. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ76 Battery

The Israeli Air Force pummelled the Arab armies, and with air supremacy, was able to destroy many of their tanks at will, but the Israeli armor also had tank on tank battles. Typical was the Battle of Abu-Ageila, where Egyptian forces with amoured forces included a battalion of tank destroyers and a tank regiment, Sony VAIO VGN-SZ770N/C Battery

formed of Soviet World War II armor, which included 90 T-34-85 tanks (with 85 mm guns), 22 SU-100 tank destroyers (with 100 mm guns), and about 16,000 men,[141] clashed with the Israelis with 150 post-World War II tanks including the AMX-13 with 90 mm guns, Centurions, and Super Shermans (both types with 105 mm guns). Sony VAIO VGN-SZ77N Battery

Combined forces of Israeli armor, paratroopers, infantry, artillery and combat engineers attacked the Egyptian position from the front, flanks and rear, destroying many tanks and cutting the Egyptian forces off. At the war's end, Israel had seized the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, Sony VAIO VGN-SZ780 Battery

the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.

Egyptian amoured forces were by the time of the Six-Day War, mostly Soviet. Egypt had ordered 350 T-54s and 50 PT-76s from the Soviet Union and delivered by 1966 before the Six-Day War. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ78N Battery

Egypt lost 820 vehicles in the Six Day War including 82 T-55s.[25]:11-13 After the loses, Egypt rearmed and 800 T-54s were ordered in 1967 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1967 and 1972. Another 550 T-55s were ordered in 1967 from the Soviet Union and delivered betweenSony VAIO VGN-SZ791N/X Battery

1969 and 1973 along with 200 PT-76s ordered in 1970, 50 T-54s ordered in 1972 and 750 T-62s ordered in 1971 from the Soviet Union and had begun to be delivered by 1972 before the start of the next conflict.

The Yom Kippur War, (Hebrew: מלחמת יום הכיפורים‎; transliterated: Sony VAIO VGN-SZ84NS Battery

Milemet Yom HaKipurim or מלחמת יום כיפור, Milemet Yom Kipur; Arabic: حرب أكتوبر‎;transliterated: ħarb Aktoobar or حرب تشرين, ħarb Tishrin), also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 26, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states backing Egypt and Syria. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ84PS Battery

In the Yom Kippur War Egypt, Syria and Iraq used T-34/85, T-54, T-55, T-62 and PT-76, as well as SU-100/152 World War II vintage self-propelled guns. While Israel had M50 and M51 Shermans with upgraded engines, M48A5 Patton,M60A1 Patton, Centurion and about 200 T-54/55 captured during the Six-Day War. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ84S Battery

All Israeli tanks were upgraded with the British 105 mm L7 gun, prior to the war.

The Yom Kipur War began with a massive and successful Egyptian attack across the heavily fortified Suez Canal with tanks it had received from the Soviet Union, Sony VAIO VGN-SZ84US Battery

T-55s and T-62s tanks, RPG-7 antitank weapons, and the AT-3 Sagger anti-tank guided missile and using improved military tactics, based on Soviet battlefield doctrines. They drove the tanks over portable bridges laid across the Suez Canal, with infantry with portable and recoilless anti-tank weapons.[42] Sony VAIO VGN-SZ85NS Battery

Egyptian forces advanced, into the Sinai Desert with two armies (both corps-sized by western standards, included the 2nd Infantry Division in the northern Second Army) and by the following morning, some Egyptian 850 tanks had crossed the canal and prepared for the Israeli conterattack.[43] Sony VAIO VGN-SZ85S Battery

The Egyptian 2nd and 3rd Armies attacked eastward with armored forces consisted of 800[44]-1,000 tanks[45] however they moved eastward beyond SAM cover over the Suez Canal, where they came up against 700[44]-750[45] Israeli tanks. The Egyptian armored and mechanized attack, was a total failure. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ85US Battery

Instead of concentrating forces of maneuvering, they had expended their tanks and armored forces in head-on attack against the waiting Israeli brigades."[46] No fewer than 250 Egyptian tanks and some 200 armored vehicles[48] were destroyed. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ94NS Battery

After stopping the Egyptian attack, the Israelis then counterattacked at the seam between two Egyptian armies, crossed the Suez Canal, and encircled elements of Egypt's Third Army until the United Nations ceasefire resolution which was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ94PS Battery

In the north, the Syrians attacked the Golan Heights at the same time with armoured forces and initially made threatening gains against the greatly outnumbered defenders. At the onset of the battle, the Syrians came with three infantry divisions with large armour components comprising 28,000 Syrian troops, Sony VAIO VGN-SZ94S Battery

800 tanks and 600 artillery pieces and followed by two armoured divisions against the Israeli brigades of some 3,000 troops, 180 tanks and 60 artillery pieces. The Syrians had bridging tanks to cross antitank ditches, BRDM-mounted Sagger anti-tank missiles, SU-100 gun carriers, Sony VAIO VGN-SZ94US Battery

and had T-55 tanks equipped with a specially designed infrared nightscope and also T-62 tanks.[52] The Israeli forces did not have adequate optical equipment for night fighting, and had to gauge the position of the Syrian forces by their noise and artillery flares. Sony VAIO VGN-SZ95NS Battery

Israeli forces were worn down but were gradually reinforced over days and within a week, Israel recovered and launched a four-day counter-offensive, driving deep into Syria itself. However, Iraq had also sent an expeditionary force to the Golan, with 250–500 tanks mostly T-55s, Sony VAIO VGN-SZ95S Battery

and 700 APCs which threatened the Israeli flanks, but the war ended without the Iraqis becoming heavily engaged.[53][54][55]

The fact that the Arab armies' T-54/55s and T-62s were equipped with night vision equipment, which the Israeli tanks lacked, gave them an advantage in fighting at night, Sony VAIO VGN-SZ95US Battery

while Israel tanks had better armor and/or better armament such as the L7|105 mm L7 gun. Israeli tanks also had a distinct advantage in the "hull-down" position where steeper angles of depression resulted in less exposure. The main guns of Soviet tanks could only depress 4 degrees. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ121 Battery

By contrast, the 105 mm guns on Centurion and Patton tanks could depress 10 degrees. The coalition of Arab states and Egypt and Syria lost 2,300[56] tanks destroyed or captured 341[57]–514.

During Operation Desert Storm in 1991, the Iraqi armor was usually tanks of Russian design, which included the T-54/55, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ13 Battery

T-62, Type 59, Type 69, and T-72. In the Battle of Khafji, the first major ground engagement of the Gulf War, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein, tried and failed to draw Coalition troops into a costly ground engagements with his amoured forces and sent the 1st and 5th Sony VAIO VGN-TZ130N/B Battery

Mechanized Divisions and 3rd Armored Division to conduct a multi-pronged invasion toward Khafji, engaging American, Saudi and Qatari forces along the coastline..

Most non-Republican Guard armored units had older tank designs, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ131 Battery

but the 3rd Armored Division had a number of T-72 tanks, the only non-Republican Guard force to have them,[59]while the other armored battalions had T-62s and upgraded T-55s.[60] During the battle of Khafji, these upgraded T-55s survived impacts from Milan anti-tank missiles.[61] Sony VAIO VGN-TZ132/N Battery

As the units moved to the Saudi border, many were attacked by Coalition aircraft. Around the Al-Wafrah forest, about 1,000 Iraqi armored fighting vehicles were attacked by Harrieraircraft with Rockeye cluster bombs.[62] Another Iraqi convoy of armored vehicles was hit by A-10s, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ132N Battery

which destroyed the first and last vehicles, before systematically attacking the stranded remainder.[63] The air raids destroyed many tanks and support vehicles and prevented the majority of the Iraqi troops deployed for the offensive from taking part in it, allowing Saudi and Quatari forces to retake the city. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ150N/B Battery

In the launch of the main Allied ground attack, the Iraqi tanks engaged the M60A1 tanks of the U.S. Marines which were fitted with add-on explosive reactive armor (ERA) packages. However, the weakness of Iraq's older Soviet-era tanks, was most evident against the US M1A1 tank. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ150N/N Battery

The M1A1 tank was superior to Iraq's Soviet-era T-55 and T-62 tanks.

In the Battle of 73 Easting, which was a decisive tank battle fought on 26 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between American–British armored forces and those of the IraqiRepublican Guard. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ160CB Battery

Superior American night vision equipment turned the poor weather into a U.S. advantage.The 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment (2nd ACR), mainly a reconnaissance element of VII Corpsalong with the corps's vanguard the American 3rd Armored Division (3rd AD) and 1st Infantry Division (1st ID), Sony VAIO VGN-TZ160N/B Battery

and the British 1st Armoured Division (1 AD) enganged and smashed Iraqi forces and tanks.

One of 2nd ACR's cavalry units, G- ("Ghost") Troop, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ16N Battery

initially destroyed several Iraqi armored personnel carriers and three enemy tanks. Reaching 70 Easting, the lead cavalry troops of 2nd "Cougar" Squadron knocked out a screen of eight Iraqi T-72 tanks. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ16GN/B Battery

The 2nd ACR surprised the enemy and penetrated the Iraqi positions so quickly that they were unable to recover. E-Troop attacked forward and destroyed the Iraqi tanks at 73 Easting at close range. The Iraqis stood their ground while their tanks and armored personnel carriers of the Sony VAIO VGN-TZ16N/B Battery

Tawakalna Division attempted to maneuver and fight. E-Troop destroyed more than 20 tanks and other armored vehicles, a number of trucks and bunkers, and took a large number of prisoners with no losses to themselves. Other 2nd ACR Troops, I- ("Iron"), K- ("Killer"), and G- ("Ghost"), Sony VAIO VGN-TZ17/N Battery

joined the fighting at 73 Easting and engaged several waves of Iraqi T-72and T-55 tanks advancing directly into G-Troop. G-Troop lost one M3 Bradley to Iraqi IFV fire and one soldier, ending with most of the engaged Iraqi elements burning or destroyed. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ170N/B Battery

The 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division of the British Army, engaged the Tawakalna Division, while the Medina Division was attempting to maneuver against 1st Armoured Division. The British responded decisively with MLRS fire, cannon artillery, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ170N/N Battery

and air strikes and destroyed 40 enemy tanks and captured an Iraqi division commander. The 2nd ACR's three squadrons, along with the 1st Infantry Division's two leading brigades, destroyed two Iraqi brigades (18th Mechanized Brigade and 37th Armored Brigade) of the Tawakalna Division. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ17GN/B Battery

The 2nd ACR alone destroyed about 85 tanks, 40 personnel carriers and more than 30 wheeled vehicles, along with several anti-aircraft artillery systems during the battle. The equivalent of an Iraqi brigade was destroyed at the Battle of 73 Easting, in the defeat of the Republican Guard tanks and armored forces. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ17N Battery

At the same time, Iraqi troops began retreating from Kuwait, and a long convoy of retreating Iraqi tanks, vehicles and troops formed along the main Iraq-Kuwait highway. Although they were retreating, this convoy was bombed so extensively by Coalition air forces that it came to be known as the Highway of DeathSony VAIO VGN-TZ18/N Battery

as Iraqi tanks and other vehicles out in the open were destroyed by Allied planes as they fled, along with hundreds of Iraqi troops who were killed.

Post war analysis showed that the majority of Iraqi armored forces still had old Soviet-made T-55s from the 1950s and 1960s, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ180N/RC Battery

and some Asad Babil tanks T-72 (along with some Chinese Type 59s and Type 69tanks). These machines were not equipped with up-to-date equipment, such as thermal sights or laser rangefinders, and their effectiveness in modern combat was very limited. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ185N/WC Battery

The Iraqis failed to find an effective countermeasure to the thermal sights and sabot rounds used by the Coalition tanks. This equipment enabled them to engage and destroy Iraqi tanks from more than three times the range that Iraqi tanks could engage coalition tanks. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ18GN/X Battery

The Iraqi tank crews used old, cheap steel penetrators against the advancedChobham Armour of the U.S. and British tanks, with ineffective results.

he Soviet entry into the Afghanistan conflict was on December 27, 1979, when 700 Soviet troops dressed in Afghan uniforms, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ18N Battery

including KGB and GRU special force officers from theAlpha Group and Zenith Group, occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul, including the Tajbeg Presidential Palace.

The Soviet Zenith Group destroyed Kabul's communications hub, paralyzing Afghan military command and the assault on Tajbeg Palace began; Sony VAIO VGN-TZ190N/B Battery

as planned, president Hafizullah Amin was killed. The Soviet military command at Termez, Uzbek SSR, announced on Radio Kabul that Afghanistan had been liberated from Amin's rule. According to the Soviet Politburo they were complying with the 1978 Treaty of Friendship, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ190N/BC Battery

Cooperation and Good Neighborliness and Amin had been "executed by a tribunal for his crimes" by the Afghan Revolutionary Central Committee. That committee then elected as head of government former Deputy Prime Minister Babrak Karmal, and said that it had requested Soviet military assistance. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ191N/XC Battery

Soviet ground forces, under the command of Marshal Sergei Sokolov, entered Afghanistan from the north on December 27. In all, the initial Soviet force was around 1,800 tanks, 80,000 soldiers and 2,000 AFVs. In the second week alone, Soviet aircraft had made a total of 4,000 flights into Kabul.[66] Sony VAIO VGN-TZ195N/XC Battery

With the arrival of the two later divisions, the total Soviet force rose to over 100,000 personnel. The war with mujahideen forces supported by secret aid from the CIA dragged on from the initial Soviet deployment of the 40th Army in Afghanistan on December 24, 1979 till the final troop withdrawal which started on May 15, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ198N/RC Battery

1988, and ended on February 15, 1989 under Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.

The civil war continued in Afghanistan after the Soviet withdrawal. In April, 1992. Afghanistan leader Najibullah and his communist government fell to the mujahideen, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ250N/B Battery

who replaced Najibullah with a new governing council for the country. With the government institutions either collapsing or participating in the factional fighting, maintaining order in Kabul became almost impossible. The scene was set for the next phase of the war which led to the rise of and the take over of the country by the Taliban regime. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ250N/N Battery

The massive stockpiles of heavy weapons such as T-62 and T-55 tanks, were tanken over by the various Afghanistan warlords and along with vehicles such as BMD-1s from the war with the Soviet Union, they were then used in fighting other factions or warlords. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ250N/P Battery

Some tanks in the Afghanistan military or military vehicles were left behind for them by retreating Soviets and some were derelicts left by the Soviets all over Afghanistan and brought back to working condition. Since there wasn't any kind of care taken as to what variant an individual tank may be, many T-55s have mixed parts from a number of different variants. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ27/N Battery

On October 7, 2001 the United States military began operation Operation Enduring Freedom, which was launched by the United States and United Kingdom in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks. The purpose for the entry into the Afghanistan conflict was stated to capture Osama bin Laden, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ270N/B Battery

destroy al-Qaeda, and remove the Taliban regime which had provided support and safe harbor to al-Qaeda. In the war, both the Taliban and forces allied with American troops had access to a wide array of Soviet tanks that fell into their hands, when the central government which had ordered them, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ27N Battery

collapsed after the Soviets left. 50 T-54s and 50 T-55s were ordered in 1961 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1962 and 1964 (T-54s were previously in Soviet service). 200 T-54s were ordered in 1978 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1978 and 1979 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet service). Sony VAIO VGN-TZ28/N Battery

705 T-55s were ordered in 1978 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1978 and 1991 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet service).[41] 50 Pt-76 light tanks were ordered in 1958 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1959 and 1961. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ285N/RC Battery

1,000 T-54s, T-55s, T-62s and PT-76s were in service on 1 April 1992.[68]Currently 600 T-55s are in service with the Military of Afghanistan but are to be replaced with M60 Pattons.

From the beginning of the war, the bulk of the resistance had been conducted by regular army units, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ28N Battery

equipped with older tanks such as T-54/55 tanks and T-62s. One division armed with the older tanks that faced the US forces were the 6th Armored Division of the Iraqi Army.[69] It was equipped with T-55s and BMP-1s defending the control of key bridges over the Euphrates River and the Saddam Canal at Nasiriyah. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ290EAB Battery

Its tanks were decimated by US Marines with M1 Abrams, and the division as a unit rendered incapable for combat during the Battle of Nasiriyah in March 2003, during the invasion.

In addition to the T-54/55 and T-62 tanks that Iraq had, the most feared to US amoured forces were the T-72 tanks in the Iraqi forces. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ290EAN Battery

Only Republican Guard divisions were equipped with Iraqi-modified T-72s. Many of the Iraqi T-72s were dug-in or hidden in groves, and then used to ambush the US or British tanks. In the war, the Iraqi T-72s were the preferred target for Apache helicopters and A-10s, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ290EAP Battery

in an attempt to diminish the combat power of Republican Guard divisions. The only chance for the Asad Babil T-72s against American tanks was to lure them to close range combat, or trying to ambush them from dug-in positions.

But even in those conditions, the M1s usually prevailed, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ295N/XC Battery

as proven in circumstances like the Battle of Baghdad, and the drive to the capital, where dozens of Iraqi MBTs were obliterated,[71] or near Mahmoudiyah, south of Baghdad, April 3, 2003, (Iraqi Freedom) when US tanks engaged their counterparts from just 50 yards, shattering seven enemy Sony VAIO VGN-TZ298N/XC Battery

T-72s without losses.[72] These encounters also exposed the very poor marksmanship of the Iraqi gunners, in part due to the shortage of modern night-vision and range-finder assets.[73]The Iraqis, however, had no idea they could be detected and destroyed at a range of nearly 2 miles (3.2 km) by the M1 Abrams, and the Challenger. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ33/B Battery

The Lion of Babylon T-72 was utterly outclassed by the M1 Abrams, the Challenger and by any other contemporary Western main battle tank during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[74] The last operational Asad Babils were destroyed by the successive waves of American armored incursions Sony VAIO VGN-TZ33/N Battery

on the Iraqi capital[75] or abandoned by their crews after the fall of Baghdad, several of them without firing a single shot, after the collapse of the regime.

The T-24 was a Soviet medium tank built in 1931. Only twenty-four tanks were built, and was not used in combat. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ33/W Battery

This was the first tank produced at the KhPZ factory in Ukraine, which was later responsible for the very successful T-34 and T-54 Soviet tanks. The T-24's suspension was used successfully in the Soviet Union's first purpose-built artillery tractors. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ350N/B Battery

The T-24's main armament was a 45 mm gun. It had a ball-mount 7.62 mm DT machine gun in the hull, another in the turret, and a third in a secondary turret atop the main turret. The tank was well-armoured for its time, but suffered from problems with the engine and transmission. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ350N/N Battery

The T-26 tank was a Soviet light infantry tank used during many conflicts of the 1930s and during World War II. It was a development of the British Vickers 6-Ton tank and is widely considered one of the most successful tank designs of the 1930s.[76] Sony VAIO VGN-TZ350N/P Battery

It was produced in greater numbers than any other tank of the period, with more than 11,000 produced.[77] During the 1930s, the Soviet Union developed approximately 53 variants of the T-26, including other combat vehicles based on its chassis. Twenty-three of these were mass-produced.[78] Sony VAIO VGN-TZ370N/B Battery

Though nearly obsolete by the beginning of World War II, the T-26 was the most important tank of the Spanish Civil War and played a significant role during the Battle of Lake Khasan in 1938 as well as in the Winter War. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ37N/G Battery

The T-26 was the most numerous tank in the Red Army's armoured force during the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.[79] Combat experience with the T-26 showed the Soviet military that, even though the T-26's gun could defeat the armor of opposing tanks it met in battle, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ37N/P Battery

its armor was too thin and the gun caliber was too small as it often encountered entrenched anti-tank guns demanding a larger caliber that could fire a larger high explosive shell. The Soviet T-26 light tanks were last used in August 1945, in Manchuria.[80] Sony VAIO VGN-TZ37N/R Battery

The T-26 was reliable and simple to maintain, and its design was continually modernised between 1931 and 1941. However, no new models of the T-26 were developed after 1940.

The BT tanks were a series of cavalry tanks produced in large numbers between 1932 and 1941. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ37N/X Battery

They were lightly armoured, but reasonably well-armed for their time, and had the best mobility of all contemporary tanks of the world. They outclassed their Japanese opponents in the Soviet–Japanese border conflicts (1938-1939) but thousands were lost during the German invasion in 1941 and was rare after 1942. It was further developed to, and replaced by the T-34. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ38N/X Battery

The T-28 was a three-turreted medium tank first manufactured in 1932. A total of 502 T-28 tanks were made 1933-1941. Combat experience in the Winter War led to an upgrade with appliqué armor. The up-armored T-28e tanks were used to break through the Finnish Mannerheim Line, ending the Winter War in 1940. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ398U/XC Battery

Most of the 400 remaining T-28 tanks were lost during the German invasion in 1941. The design was not particularly successful in combat, but the building and designing of it gave the Soviet heavy industry important experience in manufacturing medium tanks. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ50B Battery

The failure of this multi-turreted tank guided the switch to the more successful, single-turret T-34 medium tank.

The T-34 was a medium tank produced from 1940 to 1958. Although its armour and armament were surpassed by later tanks of the era, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ90HS Battery

it has been often credited as the most effective, efficient and influential design of World War II.[81] First produced at the KhPZ factory in Kharkov (Kharkiv, Ukraine), it was the mainstay of Soviet armoured forces throughout World War II, Sony VAIO VGN-TZ90NS Battery

and widely exported afterward. It was the most-produced tank of the war, and the second most-produced tank of all time, after its successor, the T-54/55 series.[82] In 1996, the T-34 was still in service in at least twenty-seven countries. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ90S Battery

The T-35 was a Soviet multi-turreted heavy tank of the interwar period and early Second World War in limited production and service with the Red Army. It was the only five-turreted heavy tank in the world to reach production but proved to be slow and mechanically unreliable. Sony VAIO VPC CW2MFX/PU Battery

Most of the T-35 tanks still operational at the time of Operation Barbarossa were lost due to mechanical failure rather than enemy action.

Outwardly it was large but internally the spaces were cramped with the fighting compartments separated from each other. Sony VAIO VPC S11V9E/B Battery

Some of the turrets obscured the entrance hatches. The failure of the T-35 and other multi-turreted tanks in the Winter War (1939-1940) led to the development of the more successful Kliment Voroshilov heavy tank (single turret).

The T-37A was light amphibious tank. Sony VAIO VPCB119GJ/B Battery

The tank is often referred to as the T-37, although that designation was used by a different tank which never left the prototype stage.[citation needed] The T-37A was the first series of mass-produced fully amphibious tanks in the world.[citation needed]

The tank was first created in 1932, based on the British Vickers tankette and other operational amphibious tanks. Sony VAIO VPCB11AGJ Battery

The tank was mass-produced starting in 1933 up until 1936, when it was replaced with the more modern T-38, based on the T-37A. Overall, after four years of production, 2552 T-37A’s were produced, including the original prototypes.[citation neededSony VAIO VPCB11AVJ Battery

In the Red Army, they were used to perform tasks in communication, reconnaissance, and as defense units on the march, as well as active infantry support on the battlefield. The T-37A were used in large numbers during the Soviet invasion of Poland and in the Winter War against Finland. Sony VAIO VPCB11V9E Battery

The T-37A was also used by the Soviets in the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, but most of them were quickly lost. Surviving tanks of that type fought on the front lines until 1944, and were used in training and auxiliary defense until the end of World War II. Sony VAIO VPCB11X9E Battery

he T-38 amphibious scout tank was a light amphibious tank that was used in World War II.The T-38 was a development of the earlier T-37, based in turn on the French AMR 33 light reconnaissance tank. The tank was powered by a standard GAZ (Ford) engine and was cheap to produce. Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/P Battery

Buoyancy was achieved by the large-volume hull and large fenders. In water, the vehicle was propelled by a small three-bladed propeller mounted at the rear.

The tanks were intended for use for reconnaissance and infantry support. As a scout tank the T-38 had the advantages of very low silhouette and good mobility, Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/R Battery

due to its ability to swim. The T-38 was also intended to be air-portable; during the Kievmaneuvers in 1936, the tanks were transported by Tupolev TB-3 bombers, mounted under the fuselage. Infantry battalions were each issued 38 T-38s, with 50 being designated for each airborne armored battalions. Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/W Battery

However, the thin armor and single machine gun armament made the tank of only limited use in combat while the lack of radios in most T-38s was a serious limitation in a recon vehicle. The T-38's limitations were recognized, and it would have been replaced by the T-40, but the outbreak of the Second World War meant that only a few T-40s were produced. Sony VAIO VPCCW19FJ/W Battery

Around 1,500 T-38s were built, illustrating the importance of amphibious scout tanks to the Red Army. Some were up-gunned with a 20 mm ShVAK cannon, and designated the T-38RT.

The T-40 amphibious scout tank was a light amphibious tank used by the Soviet Union during World War II. Sony VAIO VPCCW1AFJ Battery

Amphibious capability was important to the Red Army, as evidenced by the production of over 1,500 amphibious tanks in the 1930s. The T-40 was intended to replace the aging T-37 and T-38 tank light amphibians. It was a superior design, Sony VAIO VPCCW1AHJ Battery

but due to the pressures of war the Soviets favored the production of simpler tank designs, and only a small number of T-40s were built.The last batch of T-40s built had BM-8-24 Katyusha rocket racks mounted instead of turrets. This version provided a mobile mount for a 24-rail multiple-launch rocket system, firing 82 mm unguided rockets. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E Battery

The T-50 light infantry tank was built by the Soviet Union at the beginning of World War II. Development of the T-50 started as the SP project (Soprovzhdeniya Pekhoty, ‘Infantry Support’) in 1939. The design bureau was gutted during the Great Purge, Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/B Battery

and was unable to continue the project, so it was transferred to the K.E. Voroshilov Factory Number 174 in May 1940. Troyanov completed the T-50 design in January 1941 and production was authorized, but due to technical problems, it was unable to proceed. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/L Battery

The design for this vehicle had some advanced features, but was complicated and expensive, and only a short production run of 69 tanks was completed. Furthermore, even before it was ready for mass-production wartime experience invalidated the underlying concept of light tanks. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/P Battery

The T-60 scout tank was a light tank produced by the Soviet Union from 1941 to 1942. In this time over 6,292 were built. The tank was designed to replace the obsolete T-38 amphibious scout tank.

Although at first intended to carry a 12.7 mm machine gun like the T-40, Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/R Battery

the armament was later upgraded to the 20 mm TNSh cannon, a tank version of the ShVAK, on the advisement of the People's Commissar for Tanks Industry, Vyacheslav Malyshev. This weapon could penetrate 15 mm of perpendicular armour Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/W Battery

at 500 m range which proved inadequate against the newer uparmored German tank designs thus attempts were made in 1942 to re-arm the T-60 with the 37 mm ZIS-19 cannon but were abandoned due to the Soviet Union's shortage of 37 mm ammunition. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/B Battery

The T-60 was also used in the design of the experimental T-90 antiaircraft tank. This project switched to the T-70 light tank, and was finally cancelled without any production.The T-70 light tank was used by the Red Army during World War II, replacing both the T-60 scout tank for reconnaissance and the T-50 light infantry tank for infantry support. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/L Battery

The T-80 light tank was a more advanced version of the T-70 with a two-man turret—it was only produced in very small numbers when light tank production was abandoned. The T-90 self-propelled anti-aircraft gun was a prototype vehicle with twin machine guns, based on the T-70 chassis. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/R Battery

The T-70 was armed with a 45 mm L/46 gun Model 38 with forty-five rounds carried, and a coaxial 7.62-mm DT machine gun. The tank was operated by a driver and a commander who loaded and fired the gun. Armour thickness on the turret front was 60 mm, hull front and sides: Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/W Battery

45 mm, rear and turret sides: 35 mm, roof and bottom: 10 mm.

T-70s were put into production in March 1942 at Zavod No. 37, and along with T-60 production at GAZ and Zavod No. 38. They completely replaced T-60 production in September 1942, although that tank remained in use until the end of the war. Sony VAIO VPCCW26EC Battery

Production ended in October 1943, with 8,226 vehicles completed.

The Kliment Voroshilov (KV) tanks were a series of heavy tanks that had extremely heavy armour protection during the early part of World War II, especially during the first year of the German invasion. Sony VAIO VPCCW26FX/B Battery

Although it was heavily armoured, larger guns and thicker armour introduced by the enemy made it less effective over time. The series was discontinued as it could not be upgraded with better guns or heavier armour but served as a basis for the later Iosif Stalin heavy tank. Sony VAIO VPCCW28EC Battery

The Iosif Stalin tank (or IS tank, named after the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin) was a heavy tank developed by the Soviet Union during World War II. The tanks in the series are also sometimes called JS or ИС tanks.

The heavy tank was designed with thick armour to counter the German 88 mm guns, Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/P Battery

and carried a main gun that was capable of defeating the German Tiger and Panther tanks. It was mainly a breakthrough tank, firing a heavy high-explosive shell that was useful against entrenchments and bunkers. The IS-2 was put into service in April 1944, Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/R Battery

and was used as a spearhead in theBattle of Berlin by the Red Army in the final stage of the war.

The T-10 (also known as Obyekt 730) was a Soviet heavy tank of the Cold War, the final development of the KV and IS tank series. Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/W Battery

It was accepted into production in 1952 as the IS-10 (Iosif Stalin, Russian form of Joseph Stalin), but due to the political climate in the wake of Stalin's death in 1953, it was renamed T-10.

The biggest differences from its direct ancestor, the IS-3, were a longer hull, Sony VAIO VPCCW29FJ/W Battery

seven pairs of road wheels instead of six, a larger turret mounting a new gun with fume extractor, an improved diesel engine, and increased armour. General performance was similar, although the T-10 could carry more ammunition. Sony VAIO VPCCW2AFJ Battery

T-10s (like the IS tanks they replaced) were deployed in independent tank regiments belonging to armies, and independent tank battalions belonging to divisions. These independent tank units could be attached to mechanized units, to support infantry operations and perform breakthroughs. Sony VAIO VPCCW2AHJ Battery

The T-54 and T-55 tanks were a series of main battle tanks designed in the Soviet Union. The first T-54 prototype appeared in March 1945, just before the end of the Second World War. The T-54 entered full production in 1947 and became the main tank for armored units of the Soviet Army, Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E Battery

armies of the Warsaw Pact countries, and others. T-54s and T-55s were involved in many of the world's armed conflicts during the late 20th century.

T-54/55 tanks were replaced by the T-62, T-72, T-64 and T-80 in the Soviet and Russian Armies, but many remain in use by up to 50 other armies worldwide, some having received sophisticated retrofitting. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/B Battery

Soviet tanks never directly faced their NATO Cold War adversaries in Europe. However, the T-54/55's first appearance in the west in 1960 spurred the United States to develop the M60. The T-54 did fight in Vietnam where it was outperformed by theM48A3 Patton and even the M41 Walker Bulldog. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/L Battery

It also fought in the Arab-Israeli wars where it was outperformed by theCenturion, M48 Patton, M60 Patton and even upgraded M4 Shermans.[83]

The T-54/55 series eventually became the most-produced tank in history. Estimated production numbers for the series range from 86,000 to 100,000. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/P Battery

The PT-76 is a Soviet light amphib

ious tank which was introduced in the early 1950s and soon became the standard reconnaissance tank of the Soviet Army and the other Warsaw Pact armed forces. It was widely exported to other friendly states, like India, Iraq, North Korea and North Vietnam. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/R Battery

Overall, some 25 countries used the PT-76.

The tank's full name is Floating Tank–76 (Russian: Плавающий Танк, Plavayushchiy Tank, or ПТ-76). 76 stands for the caliber of the main armament: the 76.2 mm D-56T series rifled tank gun. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/W Battery

Although the T-62 is very similar to the T-55 and makes use of many of the same parts, there are some differences. Those include the hull, which is a few centimeters longer and wider, the different road wheels, and differences in characteristic uneven gaps between roadwheels. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery

The PT-76 is used in the reconnaissance and fire-support roles. Its chassis served as the basis for a number of other vehicle designs, many of them amphibious, including the BTR-50 armored personnel carrier, the ZSU-23-4 self-propelled antiaircraft gun, the ASU-85 airborne self-propelled gun and the 2K12 Kub anti-aircraft missile launch vehicle. Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B Battery

The T-62 is a Soviet main battle tank, a further development of the T-55. Its 115 mm gun was the first smoothbore tank gun in use. Although the T-62 is very similar to the T-55 and makes use of many of the same parts, there are some differences. Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery

Those include the hull, which is a few centimeters longer and wider, the different road wheels, and differences in characteristic uneven gaps between roadwheels. Unlike the T-54 and T-55 main battle tanks, the gaps between the last three pairs of roadwheels are larger than the rest. (Perrett 1987:37-38) Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI Battery

Like the T-54 and T-55, the T-62 has an unditching beam mounted at the rear of the hull. The tank can be fitted with a thin snorkel for operational usage and a large diameter snorkel for training. The thin snorkel can be disassembled and carried in the back of the turret when not used. Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery

The commander's cupola is located on the left of the top of the turret. The loader has a single piece hatch located on the right side of the turret and further back than the commander's cupola. The loader's hatch has a periscope vision block that can be used to view ahead and behind the vehicle. Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery

The commander's copula has four periscopes, two of which are located in the hatch cover while the other two are located in the forward part of the cupola. The driver has a single piece hatch located on the left front of the vehicle, directly in front of the left side of the turret.[84] Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery

The tank uses the same sights and vision devices as the T-55 except for the gunner, who received a new TSh-2B-41 sight which has x4 or x7 magnification. It is mounted coaxially with an optic rangefinder.[85][86]

The T-62 was produced between 1961 and 1975. Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery

It became a standard tank in the Soviet arsenal, partly replacing the T-55, although that tank continued to be manufactured in the Soviet Union and elsewhere after T-62 production was halted. The T-54/55 and T-62 were later replaced in front-line service by the T-64 andT-72. Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery

The T-62 fought in the Yom-Kippur war where it was outperformed by the Centurion, M48 Patton and M60 Patton. It even proved vulnerable to the M51 Super Sherman, an upgraded variant of the M4 Sherman of World War II.

The T-64 is a Soviet main battle tank, introduced in the early 1960s. Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery

It was used solely by the Soviet Army in its front-line divisions and was a more advanced counterpart to the T-62. Although the T-62 and the famed T-72 used more widely and generally developed more, it was the T-64 that formed the basis of more modern Soviet tank designs like the T-80. Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery

A revolutionary feature of the T-64 is the incorporation of an automatic loader for its 115 mm gun, allowing a crewmember's position to be omitted, and helping to keep the size and weight of the tank down. Tank troopers would joke that the designers had finally caught up with their unofficial hymn, Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery

"Three Tankers"—the song had been written to commemorate the crewmen fighting in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, in 3-man BT-5 tanks in 1939.[87]

The T-64 also pioneered other Soviet tank technology: the T-64A model of 1967 introduced the 125 mm smoothbore gun, and the T-64B of 1976 would be able to fire a guided antitank missile through its gun barrel. Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery

The T-64 design was further developed as the gas turbine-powered T-80 main battle tank. The turret of the T-64B would be used in the improved T-80U and T-80UD, and an advanced version of its diesel engine would power T-80UD and T-84 tanks built in Ukraine. Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B Battery

The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1970. It is a further development of the T-62[88]with some features of the T-64A (to which it was a parallel design) and has been further developed as the T-90. Chronologically, Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery

and in design terms, it belongs to the same generation of tanks as the US M60[89] series, German Leopard 1, and British Chieftain tank.

The T-72 was the most common tank used by the Soviet Army from the 1970s to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery

It was also exported to other Warsaw Pact countries, as well as Finland, India, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Yugoslavia, as well as being copied elsewhere, both with and without licenses.

The Yugoslavs upgraded the T-72 in the new and more advanced M-84, and sold hundreds of them around the world during the 1980s. Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B Battery

The Iraqis called theirs the Lion of Babylon (Asad Babil), though the Iraqis assembled theirs from "spare parts" sold to them by the Russians as a means of evading the UN-imposed weapons embargo. More modern derivatives include the Polish PT-91 Twardy and Russian T-90. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery

Several countries, including Russia and Ukraine, also offer modernization packages for older T-72s.

The T-80 is a main battle tank (MBT) designed and manufactured in the former Soviet Union. A development of the T-64, Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery

it entered service in 1976 and was the first production tank to be equipped with a gas turbine engine for main propulsion (theStridsvagn 103 only used a supplementary gas turbine by 1971). The T-80U was last produced in a factory in Omsk, Russia, while the T-80UD and further-developed T-84 continue to be produced in Ukraine. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery

The T-80 and its variants are in service inBelarus, Cyprus, Kazakhstan,[90] Pakistan, Russia, South Korea, and Ukraine. The chief designer of the T-80 was the Russian engineer Nikolay Popov.[91]

The main gun is fed by the Korzina automatic loader. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery

This holds up to 28 rounds of two-part ammunition in a carousel located under the turret floor.[92] Additional ammunition is stored within the turret. The ammunition comprises the projectile (APFSDS, HEAT or HE-Frag) plus the propellant charge, or the two part missile.[92] Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery

The autoloader is an effective, reliable, combat tested system which has been in use since the mid-1960s. The propellant charge is held inside a semi-combustible cartridge case made of a highly flammable material - this is consumed in the breech during firing, except for a small metal baseplate.[92] Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery

The T-80s main gun has a range relatively longer than that of western tanks; it is capable of engaging targets at a range of 5,000 m.

A disadvantage highlighted during combat in Chechnya was the vulnerability of the T-80BV to catastrophic explosion.[92] Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery

The reason given by US and Russian experts is the vulnerability of stored semi-combustible propellant charges and missiles when contacted by the molten metal jet from the penetration of a HEAT warhead, causing the entire ammunition load to explode.[92] Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery

This vulnerability may be addressed in later models. When Western tank designs changed from non-combustible propellant cartridges to semi-combustible, they tended to separate ammunition stowage from the crew compartment with armoured blast doors, and provided 'blow-out' panels to redirect the force and fire of exploding ammunition away from the crew compartment. Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery

The T-90 is a Russian main battle tank (MBT) derived from the T-72, and is currently the most modern tank in service with theRussian Ground Forces and Naval Infantry. The successor to the T-72BM, the T-90 uses the tank gun and 1G46 gunner sights from the T-80U, Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery

a new engine, and thermal sights. Protective measures include Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour (ERA), laser warning receivers, Nakidka camouflage, the EMT-7 electromagnetic pulse (EMP) creator for the destruction of magnetic mines[93] Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery

and the Shtora infrared ATGM jamming system. It is designed and built by Uralvagonzavod, in Nizhny Tagil, Russia.

The T-90 with an 840 hp (630 kW) engine went into low-level production in 1993, based on a prototype designated T-88Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery

It features a new generation of Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armor on its hull and turret. Of conventional layout, the T-90 represents a major upgrade to every system in the T-72, including the main gun.[94] The T-90S have been identified as export model. Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery

The references to a T-90E appear to be unsubstantiated.[94] The T-90 is fitted with a "three-tiered" protection system: the first tier is the composite armour in the turret, second tier is third generation Kontakt-5 ERA and third tier is a Shtora-1 countermeasures suite. Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ Battery

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