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15 mars 2012 4 15 /03 /mars /2012 13:47

As Tang military governor of Wu'an

When Ma Yin took over command of Wu'an, he was apprehensive of the strengths of both Yang Xingmi (who was firmly in control of Huainan by that point) and Cheng Ruithe military governor of Jingnan Circuit (荊南, headquartered in modern Jingzhou, Hubei), Dell XPS GEN 2 Battery

and he considered giving them gold and silk to appease them. His strategistGao Yu pointed out that Cheng was not as strong as he looked, while Yang was a sworn enemy who could never be appeased through gifts. Dell XPS M1210 Battery

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At Gao's suggestion, Ma concentrated on comforting the people and training his army, to strengthen his own army without external aid.[15] Dell XPS M170 Battery

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In 897, Zhang Ji captured Jiang Xun, allowing Shao Prefecture to come under Ma's control. However, it was said that at that point, while Wu'an Circuit legally consisted of seven prefectures, Dell XPS M1530 Battery Battery

Ma was in actual control of only Tan and Shao; the other five prefectures were all actually controlled by agrarian rebels — Heng(modern Hengyang in Hunan) by Yang Shiyuan (楊師遠), Yong (永州, in modern Yongzhou, Hunan) by Tang Shimin (唐世旻); Dao (道州, in modern Yongzhou) by Cai Jie (蔡結); Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery Battery

Chēn (郴州, in modern Chenzhou, Hunan) by Chen Yanqian (陳彥謙); and Lian (連州, in modern Qingyuan, Guangdong) by Lu Jingren (魯景仁). Under the suggestion of Yao Yanzhang (姚彥章), Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

Ma sent an army commanded by Li Qiong and Qin Zongquan's cousin Qin Yanhui (秦彥暉) to attack Heng and Yong, quickly capturing them; Yang died in flight, while Tang was killed by Ma's army. When Ma sent Li Tang (李唐) in 899 to attack Dao,Sony VGP-BPS8A Battery

Cai initially repelled Li Tang's attack, but Li Tang subsequently succeeded in capturing Dao and killing Cai, taking Dao under Ma's control as well. By the end of 899, Sony VGP-BPS8B Battery

Li Qiong had captured and executed Chen Yanqian, and when he attacked Lian, Lu committed suicide, allowing Ma to control all seven of Wu'an's prefectures.[16]Emperor Zhaozong formally bestowed on Ma the title of military governor.[9] Sony VGP-BPL8 Battery

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When Liu Shizheng (劉士政) the military governor of Jingjiang Circuit (靜江, headquartered in modern Guilin, Guangxi) heard that Ma had pacified all of Wu'an, SONY VGP-BPS9 Battery

he became apprehensive, and he sent his deputy Chen Kefan (陳可璠) to defend Quanyi Heights (全義嶺, in modern Guilin) against a possible Ma attack. When Ma sent emissaries to Liu to try to establish peaceful relations, Chen refused.SONY VGP-BPS9/S Battery

Ma, in 900, sent Qin and Li Qiong to attack Jingjiang. They quickly defeated Liu's army, killing Wang Jianwu (王建武) and capturing Chen. They put Jingjiang's capital Gui Prefecture (桂州) under siege, SONY VGP-BPS9A/S Battery

and after a few days of siege, Liu surrendered, allowing Ma to take Jingjiang's five prefectures under control. Ma commissioned Li Qiong as the military governor of Jingjiang.[17] SONY VGP-BPS9/B Battery

In 902, Emperor Zhaozong, who was then under the controls of the eunuch Han Quanhui and the warlord Li Maozhen at Li Maozhen's Fengxiang Circuit (鳳翔, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), which was then under siege by Zhu Quanzhong, SONY VGP-BPS9A/B Battery

sent the imperial emissary Li Yan to the southeastern circuits to encourage the warlords there to join under Yang's command and attack Zhu. As part of the edicts that Li Yan promulgated, Ma was given the honorary chancellor title of Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi (同中書門下平章事).[18] SONY VGP-BPS9A Battery


By 903, Zhu had prevailed over Li Maozhen, forcing Li Maozhen to seek peace by killing Han and giving control of the emperor to Zhu. Thereafter, Yang sent emissaries to Ma, accusing Zhu of inappropriate actions, SONY VGP-BPS10 Battery


and offering an alliance to Ma if Ma would cut off his relationship with Zhu. Ma's general Xu Dexun pointed out that Zhu controlled the emperor and that it would not be advantageous to Ma to end that relationship. Ma agreed and did not accept Yang's proposal.[19] SONY VGP-BPL9 Battery

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Meanwhile, an ally of Zhu's, Du Hong the military governor of Wuchang Circuit (武昌, headquartered in modern Wuhan, Hubei), had been under attack by Yang for several years and was in a desperate situation. Sony VGP-BPL12 Battery

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Zhu sent his general Han Qing (韓勍) south to try to save Du, while also requesting Cheng, Ma, and Lei Yanwei the military governor of Wuzhen Circuit (武貞, headquartered in modern Changde, Hunan) to launch troops to save Du. Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

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Cheng agreed and launched a fleet, which he himself commanded, toward Wuchang. However, after Cheng left his capital Jiangling, Ma sent Xu to join forces with Lei's officer Ouyang Si (歐陽思) to attack Jiangling. Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

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They captured it, pillaged it for its population and wealth, and then withdrew. Cheng's army, hearing that their families and wealth had been captured, lost its morale, and was subsequently defeated by Yang's general Li Shenfu; Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery

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Cheng committed suicide by drowning. On the way back to Tan, Xu met with Deng Jinzhong (鄧進忠) the prefect of Yue Prefecture (岳州, in modern Yueyang, Hunan)Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

and persuaded Deng that he should submit to Ma. Deng agreed, surrendered the prefecture, and moved his entire family to Tan to show submission to Ma. Ma made Xu the prefect of Yue and Deng the prefect of Heng.[19] Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery

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In 904, Yang realized that Ma Cong, who remained at Huainan and served in his army for a number of years after Yang defeated Sun Ru, was Ma Yin's brother.Sony VGP-BPS13A Battery

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He offered to send Ma Cong to Ma Yin. Ma Cong initially declined, indicating that he was grateful for Yang's not killing him at the time of Sun's death and making him a Huainan officer, Sony VGP-BPS14/B Battery

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but Yang insisted. After Ma Cong arrived at Tan, Ma Yin made him the deputy military governor. Ma Cong subsequently advocated an alliance between Ma Yin and Yang, but Ma Yin rejected Ma Cong's proposal.[20] Sony VGP-BPS14/S Battery

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In 906, Yang's son and successor Yang Wo sent his officer Chen Zhixin (陳知新) to attack Yue Prefecture. Chen was successful, forcing Xu to flee, and Yue fell to Huainan control. Sony VGP-BPL14 Battery

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During the same year, Peng Gan (彭玕) the prefect of Ji Prefecture (吉州, in modern Ji'an, Jiangxi) surrendered Ji to Ma, after Yang Wo had conquered most of Zhennan Circuit (which Ji Prefecture belonged to) and captured its military governor Zhong Kuangshi.[20] Sony VGP-BPL14/S Battery

During Emperor Taizu's reign

In 907, Zhu Quanzhong had Emperor Zhaozong's son and successor Emperor Ai yield the throne to him, ending Tang and establishing a new Later Liang Dynasty as its Emperor Taizu. Several Tang warlords, including Yang Wo, Li Maozhen, Sony VGP-BPS14 Battery

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Li Keyong, and Wang Jian, refused to recognize him as emperor, but the rest of the formerly Tang realm did, including Ma Yin's Wu'an Circuit. Shortly thereafter, the new Later Liang emperor created Ma the Prince of Chu. Emperor Taizu also gave him the title of military governor of Wuchang, even though he did not control Wuchang.[4] Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery

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Later that year, Yang Wo (whose state became known as Hongnong by that point as he carried the title of Prince of Hongnong) sent his general Liu Cun (劉存) with 30,000 men to attack Chu. Ma sent Qin Yanhui and Huang Fan (黃璠) to resist Liu.Sony VGP-BPS15/S Battery

Liu's fleet soon ran into difficulties due to torrential rains and was repeatedly defeated by Qin. Liu thus sent letters to Ma, offering to surrender, but Qin, arguing to Ma that Liu's surrender offers were deceitful, Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery

continued attacking. Qin thoroughly defeated Liu and captured Liu and his deputy Chen Zhixin (陳知新). Initially, Ma tried to persuade Liu and Chen to submit to him and serve him, Sony VGP-BPL15 Battery

but after the refused, he executed them. This battle allowed Ma to regain Yue Prefecture. Ma then joined forces with Peng Gan to try to capture Zhennan's capital Hong Prefecture (洪州), but they could not do so. Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

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Subsequently, he and Lei Yanwei's brother and successor Lei Yangong jointly attacked Jingnan, which was then under the control of the Later Liang general Gao Jixing, but they were repelled.[4] Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

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Later in 907, when Lei again made an unsuccessful attempt to capture Jiangling and entered into an alliance with Hongnong, Emperor Taizu stripped him of his titles and ordered Gao and Ma to attack him. Gao sent his general Ni Kefu (倪可福), while Ma sent Qin, Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery

to put Wuzhen's capital Lang Prefecture (朗州) under siege. When Lei sought aid from Huainan, Yang sent Ling Ye (泠業) and Li Rao (李饒) to try to save Lei. Ma sent Xu Dexun to resist Ling and Li Rao, and he defeated and captured them; Sony PCG-5G2L Battery

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Ma then executed them. In summer 908, without Hongnong aid, Lang Prefecture fell. Lei fled to Hongnong territory, allowing Ma to take over Lang and Li (澧州, in modern Changde) Prefectures.[4] Sony PCG-5J1L Battery

Meanwhile, Gao Yu pointed out to Ma that one way to enrich his state was to sell tea to territory directly under Later Liang control. Thereafter, Ma requested and received permission from Emperor Taizu to establish tea trade offices at Bian Prefecture (汴州, in modern Kaifeng), Sony PCG-5J2L Battery

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Jiangling, Xiang Prefecture (襄州, in modernXiangyang, Hubei), Tang Prefecture (唐州, in modern Zhumadian), Ying (郢州, in modern Jingmen, Hubei), Sony PCG-5K2L Battery

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and Fù Prefecture (復州, in modern Tianmen, Hubei), for the purpose of selling Chu tea and purchasing silk and horses, with part of the tea offered to the Later Liang imperial government as tribute. Sony PCG-6S2L Battery

It was said that Chu began to be enriched after this trade began.[4] Later in the year, when Gao Jixing tried to cut off this trade by stationing forces at Hankou (漢口, in modern Wuhan), Ma sent Xu to attack him, and Gao Jixing, Sony PCG-6S3L Battery

n fear, sought peace. Ma also sent Lü Shizhou (呂師周) to attack the territory of Liu Yin the military governor of Qinghai Circuit (清海, headquartered in modern Guangzhou, Guangdong), capturing Zhao (昭州, in modern Guilin), He (賀州, in modern Hezhou, Guangxi), Sony PCG-6V1L Battery

Wu (梧州, in modernWuzhou, Guangxi), Meng (蒙州, in modern Wuzhou), Gong (龔州, in modern Guigang, Guangxi), and Fù (富州, in modern Hezhou, note different character than the prefecture in Tianmen) Prefectures from Liu Yin.[21] Sony PCG-6W1L Battery

In 909, Wei Quanfeng, who had been controlling four Zhennan prefectures centered around Fǔ Prefecture (撫州, in modern Fuzhou, Jiangxi, note different tone than the prefectures in Tianmen and Hezhou) for years, claimed the title of military governor of Zhennan and set to attack Hong Prefecture. Sony PCG-6W2L Battery

When Wei sought support from Ma, Ma sent Wan Mei (苑玫) and Peng Gan's nephew Peng Yanzhang (彭彥章) to put Gao'an (高安, in modern Yichun, Jiangxi) under siege to divert Hongnong forces. Subsequently, after Wei was defeated and captured by the Hongnong general Zhou Ben, Sony PCG-6W3L Battery

Chu forces withdrew. Further, Peng Gan abandoned Ji Prefecture and fled to Tan, thus allowing Hongnong to take over Ji. Ma made Peng Gan the prefect of Chēn Prefecture, and took one of Peng's daughters as the wife of his son Ma Xifan.[21]Sony PCG-7111L Battery

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In 910, after Ma requested the title of Tiance Shangjiang (天策上將, literally "Grand General of Heavenly Strategies"), Sony PCG-7113L Battery

a title that had previously been held by the great Tang emperor Emperor Taizong, Emperor Taizu granted him that title. Ma thereafter established an Tiance Office and made Ma Cong and Ma Cun its directors.[21] Sony PCG-7133L Battery

Meanwhile, Song Ye (宋鄴) and Pan Jinsheng (潘金盛), the chieftains of non-Han peoples at Chén Prefecture (辰州, in modern Huaihua, Hunan, note different tone than the prefecture in Chenzhou) and Xu Prefecture (漵州, in modern Huaihua), Sony PCG-7Z1L Battery

had been harassing cities under Chu control. In late 910, when Song attacked Xiangxiang (湘鄉, in modern Xiangtan, Hunan), and Pan attacked Wugang (武岡, in modern Shaoyang), Sony PCG-7Z2L Battery

Ma sent Lü to attack them. Lü soon killed Pan,[21] and, by 912, Song and another non-Han chieftain, Chang Shiyi (昌師益), had submitted to Ma.[22]

Also in 910, Pang Juzhao (龐巨昭) the military governor of Ningyuan Circuit (寧遠, headquartered in modern Yulin, Guangxi), Sony PCG-8Y1L Battery

and Liu Changlu (劉昌魯) the defender of Gao Prefecture (高州, in modern Maoming, Guangdong), who had just recently repelled an attack by Liu Yin but believed that they had no strength to stand against Liu Yin long term, wrote to Ma, offering their territory to hi. Sony PCG-8Y2L Battery

Ma sent Yao Yanzhang (姚彥章) to their territory to escort them to Chu proper. He had Yao serve as the prefect of Ningyuan's capital Rong Prefecture (容州) to defend the territory,[21] Sony PCG-8Z1L Battery

and subsequently had him made the deputy military governor of Ningyuan. However, in911, when Liu Yin attacked again, Yao judged the situation untenable despite a relief force commanded by Xu. Sony PCG-8Z2L Battery

He therefore took the people of Rong Prefecture and returned to Chu proper, allowing Liu Yin to take over Rong and Gao Prefectures. Despite this setback, Emperor Taizu still bestowed on Ma the titles of military governor of Wu'an, Wuchang, Jingjiang, and Ningyuan, Sony VPCB11AGJ Battery

as well as the commanders of the forces against Hong and E (鄂州, Wuchang's capital) Prefectures. However, not wanting to see prolonged warfare between Ma and Liu Yin, both of whom were his vassals, he sent a number of emissaries to try to broker peace between them.[22] Sony VPCB11AV Battery

After Emperor Taizu's reign

In 912, the Wu (i.e., Hongnong, which was now referred to in historical accounts as Wu, as Yang Wo's brother and successor Yang Longyan, while initially carrying the title of Prince of Hongnong as well, Sony VPCB11V9E Battery

later took on the title of Prince of Wu, which Yang Xingmi had carried at the time of his death) general Chen Zhang (陳璋) attacked Yue Prefecture, capturing Wan, who was then the prefect of Yue. Sony VPCB11X9E Battery

When Ma sent Yang Dingzhen (楊定真) to try to recapture Yue, the Wu forces headed toward Jingnan instead. To prevent Ma from aiding Jingnan, the Wu general Liu Xin (劉信), Sony VPCCW12EN/BU Battery

who governed Wei's old territory of Fǔ Prefecture and its surroundings, stationed himself at Ji Prefecture to pressure Ma. Subsequently, though, after Chen was unable to capture Jiangling, Sony VPCCW12ES/BU Battery

he withdrew. In 913, apparently in response, Yao, who carried the title of military governor of Ningyuan by that point despite Chu's loss of Ningyuan, attacked E Prefecture, but when the Wu general Lü Shizao (呂師造) responded, Yao withdrew.[22] Sony VPCCW13EG/BU Battery

Also in 913, Liu Yin's brother and successor Liu Yan requested that Ma Yin give a daughter to him in marriage. Ma agreed.[22] (The marriage alliance was eventually concluded in 915, when Ma Yin had Ma Cun escort his daughter to Liu Yan's territory to marry Liu Yan.)[23] Sony VPCCW13FX/R Battery

In 914, the Wu prefect of Yuan Prefecture (袁州, in modern Yichun), Liu Chongjing (劉崇景), surrendered the prefecture to Ma. Ma sent Xu Zhen (許貞) to support him. Sony VPCCW152C/B Battery

After the Wu generals Chai Zaiyong (柴再用) and Mi Zhicheng (米志誠) attacked, however, Liu and Xu abandoned Yuan Prefecture and returned to Chu territory.[23]Sony VPCCW152C/W Battery

In 916, hearing that Li Keyong's son and successor Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin had conquered all of the territory north of the Yellow River in his continued war with Later Liang[23] Sony VPCCW15FA/B Battery

(which was then ruled by Emperor Taizu's son Zhu Zhen after Emperor Taizu was assassinated in 912 by another son, Zhu Yougui),[22] Ma, despite his status as a Later Liang vassal, sent emissaries to Jin as a peace overture; Li Cunxu reciprocated.[23] Sony VPCCW15FA/P Battery

In 918, Liu Xin put Qian Prefecture (虔州, in modern Ganzhou, Jiangxi), which was then ruled by the warlord Tan Quanbo, whose territory was wedged between Wu, Chu, Sony VPCCW15FA/W Battery

and the territories of the Later Liang vassals Liu Yan and Wang Shenzhi the Prince of Min, under siege. Tan sought aid from three states which were Later Liang vassals — Wuyue, Sony VPCCW15FG/B Battery

Min, and Chu. In response, Wuyue's prince Qian Liu sent his son Qian Chuanqiu (錢傳球) to attack Wu's Xin Prefecture (信州, in modern Shangrao,Jiangxi); Sony VPCCW15FG/P Battery

Ma sent his officer Zhang Keqiu (張可求) to advance to Gutting (古亭, in modern Ganzhou); and Wang sent an army to advance to Yudu (雩都, in modern Ganzhou),Sony VPCCW15FG/W Battery

all seeking to aid Tan. The Wuyue forces, however, were repelled by Xin's prefect Zhou Ben. Subsequently, Liu sent part of his army to repel the Chu army. When the Wuyue and Min forces heard that the Chu army had been repelled, they withdrew, leaving Tan without external aid.[24] Sony VPCCW15FN/R Battery

In 919, Chu forces attacked Jingnan, and Gao Jixing sought aid from Wu. Wu had Liu Xin head directly toward Tan Prefecture, while Li Jian (李簡) attacked Chu's Fù Prefecture (復州). Li Jian captured Fù's prefect Bao Tang (鮑唐), and the Chu forces, hearing of Liu Xin's advances, withdrew from Jingnan.[24] Sony VPCCW16FA/B Battery

In 920, Qian sought to have Ma give a daughter to his son Qian Chuansu (錢傳璛) in marriage, and Ma agreed.[25] Sony VPCCW16FA/L Battery

During Emperor Zhuangzong's reign

In 923, Li Cunxu claimed himself to be the legitimate successor to Tang, establishing a new Later Tang Dynasty as its Emperor Zhuangzong. Thereafter, he made a surprise attack on the Later Liang capital Daliang (大梁, i.e., formerly Bian Prefecture), Sony VPCCW16FA/P Battery

catching it defenseless. Zhu Zhen, not wanting to be captured, committed suicide before the city fell to Later Tang forces, ending Later Liang. The circuits that had previously been controlled by Later Liang came under Later Tang control.Sony VPCCW16FA/R Battery

Ma Yin, hearing of the Later Tang victory, sent Ma Xifan to Daliang to pay tribute to Emperor Zhuangzong.[26] When Ma Xifan met Emperor Zhuangzong, Emperor Zhuangzong asked him about the events in the Chu realm and was impressed. Sony VPCCW16FA/W Battery

Wanting to praise Ma Xifan while, at the same time, sow seeds of suspicion by Ma Yin against Gao Yu, he stated to Ma Xifan, "I had often heard that one day Gao Yu would take over the Hunan region. If the Prince of Chu has a son like you, how could Gao do so?"[1] Sony VPCCW16FG/B Battery

Despite this attempt by Emperor Zhuangzong to cause Ma Yin to suspect Gao, Ma Yin refused to do so and continued to trust Gao.[5] Indeed, it was said that it was Gao's suggestion that Ma, Sony VPCCW16FG/L Battery

who was enticing merchants to come to Chu by collecting no transactional taxes from them, coined money out of iron and lead — two metals that were not used for money outside of Chu realm. Sony VPCCW16FG/P Battery

As a result, the merchants were forced to spend the money by purchasing items from Chu, thus allowing Chu to enrich itself through these commercial activities. Sony VPCCW16FG/R Battery

Further, also at Gao's suggestion, to encourage sericulture, Ma also allowed the people of his realm to pay taxes with silk in lieu of money, and it was said that after several years of this policy, Chu had become a major producer of silk.[27] Sony VPCCW16FG/W Battery

In 924, Emperor Zhuangzong bestowed on Ma Yin the title of Shangshu Ling (尚書令).[28] Sony VPCCW18FG/B Battery

In 925, Emperor Zhuangzong sent his son Li Jiji the Prince of Wei and the major general Guo Chongtao to attack Former Shu (which was then ruled by Wang Jian's son and successor Wang Yan. Sony VPCCW18FJ Battery

Former Shu quickly fell and was absorbed into Later Tang. Hearing of Former Shu's destruction, Ma, in fear, submitted a report to Emperor Zhuangzong, stating:[27] Sony VPCCW19FJ Battery

I have started managing a mansion at the foot of Mount Heng to be my place of retirement. I am willing to surrender my seal and commission to preserve my old years. Sony VPCCW1AFJ Battery

Emperor Zhuangzong sent Ma a reply comforting him and declining his resignation.[27] Sony VPCCW1AGG/B Battery

However, despite the apparent Later Tang strength that the destruction of Former Shu showed, Emperor Zhuangzong's rule was actually becoming destabilized due to the soldiers' discontent toward his failure to implement his prior promises of rewards to them for their achievements in destroying Later Liang and Former Shu,Sony VPCCW1AHJ Battery

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and the discontent was further exacerbated by the subsequent executions of Guo and another major general, Li Jilin the Prince of Xiping by Emperor Zhuangzong and his wifeEmpress Liu. Sony VPCCW1FFX/L Battery

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Thereafter, Emperor Zhuangzong's adoptive brother Li Siyuan rebelled at Daming (大名, in modern Handan, Hebei).[27] By summer 926, another mutiny at the capital Luoyang caused Emperor Zhuangzong to die in battle. Li Siyuan subsequently declared himself emperor (as Emperor Mingzong).[29] Sony VPCCW1ZEG/BU Battery

During Emperor Mingzong's reign

After Emperor Mingzong took the throne, he confirmed Ma Yin's title of Shangshu Ling. Meanwhile, with Gao Jixing taking an increasingly confrontational attitude with the Later Tang court, Sony VPCCW1ZEH/BU Battery

including seizure of a major shipment of Former Shu wealth that Li Jiji (prior to Emperor Zhuangzong's death and his own suicide) sent toward Luoyang, as well as the seizure of three prefectures that formerly belonged to Former Shu, Emperor Mingzong sent the general Liu Xun (劉訓) to attack Jingnan. Sony VPCCW21FX/B Battery

Ma sent Xu Dexun with a fleet toward Jingnan, but stopped Xu's fleet at Yue Prefecture. Meanwhile, Gao defended Jiangling and refused to engage Liu, who soon became bogged down in his attack due to rains and illnesses afflicting his army. Sony VPCCW21FX/L Battery

Emperor Mingzong sent the chief of staff Kong Xun to the front to examine the situation, and Kong tried to entice Ma to join the battle as well by sending a gift of clothes to the Chu army and horses and jade belts to Ma personally, Sony VPCCW21FX/R Battery

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and requesting that Ma send food supplies to Liu's army — a request that Ma apparently did not openly reject but never carried out. Eventually, Liu was forced to withdraw, and Jingnan became effectively independent of Later Tang after that point.[29] Sony VPCCW26FA/B Battery

In 927, Emperor Mingzong bestowed the greater title of King of Chu (楚國王) on Ma.[29] After accepting the title, Ma took on greater royal trappings, including referring to his residence as palace and establishing the various offices for his officials like an imperial regime, Sony VPCCW26FA/L Battery

only changing the official titles somewhat to show deference to the Later Tang emperor. He made Yao Yanzhang and Xu his chancellors. He assumed all responsibilities for commissioning officials within his reign, except that he would submit reports after commissioning the military governors of Wuping (武平, i.e., formerly Wuzhen) and Jingjiang.[5] Sony VPCCW26FA/P Battery

In 928, Ma sent Yuan Quan (袁詮), Wang Huan (王環), and his son Ma Xizhan (馬希瞻), to attack Jingnan. After the Chu forces dealt the Jingnan forces a major defeat at Liulang Ford (劉郎洑, in modern Jingzhou), Sony VPCCW26FA/R Battery

Gao, in fear, returned the Chu emissary to Later Tang, Shi Guangxian (史光憲) (whom Gao had seized after turning against Later Tang). When Ma subsequently blamed Wang for not further destroying Jingnan, Wang responded:[5] Sony VPCCW26FA/W Battery

Jiangling is between the Central Dynasty [(i.e., Later Tang)], Wu, and Shu, and everyone wants it. It is best that we let it stand so that it can serve as our defense. Sony VPCCW26FG/B Battery

Ma understood the point and thereafter did not speak of capturing Jingnan any further.[5] Sony VPCCW26FG/L Battery

Meanwhile, also in 928, Ma sent a fleet to attack Feng Prefecture (封州, in modern Zhaoqing, Guangdong), Sony VPCCW26FG/P Battery

which belonged to Liu Yan — who, by that point, had declared himself emperor of a new state of Southern Han. The fleet, however, was defeated by the Southern Han general Su Zhang (蘇章) and forced to withdraw.[5] Sony VPCCW26FG/R Battery

Later in 928, Wu launched a major attack on Yue Prefecture, commanded by Miao Lin (苗璘) and Wang Yanzhang (王彥章). Ma sent Xu to face them. Xu secretly sent Wang Huan with a smaller fleet to get behind the Wu fleet, and then attacked the Wu fleet from both ends. Sony VPCCW26FG/W Battery

The result was a major Chu victory, and both Miao and Wang Yanzhang were captured. Subsequently, though, to try to make peace with Wu, Ma sent both Miao and Wang Yanzhang back to Wu. Sony VPCCW26FH/B Battery

When sending them off at a feast, Xu, who had by this point had become concerned that Ma's sons were fighting over succession rights, made what was later viewed as a prophetic statement:[5] Sony VPCCW26FH/L Battery

While Chu is small, its senior officials and generals are still present. I hope that the Wu Dynasty will not again think of it. For you to consider attacking us, you have to wait until the ponies [(i.e., Ma's sons, with Xu employing a double entendre given that "Ma" meant "horse")] are fighting over the stable.Sony VPCCW26FH/P Battery

Meanwhile, Gao, after breaking with Emperor Mingzong, submitted to Wu, and the Wu emperor Yang Pu (Yang Longyan's brother and successor) created Gao the Prince of Qin. Emperor Mingzong ordered Ma to attack Jingnan. Ma sent Xu and Ma Xifan to attack Jingnan. Sony VPCCW26FH/R Battery

When the two armies met, Gao Jixing's nephew Gao Congsi (高從嗣) challenged Ma Xifan to single combat, but the Chu officer Liao Kuangqi (廖匡齊) came out and engaged Gao Congsi instead, Sony VPCCW26FH/W Battery

killing him. Gao Jixing then sued for peace, and Xu and Ma Xifan withdrew. However, for some time, there continued to be border skirmishes between Chu and Jingnan.[5] Sony VPCCW26FX/B Battery

Meanwhile, as Xu perceived, there was a struggle over succession rights. Ma Yin's oldest son, Ma Xizhen (馬希振), was born of his wife (whose name was not recorded in history), but his favorite son was his second son Ma Xisheng, who was born of his favorite concubine Consort Yuan. Sony VPCCW28FG/B Battery

Ma Xizhen, not wanting to fight over the succession with Ma Xisheng, became a Taoist monk and retired from politics.[1] In 929, Ma formally put Ma Xisheng, who then carried the title of deputy military governor of Wu'an and acting mayor of the capital Changsha, in charge of the Chu administration. Sony VPCCW28FJ/P Battery

From this point on, all matters of state were to be reported to Ma Xisheng first, before being reported to Ma Yin, and this effectively designated Ma Xisheng as Ma Yin's heir.[5] Sony VPCCW28FJ/R Battery

However, Ma Xifan, who was born on the same day as (but apparently later in the day than) Ma Xisheng, resented Ma Xisheng for not even showing any sign of deferring to him. He hated Ma Xisheng and Consort Yuan from this point on.[10]Sony VPCCW28FJ/W Battery

In late 928, Gao Jixing died and was succeeded by his son Gao Conghui. Gao Conghui, believing that his small state could not withstand Later Tang military pressure if it continued to confront Later Tang, Sony VPCCW29FJ Battery

resubmitted to Emperor Mingzong through Ma Yin and the Later Tang military governor of Shannan East Circuit (山南東道, headquartered in modern Xiangyang), An Yuanxin (安元信).[5] Sony VPCCW2AFJ Battery

After Ma Xisheng took the reins of the state, he began to run into conflicts with Gao Yu, and he was also suspicious of Gao due to the prior seeds of suspicion sewn by Emperor Zhuangzong and Gao JixingSony VPCCW2AGG/B Battery

(who, while alive, had publicly stated that he wanted to enter into a blood brotherhood with Gao because he believed that Gao would become Chu's ruler).Sony VPCCW2AHJ Battery

In 929, with Ma Xisheng repeatedly requesting it, Ma Yin ordered Gao into retirement. Gao, in frustration, stated, "I am going to build a mansion in the hills to the west, for retirement. Sony VPCCW2BGN/BU Battery

The pony [(employing a similar double entendre as Xu did)] has grown up and can bite now." Ma Xisheng heard the remark and became angry — so angry that he falsely announced that Gao had committed treason, Sony VPCCW2MFX/PU Battery

and he slaughtered Gao and his family, without first informing Ma Yin. When Ma Yin heard this, he cried bitterly, but did not punish Ma Xisheng.[5] Sony VPCCW2S1E Battery

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Ma Yin died in 930. He left instructions that his sons were to pass the throne to their younger brothers, and further ordered that anyone who spoke against this succession principle be put to death. Ma Xisheng thereafter took over control of the state.[3] Sony VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery

This article is about the late Tang Dynasty official and older brother of the founder of the Southern Han. For other uses, see Liu Yin. Sony VPCCW2Z1E/B Battery

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Liu Yin (劉隱) (874[1]–April 4, 911[2][3]), formally Prince Xiang of Nanhai(南海襄王), later further posthumously honored Emperor Xiang (襄皇帝) with the temple name of Liezong (烈宗) by his younger brother Liu Yan, Sony VPCF116FGBI Battery

was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Tang's succeeding dynasty Later Liang Dynasty of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, who ruled Qinghai Circuit Sony VPCF117FJ Battery

(清海, headquartered in modern Guangzhou, Guangdong) as its military governor (Jiedushi). It was on the basis of his rule that Liu Yan was later able to establish the state of Southern Han. Sony VPCF117HG/BI Battery


Liu Yin was born in 874, during the reign of Emperor Xizong of Tang. His father, whose name was variously referred to as Liu Qian[4][1] or Liu Zhiqian,[5] was a low-level officer at Guang Prefecture (廣州), Sony VPCF118FJ Battery

the capital of Qinghai (then known as Lingnan East Circuit (嶺南東道)). His mother Lady Wei was a niece to Lingnan East's then-military governor Wei Zhou (韋宙). Sony VPCF119FC Battery

Liu Qian eventually came to control Feng Prefecture (封州, in modern Zhaoqing, Guangdong) as its prefect.[4] Liu Yin was his oldest son, and he had two younger ones, Sony VPCF119FJ Battery

Liu Tai (劉台), also born of Lady Wei, and Liu Yan, born of his concubine Lady Duan.[6] (Lady Wei had killed Lady Duan out of a jealous rage after finding out about Lady Duan, whom Liu Qian had kept in a house away from their mansion. Sony VPCF11AFJ Battery

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When Liu Qian subsequently buried Lady Duan, at her burial location was a stone tablet that bore the characters of Yin, Tai, and Yan, and he used those characters to name his three sons.)[7] Sony VPCF11AHJ Battery

As prefect of Feng Prefecture

In 894, Liu Qian died, and Liu Yin was observing a period of mourning when it was said that a group of about 100 soldiers and civilians were planning a disturbance. Sony VPCF11JFX/B Battery

Liu Yin slaughtered them. Thereafter, then-military governor of Lingnan East, Liu Chonggui (劉崇龜), made him a Lingnan East officer and gave him one of the titles that Liu Qian held, the defender of Heshui Base (賀水鎮, in modern Nanning, Guangxi). Shortly after, Liu Chonggui commissioned him the prefect of Feng Prefecture.[8] Sony VPCF11M1E Battery

In 896, a new military governor of the circuit (which had been renamed Qinghai by that point), Li Zhirou the Prince of Xue, commissioned by then-reigning Emperor Zhaozong (Emperor Xizong's brother and successor), Sony VPCF11M1E/H Battery

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was reporting to Qinghai. Instead of preparing to welcome him, however, the Qinghai officers Lu Ju (盧琚) and Tan Hongqi (譚弘玘) instead prepared to resist him and took up defensive positions, Sony VPCF11Z1E Battery

with Tan defending Duan Prefecture (端州, in modern Zhaoqing). Tan tried to enter an alliance with Liu Yin to defend against Li, and promised to give his daughter to Liu in marriage. Sony VPCF11ZHJ Battery

Liu pretended to agree, but instead, under the guise that he was going to go to Duan Prefecture to marry Tan's daughter, ambushed Tan and killed him. He then attacked Guang Prefecture and killed Lu, Sony VPCF127FJ/W Battery

and then welcomed Li to Guang Prefecture to take command. Li commissioned Liu as the commander of the Qinghai army (行軍司馬, Xingjun Sima).[9] Sony VPCF127HGBI Battery

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As Qinghai officer

In 898, Zeng Gun (曾袞) the prefect of Shao Prefecture (邵州, in modern Shaoguan, Guangdong) attacked Guang Prefecture, and was joined by the Guang Prefecture officer Wang Gui (王瓌, who commanded a fleet). Liu Yin defeated them, Sony VPCF129FJ/BI Battery

and when the Shao Prefecture officer Liu Tong (劉潼) subsequently attacked Zhen (湞州) and Han (浛州) (both in modern Qingyuan, Guangdong), Liu defeated and killed him.[10] Sony VPCF12AFJ Battery

In 900, Emperor Zhaozong commissioned the chancellor Xu Yanruo to replace Li Zhirou as military governor of Qinghai, but before Xu could get to Qinghai, Li died.[11] Sony VPCF12AGJ Battery

When Xu arrived at Qinghai, he made Liu his deputy military governor and entrusted the affairs of the circuit to Liu.[6] When Xu himself died in 901, he left a will recommending Liu as the acting military governor.[11] Sony VPCF12AHJ Battery

Emperor Zhaozong subsequently commissioned Cui Yuan, but when Cui reached Jiangling, he heard that Qinghai was overrun by bandits and also feared that Liu would not yield authority to him, and therefore requested recall to the imperial government; Emperor Zhaozong agreed and did so, but did not name Liu military governor at that time.[12] Sony VPCF135FG Battery

In 902, Lu Guangchou the prefect of Qian Prefecture (虔州, in modern Ganzhou, Jiangxi) attacked Qinghai Circuit and captured Shao Prefecture and put Chao Prefecture (潮州, in modern Chaozhou, Guangdong) under siege, Sony VPCF135FG/B Battery

Liu defeated him and tried to recapture Shao. Liu Yan advised him not to, pointing out that Lu's army was still strong, but Liu Yin did not listen to him and attacked Shao anyway. Sony VPCF136FG/BI Battery

At that time, the water level on the river was high, and Liu Yin was not able to get food supplies to the army on time. A counterattack by Lu and his officer Tan Quanbo defeated him and forced his withdrawal, allowing Lu to retain Shao.[13]Sony VPCF137HG/BI Battery

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In 904, by which time the powerful warlord Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (宣武, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan) was in effective control of the imperial government, Sony VPCF138FJ/B Battery

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having assassinated Emperor Zhaozong and replaced him with his son Emperor Ai, Liu Yin bribed Zhu and requested to be commissioned military governor. Zhu agreed, and Liu was subsequently given the military governorship.[12] Sony VPCF13AFJ Battery

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As military governor

In 905, Emperor Ai bestowed the honorary chancellor designation of Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi (同中書門下平章事) on Liu Yin.[12] Sony VPCF13AHJ Battery

In 907, Zhu Quanzhong forced Emperor Ai to yield the throne to him, ending Tang and starting a new Later Liang Dynasty as its Emperor Taizu. He gave Liu Yin the greater honorary chancellor title of Shizhong (侍中) and created him the Prince of Dapeng.[14] Sony VPCF13M8E/B Battery

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In 908, Ma Yin the Prince of Chu to the north of Qinghai, sent his officer Lü Shizhou (呂師周) to attack Qinghai, capturing six prefectures (Zhao (昭州, in modernGuilin, Guangxi), Sony VPCF13Z1E/B Battery

He (賀州, in modern Hezhou, Guangxi), Wu (梧州, in modern Wuzhou, Guangxi), Meng (蒙州, in modern Wuzhou), Gong (龔州, in modern Guigang, Guangxi), and Fu (富州, in modern Hezhou)) from Qinghai.[15] Sony VPCF13ZHJ Battery

Also in 908, Later Liang's Emperor Taizu sent the officials Zhao Guangyi (趙光裔) and Li Yinheng (李殷衡) as emissaries to Liu to commission him as the military governor of both Qinghai and Jinghai (靜海, headquartered in modern Hanoi, Vietnam) Circuits. Sony VPCF149FJ/BI Battery

Liu accepted the commissions but then detained Zhao and Li and did not permit them to return to the Later Liang court.[15] Sony VPCF148FJ/B Battery

In 909, Emperor Taizu created Liu the Prince of Nanping.[15]

In or sometime before 910, Liu Yin had sent Liu Yan to attack Ningyuan Circuit (寧遠, headquartered in modern Yulin, Guangxi), which consisted of its capital Rong Prefecture (容州) Sony VPCF14AFJ Battery

and Gao Prefecture (高州, in modern Maoming, Guangdong) and which was then governed by Pang Juzhao (龐巨昭), but Liu Yan was defeated by Pang. Still, believing that he could not prevail over Liu Yin, Sony VPCF14AGJ Battery

Pang surrendered Ningyuan to Chu in 910. Ma stationed his general Yao Yanzhang (姚彥章) at Rong Prefecture.[15] Later in the year, Emperor Taizu created Liu Yin the Prince of Nanhai.[6] Sony VPCF14AHJ Battery

In 911, Liu Yin fell ill. He submitted a recommendation that Liu Yan succeed him, and then died. Subsequenly, Liu Yan took over the circuit.[2] Sony VPCF14ZHJ Battery,Sony VPCF217HG Battery,Sony VPCF217HG/BI Battery,Sony VPCF219FJ/BI Battery,Sony VPCF21AFJ Battery,Sony VPCF21AGJ Battery,Sony VPCF21AHJ Battery,Sony VPCF21Z1E/BI Battery,Sony VPCF21ZHJ Battery,Sony VPCM125AG/L Battery

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