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Australian National University The Australian National University (ANU) is a public university located in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory,Australia. Established by a Federal Act of Parliament in 1946, it is the only Australian university to be established byFederal, as opposed to State or Territory, legislation. DELL Vostro 3450  Keyboard Centered at the Acton, Canberra campus, the university comprises seven teaching and research colleges, several focused postgraduate research centres and three non-tertiary educational entities. It also hosts the Australian National Centre for the Public Awareness of Science, the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia and the National Computational Infrastructure facility. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard In 2012, ANU was ranked 1st and 2nd among Australian universities, and 24th and 38th among the world's universities by the QS World University Rankings and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, respectively. Two Australian Prime Ministers attended the university, and ANU counts six Nobel laureates among its staff and alumni. ANU is a member of several university alliances and cooperative networks, including the Group of Eight, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy and the International Alliance of Research Universities. As of 2010, there are 3,681 staff, including 1,506 academic staff who teach 8,688 undergraduate and 4,752 postgraduate students. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02  Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL  Keyboard The undergraduate teaching component of the current institution originated with the establishment in 1930 of the Canberra University College via the Canberra University College Ordinance 1929,[2] intended to fulfil the need for a tertiary education provider in the Australian Capital Territory area, pending the establishment of a complete teaching university. Studies at the college were facilitated by the University of Melbourne, from which enrolled students formally received their accreditation.[citation needed]HP 640436-001  Keyboard A group of eminent Australian scholars were involved in the infancy of ANU, such as Sir Mark Oliphant, a leader in radar development and nuclear physics; Sir Howard Florey, a co-discoverer of the benefits of penicillin; Sir Keith Hancock, an eminent historian; and H. C. Coombs, a renowned economist and public servant.[3]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series  Keyboard The Australian National University was established by an act of the Parliament of Australia, introduced by the then Prime Minister Ben Chifley and the Minister for Post-war Reconstruction J.J. Dedman with support of the Opposition Leader Robert Menzies. The bill was passed on 1 August 1946 and its provisions came into effect on 7 February 1947.[citation needed] IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300  Keyboard ANU is the only Australian university to be established by an act of the Federal Parliament.[4] Administrative and research staff began their appointments in 1950, the University's focus being limited to research tenure and postgraduate education until 1960, when the Canberra University College was amalgamated into the Australian National University as the undergraduate degree providing School of General Studies.[citation needed]HP G42-283LA  Keyboard On 5 July 1960 a fire during the night destroyed much of the eastern end of the Cockcroft Building. The damage included the drawing office, many student's and staff's results and files and the control room for the 600 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator. The 600 kV accelerator had to be scrapped, although it was only water damaged. Refurbishment of the burnt out area was completed in September 1961. HP G62-361TX  Keyboard Early departments that have now been spun off into research schools of their own include the departments of Astronomy and Geophysics and Geochemistry. Geophysics and Geochemistry separated into the Research School of Earth Sciences in 1973. Mount Stromlo Observatory became part of the Department of Astronomy in 1957. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M  Keyboard While part of the school, the Department of Astronomy developed Siding Spring Observatory and installed many new telescopes at Mount Stromlo Observatory. It separated into the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics in 1986.[5] Walter Burley Griffin’s plan for the design of Canberra not only designated Acton peninsula as a hospital site, but did so whilst simultaneously placing it adjacent to a university where he envisaged a medical school would be located.[6] ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard In April 2001, after intense public debate and a committee of inquiry lasting eight months, it was announced that ANU was to develop Australia's 12th and the world's 896th medical school.[7] Shortly afterwards staff at the medical school made a proposal to the National Capital Authority that the old hospice and isolation block facilities on Acton Peninsula (which had been heritage listed for a health use) should be leased to the Medical School for teaching and clinical purposes.[8]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305  Keyboard、 On 18 January 2003 the Canberra firestorm hit the Mount Stromlo Observatory, destroying five telescopes, workshops, seven homes and the heritage listed administration building. The only telescope to escape the fires was the 1868 15-centimetre Farnham telescope. Relics from the fire are preserved in the collection of the National Museum of Australia. TOSHIBA Satellite L355  Keyboard They include a melted telescope mirror and a piece of melted optical glass (flint). The latter has pieces of charcoal and wire fused into it from the fierce heat of the fire.[9] Redevelopment is largely completed. ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard ANU main campus occupies most of the Canberra suburb of Acton, covering 1.45 square kilometres (360 acres) of buildings, roads and access routes, preserved original vegetation and new plantings. It is roughly bisected by Sullivans Creek and is bordered by the native bushland of Black Mountain, Lake Burley Griffin, the suburb ofTurner and the city centre. IBM 42T3671  Keyboard The ANU campus is divided into eight precincts, with three on the west side of Sullivans Creek; Dickson Precinct, Linnaeus Precinct, Daley Precinct; and five on the east side; Kingsley Precinct, Baldessin Precinct, Ellery Precinct, Liversidge Precinct and Garran Precinct. HP Envy 15-1013tx  Keyboard The university incorporates a number of structures and sites of historical and conservational significance dating from the earliest establishment of the national capital, with many buildings recognised by one or more of the Commonwealth Heritage List, the ACT Heritage Register and the National Trust. Notable structures on campus include Old Canberra House, completed in 1913, the previous Canberra Community Hospital and a previous diplomatic mission.  Lenovo Ideapad G565  Keyboard With over 10,000 trees on its campus, ANU was awarded the Silver Greenhouse Challenge Award at the annual Australian Engineering Excellence Awards in 2003. The Australian National University Library is part of ANU's Division of Information. The Australian National University Library began with the appointment of the first University Librarian, Arthur Leopold Gladstone McDonald, in early 1948. The establishment of the ANU Library was deemed so important to the development of the University that McDonald was appointed by the Interim Council before any of the professors. SONY VAIO VGN-CR210EL  Keyboard Initially McDonald and several assistants were housed in Ormond College at the University of Melbourne, where they began to form the collection. At the end of 1950s the collection, which had grown to approximately 40,000 volumes, was transferred to Canberra, to be located in the Canberra Community Hospital and nearby huts. Over the course of the 1950s the collection grew steadily, and by the time of McDonald's retirement in the 1960s, the collection had grown to 150,000 volumes. FUJITSU Lifebook S7210  Keyboard\ The ANU Library collection is housed in four main locations; the R.G. Menzies Building (Asia Pacific material); the J.B. Chifley Building (Social Sciences & Humanities material); the W.K. Hancock Building (Science material); and the Law Library in the Law School Building. Additional services are provided by five science branch libraries: FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520  Keyboard Art Library, Chemistry Branch Library, Earth Sciences Branch Library, Eccles Medical Sciences Library and Music Library. ANU owns a collection of rare books, housed in a closed access collection held in the Rare Book Room in the R.G. Menzies Building.  TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard By 1994, the demand was so great that the Faculty of Science agreed to fund a Lectureship in Science Communication. This was the first in Australia. Dr Susan Stocklmayer[12] was appointed to the position and immediately announced her intention of establishing a university centre for science communication. The Centre was established in 1996, with Professor Bryant as its first director. Dr Stocklmayer took over the position in 1998, where she remains today. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx  Keyboard In partnership with the UNESCO Pacific Office in Apia, Samoa,[13] CPAS has focused on science teaching training and communication in Pacific nations. As well as running a science journalism workshop for Pacific Island journalists in 2001, CPAS followed up in the same year with a science teacher workshop and the first Pacific Science Communication Forum.[14] Compaq 6720s  Keyboard The UNESCO office in Jakarta[15] invited CPAS to join a mission to Cambodia to conduct a survey to identify and assess the needs of the country with respect to science education in schools and universities. Other activities include joining with UNESCO (Apia) to help in its aims to raise social participation in science in and around the Pacific. HP 536537-001  Keyboard CPAS also established, as a pilot project, the Register of Pacific Scientists, an online database for those involved with Pacific science to record their details and/or search for other people with similar or complementary interests. Other activities of CPAS include the presentation of workshops for secondary school science teachers and others in Fiji, LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015  Keyboard India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Japan and New Zealand. A joint teaching program is being developed with the National University of Singapore. In South Africa, CPAS helped to develop a touring hands-on science exhibition and has been invited to work in and with various South African science centres. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series  Keyboard In subsequent years, the work of CPAS has been recognised by a number of awards and honours: In 1999, CPAS, Shell Australia and Questacon jointly won the Business/Higher Education Round Table[16] Award. The citation commends CPAS as “a university centre whose brief is to empower Australians by encouraging in them the confidence of 'ownership' of modern science. It is intended to increase science awareness in the Australian community and to improve communication skills of scientists.” SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S  Keyboard In 2000, it was designated as the first UNESCO Centre for Science Communication. Eight of the university's nine affiliated halls and colleges are located on campus, while Fenner Hall is located on Northbourne Avenue in the nearby suburb ofBraddon. The halls and colleges are: Bruce Hall, Ursula Hall, Fenner Hall, Burgmann College, John XXIII College, Burton & Garran Hall, UniLodge Davey, UniLodge Kinloch, Unilodge Warrumbul, Lena Karmel Lodge, Toad Hall, University House and Graduate House. In 2010, Griffin Hall, a non-residential college, was established for students living off-campus. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu  Keyboard Burgmann and neighbouring John XXIII College are the only remaining independent residential colleges among the Australian National University's ten halls of residence. Burgmann and John XXIII continue to administer their own admissions processes separate from the university's central clearinghouse for accommodation. SAMSUNG M40  Keyboard Although the University accommodation houses more than 3,700 students, in the past ANU suffered from chronic shortage of student accommodation, due in part to over-enrolment.[17] This has since been alleviated by the construction of new colleges.  DELL Vostro 1015  Keyboard ANU occupies six additional locations in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, and the Northern Territory. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) is located away from the main campus in Acton, at the Mount Stromlo Observatory, near Weston Creek in south Canberra. ASUS X53S  Keyboard RSAA also runs the Siding Spring Observatory near Coonabarabran, New South Wales. Since the destruction of Mount Stromlo's telescopes in the Canberra bushfires of 2003, this is university's only operational telescope site. The university also runs a coastal campus at Kioloa on the South Coast of New South Wales dedicated to field work training, and a North Australia Research Unit in Darwin, Northern Territory. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard Undergraduate students on all campuses are represented by the ANU Students' Association. Postgraduate students are represented by the Postgraduate and Research Students' Association (PARSA), a member of the Council of Australian Postgraduate Associations. The Australian National University Union provides representation to all students in the provision of catering and retail services as well as functions amenities.  DELL Vostro PP37L  Keyboard The ANU College of Physical & Mathematical Sciences comprises the departments of Astronomy & Astrophysics; Chemistry; Earth Sciences; Mathematical Sciences; Physics; and Science Communication. The college contains the Research School of Physics and Engineering, a body which focuses primarily on research into materials science and engineering; lasers, nonlinear optics and photonics; nanotechnology and mesoscopic physics; physics of atoms, molecules and the nucleus; plasma physics and surface science; physics and the environment.  DELL V020902AS1  Keyboard The Research School of Physics and Engineering was founded by Sir Mark Oliphant, its first Director from 1950 to 1963, in 1947. The school was originally called the "Research School of Physical Sciences" with "Engineering" being added to its title in 1990 to highlight the large amount of engineering work that is undertaken in the school. TOSHIBA Satellite A300  Keyboard The name was again changed in 2008 to the "Research School of Physics and Engineering" to coincide with the merger with ANU's undergraduate physics teaching department.For much of the early years the focus of a large part of the school was designing, re-designing and building a cyclo-synchrotron that in its final intended form was to produce a beam of 10.6 GeV protons for nuclear physics research. DELL V020902AS1  Keyboard Designed to be a world class research machine it was referred to within the school as "The Big Machine". Due to shifting goalposts and huge costs the cyclo-syncrotron was never completed. The small 7.7 MeV cyclotron designed to function as the proton injector was completed in 1955, and the large homopolar generator intended to power the system was first operated in 1962, but by this time work on "The Big Machine" itself had been abandoned. IBM Thinkpad R61i  Keyboard The homopolar generator, the largest ever built, was capable of supplying currents of over 2 megaamperes. Even though it was never used for its intended purpose it ended up being used for numerous research projects requiring an extremely high current source until its disassembly in 1986. One of these projects was the invention and development of the railgun by John Barber and Richard Marshall.[19] HP 516884-001  Keyboard The school also benefited in an indirect way from the construction of the massive generator, the accumulated engineering experience and techniques where later used to build other research equipment around the school including the Plasma Physics H1NF Heliac. Some parts of the homopolar generator are now on permanent display on the lawn outside the research school. TOSHIBA P205-S6337  Keyboard The school has been home to many different particle accelerators over the years. The first accelerator installed was a 1.25 MV Cockcroft-Walton known as HT1, this was in use from 1952 until 1967 when it was sold to the University of New South Wales. A second smaller 600 kV Cockcroft-Walton machine (HT2) was assembled in house using many spare parts acquired for HT1. TOSHIBA P205-S7469  Keyboard In 1955 the UK government supplied a 33 MeV electron synchrotron as a gift. It was moved to the University of Western Australia in 1961. During 1960–1980 a HVEC EN tandem accelerator was used by nuclear physics for light ion research. 1975 saw the school's 14UD accelerator come online, which has since been augmented with a superconducting linear accelerator. Packard Bell NEW90  Keyboard Academic leaders have included Professors Manning Clark, Bart Bok, Derek Freeman, and Hanna Neumann. Notable political alumni include former Prime Ministers of Australia, Bob Hawke and Kevin Rudd, current Premier of New South Wales Barry O'Farrell, Patricia Hewitt, and Kim Edward Beazley. Alumni in other fields include Supreme Court Judge Catherine Holmes, linguist Nicholas Evans and mathematician John H. Coates. ACER Extensa 5635  Keyboard Nobel prize winners associated with the University include Lord Howard Florey, an early academic adviser to ANU and Chancellor from 1965–1968 and Professor John Eccles awarded in 1963 for Medicine – for his pioneering work on aspects of the mammalian central nervous system. Professor Eccles was founding Professor of Physiology at The John Curtin School of Medical Research. ACER TravelMate 5742  Keyboard Professor John Harsanyi received the 1994 Nobel Prize for Economics for his work on game theory, providing a new tool for economic analysis. Professor Harsanyi taught economics at ANU from 1958 to 1961, HP Pavilion DV6-1210sa  Keyboard completing some of his early research on game theory while at the University. Professor Rolf M. Zinkernagel and Professor Peter Doherty received the 1996 Nobel Prize for Medicine for their revolutionary work in immunology; Professors Doherty and Zinkernagel first met and worked together at The John Curtin School of Medical Research. In 2011 HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu  Keyboard

Etymology

Pronounced [əˈstɹæɪljə, -liə] in Australian English,[18] the name Australia is derived from the Latin australis, meaning "southern". The country has been referred to colloquially as Oz since the early 20th century.[N 4] Aussieis a common colloquial term for "Australian". In neighbouring New Zealand the term "Aussie" is sometimes applied as a noun to the nation as well as its residents.[23]HP Envy 17-3002ea  Keyboard HP Mini 210-1135LA  Keyboard Legends of Terra Australis Incognita—an "unknown land of the South"—date back to Roman times and were commonplace in medieval geography, although not based on any documented knowledge of the continent. Following European discovery, names for the Australian landmass were often references to the famed Terra Australis. GATEWAY NV-78  Keyboard The earliest recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625 in "A note of Australia del Espíritu Santo, written by Sir Richard Hakluyt", published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus, a corruption of the original Spanish name "Tierra Austral del Espíritu Santo" (Southern Land of the Holy Spirit)[24] for an island inVanuatu.[25] Packard Bell Easynote TK87  Keyboard The Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia (Jakarta) in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south.[26] Australia was later used in a 1693 translation of Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe, a 1676 French novel by Gabriel de Foigny, HP Envy 17-3002ea  Keyboard under the pen-name Jacques Sadeur.[27] Referring to the entire South Pacific region, Alexander Dalrymple used it in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean in 1771. By the end of the 18th century, the name was being used to refer specifically to Australia, TOSHIBA NB200-10G  Keyboard with the botanistsGeorge Shaw and Sir James Smith writing of "the vast island, or rather continent, of Australia, Australasia orNew Holland" in their 1793 Zoology and Botany of New Holland,[28] and James Wilson including it on a 1799 chart.[29]HP G62-a12SV  Keyboard The name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who pushed for it to be formally adopted as early as 1804. When preparing his manuscript and charts for his 1814 A Voyage to Terra Australis, he was persuaded by his patron, Sir Joseph Banks, to use the term Terra Australis as this was the name most familiar to the public. Flinders did so, but allowed himself the footnote: TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160  Keyboard "Had I permitted myself any innovation on the original term, it would have been to convert it to Australia; as being more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth."[30] This is the only occurrence of the word Australia in that text; but in Appendix III, Robert Brown's General remarks, geographical and systematical, on the botany of Terra Australis, Brown makes use of the adjectival form Australian throughout,[31]—the first known use of that form.[32] Despite popular conception, the book was not instrumental in the adoption of the name: the name came gradually to be accepted over the following ten years.[33]DELL Latitude 131L  Keyboard The first time that the name Australia appears to have been officially used was in a despatch to Lord Bathurst of 4 April 1817 in which Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledges the receipt of Capt. Flinders' charts of Australia.[34] On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted.[35] In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia.[36]TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929  Keyboard Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago,[38]possibly with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now South-East Asia. These first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians.[39] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard At the time of European settlement in the late 18th century, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers, with a complex oral culture and spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturalists and hunter-gatherers.[40]DELL Latitude D830  Keyboard Following sporadic visits by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia,[41] the first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, HP Pavilion G60-230  Keyboard and made landfall on 26 February at the Pennefather River near the modern town of Weipa on Cape York.[42] The Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines of "New Holland" during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement.[42] William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series  Keyboard landed on the north-west coast of Australia in 1688 and again in 1699 on a return trip. In 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast of Australia, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain.[43] Cook's discoveries prepared the way for establishment of a new penal colony. Captain Arthur Phillip led the First Fleet into Port Jackson on 26 January 1788.[44] HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee  Keyboard This date became Australia's national day, Australia Day although the British Crown Colony of New South Wales was not formally promulgated until 7 February 1788. Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, was settled in 1803 and became a separate colony in 1825.[45] The United Kingdom formally claimed the western part of Western Australia (the Swan River Colony) in 1828.[46]ASUS X53S  Keyboard Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859.[47] The Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia.[48]South Australia was founded as a "free province"—it was never a penal colony.[49] Victoria and Western Australia were also founded "free", but later accepted transported convicts.[50][51] A campaign by the settlers of New South Wales led to the end of convict transportation to that colony; the last convict ship arrived in 1848. HP G56-118CA  Keyboard The indigenous population, estimated at 750,000 to 1,000,000 at the time of European settlement,[53] declined for 150 years following settlement, mainly due to infectious disease.[54] The "Stolen Generations" (removal of Aboriginal children from their families), which historians such as Henry Reynolds have argued should be considered genocide,[55] HP 605344-001  Keyboard may have contributed to the decline in the Indigenous population.[56] Such interpretations of Aboriginal history are disputed by conservative commentators as exaggerated or fabricated for political or ideological reasons.[57] This debate is known within Australia as the History wars.[58] The Federal government gained the power to make laws with respect to Aborigines following the 1967 referendum.[59] TOSHIBA NB200  Keyboard Traditional ownership of land—aboriginal title—was not recognised until 1992, when the High Court case Mabo v Queensland (No 2)overturned the notion of Australia as terra nullius ("land belonging to no one") before European occupation.[60]HP 508112-001  Keyboard HP 580030-001  Keyboard A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s,[61] and the Eureka Rebellion against mining licence fees in 1854 was an early expression of civil disobedience.[62] Between 1855 and 1890, the six colonies individually gained responsible government, managing most of their own affairs while remaining part of the British Empire.[63] The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs,[64] defence,[65] and international shipping.  TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T  Keyboard On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies was achieved after a decade of planning, consultation, and voting.[66] The Commonwealth of Australia was established and it became a dominion of the British Empire in 1907. The Federal Capital Territory (later renamed the Australian Capital Territory) was formed in 1911 as the location for the future federal capital of Canberra. ACER Aspire One D150-1920  Keyboard Melbourne was the temporary seat of government from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was constructed.[67] The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South Australian government to the federal parliament in 1911.[68] In 1914, Australia joined Britain in fighting World War I, with support from both the outgoing Commonwealth Liberal Party and the incoming Australian Labor Party.[69] SAMSUNG X20  Keyboard Australians took part in many of the major battles fought on the Western Front.[70] Of about 416,000 who served, about 60,000 were killed and another 152,000 were wounded.[71] Many Australians regard the defeat of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) at Gallipoli as the birth of the nation—its first major military action.[72][73] The Kokoda Track campaign is regarded by many as an analogous nation-defining event during World War II.[74]DELL Vostro 1510  Keyboard Britain's Statute of Westminster 1931 formally ended most of the constitutional links between Australia and the UK. Australia adopted it in 1942,[75] but it was backdated to 1939 to confirm the validity of legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during World War II.[76][77] The shock of the United Kingdom's defeat in Asia in 1942 and thethreat of Japanese invasion caused Australia to turn to the United States as a new ally and protector.[78TOSHIBA P205-S6337  Keyboard ] Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military ally of the US, under the ANZUS treaty.[79] After World War II Australia encouraged immigration from Europe. Since the 1970s and following the abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also promoted.[80] ACER Aspire 7741  Keyboard As a result, Australia's demography, culture, and self-image were transformed.[81] The final constitutional ties between Australia and the UK were severed with the passing of the Australia Act 1986, ending any British role in the government of the Australian States, and closing the option of judicial appeals to the Privy Council in London.[82] Bell Easynote TK85  Keyboard In a 1999 referendum, 55 per cent of voters and a majority in every state rejected a proposal to become a republic with a president appointed by a two-thirds vote in both Houses of the Australian Parliament. Since the election of the Whitlam Government in 1972,[83] there has been an increasing focus in foreign policy on ties with other Pacific Rim nations, while maintaining close ties with Australia's traditional allies and trading partners.[84]ACER TravelMate 5742  Keyboard

Government

Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a federal division of powers. It uses a parliamentary system of government withQueen Elizabeth II at its apex as the Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the otherCommonwealth realms. The Queen resides in the United Kingdom, SONY VAIO VGN-CR21/B  Keyboard and she is represented by her viceroys in Australia (theGovernor-General at the federal level and by the Governors at the state level), who by convention act on the advice of her ministers. Supreme executive authority is vested by the Constitution of Australia in the sovereign, but the power to exercise it is conferred by the Constitution specifically to the Governor-General.[85][86] The most notable exercise of the Governor-General's reserve powers outside a Prime Minister's request was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975.[87] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP  Keyboard In the Senate (the upper house), there are 76 senators: twelve each from the states and two each from the mainland territories (the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory).[89] The House of Representatives (the lower house) has 150 members elected from single-member electoral divisions, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats", ASUS X53S  Keyboard allocated to states on the basis of population,[90] with each original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats.[91] Elections for both chambers are normally held every three years, simultaneously; senators have overlapping six-year terms except for those from the territories, whose terms are not fixed but are tied to the electoral cycle for the lower house; thus only 40 of the 76 places in the Senate are put to each election unless the cycle is interrupted by a double dissolution.[89]SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM  Keyboard Australia's electoral system uses preferential voting for all lower house elections with the exception of Tasmania and the ACT, which, along with the Senate and most state upper houses, combine it with proportional representation in a system known as the single transferable vote. Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18 years and over in every jurisdiction,[92]HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx  Keyboard as is enrolment (with the exception of South Australia).[93] The party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms the government and its leader becomes Prime Minister. In cases where no party has majority support, the Governor-General has the power to appoint the Prime Minister, and if necessary dismiss one that has lost the confidence of Parliament.[94]Compaq Presario CQ62-112TU  Keyboard There are two major political groups that usually form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party, and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party.[95][96]Independent members and several minor parties have achieved representation in Australian parliaments, mostly in upper houses. HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard Within Australian political culture, the Coalition is considered centre-right and the Labor Party is considered centre-left. Queensland in particular, along with Western Australia and the Northern Territory, are regarded as comparativelyconservative.[97][98][99][100][101][102] Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and the Australian Capital Territory are regarded as comparatively socially liberal.[102][103][104][105] New South Wales has often been regarded as a politically moderatebellwether state.[102][105]COMPAQ Presario C700  Keyboard HP Mini 110-3101tu  Keyboard Following a partyroom leadership challenge, Julia Gillard became the first female Prime Minister in June 2010.[106] The most recent federal election was held on 21 August 2010 and resulted in the first hung parliament in over 50 years. Gillard was able to form a minority Labor government with the support of independents.  ACER TravelMate 2490 Series  Keyboard Australia has six states — New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (QLD), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (TAS),Victoria (VIC), and Western Australia (WA) — and two major mainland territories — the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT). In most respects these two territories function as states, Packard Bell PEW91  Keyboard but the Commonwealth Parliament can override any legislation of their parliaments. By contrast, federal legislation overrides state legislation only in areas that are set out in Section 51 of the Australian Constitution; state parliaments retain all residual legislative powers, including those over schools, state police, the state judiciary, roads, public transport, and local government, since these do not fall under the provisions listed in Section 51.[107]Packard Bell Easynote TM80  Keyboard Each state and major mainland territory has its own parliament—unicameral in the Northern Territory, the ACT, and Queensland, and bicameral in the other states. The states are sovereign entities, although subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution. The lower houses are known as theLegislative Assembly (the House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania); TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard the upper houses are known as the Legislative Council. The head of the government in each state is the Premier, and in each territory theChief Minister. The Queen is represented in each state by a Governor; and in the Northern Territory, theAdministrator.[108] In the Commonwealth, the Queen's representative is the Governor-General.[109] HP G62-225NR  Keyboard Over recent decades, Australia's foreign relations have been driven by a close association with the United States through the ANZUS pact, and by a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific, ASUS F82Q  Keyboard particularly through ASEAN and the Pacific Islands Forum. In 2005 Australia secured an inaugural seat at theEast Asia Summit following its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, and in 2011 attended the Sixth East Asia Summit in Indonesia. Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, in which the Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for co-operation.[111] ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard Australia has pursued the cause of international trade liberalisation.[112][113][114] It led the formation of the Cairns Groupand Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.[115][116] Australia is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization,[117][118] and has pursued several major bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the Australia – United States Free Trade Agreement[119] and Closer Economic Relations with New Zealand,[120] ACER Aspire 7535  Keyboard with another free trade agreement being negotiated with China—the Australia–China Free Trade Agreement—and Japan,[121] South Korea in 2011,[122][123] Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement, ASEAN – Australia – New Zealand Free Trade Area, and theTrans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership.  ASUS X53S  Keyboard Along with New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malaysia and Singapore, Australia is party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements, a regional defence agreement. A founding member country of the United Nations, Australia is strongly committed to multilateralism[124] and maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries receive assistance. The 2005–06 budget provides A$2.5 billion for development assistance.[125] Australia ranks seventh overall in the Center for Global Development's 2008 Commitment to Development Index.[126]ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard Australia's armed forces—the Australian Defence Force (ADF)—comprise the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Armyand the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), in total numbering 80,561 personnel (including 55,068 regulars and 25,493 reservists).[127] The titular role of Commander-in-Chief is vested in the Governor-General, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL  Keyboard who appoints a Chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services on the advice of the government.[128] Day-to-day force operations are under the command of the Chief, while broader administration and the formulation of defence policy is undertaken by the Minister and Department of Defence. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S  Keyboard In the 2010–11 budget, defence spending was A$25.7 billion,[129] representing the 13th largest defence budget.[130] Australia has been involved in UN and regional peacekeeping, disaster relief and armed conflict; it currently has deployed approximately 3,330 defence force personnel in varying capacities to 12 international operations in areas including East Timor, Solomon Islands and Afghanistan.[131]HP G62-b20ES  Keyboard HP 550  Keyboard Australia's landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi)[132] is on the Indo-Australian Plate. Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans,[N 5] it is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas, with the Coral Sea lying off the Queensland coast, and the Tasman Sea lying between Australia and New Zealand. The world's smallest continent[134] and sixth largest country by total area,[135] Australia—owing to its size and isolation—is often dubbed the "island continent",[136COMPAQ Presario C700  Keyboard ]and is sometimes considered the world's largest island.[137] Australia has 34,218 kilometres (21,262 mi) of coastline (excluding all offshore islands),[138] and claims an extensive Exclusive Economic Zone of 8,148,250 square kilometres (3,146,060 sq mi). This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory.[139] Excluding Macquarie Island, Australia lies between latitudes 9° and 44°S, and longitudes 112° and 154°E.  HP MP-08K33US6930  Keyboard HP G61-450EE  Keyboard The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef,[140] lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000 kilometres (1,240 mi). Mount Augustus, claimed to be the world's largest monolith,[141] is located in Western Australia. At 2,228 metres (7,310 ft), DELL PVDG3  Keyboard Mount Kosciuszko on the Great Dividing Range is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland. Even taller are Mawson Peak (at 2,745 metres or 9,006 feet), on the remote Australian territory of Heard Island, and, in the Australian Antarctic Territory, Mount McClintock and Mount Menzies, at 3,492 metres (11,457 ft) and 3,355 metres (11,007 ft) respectively.[142]TOSHIBA Satellite L300-156  Keyboard Australia's size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with subtropical rain forests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east areas, and a dry desert in its centre.[143] It is the flattest continent,[144] with the oldest and least fertile soils;[145][146] desert or semi-arid land commonly known as theoutback makes up by far the largest portion of land.[147] HP 506782-001  Keyboard The driest inhabited continent, only its south-east and south-west corners have a temperate climate.[148] The population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, is among the lowest in the world,[149] although a large proportion of the population lives along the temperate south-eastern coastline.[150]TOSHIBA Satellite P300  Keyboard Eastern Australia is marked by the Great Dividing Range that runs parallel to the coast of Queensland, New South Wales, and much of Victoria—although the name is not strictly accurate, as in parts the range consists of low hills and the highlands are typically no more than 1,600 metres (5,249 ft) in height.[151]TOSHIBA NB200  Keyboard The coastal uplands and a belt of Brigalow grasslands lie between the coast and the mountains, while inland of the dividing range are large areas of grassland.[151][152] These include the western plains of New South Wales, and the Einasleigh Uplands, Barkly Tableland, and Mulga Lands of inland Queensland. The northern point of the east coast is the tropical rainforested Cape York Peninsula.[153][154][155][156]TOSHIBA Portege R100  Keyboard The landscapes of the northern part of the country—the Top End and the Gulf Country behind the Gulf of Carpentaria, with their tropical climate—consist of woodland, grassland, and desert.[157][158][159] At the north-west corner of the continent are the sandstone cliffs and gorges of The Kimberley, and below that the Pilbara. ACER NSK-H3S01  Keyboard South and inland of these lie more areas of grassland: the Ord Victoria Plain and the Western Australian Mulga shrublands.[160][161][162] At the heart of the country are the uplands of central Australia; prominent features of the centre and south include the inland Simpson, Tirari and Sturt Stony, Gibson, Great Sandy, Tanami, and Great Victoria deserts, with the famous Nullarbor Plain on the southern coast.[163][164][165][166]SONY AEGD1U00020  Keyboard The climate of Australia is significantly influenced by ocean currents, including the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low pressure system that producescyclones in northern Australia.[167][168] SONY VAIO VGN-SZ220  Keyboard These factors induce rainfall to vary markedly from year to year. Much of the northern part of the country has a tropical predominantly summer rainfall (monsoon) climate.[169] The southwest corner of the country has a Mediterranean climate.[170] Much of the southeast (including Tasmania) is temperate.[169]HP Pavilion dv6000  Keyboard

Environment

Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests, and is recognised as amegadiverse country. Because of the continent's great age, extremely variable weather patterns, and long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique and diverse. TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1Ai  Keyboard About 85 per cent of flowering plants, 84 per cent of mammals, more than 45 per cent of birds, and 89 per cent of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic.[171] Australia has the greatest number of reptiles of any country, with 755 species.[172]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S  Keyboard Australian forests are mostly made up of evergreen species, particularly eucalyptus trees in the less arid regions, wattlesreplace them in drier regions and deserts as the most dominant species.[173] Among well-known Australian fauna are themonotremes (the platypus and echidna); a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, and wombat, DELL Studio 1537  Keyboard and birds such as theemu and the kookaburra.[173] Australia is home to many dangerous animals including some of the most venomous snakes in the world.[174] The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE.[175] Many plant and animal species became extinct soon after first human settlement,[176] including the Australian megafauna; others have disappeared since European settlement, among them the thylacine.[177][178]SONY VAIO VGN-SZ220  Keyboard Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introduced plant and animal species.[179] The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is the legal framework for the protection of threatened species.[180]  SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F  Keyboard Numerous protected areas have been created under the National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity to protect and preserve unique ecosystems;[181][182] 65 wetlands are listedunder the Ramsar Convention,[183] and 16 natural World Heritage Sites have been established.[184] Australia was ranked 51st of 163 countries in the world on the 2010 Environmental Performance Index.[185]IBM Thinkpad T61P  Keyboard Climate change has become an increasing concern in Australia in recent years, and protection of the environment is a major political issue.[186][187] In 2007, the Rudd Government signed the instrument of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. Nevertheless, Australia's carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world, lower than those of only a few other industrialised nations.[188] Lenovo 3000 G530 4151  Keyboard Rainfall in Australia has slightly increased over the past century, both nationwide and for two quadrants of the nation,[189] According to theBureau of Meteorology's 2011 Australian Climate Statement, Australia had lower than average temperatures in 2011 as a consequence of a La Nina weather pattern, however, ASUS NSK-U1001  Keyboard "the country's 10-year average continues to demonstrate the rising trend in temperatures, with 2002–2011 likely to rank in the top two warmest 10-year periods on record for Australia, at 0.52 °C above the long-term average".[190] Water restrictions are frequently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and localised drought.[191][192]DELL Inspiron 6400  Keyboard Throughout much of the continent, major floodingregularly follows extended periods of drought, flushing out inland river systems, overflowing dams and inundating large inland flood pl

ains, as occurred throughout Eastern Australia in 2010, 2011 and 2012 after the 2000s Australian drought. DELL Latitude D510  Keyboard Australia is a wealthy country[194][195][196] with a market economy with high GDP per capita and a low rate of poverty. TheAustralian dollar is the currency for the nation, including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu. After the 2006 merger of the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney Futures Exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange is now the ninth largest in the world.[197]TOSHIBA PK130260100  Keyboard Ranked third in the Index of Economic Freedom (2010),[198] Australia is the world's thirteenth largest economy and has thefifth highest per capita GDP (nominal) at $66,984. The country was ranked second in the United Nations 2011 Human Development Index and first in Legatum's 2008 Prosperity Index.[199] SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK  Keyboard All of Australia's major cities fare well in global comparative livability surveys;[200] Melbourne reached first place on The Economist's 2011 and 2012 world's most livable cities lists, followed by Sydney, Perth, and Adelaide in sixth, eighth, and ninth place respectively.[201] Total government debt in Australia is about $190 billion[202] – 20 per cent of GDP in 2010.[203] Australia has among the highest house prices and some of the highest household debt levels in the world.[204]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332  Keyboard An emphasis on exporting commodities rather than manufactured goods has underpinned a significant increase in Australia's terms of trade since the start of the 21st century, due to rising commodity prices. Australia has a balance of payments that is more than 7 per cent of GDP negative, and has had persistently large current account deficits for more than 50 years.[206]TOSHIBA Satellite 1800-921  Keyboard Australia has grown at an average annual rate of 3.6 per cent for over 15 years, in comparison to the OECD annual average of 2.5 per cent.[206] Australia was the only advanced economy not to experience a recession due to theglobal financial downturn in 2008–2009.[207] Six of Australia's major trading partners had been in recession which in turn affected Australia, and economic growth was hampered significantly over recent years.[208][209]ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard The Hawke Government floated the Australian dollar in 1983 and partially deregulated the financial system.[210]The Howard Government followed with a partial deregulation of the labour market and the further privatisation of state-owned businesses, most notably in the telecommunications industry.[211]  HP G61-420SO  Keyboard The indirect tax system was substantially changed in July 2000 with the introduction of a 10 per cent Goods and Services Tax (GST).[212] InAustralia's tax system, personal and company income tax are the main sources of government revenue.[213] In May 2012, there were 11,537,900 people employed (either full- or part-time), with an unemployment rate of 5.1 per cent.[214] Youth unemployment (15–24) stood at 11.2 per cent.[214] SONY VGN-FE41S  Keyboard Over the past decade, inflation has typically been 2–3 per cent and the base interest rate 5–6 per cent. The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, accounts for about 70 per cent of GDP.[215] Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, particularly wheat and wool, minerals such as iron-ore and gold, Packard Bell Easynote TK85  Keyboard and energy in the forms of liquified natural gas and coal. Although agriculture and natural resources account for only 3 per cent and 5 per cent of GDP respectively, they contribute substantially to export performance. Australia's largest export markets are Japan, China, the US, South Korea, and New Zealand.[216] Australia is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine, in an industry contributing $5.5 billion per annum to the nation's economy.[217]TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series  Keyboard For almost two centuries the majority of settlers, and later immigrants, came from the British Isles. As a result the people of Australia are primarily of British and/or Irish ethnic origin. In the 2011 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestry was English (36.1 per cent), followed by Australian (35.4 per cent),[219] Irish (10.4 per cent), Scottish (8.9 per cent), Italian (4.6 per cent), German (4.5 per cent), Chinese (4.3 per cent), Indian (2.0 per cent), Greek (1.9 per cent), and Dutch (1.7 per cent).[220] Asian Australians make up 12% of the population.[221]Packard Bell Easynote TK87  Keyboard Australia's population has quadrupled since the end of World War I.[222] Nevertheless, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world.[149] Much of the population increase came from immigration. Following World War II and through to 2000, almost 5.9 million of the total population settled in the country as new immigrants, HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa  Keyboard meaning that nearly two out of every seven Australians were born in another country.[223] Most immigrants are skilled,[224] but the immigration quota includes categories for family members and refugees.[224] By 2050, Australia's population is currently projected to reach around 42 million.[225]Packard Bell NEW95  Keyboard In 2011, 24.6% of Australians were born elsewhere and 43.1% of people had at least one overseas-born parent;[226] the largest immigrant groups were those from the United Kingdom, New Zealand, China, India, Italy, Vietnam, and Philippines.[227]DELL Inspiron N5030  Keyboard About 90 percent of Australia's population is of European ancestry, and most of the rest are of Asian heritage, with a smaller minority of indigenous (Aboriginal) background. Following the abolition of the White Australia policy in 1973, numerous government initiatives have been established to encourage and promote racial harmony based on a policy of multiculturalism.[228] In 2005–06, more than 131,000 people emigrated to Australia, mainly from Asia andOceania.[229] The migration target for 2012–13 is 190,000,[230] compared to 67,900 in 1998–99.[231]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5168  Keyboard The Indigenous population—mainland Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders—was counted at 548,370 (2.5 per cent of the total population) in 2011,[232] a significant increase from 115,953 in the 1976 census.[233] The increase is partly due to the fact that previously, many people with Indigenous heritage were overlooked by the census due to undercount and cases where their Indigenous status had not been recorded on the form. SONY VAIO VGN-N21M/W  Keyboard Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of imprisonment and unemployment,[234] lower levels of education, and life expectancies for males and females that are 11–17 years lower than those of non-indigenous Australians.[216][235][236] Some remote Indigenous communities have been described as having "failed state"-like conditions.[237][238][239][240][241]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04  Keyboard In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2004, the average age of the civilian population was 38.8 years.[242] A large number of Australians (759,849 for the period 2002–03;[243] 1 million or 5% of the total population in 2005[244]) live outside their home country. HP G61-415SA  Keyboard Although Australia has no official language, English has always been entrenched as the de facto national language.[2] Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon. General Australian serves as the standard dialect. Spelling is similar to that of British English with a number of exceptions.[246] According to the 2011 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for close to 81% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home  Packard Bell Easynote TK37  Keyboard are Mandarin (1.7%), Italian (1.5%), Arabic (1.4%), Cantonese (1.3%), Greek (1.3%), and Vietnamese (1.2%);[227] a considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual. A 2010–2011 study by the Australia Early Development Index found the most common language spoken by children after English was Arabic, followed by Vietnamese, Greek, Chinese, and Hindi.[247][248]HP 317443-001  Keyboard Between 200 and 300 Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact, of which only about 70 have survived. Many of these are exclusively spoken by older people; only 18 Indigenous languages are still spoken by all age groups.[249] At the time of the 2006 census, 52,000 Indigenous Australians, representing 12 per cent of the Indigenous population, reported that they spoke an Indigenous language at home.[250] Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 5,500 deaf people.[251]COMPAQ Presario V3621AU  Keyboard Australia has no state religion, and section 116 of the Australian Constitution prohibits the federal government from making any law to establish any religion, impose any religious observance, or prohibit the free exercise of any religion.[252] In the 2011 census, 61.1 per cent of Australians were counted as Christian, including 25.3 per cent as Roman Catholic and 17.1 per cent as Anglican. About 22 per cent of the population stated "no religion" (which includes humanism, atheism, agnosticism andrationalism). HP 441426-001  Keyboard The largest non-Christian religion in Australia is Buddhism (2.5 per cent), followed by Islam (2.2 per cent),Hinduism (1.3 per cent) and Judaism (0.5 per cent). Overall, 7.2 per cent of Australians identify with non-Christian religions.[227] A 2001 census showed there are almost 9,000 Wiccans and 10,623 pagans.[253]SONY 148084122  Keyboard Prior to European settlement in Australia, the animist beliefs of Australia's indigenous people had been practised for millennia. In the case of mainland Aboriginal Australians, their spirituality is known as the Dreamtime and it places a heavy emphasis on belonging to the land. The collection of stories that it contains shaped Aboriginal law and customs. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833  Keyboard Aboriginal art, story and dance continue to draw on these spiritual traditions. In the case of the Torres Strait Islanders who inhabit the islands between Australia and New Guinea, spirituality and customs reflected their Melanesian origins and dependence on the sea. The 1996 Australian census counted more than 7000 respondents as followers of a traditional Aboriginal religion.[254TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160  Keyboard HP 413554-001  Keyboard Since the arrival of the First Fleet of British ships in 1788, Christianity has grown to be the major religion. Consequently, the Christian festivals of Christmas and Easter are public holidays, the skylines of Australian cities and towns are marked by church and cathedral spires, and the Christian churches have played an integral role in the development of education, health and welfare services in Australia. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226  Keyboard The Catholic education system operates as the largest non-government educator, accounting for about 21 per cent of all secondary enrolments at the close of the 2000s (decade), with Catholic Health Australia similarly being the largest non-government provider. Christian welfare organisations also play a prominent role within national life, with organisations like the Salvation Army, St Vincent de Paul Society andAnglicare enjoying widespread support. Such contributions are recognised on Australia's currency, ACER Aspire 5315  Keyboard with the presence of Christian pastors like Aboriginal writer David Unaipon ($50); founder of the Royal Flying Doctor Service, John Flynn ($20); and Catherine Helen Spence ($5) who was Australia's first female candidate for political office. Other significant Australian religious figures have included St. Mary MacKillop, HP Pavilion DV3510nr  Keyboard who became the first Australian to be recognised as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church in 2010 and Church of Christ pastor Sir Douglas Nicholls, who, like Martin Luther King in the United States, led a movement against racial inequality in Australia and was also the first indigenous Australian to be appointed as a State Governor. Compaq Presario CQ57-311  Keyboard For much of Australian history the Church of England (now known as the Anglican Church of Australia) was the largest religious affiliation, however multicultural immigration has contributed to a decline in its relative position, with the Roman Catholic Church benefiting from the opening of post-war Australia to multicultural immigration and becoming the largest group. FUJITSU CP275815-01  Keyboard Similarly, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and Judaism have all been expanding in the post war decades.[255] Weekly attendance at church services in 2001 was about 1.5 million[256] (about 7.8 per cent of the population).[257] An international survey, made by the private, not-for profit German think-tank, the Bertelsmann Foundation, found that "Australia is one of the least religious nations in the western world, coming in 17th out of 21 [countries] surveyed" and that "Nearly three out of four Australians say they are either not at all religious or that religion does not play a central role in their lives."[258]HP Probook 4710S  Keyboard A survey of 1,718 Australians by the Christian Research Association at the end of 2009 suggested that the number of people attending religious services per month in Australia has dropped from 23 per cent in 1993 to 16 per cent in 2009, and while 60 per cent of 15 to 29-year-old respondents in 1993 identified with Christian denominations, 33 per cent did in 2009.[259]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa  Keyboard

Education

School attendance is compulsory throughout Australia. Education is the responsibility of the individual states and territories[260] so the rules vary between states, but in general children are required to attend school from the age of about 5 up until about 16.[261][262] In at least some states (eg, WA)[263] children aged 16–17 are required to either attend school or participate in vocational training, such as an apprenticeship. HP Envy 15-1050nr  Keyboard Australia has an adult literacy rate that is assumed to be 99 per cent. In the Programme for International Student Assessment, Australia regularly scores among the top five of thirty major developed countries (member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Catholic education accounts for the largest non-government sector.  FUJITSU Lifebook P1620  Keyboard Australia has 37 government-funded universities and two private universities, as well as a number of other specialist institutions that provide approved courses at the higher education level.[264] The University of Sydney is Australia's oldest university, having been founded in 1850, followed by the University of Melbourne three years later. Compaq 6720s  Keyboard Other notable universities include those of the Group of Eight leading tertiary institutions, including the University of Adelaide(which boasts an association with five Nobel Laureates), the Australian National University located in the national capital of Canberra, Monash University and the University of New South Wales.  HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee  Keyboard The OECD places Australia among the most expensive nations to attend university.[265] There is a state-based system of vocational training, known as TAFE, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople.[266] Approximately 58 per cent of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications,[216] and the tertiary graduation rate of 49 per cent is the highest among OECD countries. The ratio of international to local students in tertiary education in Australia is the highest in the OECD countries.[267]HP 640208-001  Keyboard Australia has the fourth highest life expectancy in the world after Iceland, Japan and Hong Kong.[268] Life expectancy in Australia in 2010 was 79.5 years for males and 84.0 years for females.[269] FUJITSU Lifebook P1510  Keyboard Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world,[270] while cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disease, responsible for 7.8 per cent of the total mortality and disease. Ranked second in preventable causes is hypertension at 7.6 per cent, with obesity third at 7.5 per cent.[271][272] Australia ranks 35th in the world[273] and near the top of developed nations for its proportion of obese adults.[274]HP AEUT5U00010  Keyboard Total expenditure on health (including private sector spending) is around 9.8 per cent of GDP.[275] Australia introduced universal health care in 1975.[276] Known as Medicare, it is now nominally funded by an income tax surcharge known as the Medicare levy, currently set at 1.5 per cent.[277] The states manage hospitals and attached outpatient services, while the Commonwealth funds the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (subsidising the costs of medicines) and general practice. ACER 9J.N9482.11B  Keyboard FUJITSU Lifebook E8310  Keyboard HP 640892-001  Keyboard HP 636191-001  Keyboard

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