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Barbary pirates Piratical activity by Muslim populations had been known in Mediterranean since at least the 9th century and the short-lived Emirate of Crete. Despite the animosity generated by the Crusades, the level of Muslim pirate activity was relatively low. In the 13th and 14th century it was rather Christian pirates, particularly out of Catalonia, that had been the constant threat to merchants. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard It was not until the late 14th century that Tunisian corsairs had become enough of a threat to provoke a Franco-Genoese attack on Mahdia in 1390, also known as the "Barbary Crusade". Moorish exiles of the Reconquista and Maghreb pirates added to the numbers, but it was not until the expansion of the Ottoman Empire and the arrival of the privateer and admiral Kemal Reis in 1487 that the Barbary corsairs became a true menace to Christian shipping.[4]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The Barbary pirates had long attacked British and other European shipping along the North Coast of Africa. They had been attacking British merchant and passengers ships since the 1600s. The many captives required regular fundraising by families and local church groups, who generally raised the ransoms for individuals. TOSHIBA 92.N4XBC.A01 Laptop Keyboard The British became familiar with captivity narratives written by Barbary pirates' prisoners and some whom were sold into Arab slavery before theNorth American colonies were well established.[5] This was decades before English colonists became subject to captivity by Native Americans and began to write their own narratives. TOSHIBA Satellite l525 Laptop Keyboard During the American Revolution, the pirates attacked American ships. On December 20, 1777, Morocco's Sultan Mohammed III declared that the American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage into the Mediterranean and along the coast. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship stands as the U.S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty[6][7] with a foreign power. In 1787 Morocco had been one of the first nations to recognize the United States.[8]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Throughout history, geography has been on the pirates' side off the coast of Africa. The coast was and still is ideal for their wants and needs. With natural harbors often backed by lagoons, it provided a haven for guerrilla warfare like attacks on shipping vessels venturing through their territory. On the coast, mountainous areas provided ample reconnaissance for the Corsairs as well. Ships were spotted from afar, the pirates would then have time to prepare their attacks and surprise their victims.  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Spanish Moors and Muslim adventurers from the Levant, of whom the most successful were Hızır and Oruç, natives of Mitylene, increased the amount of raids around the turn of the 15th century. In response, Spain began to conquer the coast towns ofOran, Algiers and Tunis. But after Oruç was killed in battle with the Spanish in 1518, his brother Hızır appealed to Selim I, the Ottoman sultan, HP 550 Laptop Keyboard who sent him troops. In 1529, Hızır drove the Spaniards from the rocky, fortified island in front of Algiers, and founded the Ottoman power in the region. From about 1518 till the death of Uluch Ali in 1587, Algiers was the main seat of government of the beylerbeys of northern Africa, who ruled over Tripoli, Tunisia and Algeria. From 1587 to 1659, they were ruled by Ottoman pashas, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard sent from Constantinople to govern for three years; but in the latter year a military revolt in Algiers reduced the pashas to nonentities. From 1659, these African cities, although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, were in fact military republics which chose their own rulers and lived by war booty captured from the Spanish and Portuguese. HP G61-323CA Laptop Keyboard There are several cases of Sephardic Jews, including Sinan Reis and Samuel Pallache, who upon fleeing Iberiaturned to attacking the Spanish Empire's shipping under the Ottoman flag, a profitable strategy of revenge for the Inquisition's religious persecution.[9][10]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard During the first period (1518–1587), the beylerbeys were admirals of the sultan, commanding great fleets and conducting war operations for political ends. They were slave-hunters and their methods were ferocious. After 1587, the sole object of their successors became plunder, on land and sea. The maritime operations were conducted by the captains, or reises, who formed a class or even a corporation. Cruisers were fitted out by investors and commanded by the reises. Ten percent of the value of the prizes was paid to the pasha or his successors, who bore the titles of agha or dey or bey.[11]TOSHIBA Satellite A500-ST5601 Laptop Keyboard In 1544, Hayreddin captured the island of Ischia, taking 4,000 prisoners, and enslaved some 9,000 inhabitants of Lipari, almost the entire population.[12] In 1551, Turgut Reis enslaved the entire population of the Maltese island Gozo, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to Libya. In 1554, corsairs sacked Vieste in southern Italy and took an estimated 7,000 slaves.[13]  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard In 1555, Turgut Reis sacked Bastia, Corsica, taking 6,000 prisoners. In 1558, Barbary corsairs captured the town of Ciutadella (Minorca), destroyed it, slaughtered the inhabitants and took 3,000 survivors to Istanbul as slaves.[14] In 1563, Turgut Reis landed on the shores of the province of Granada, Spain, and captured coastal settlements in the area, HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard such as Almuñécar, along with 4,000 prisoners. Barbary corsairs often attacked the Balearic Islands, and in response many coastal watchtowers and fortified churches were erected. The threat was so severe that the island of Formentera became uninhabited. SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard Even at this early stage, the European states fought back: Livorno's monument Quattro Mori celebrates 16th century victories against the Barbary corsairs won by the Knights of Malta and the Order of Saint Stephen, of which the Grand Duke of TuscanyFerdinando I de' Medici was Grand Master. Another response was the construction of the original frigates; light, fast and manoueverable galleys, ACER Aspire 5738PZG Laptop Keyboard designed to run down Barbary corsairs trying to get away with their loot and slaves. Other measures included coastal lookouts to give warning for people to withdraw into fortified places and rally local forces to fight the corsairs, though this latter objective was especially difficult to achieve as the corsairs had the advantage of surprise; the vulnerable European Mediterranean coasts were very long and easily accessible from the north African Barbary bases, and the corsairs were careful in planning their raids. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard

17th century

The first half of the 17th century saw the peak of Barbary raiding. This was due largely to the contribution of Dutch corsairs, notably Zymen Danseker (Simon de Danser), who used the Barbary ports as bases for attacking Spanish shipping during the Dutch Revolt. They cooperated with local raiders and introduced them to the latest Dutch sailing rigs, SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard enabling them to brave Atlantic waters.[15] Some of these Dutch corsairs converted to Islam and settled permanently in North Africa. Two examples are Süleyman Reis, "De Veenboer", who became admiral of the Algerian corsair fleet in 1617, and his quartermaster Murat Reis, born Jan Janszoon. Both worked for the notorious Dutch corsair Zymen Danseker. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP08 Laptop Keyboard In 1607, the Order of Malta went on the offensive with forty-five galleys, capturing and pillaging the city of Bona in Algeria.[16] The participation of the Knights of Saint Stephen (under Jacopo Inghirami) in this victory is commemorated by a series of frescoes painted by Bernardino Poccetti inACER Aspire 5739G Laptop Keyboard Barbary corsair attacks were common in southern Portugal, south and east Spain, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands,Sardinia, Corsica, Elba, the Italian Peninsula (especially the coasts of Liguria, Tuscany, Lazio, Campania, Calabria andApulia), Sicily and Malta. They also occurred on the Atlantic northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula. In 1617, the African corsairs launched their major attack in the region when they destroyed and sacked Bouzas, Cangas and the churches of Moañaand Darbo. HP 540 Laptop Keyboard Occasionally coastal raids reached farther afield. Iceland was subject to raids in 1627. Jan Janszoon, (Murat Reis the Younger) is said to have taken 400 prisoners; 242 of the captives later were sold into slavery on the Barbary Coast. The corsairs took only young people and those in good physical condition. All those offering resistance were killed, HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Laptop Keyboard and the old people were gathered into a church which was set on fire. Among those captured was Ólafur Egilsson, who was ransomed the next year and, upon returning to Iceland, wrote a slave narrative about his experience. ACER TravelMate 4080 Laptop Keyboard Ireland was subject to a similar attack. In June 1631 Murat Reis, with corsairs from Algiers and armed troops of the Ottoman Empire, stormed ashore at the little harbor village of Baltimore, County Cork. They captured almost all the villagers and took them away to a life of slavery in North Africa.[11] The prisoners were destined for a variety of fates — some lived out their days chained to the oars as galley slaves, while others would spend long years in the scented seclusion of the harem or within the walls of the sultan's palace. Only two of them ever saw Ireland again.[19]ACER Aspire 3002LMi Laptop Keyboard More than 20,000 captives were said to be imprisoned in Algiers alone. The rich were often able to secure release through ransom, but the poor were condemned to slavery. Their masters would on occasion allow them to secure freedom by professing Islam. A long list might be given of people of good social position, not only Italians or Spaniards, but German or English travelers in the south, who were captives for a time.[11] SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard While the chief victims were the inhabitants of the coasts ofSicily, Naples and Spain, all traders of nations which did not pay tribute for immunity or force the Barbary States to leave them alone were liable to be taken at sea. Religious orders — the Redemptorists and Lazarists — worked for the redemption of captives, and large legacies were left for that purpose in many countries. SONY VAIO VGN-AR320E Laptop Keyboard The continuation of piracy was assisted by competition among European powers. France encouraged the corsairs against Spain, and later Britain and Holland supported them against France. By the second half of the 17th century the greater European naval powers were able to strike back effectively enough to intimidate the Barbary States into making peace with them DELL Latitude E5410 Laptop Keyboard HP G61-410SA Laptop Keyboard However, those countries' commercial interests then benefited from the impact of continuing attacks on their competitors, and as a result there was little interest in imposing a more general cessation of corsair activity. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard The most successful of the Christian states in dealing with the corsair threat was England. From the 1630s onwards England had signed peace treaties with the Barbary States on various occasions, but invariably breaches of these agreements led to renewed wars. A particular bone of contention was the tendency of foreign ships to pose as English to avoid attack.  DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard However, growing English naval power and increasingly persistent operations against the corsairs proved increasingly costly for the Barbary States. During the reign of Charles II a series of English expeditions won victories over raiding squadrons and mounted attacks on their home ports which permanently ended the Barbary threat to English shipping. HP Pavilion DV6-1013tx Laptop Keyboard In 1675 a Royal Navysquadron led by Sir John Narborough negotiated a lasting peace with Tunis and, after bombarding the city to induce compliance, with Tripoli. Peace with Sale followed in 1676. Algiers, the most powerful of the Barbary States, returned to war the following year, breaking a treaty made in 1671, HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard but further defeats at the hands of an English squadron under Arthur Herbert forced Algiers to make peace again in 1682, in a treaty which would last until 1816. France, which had recently emerged as a leading naval power, achieved comparable success soon afterwards, with bombardments of Algiers in 1682, 1683 and 1688 securing a lasting peace, while Tripoli was similarly coerced in 1686. HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard

18th–19th centuries

In 1783 and 1784 it was the turn of Spaniards to bombard Algiers. The second time, Admiral Barceló damaged the city so severely that the Algerian Dey asked Spain to negotiate a peace treaty and from then on Spanish vessels and coasts were safe for several years. HP Envy 17-3002ea Laptop Keyboard Until the American Declaration of Independence in 1776, British treaties with the North African states protected American ships from the Barbary corsairs. Morocco, which in 1777 was the first independent nation to publicly recognize the United States, became in 1784 the first Barbary power to seize an American vessel after independence.  HP G62-a33EO Laptop Keyboard The Barbary threat led directly to the creation of the United States Navy in March 1794. While the United States managed to secure peace treaties, these obliged it to pay tribute for protection from attack. Payments in ransom and tribute to the Barbary states amounted to 20% of United States government annual expenditures in 1800.[20]Acer eMachines G730Z Laptop Keyboard The First Barbary War in 1801 and the Second Barbary War in 1815 led to more favorable peace terms ending the payment of tribute. However, Algiers broke the 1805 peace treaty after only two years, and subsequently refused to implement the 1815 treaty until compelled to do so by Britain in 1816. Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard The Congress of Vienna in 1814–5, which ended the Napoleonic Wars, led to increased consensus on the need to achieve a general halt to Barbary raiding. The sacking of Palma on the island of Sardinia by a Tunisian squadron, which carried off 158 inhabitants, roused widespread indignation. Britain had by this time banned the slave trade and was seeking to induce other countries to do likewise. This led to complaints from states which were still vulnerable to the corsairs that Britain's enthusiasm for ending the trade in African slaves did not extend to stopping the enslavement of Europeans and Americans by the Barbary States. Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard In order to neutralise this objection and further the anti-slavery campaign, in 1816 Lord Exmouth was sent to secure new concessions from Tripoli, Tunis, and Algiers, including a pledge to treat Christian captives in any future conflict asprisoners of war rather than slaves and the imposition of peace between Algiers and the kingdoms of Sardinia and Sicily. ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard On his first visit he negotiated satisfactory treaties and sailed for home. While he was negotiating, a number of Sardinian fishermen who had settled at Bona on the Tunisian coast were brutally treated without his knowledge. As Sardinians they were technically under British protection and the government sent Exmouth back to secure reparation. On August 17, in combination with a Dutch squadron under Admiral Van de Capellen, he bombarded Algiers. Both Algiers and Tunis made fresh concessions as a result. Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard However, securing uniform compliance with a total prohibition of slave-raiding, which was traditionally of central importance to the North African economy, presented difficulties beyond those faced in ending attacks on ships of individual nations, which had left slavers able to continue their accustomed way of life by preying on less well-protected peoples. SONY Vaio VGN-AW220J Laptop Keyboard Algiers subsequently renewed its slave-raiding, though on a smaller scale. Measures to be taken against the city's government were discussed at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818. In 1824 another British fleet under Admiral Sir Harry Neal again bombarded Algiers. Corsair activity based in Algiers did not entirely cease until its conquest by France in 1830.[11]TOSHIBA Satellite M75 Series Laptop Keyboard While Barbary corsairs naturally looted the cargo of ships they captured, their primary goal was to capture and enslave people on land or at sea. The slaves were often sold or put to work in various ways in North Africa. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5256 Laptop Keyboard Historian Robert C. Davis estimated that between 1530 and 1780 1–1.25 million Europeans were captured and taken as slaves to North Africa, principally Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, but also Istanbul and Salé.[21]ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard Being captured was just the first part of a slave's nightmare journey. Many slaves died on the ships during the long voyage back to North Africa due to disease or lack of food and water. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Those who survived the journey were made a spectacle of as they walked through town on their way to the slave auction. The slaves would then have to stand from eight in the morning until two in the afternoon while buyers passed by and viewed them. Next came the auction, where the townspeople would bid on the slaves they wanted to purchase and once that was over, ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard the governor of Algiers (the Dey) had the chance to purchase any slave he wanted for the price they were sold at at the auction. During the auctions the slaves would be forced to run and jump around to show their strength and stamina. After purchase, these slaves would either become slaves for ransom, or they would be put to work. DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard Slaves were used for a wide variety of jobs, from hard manual labor to housework (the job assigned to most women slaves). At night the slaves were put into prisons called 'bagnios' that were often hot and overcrowded. However, these bagnios began improving by the 18th century, and some bagnios had chapels, hospitals, shops, and bars run by slaves, though such amenities remained uncommon. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Although the conditions in bagnios were harsh, they were better than those galley slaves had to endure. Most Barbary galleys were at sea for around eighty to a hundred days a year, so the slaves were not on them constantly, but when they were not rowing the galleys they were forced to do hard manual labor on land. There were exceptions: HP 550 Laptop Keyboard "galley slaves of the Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul would be permanently confined to their galleys, and often served extremely long terms, averaging around nineteen years in the late seventeenth-century and early eighteenth-century periods. These slaves rarely got off the galley but lived there for years."[22] During this time, rowers were shackled and chained where they sat, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard and never allowed to leave. Sleeping (which was limited), eating, defecation and urination took place at the seat to which they were shackled. There were usually five or six rowers on each oar. Overseers would walk back and forth and whip slaves considered not to be working hard enough. SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard Barbary slaves could hope to be freed through payment of a ransom. Despite the efforts of middlemen and charities to raise money to provide ransoms, they were still very difficult to come by. As charity funding for ransoming slaves increased, North African states increased the ransom required. Lack of money to pay a ransom was not the only problem; HP AESP7U00110 Laptop Keyboard slaves needed to notify their families that they were captive and inform them of the ransom price, and would need to pay hefty mailing charges (which few slaves could afford) and wait several months for the mail to be delivered.  IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard After payment of a ransom slaves often went through a port to wait for the ransom to be finalized; in some cases in the 17th and 18th centuries slaves were kept at these ports under quarantine due to fear of the plague. SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard Not many Barbary slaves could depend on being ransomed. Escaping was another possibility, but rarely successful; Cervantes, author of Don Quijote, who had been captured and enslaved, made four unsuccessful attempts to escape, and was eventually ransomed by his family. The most famous of runaway slaves was Thomas Pellow, who had the story of his journey published in 1740. After several failed attempts, in which he was nearly killed, Pellow was finally able to escape to Gibraltar in July 1738. TOSHIBA P205-S6337 Laptop Keyboard According to historian Adrian Tinniswood, the most notorious corsairs were English and European renegades who had learned their trade as privateers, and who moved to the Barbary Coast during peacetime to pursue their trade. These outcasts brought up-to-date naval expertise to the piracy business, and enabled the corsairs to make long-distance slave-catching raids as far away as Iceland and Newfoundland.[3] The English corsair Henry Mainwaring later returned to England with a royal pardon, was knighted, elected to Parliament and appointed a vice admiral of the Royal Navy.[3]HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard The most famous of the corsairs in North Africa were Oruç and Hızır Hayreddin. They, and two less well-known brothers, all became Barbary corsairs; they were called the Barbarossas (Italian for Redbeards) after the red beard of Oruç, the eldest. Oruç captured the island of Djerba for the Ottoman Empire in 1502 or 1503. He often attacked Spanish territories on the coast of North Africa; IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard during one failed attempt in 1512 he lost his left arm to a cannon ball. The eldest Barbarossa also went on a rampage through Algiers in 1516, and captured the town with the help of the Ottoman Empire. He executed the ruler of Algiers and everybody he suspected would oppose him, including local rulers. He was finally captured and killed by the Spanish in 1518, and put on display. SONY VAIO PCG-FX804 Laptop Keyboard Oruç, based mainly on land, was not the best-known of the Barbarossas. His youngest brother Hızır (later called Hayreddin or Kheir ed-Din) was a more traditional corsair. He was a capable engineer and spoke at least six languages. He dyed the hair of his head and beard with henna to redden it like Oruç's. After capturing many crucial coastal areas, SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard Hayreddin was appointed admiral-in-chief of the Ottoman sultan's fleet. Under his command the Ottoman empire was able to gain and keep control of the eastern Mediterranean for over thirty years. Barbaros Hızır Hayreddin Pasha died in 1546 of a fever, possibly the plague.  Lenovo Ideapad G560 Laptop Keyboard

Captain Jack Ward

English corsair Jack, or John, Ward was once called "beyond doubt the greatest scoundrel that ever sailed from England" by the English ambassador to Venice. Ward was a privateer for Queen Elizabeth during her war with Spain; after the end of the war he became a corsair. With some associates he captured a ship in about 1603 and sailed it to Tunis; Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard he and his crew converted to Islam. He was successful and became rich. He introduced heavily-armed square-rigged ships, used instead of galleys, to the North African area, a major reason for the Barbary's future dominance of the Mediterranean. He died of plague in 1622. DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard Barbary corsairs are protagonists in Le pantere di Algeri (the panthers of Algiers) by Emilio Salgari and appear in a number of other famous novels, includingRobinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe, The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas, père, The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame, The Sea Hawk and the Sword of Islam by Rafael Sabatini, APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard The Algerine Captive by Royall Tyler, Master and Commander by Patrick O'Brian, the Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson, The Walking Drumby Louis Lamour, Doctor Doolittle by Hugh Lofting and Corsair by Clive Cussler. Miguel de Cervantes, the Spanish author, was captive for five years as a slave in the bagnio of Algiers, ACER Aspire 5735 Laptop Keyboard and reflected his experience in some of his fictional (but not directly autobiographical) writings, including the Captive's tale inDon Quixote, his two plays set in Algiers, El Trato de Argel (The Treaty of Algiers) and Los Baños de Argel (The Baths of Algiers), and episodes in a number of other works. HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard Barbary corsairs also feature in many pornographic novels, such as The Lustful Turk (1828), where the abduction of white women into sexual slavery is an abiding interest.[23]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5362 Laptop Keyboard One of the stereotypical features of a pirate in popular culture, the eye patch, dates back to the Arab corsair Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah, who wore it after losing an eye in battle in the 18th century.[24]TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard The Little Johnny England song "Lily of Barbary" tells the story of an English man who is enslaved by Barbary corsairs and sold in Algiers, but is freed when his master dies. He then becomes a merchant and buys the freedom of another English slave girl. SONY VAIO VGN-N Series Laptop Keyboard


Morocco (Arabic: المغرب‎ al-Maghrib ; Berber: ⴰⵎⵕⵕⵓⴽ or ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ[6] "Ameṛṛuk" or "Lmaġrib"), officially theKingdom of Morocco,[3] is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of over 32 million and an area of 446,550 km² (710,850 km² with Western Sahara). Morocco also administers most of the disputed region of theWestern Sahara as the Southern Provinces. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5256 Laptop Keyboard Despite being situated in Africa, Morocco remains the only African state not to be a member of the African Union due to its unilateral withdrawal on November 12, 1984 over the admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) in 1982 by the African Union as a full member without the organization of a referendum of self determination in the disputed territory of Western Sahara. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, including the power to dissolve the parliament. Executive power is exercised by the governmentbut the king's decisions usually override those of the government if there is a contradiction. Legislative poweris vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard the Assembly of Representatives and theAssembly of Councillors. The king can also issue decrees called dahirs which have the force of law. The latestParliamentary elections were held on November 25, 2011, and were considered by some neutral observers to be mostly free and fair. Voter turnout in these elections was estimated to be 43% of registered voters, ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard but only about 25% of Moroccan adult citizens actually voted. The rest either chose not to vote or they were not registered as voters, thus not allowed to vote. The political capital of Morocco is Rabat, although the largest city isCasablanca; other major cities include Marrakesh, Tetouan, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, andNador. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard The Moroccan economy is generally diverse but very fragile. About 40% of Moroccans cannot read or write, and the country has high levels of extreme poverty and health care deprivation. Morocco also has a high level of economic inequality. The unemployment rates under the highly educated as well as the unskilled are very high and cause consistent social unrest in many cities and villages. In 2011, the UN's Human Development Index ranked Morocco as the 130th most developed country in the world. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Almost all Moroccans speak Berber, Moroccan Arabic or French as mother tongues. Hassaniya Arabic, sometimes considered as a variety of Moroccan Arabic, is spoken in the southern provinces (Western Sahara) in the country by a small population. SONY VAIO VGN-AR520E Laptop Keyboard Umayyad Muslims conquered the region in the 7th century, bringing their language, their system of government, and Islam, to which many of the Berbers slowly converted, mostly after the Arab rule receded. In the Islamic era the first Moroccan Muslim state, independent from the Abbasid Empire, was The Kingdom of Nekor, an emirate in the Rif area. It was founded by Salih I ibn Mansur in 710 AD, TOSHIBA Satellite P305D-S8829 Laptop Keyboard Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard as a client state to the Rashidun Caliphate. According to medieval legend, Idris I fled to Morocco from the Abbasids' massacre against his tribe in Iraq and managed to convince the Awraba Berber tribes to break allegiance to the distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad. He founded the Idrisid Dynasty in 780 AD. Morocco became later a center of learning and a major power. TOSHIBA Satellite Pro C650-SP4166M Laptop Keyboard From the 11th century onwards, a series of powerful Berber[10][11][12] dynasties arose. Under the Almoravid dynasty and the Almohad dynasty, Morocco dominated the Maghreb, Muslim-conquered Spain, and the western Mediterranean region. In the 13th century the Merinids gained power over Morocco and strove to replicate the successes of the Almohads. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard In the 15th century the Reconquista ended Islamic rule in central and southern Iberia (modern day Spain + Portugal) and many Muslims andJews fled to Morocco. Under the Saadi Dynasty, the first Moroccan dynasty initiated by ethnic Arabs since the Idrisids, the country would consolidate power and fight off Portuguese and Ottoman invaders, as in the battle of Ksar el Kebir. The reign of Ahmad al-Mansur brought new wealth and prestige to the Sultanate, and a massive invasion of the Songhay Empire was initiated. HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard However, managing the territories across the Sahara proved too difficult. After the death of al-Mansur the country was divided among his sons. In 1666 the sultanate was reunited by the Alaouite dynasty, who have since been the ruling house in Morocco. The organization of the state developed with Ismail Ibn Sharif. With his Jaysh d'Ahl al-Rif (the Riffian Army) he seized Tangier from the English in 1684 and drove the Spanish from Larache in 1689. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard In 1912, after the First Moroccan Crisis and the Agadir Crisis, the Treaty of Fez was signed, effectively dividing Morocco into a French and a Spanish protectorate. In 1956, after forty-four years of occupation, Morocco regained independence from France and Spain as the "Kingdom of Morocco".HP Pavilion dv6-2112ea Laptop Keyboard Population of Morocco The area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times (at least since 200,000 BC, as attested by signs of the Aterian culture), a period when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. In Paleolithic ages, the geography of Morocco resembled a savanna more than the present-day arid landscape.[13] HP G42-265LA Laptop Keyboard In the classical period, Morocco was known as Mauretania, although this should not be confused with the modern-day nation of Mauritania. The suggested skeletal similarities between the robust Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains, as well as the case for continuity of the bearers of the Iberomaurusian industry from Morocco with later northwest African populations suggested by the dental evidence should be considered. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z Laptop Keyboard Current scientific debate is concerned with determining the relative contributions of different periods of gene flow to the current gene pool of North Africans. Anatomically modern humans are known to have been present in North Africa during the Upper Paleolithic 175,000 years ago as attested by the Aterian culture.  HP G72-b15SA Laptop Keyboard The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Bell-Beaker culture in Morocco. Additionally, recent studies have discovered a close mitochondrial link between Berbers and the Saami of Scandinavia which confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers that repopulated northern Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum and reveals a direct maternal link between those European hunter-gatherer populations and the Berbers.[14]TOSHIBA Satellite A135-S2356 Laptop Keyboard Jewish people (whether of Hebrew or Berber descent) historically lived in Morocco. In any case, over the centuries, nearly all Berbers were Islamicized. Still, a large number of Berber Jews remained in Morocco especially after the arrival of Sephardi Jews following the Alhambra decree. In the early 20th century, numerous Moroccan Jews emigrated to the United States and Italy, after Italian Jews established study centers and schools to bring the Enlightenment to Moroccan Jews. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard In 1948, before the creation of Israel, Berber Jews numbered approximately 265,000 in Morocco. The hostilities and disruption of the war of independence and other wars in the Mideast caused more Jews to leave for Palestine, Europe and the United States. Seven thousand live there now (mostly in a few major cities). In relation to the commemoration of Christopher Columbus' voyage to the New World,  ACER Aspire 7535 Laptop Keyboard numerous academic studies were undertaken about the Moroccan Jews of Morocco. The late king Hassan II reached out internationally to descendants of Jews who had lived in the country and encouraged returns and visits, with recognition of their contributions to the nation, but there has not been markedly increased immigration. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Romans and Morocco

North Africa and Morocco were slowly drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by Phoenician trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Major early substantial settlements of the Phoenicians were at Chellah, Lixus andMogador,[15] with Mogador being a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC.[16] HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard The arrival of Phoenicians heralded a long engagement with the wider Mediterranean, as this strategic region formed part of the Roman Empire, asMauretania Tingitana. In the 5th century, as the Roman Empire declined, the region fell to the Vandals, Visigoths, and then the Byzantine Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire, in rapid succession. During this time, however, the high mountains of most of modern Morocco remained unsubdued,  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard and stayed in the hands of their Berber inhabitants. Christianity was introduced in the 2nd century and gained converts in the towns and among slaves and Berber farmers. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Islamic expansion began in the 7th century. In 670 AD, the first Islamic conquest of the North African coastal plain took place under Uqba ibn Nafi, a general serving under the Umayyads of Damascus. After the outbreak of the Great Berber Revolt in 739, the region's Berber population asserted its independence, forming states and kingdoms such as the Miknasa of Sijilmasaand the Barghawata. Under Idris ibn Abdallah, COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard who was appointed by the Awraba Berbers of Volubilis to be their representative, the country soon cut ties and broke away from the control of the distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad and the Umayyad rule in Al-Andalus. The Idrisids established Fes as their capital and Morocco became a centre of Muslim learning and a major regional power. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Morocco would reach its height under a series of Berber dynasties that replaced the Idrisids after the 11th century.[17] From the 13th century onwards the country saw an importation of Banu Hilal Arab tribes as Mercenaries. Their arrival was to have a critical effect on the nation: due to them nomadism returned, urban civilization fell and the country's inhabitants were quickly becoming Ruined. HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard The Almoravids, the Almohads, the Marinids, the Wattasids and finally the Saadi dynasty would see Morocco rule most of Northwest Africa, as well as large sections of Islamic Iberia, or Al-Andalus. Following the Reconquistaof the Iberian Peninsula, large numbers of Muslims and Jews were forced to flee to Morocco.[18]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard After the Saadi, the Alaouite Dynasty eventually gained control. Morocco was facing aggression from Spain and the Ottoman Empire that was sweeping westward. The Alaouites succeeded in stabilizing their position, and while the kingdom was smaller than previous ones in the region, it remained quite wealthy. In 1684, they annexed Tangier. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard\ The organization of the kingdom developed under Ismail Ibn Sharif (1672–1727), who, against the opposition of local tribes began to create a unified state.[19] According to Elizabeth Allo Isichei, "In 1520, there was a famine in Morocco so terrible that for a long time other events were dated by it. It has been suggested that the population of Morocco fell from 5 to under 3 million between the early sixteenth and nineteenth centuries."[20]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Morocco was the first nation to recognize the fledgling United States as an independent nation in 1777.[21] In the beginning of the American Revolution, American merchant ships were subject to attack by the Barbary Pirates while sailing the Atlantic Ocean. On 20 December 1777, Morocco's Sultan Mohammed III declared that the American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship stands as the U.S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty.[22][23]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Successful Portuguese efforts to invade and control the Atlantic coast in the 15th century did not profoundly affect theMediterranean heart of Morocco. After the Napoleonic Wars,  TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard Egypt and the North African Maghreb became increasingly ungovernable from Istanbul, the resort of pirates under local beys, and as Europe industrialized, an increasingly prized potential for colonization. The Maghreb had far greater proven wealth than the unknown rest of Africa and a location of strategic importance affecting the exit from the Mediterranean. For the first time, Morocco became a state of some interest in itself to the European powers. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard France showed a strong interest in Morocco as early as 1830.[25] Recognition by the United Kingdom in 1904 of France's sphere of influence in Morocco provoked a reaction from the German Empire; the crisis of June 1905 was resolved at the Algeciras Conference in Spain in 1906, which formalized France's "special position" and entrusted policing of Morocco jointly to France and Spain. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard The Agadir Crisis provoked by the Germans, increased tensions between European powers. The Treaty of Fez (signed on March 30, 1912) made Morocco a protectorate of France. By the same treaty, Spain assumed the role of protecting power over the northern and southern Saharan zones on November 27 that year.[26]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Many Moroccan soldiers (Goumieres) served in the French army in both World War I and World War II, and in the SpanishNationalist Army in the Spanish Civil War and after (Regulares). HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Laptop Keyboard  lENOVO IdeaPad G555 Laptop Keyboard Under the French protectorate, Moroccan natives were denied their basic human rights such as freedom of speech, the right of gathering and travel in their own country. French settlers built for themselves modern European-like cities called "villages" or "villes" (French for "city") next to poor old Arab cities called "Medinas". TOSHIBA Satellite L40-18Z Laptop Keyboard The French colonial system forbade native Moroccans from living, working, and traveling into the French quarters.[27] The French education system taught a minority of noble native Moroccan families about French history, art and culture, while disregarding their native language and culture. Colonial authorities exerted tighter control on religious schools and universities, namely "madrassas" and Quaraouaine university. The rise of a young Moroccan intellectual class gave birth to nationalist movements whose main goals were to restore the governance of the country to its own people.[28]TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard Nationalist political parties, which subsequently arose under the French protectorate, based their arguments for Moroccan independence on such World War II declarations as the Atlantic Charter (a joint U.S.-British statement that set forth, among other things, the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live). A manifesto of the Istiqlal Party (Independence party in English) in 1944 was one of the earliest public demands for independence. That party subsequently provided most of the leadership for the nationalist movement.  HP 378248-001 Laptop Keyboard France's exile of Sultan Mohammed V in 1953 to Madagascar and his replacement by the unpopular Mohammed Ben Aarafa, whose reign was perceived as illegitimate, sparked active opposition to the French and Spanish protectorates. The most notable violence occurred in Oujda where Moroccans attacked French and other European residents in the streets. HP Pavilion dv4-1100ea Laptop Keyboard Operations by the newly created "Jaish al-tahrir" (Liberation Army), were launched on October 1, 1955. Jaish al-tahrir was created by "Comité de Libération du Maghreb Arabe" (Arab Maghreb Liberation Committee) in Cairo, Egypt to constitute a resistance movement against occupation. Its goal was the return of King Mohammed V and the liberation of Algeria and Tunisia as well. France allowed Mohammed V to return in 1955, and the negotiations that led to Moroccan independence began the following year.[29]SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard All those events helped increase the degree of solidarity between the people and the newly returned king. For this reason, the revolution that Morocco knew was called "Taourat al-malik wa shaab" (The revolution of the King and the People) and it is celebrated every August 20. SONY Vaio PCG-K415B Laptop Keyboard On November 18, 2006, Morocco celebrated the 50th anniversary of its independence. Morocco recovered its political independence from France on March 2, 1956, and on April 7, France officially relinquished its protectorate. Through agreements with Spain in 1956 and 1958, Moroccan control over certain Spanish-ruled areas was restored, DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard though attempts to claim other Spanish colonial possessions through military action were less successful. The internationalized city of Tangierwas reintegrated with the signing of the Tangier Protocol on October 29, 1956. Hassan II became King of Morocco on March 3, 1961. His early years of rule were marked by political unrest. HP Pavilion DV3550el Laptop Keyboard The Spanish enclave of Ifni in the south was reintegrated to the country in 1969. Morocco annexed the Western Sahara during the 1970s ("Marcha Verde", Green March) after demanding its reintegration from Spain since independence, but final resolution on the status of the territory remains unresolved. (SeeHistory of Western Sahara.)[18]HP MP-06703VS-9201 Laptop Keyboard Political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997. Morocco was granted Major non-NATO ally status by the United States in June 2004 and has signed free trade agreements with the United States and the European Union. HP Pavilion DV7-2200 Laptop Keyboard Morocco has always been known for its Islamic liberalism and openness towards the Western world. King Mohammed VI of Morocco with his ruling elite are democratically-minded, showing tolerance within the limits of territorial integrity and traditional laws and customs.[30]HP Pavilion DV7-2110tx Laptop Keyboard


Morocco has a coast on the Atlantic Ocean that reaches past the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Spain to the north (a water border through the Strait and land borders with three small Spanish-controlledexclaves, Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera), Algeria to the east, and Western Sahara to the south. Since Morocco controls most of Western Sahara, its de facto southern boundary is with Mauritania. HP Pavilion DV7t-2000 CTO Laptop Keyboard The internationally recognized borders of the country lie between latitudes 27° and 36°N, and longitudes 1° and 14°W. Adding Western Sahara, Morocco lies mostly between 21° and 36°N, and 1° and 17°W (the Ras Nouadhibou peninsula is slightly south of 21° and west of 17°). SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard The geography of Morocco spans from the Atlantic Ocean, to mountainous areas, to the Sahara (desert). Morocco is a Northern African country, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and the annexed Western Sahara. HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard A large part of Morocco is mountainous. The Atlas Mountains are located mainly in the center and the south of the country. The Rif Mountains are located in the north of the country. Both ranges are mainly inhabited by the Berber people. At 172,402 sq mi (446,519 km2), Morocco is the fifty-seventh largest country in the world (after Uzbekistan). Algeria borders Morocco to the east and southeast though the border between the two countries has been closed since 1994.  HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard Spanish territory in North Africa neighbouring Morocco comprises five enclaves on the Mediterranean coast: Ceuta, Melilla,Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, Peñón de Alhucemas, the Chafarinas islands, and the disputed islet Perejil. Off the Atlantic coast the Canary Islands belong to Spain, whereas Madeira to the north is Portuguese. To the north, Morocco is bordered by the Strait of Gibraltar, where international shipping has unimpeded transit passage between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Compaq Presario CQ42-219TU Laptop Keyboard The Rif mountains stretch over the region bordering the Mediterranean from the north-west to the north-east. The Atlas Mountains run down the backbone of the country, from the south west to the northeast. Most of the southeast portion of the country is in the Sahara Desert and as such is generally sparsely populated and unproductive economically. Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard Most of the population lives to the north of these mountains, while to the south lies the Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony that was annexed by Morocco in 1975 (see Green March).[31] Morocco claims that the Western Sahara is part of its territory and refers to that as its Southern Provinces. TOSHIBA Satellite A500 Series Laptop Keyboard Morocco's capital city is Rabat; its largest city is its main port, Casablanca. Other cities include Agadir, Essaouira, Fes, Marrakech, Meknes, Mohammadia, Oujda, Ouarzazat, Safi, Salé, Tangier and Tétouan. SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard Morocco is represented in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 geographical encoding standard by the symbol MA.[32] This code was used as the basis for Morocco's internet domain, .ma.[32]


> The climate is Mediterranean in the North and in some mountains (West of Atlas), which becomes more extreme towards the interior regions. The terrain is such that the coastal plains are rich and accordingly, they comprise the backbone for agriculture, especially in the North. Forests cover about 12% of the land while arable land accounts for 18%; TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7309 Laptop Keyboard 5% is irrigated. In the Atlas (Middle Atlas), there are several different climates: Mediterranean (with some more humid and fresher variants), Maritime Temperate (with some humid and fresher variants too) that allow different species of oaks, moss carpets, junipers, atlantic cedars and many other plants, to form extensive and very rich humid cloud forests.Lenovo Thinkpad X220i Laptop Keyboard . In the highest peaks a different climate may occur. On the other side of Atlas mountains (East Atlas), the climate changes, due to the barrier/shelter effect of these mountainous system, turning it very dry and extremely warm during the summer (that can last several months), especially on the lowlands and on the valleys faced to the Sahara. Here it starts the big Desert Sahara and it is perfectly visible, for example, on the Draa Valley, on which it is possible to find oases, sand dunes and rocky desert landscapes. So the climate in this region is desert.  TOSHIBA Satellite U200 Laptop Keyboard Morocco is known for its biodiversity; Avifauna being the most notable.[33] The avifauna of Morocco includes a total of 454 species, five of which have been introduced by humans, and 156 are rarely or accidentally seen.[34]HP Mini 110-1033CA Laptop Keyboard The last Barbary lion in the wild was shot in the Atlas Mountains in 1922.[35] The other two primary predators of northern Africa, the Atlas bear and Barbary leopard, are now extinct and critically endangered, respectively.  HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Further information: List of birds of Morocco, List of the Butterflies of Morocco, List of mammals of Morocco, List of reptiles of Morocco, Flora of Morocco, and List of ecoregions in Morocco. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard Farmers in Morocco’s fertile coastal plains grow sugar beets, grains, fruits, and vegetables in order to sell in Europe. Morocco’s major export is foods, all kinds of food, from nuts to meat to fruits. Many farmer raise livestock, mainly sheep. Although Morocco is rich in foods one of their major imports are manufactured goods, which may contain foods. They may also contain cloths, school supplies, etc. HP Pavilion dv6-3120sa Laptop Keyboard Moroccan trade is still dominated by its main import and export partner France, although France's share in Moroccan trade is declining, in favour of the US, the Gulf Region and China. If seen as a single entity, the EU is by far Morocco's largest trading partner. In recent years, Morocco has reduced its dependence on phosphate exports, emerging as an exporter of manufactured and agricultural products, TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard and as a growing tourism destination. However, its competitiveness in basic manufactured goods, such as textiles, is hampered by low labour productivity and high wages. Morocco is dependent on imported fuel and its food import requirement can rise substantially in drought years, as in 2007. Although Morocco runs a structural trade deficit, this is typically offset by substantial services earnings from tourism and large remittance inflows from the diaspora, and the country normally runs a small current-account surplus.[36]DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard Most Moroccans practice Sunni Islam and are of Arab and Berber ethnic background. Arabs and Berbers make up about 99.1% of the Moroccan population.[3], which each one constituting about half the population of the state. DELL Inspiron 1545 Laptop Keyboard Morocco has been inhabited for at least the last 200,000 years. Berbers are the indigenous people and still make up the bulk of the population. Muslim Arabs conquered the territory that would become Morocco in the 7th and 11th centuries, at the time under the rule of various late Byzantine Roman leaders and indigenous Berber and Romano-Berber principalities, SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard laying the foundation for the emergence of an Arab-Berber culture. The Arab occupation was brief and was ended by revolting Berbers who later founded numerous Muslim Berber kingdoms. A sizeable portion of the population is identified as Haratin and Gnawa (or Gnaoua), black or mixed race. Morocco's Jewish minority (265,000 in 1948) has decreased significantly and numbers about 5,500 (See History of the Jews in Morocco).[38] HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Laptop Keyboard Most of the 100,000 foreign residents are French or Spanish. Some of them are colonists' descendants, who primarily work for European multinational companies, others are married to Moroccans and preferred to settle in Morocco. Prior to independence, Morocco was home to half a million Europeans.[39]Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard According to The Medieval Legends, In the 12th and 13th centuries there was an invasion of Arab nomads from The Fatimid Empire located in North Eastern Africa, known as Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym tribes who were a bunch of Arabized Libyan Tribes founded in the Fayum Oasis in Egypt and Cyrenaica of Libya, HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard swept the Eastern Maghreb,[40] but recent studies make clear no significant genetic differences exist between Arabic speaking and non-Arabic speaking populations, highlighting that in common with most of the Arab World, Arabization was mainly via acculturation of non-Arab indigenous populations over time.[41] The Moorish refugees from Spain settled in the coast-towns.[42] TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard According to the European Journal of Human Genetics, Moroccans from North-Western Africa were genetically closer to Iberians than to Black Sub-Saharan Africans and Middle Easterners.[41][not in citation given] HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard The largest concentration of Moroccan migrants outside Morocco is in France, which has reportedly over one million Moroccans of up to the third generation. The Netherlands hosts about 360,000 Moroccans and Belgium hosts about 300,000 Moroccans. There are also large Moroccan communities in Spain (about 700,000 Moroccans),[43] the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Israel and the United States.[44] Moroccan (Berber) Jews are thought to constitute the second biggest Jewish ethnic subgroup in Israel. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard Most people live west of the Atlas Mountains and north of the Rif Mountains, two mountain ranges that insulate the country from the Sahara Desert. Casablanca is the major center of commerce and industry and the leading port. Rabat is the seat of government; Tangier is the gateway to Morocco from Spain and also a major port. FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard Fes is the cultural and religious center of Arab-Muslim culture in Morocco. Agadir, Nador, and Al Hoceima are the major Berber cultural centers, in addition to their economic importance. Marrakesh is the top touristic city of the country and an international celebrity magnet. SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard There is a European professional expatriate and retiree population of about 60,000 especially in Casablanca and Marrakesh. They are mainly of French or Spanish descent. Many of them are teachers, technicians, international managers, in addition to the retirees. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard


In Morocco, there are an estimated 15 to 18 million Berber speakers, making up about 50% to 65% of the population.[45] The dubious 2004 population census, conducted by the government, says that only 28.07% of the total population actually speak Berber.[4]SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard Berber intellectuals and activists who dispute this figure cite various counter-arguments such as the lack of linguistic training of the census officers, lack of accurate linguistic census planning, absence of interest by the government in mother-tongue census and its focus on counting how many people speak French, and the difficulty or inability of census officers to distinguish between people who happen to master Moroccan Arabic as a second language and those who actually speak it as a mother tongue.  ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard On the other hand, it is generally accepted that the numbers of Berber speakers in Morocco was, and possibly still is, on a sharp decline due to the anti-Berber government's policies in education and media the deprived Berber from development and flourishing in urban areas. These anti-Berber policies came to an end in 2011 after the February 20th popular protests that lead to, Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard among many other things, the recognition of Berber as an official language of the country. Moreover, in the 20th century, mass migrations of Berber speakers occurred from the countryside to the cities where French and Arabic dominate and where Berber is not integrated in the economic and governmental institutions, forcing those migrants to learn another language and teach it to their children, who in turn would grow up in a city that doesn't speak Berber or doesn't encourage it. Packard Bell Easynote TK37 Laptop Keyboard Main article: Languages of Morocco Morocco's official languages are Arabic and the Berber.[46][47] The country's distinctive group of Moroccan Arabic dialects is referred to as Darija. Approximately 89.84%[4] of the whole population can communicate to some degree in Moroccan Arabic. The Berber language is spoken in three dialects (Tarifit, Tashelhit and Central Atlas Tamazight).[48]  DELL 5HK36 Laptop Keyboard As it is in Algeria and Tunisia, the French language is widely used in governmental institutions, media, mid-size and large companies, international commerce with French speaking countries, and often in international diplomacy. French is taught as an obligatory language at all schools. It is the medium of education and the curriculum language of all science and economics programs at all universities except in the programs of Arabic language, law or theology. Al Akhawayn University is the only one that offers all programs in English. TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard Spanish is spoken by a very small population in the north of the country especially around the Spanish exclaves Melilla andCeuta. While French language dominance in Morocco is a direct result of the French occupation, the Spanish occupation of large parts of Morocco for about half a century didn't result in any strong Spanish language presence. Spanish today is almost invisible in the mainstream media and in the educational system. TOSHIBA NB200-11L Laptop Keyboard According to the 2004 census, 2.19 million Moroccans spoke a foreign language other than French.[4] English, while far behind French in terms of number of speakers, is the first foreign language of choice, since French is obligatory, among educated youth and professionals. As a result of national education reforms entering into force in late 2002, English is taught in most public schools from the fourth grade on. French is still taught nationally from the earliest grades. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5111 Laptop Keyboard Below is the number of speakers of each Berber language, according to the 2004 census:[4] Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard ACER TravelMate 2501LC Laptop Keyboard

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