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9 avril 2012 1 09 /04 /avril /2012 03:22


Olympic National Park is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as well asInternational Biosphere Reserve. Toshiba Satellite M55 Series Battery


The following United States federal areas are in Washington. 

Dryland farming caused a large dust storm in arid parts of eastern Washington on October 4, 2009. Courtsey: NASA/GSFC, MODIS Rapid Response.[13]Ibm/Lenovo Thinkpad X300 Battery

Washington's climate varies greatly from west to east. An oceanic climate (also called "west coast marine climate") predominates in western Washington, and a much driersemi-arid climate prevails east of the Cascade Range. Dell Studio 1537 Laptop Battery

Major factors determining Washington's climate include the large semi-permanent high pressure and low pressuresystems of the north Pacific Ocean, Dell Latitude C640 AC Adapter/Charger

the continental air masses of North America, and the Olympic and Cascade mountains. In the spring and summer, a high pressure anticyclonesystem dominates the north Pacific Ocean, causing air to spiral out in a clockwise fashion. HP Pavilion dm4 Laptop Battery


For Washington this means prevailing winds from the northwest bringing relatively cool air and a predictably dry season. In the autumn and winter, a low pressure cyclone system takes over in the north Pacific Ocean, with air spiraling inward in a counter-clockwise fashion. Acer Aspire 557x Battery

This causes Washington's prevailing winds to come from the southwest, bringing relatively warm and moist air masses and a predictably wet season. The term Pineapple Express is used to describe the extreme form of this wet season pattern.[14]Acer Aspire 5052ANWXMi Battery


Despite western Washington having a marine climate similar to those of many coastal cities of Europe, there are exceptions such as the "Big Snow" events of 1880, 1881, Acer Aspire 5920G AC Adapter,Charger

1893 and 1916 and the "deep freeze" winters of 1883–84, 1915–16, 1949–50 and 1955–56, among others. During these events western Washington experienced up to 6 feet (1.8 m) of snow, Dell XPS M1330 Battery

sub-zero (−18°C) temperatures, three months with snow on the ground, and lakes and rivers frozen over for weeks.[15] Seattle's lowest officially recorded temperature is 0 °F (−18 °C) set on January 31, 1950, but low-altitude areas approximately three hours away from Seattle have recorded lows as cold as −48 °F (−44 °C).[16]Dell Mini 1010 Laptop Battery

In 2006, the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington published The Impacts of Climate change in Washington’s Economy, a preliminary assessment on the risks and opportunities presented given the possibility of a rise in global temperatures and their effects on Washington state.[17]Dell Latitude D820 AC Adapter,Charger


[edit] Rain shadow effects


Washington experiences extensive variation in rainfall.

Rainfall in Washington varies dramatically going from east to west. The western side of the Olympic Peninsula receives as much as 160 inches (4,100 mm) of precipitation annually, Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

making it the wettest area of the 48 conterminous states and a temperate rainforest. Weeks or even months may pass without a clear day. The western slopes of the Cascade Range receive some of the heaviest annual snowfall (in some places more than 200 inches (510 cm) water equivalent) HP Pavilion ZX5200 Battery

in the country. In the rain shadow area east of the Cascades, the annual precipitation is only 6 inches (150 mm). Precipitation then increases again eastward toward the Rocky Mountains. HP Pavilion dv2-1000 Laptop Battery


The Olympic mountains and Cascades compound this climatic pattern by causingorographic lift of the air masses blown inland from the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the windward side of the mountains receiving high levels of precipitation and the leeward side receiving low levels. Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Laptop Battery

This occurs most dramatically around the Olympic Mountains and the Cascade Range. In both cases the windward slopes facing southwest receive high precipitation and mild, cool temperatures. HP Pavilion ZT1270 Battery

While the Puget Sound lowlands are known for clouds and rain in the winter, the western slopes of the Cascades receive larger amounts of precipitation, often falling as snow at higher elevations. (Mount Baker, near the state's northern border, is one of the snowiest places in the world: in 1999, it set the world record for snowfall in a single season: 1,140 inches, or 95 feet (29 m).[18]HP Pavilion dm4-1123tx Battery


East of the Cascades, a large region experiences strong rain shadow effects. Semi-aridconditions occur in much of eastern Washington with the strongest rain shadow effects at the relatively low elevations of the central Columbia Plateau—HP Pavilion dm4-1140sa Battery

especially the region just east of the Columbia River from about the Snake River to the Okanagan Highland. Thus instead of rain forests much of eastern Washington is covered with grassland and shrub-steppe. HP Pavilion dm4-1162ef Battery


[edit] Temperatures

The average annual temperature ranges from 51 °F (11 °C) on the Pacific coast to 40 °F (4 °C) in the northeast. The lowest temperature recorded in the state was −48 °F (−44 °C) in Winthrop and Mazama. The highest recorded temperature in the state was 118 °F (48 °C) at Ice Harbor Dam. HP Pavilion dm4-1164nr Battery

Both records were set east of the Cascades. Western Washington is known for its mild climate, considerable fog, frequent cloud cover and long-lasting drizzles in the winter, and sunny and dry summers. The western region occasionally experiences extreme climate. HP Pavilion dm4-1170sf Battery

Arctic cold fronts in the winter and heat waves in the summer are not uncommon. In the Western region, temperatures have reached as high as 112 °F (44 °C) in Marietta[19] and as low as −20 °F (−29 °C) in Longview.[20]HP Pavilion dm4-1173cl Battery


Prior to the arrival of explorers from Europe, the region had many established tribes ofNative Americans, notable for their totem poles and their ornately carved canoes and masks. HP Pavilion dm4-1180ef Battery

Prominent among their industries were salmon fishing and, notably among theMakah, whale hunting. The peoples of the Interior had a very different subsistence-based culture based on hunting, HP Pavilion dm4-1180sf Battery

food-gathering and some forms of agriculture, as well as a dependency on salmon from the Columbia and its tributaries. The smallpox epidemic of the 1770s devastated the Amerindian population.[21]HP Pavilion dm4-1211tx Battery



The first European record of a landing on the Washington coast was by Spanish Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in 1775, on board the Santiago, part of a two-ship flotilla with theSonora. HP Pavilion dm4-1218tx Battery

They claimed all the coastal lands up to Prince William Sound in the north forSpain as part of their claimed rights under the Treaty of Tordesillas, which they maintained made the Pacific a "Spanish lake" and all its shores part of the Spanish Empire. HP Pavilion dm4-1221tx Battery


In 1778, British explorer Captain James Cook sighted Cape Flattery, at the entrance to theStrait of Juan de Fuca, but Cook thought the strait did not exist. It was not discovered untilCharles William Barkley, HP Pavilion dm4-1250ca Battery

captain of the Imperial Eagle, sighted it in 1787. The straits were further explored by Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper in 1790 and Francisco de Eliza in 1791, and British explorer George Vancouver in 1792. HP Pavilion dm4-1253cl Battery



The British-Spanish Nootka Convention of 1790 ended Spanish claims of exclusivity and opened the Northwest Coast to explorers and traders from other nations, most notablyBritain and Russia as well as the fledgling United States. HP Pavilion dm4-1265dx Battery

American captain Robert Gray(for whom Grays Harbor County is named) then discovered the mouth of the Columbia River. He named the river after his ship, the Columbia. Beginning in 1792, Gray established trade in sea otter pelts. The Lewis and Clark Expedition entered the state on October 10, 1805. HP Pavilion dm4-1273ca Battery


Explorer David Thompson, on his voyage down the Columbia River camped at the junction with the Snake River on July 9, 1811 and erected a pole and a notice claiming the country for Great Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a trading post at the site. HP Pavilion dm4-1275ca Battery


Britain and the United States agreed to what has since been described as "joint occupancy" of lands west of the Continental Divide to the Pacific Ocean as part of theAnglo-American Convention of 1818, which established the 49th Parallel as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. HP Pavilion dm4-1277sb Battery

Resolution of the territorial and treaty issues, west to the Pacific, were deferred until a later time.Spain, in 1819, ceded their rights north of the 42nd Parallel to the United States, although these rights did not include possession. HP Pavilion dm4-1300 Battery



Fur trading at Fort Nez Percés in 1841

Negotiations with Great Britain over the next few decades failed to settle upon a compromise boundary and the Oregon boundary dispute was highly contested between Britain and the United States. Disputed joint-occupancy by Britain and the U.S. lasted for several decadesHP Pavilion dm4-1300ea Battery

American settlers pouring into Oregon Country, Hudson's Bay Company, which had previously discouraged settlement because it conflicted with the fur trade, reversed its position in an attempt to maintain British control of the Columbia District. HP Pavilion dm4-1301sg Battery

Fur trapper James Sinclair, on orders from Sir George Simpson, Governor of theHudson's Bay Company, led some 200 settlers from the Red River Colony west in 1841 to settle on Hudson Bay Company farms near Fort Vancouver. HP Pavilion dm4-1360ef Battery

The party crossed the Rockies into the Columbia Valley, near present-day Radium Hot Springs, British Columbia, then traveled south-west down the Kootenai River and Columbia River. Despite such efforts, Britain eventually ceded all claims to land south of the 49th parallel to the United States in the Oregon Treaty on June 15, 1846. HP Pavilion dm4-1360sf Battery


In 1836, a group of missionaries including Marcus Whitman established several missions and Whitman’s own settlement Waiilatpu, in what is now southeastern Washington state, near present day Walla Walla County, HP Pavilion dm4t-1000 Battery

in territory of both the Cayuse and the Nez PerceIndian tribes. Whitman’s settlement would in 1843 help the Oregon Trail, the overland emigration route to the west, get established for thousands of emigrants in following decades. HP Pavilion dm4t-1000 CTO Battery

Marcus provided medical care for the Native Americans, but when Indian patients – lacking immunity to new, ‘European’ diseases – died in striking numbers, while at the same time many white patients recovered, HP Pavilion Dm4t-1100 Battery

they held ‘medicine man’ Marcus Whitman personally responsible, and murdered Whitman and twelve other white settlers in the Whitman massacre in 1847. This event triggered the Cayuse War between settlers and Indians. HP Pavilion dm4t-1100 CTO Battery


Fort Nisqually, a farm and trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company and the first European settlement in the Puget Sound area, was founded in 1833. Black pioneerGeorge Washington Bush and his caucasian wife, Isabella James Bush, from Missouriand Tennessee, HP Pavilion dm4t-1200 CTO Battery

respectively, led four white families into the territory and founded New Market, now Tumwater, in 1846. They settled in Washington to avoid Oregon's discriminatory settlement laws.[22] After them, many more settlers, migrating overland along the Oregon trail, wandered north to settle in the Puget Sound area. HP Pavilion dm4t Battery




Yesler Way, Seattle, 1887

In 1852, people from all over what was to become Washington state gathered in Monticello (now Longview) to draft a memorandum to Congress. The memorandum expressed a desire to be granted statehood under the name of Columbia. HP Envy 15-1100 Battery

This meeting came to be known as the Monticello Convention. The Convention's requests were met favorably in Congress, but it was decided that a state named Columbia might be confused with the preexisting District of Columbia. HP Envy 17-1000 Battery

In a manner which strangely enough did not solve the problem of being confused with the nation's capital, the state was instead named Washington in honor of the first U.S. president.[23][24] Washington became the 42nd state in the United States on November 11, 1889.[25]HP Envy 17-1001tx Battery


Early prominent industries in the state included agriculture and lumber. In eastern Washington, the Yakima River Valley became known for its apple orchards, while the growth of wheat using dry-farming techniques became particularly productive. HP Envy 17-1001xx Battery

Heavy rainfall to the west of the Cascade Range produced dense forests, and the ports along Puget Sound prospered from the manufacturing and shipping of lumber products, particularly the Douglas-fir. Other industries that developed in the state included fishing, salmon canning and mining. HP Envy 17-1002TX Battery 

Boeing B-17Es under construction c. 1942

For a long period, Tacoma was noted for its large smelters where gold, silver, copper and lead ores were treated. Seattle was the primary port for trade with Alaska and the rest of the country, and for a time it possessed a large shipbuilding industry. HP Envy 17-1003tx Battery

The region around eastern Puget Sound developed heavy industry during the period including World War Iand World War II, and the Boeing company became an established icon in the area. HP Envy 17-1004tx Battery

During the Great Depression, a series of hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia river as part of a project to increase the production of electricity. This culminated in 1941 with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam, the largest concrete structure in the United States. HP Envy 17-1006tx Battery


During World War II, the state became a focus for war industries, with the BoeingCompany producing many of the nation's heavy bombers and ports in Seattle, Bremerton,Vancouver, and Tacoma were available for the manufacture of warships. HP Envy 17-1007tx Battery

Seattle was the point of departure for many soldiers in the Pacific, a number of which were quartered atGolden Gardens Park. In eastern Washington, the Hanford Works atomic energy plant was opened in 1943 and played a major role in the construction of the nation's atomic bombs. HP Envy 17-1008tx Battery


On May 18, 1980, following a period of heavy tremors and eruptions, the northeast face ofMount St. Helens exploded outward, destroying a large part of the top of the volcano. This eruption flattened the forests, HP Envy 17-1009tx Battery

killed 57 people, flooded the Columbia River and its tributaries with ash and mud, and blanketed large parts of Washington and other surrounding states in ash, making day look like night.[26][27]HP Envy 17-1010el Battery

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Washington was 6,830,038 on July 1, 2011, a 1.57% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[2]HP Envy 17-1010ew Battery


Washington Population Density Map.

According to the U.S. Census, as of 2010, Washington has a historical estimated population of 6,724,540 which is an increase of 830,419 or 14.1 percent, since the year 2000.[29] HP Envy 17-1010nr Battery

This includes a natural increase of 380,400 people, and an increase from net migration of 450,019 people into the state. Washington ranks first in the Pacific Northwest region in terms of population, followed by Oregon, and Idaho. There has historically been a lot of German American, Irish American and English American immigration to what is now the state of Washington. HP Envy 17-1010tx Battery


The center of population of Washington in the year 2000 was located in an unpopulated part of the Cascade Mountains in rural eastern King County, southeast of North Bend, northeast of Enumclaw and west of Snoqualmie Pass.[30]HP Envy 17-1011tx Battery


As of the Census 2010, the Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue Metropolitan Area's population was 3,439,809, approximately half the state's total population.[31]HP Envy 17-1012nr Battery


6.7 percent of Washington's population was reported as under five years of age, 25.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 11.2 percent were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 50.2 percent of the population. HP Envy 17-1013tx Battery


The largest ancestry groups (which the Census defines as not including racial terms) in the state are:[32]HP Envy 17-1017tx Battery

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 716,133; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 178,000 (253,166 year-end 2007); and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 127,854.[35]HP Envy 17-1050ea Battery


As with many other Western states, the percentage of Washington's population identifying themselves as "non-religious" is higher than the national average. The percentage of non-religious people in Washington is the highest of any state other than Colorado.[36]HP Envy 17-1050eb Battery



According to the 2010 United States census, the racial and ethnic composition of Washington was the following: HP Envy 17-1085eo Battery


§  White: 77.3% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 72.5%)

§  Black or African American: 3.6%

§  Native American: 1.5%

§  Asian: 7.2% (2.04% Filipino, 1.4% Chinese, 1.0% Vietnamese, 0.9% Korean, 0.9% Indian, 0.5% Japanese, 0.3% Cambodian, 0.1% Laotian, 0.1% Thai)

§  Pacific Islander: 0.6% (0.2% Samoan, 0.1% Guamanian, 0.09% Hawaiian)

§  Two or more races: 4.7%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 11.2%HP Envy 17-1090ca Battery


African-Americans concentrate in southern Seattle and inner Tacoma, in one of the country's lowest black populated states. HP Envy 17-1090ez Battery

The Black community of Seattle developed after World War II when wartime industries and the US Armed Forces employeed/recruited tens of thousands of African-Americans from the Southeastern US. HP Envy 17-1103tx Battery

They left a high influence in west coast rock (Rock & Roll) and R&B/Soul in the 1960s, including Seattle native Jimi Hendrix (half-Black/Cherokee Indian), a pioneer in hard rock. HP Envy 17-1100 Battery



Chinese New Year, Seattle, 2011

American Indians lived on Indian reservations or jurisdictory lands such as the Colville Indian Reservation, Makah, Muckleshoot Indian Reservation, Quinault (tribe), Salish people,HP Envy 17-1104tx Battery

 Spokane Indian Reservation and Yakima Indian Reservation. The westernmost and Pacific coasts have primarily American Indian communities, such as the Chinook,Lummi and Salish. HP Envy 17-1190ea Battery

But Urban Indian communities formed by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs relocation programs in Seattle since the end of World War II brought a variety of Native American cultures to this diverse metropolis. The city was actually named for Chief Seattle when European Americans settled the isthmus in the 1880s. HP Envy 17-1200 Battery


Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders such as Chinese and Taiwanese, Hmong andLaotian, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Thai and Vietnamese whom established communities and neighborhoods in the Seattle Metropolitan Area from Mount Vernon on the Canadian border down to Vancouver, Washington across from Portland, HP Envy 17-2001tx Battery

Oregon, and about 10% of residents in Spokane are Asian. Filipinos make up the largest Asian American group in the state with a population of 137,083 as of the 2010 Census.[37]HP Envy 17-2002xx Battery


The most numerous (ethnic not racial group) are Latinos at 11%, as Mexican Americansformed a large ethnic group in the Chehalis Valley, farming areas of Yakima Valley andEastern Washington. HP Envy 17-2003ef Battery

In the late 20th century, large-scale Mexican immigration and other Latinos settled in the southern suburbs of Seattle with limited concentrations in King,Pierce and Snohomish Counties during the region's real estate construction booms in the 1980s and 1990s. HP Envy 17-2009tx Battery



The 2010 total gross state product for Washington was $351.5 billion, placing it 14th in the nation.[38] The per capita personal income in 2009 was $52,403, 10th in the nation. Significant business within the state include the design and manufacture of aircraft (Boeing), HP Envy 17-2012tx Battery

automotive (Paccar), computer software development (Microsoft, Bungie,Amazon.com, Nintendo of America, Valve Corporation), Arena Net, telecom (T-Mobile USA), electronics, biotechnology, aluminum production, lumber and wood products (Weyerhaeuser), HP Envy 17-2013tx Battery

 mining, beverages (Starbucks, Jones Soda), real estate (John L. Scott), retail (Nordstrom, Eddie Bauer, Car Toys, Costco, R.E.I.), and tourism (Alaska Airlines,Expedia, Inc.). The state has significant amounts of hydroelectric power generation. HP Envy 17-2014tx Battery


Significant amounts of trade with Asia pass through the ports of the Puget Sound. (See list of United States companies by state.) A Fortune magazine survey of the top 20 Most Admired Companies in the US has 4 Washington based companies in it, Amazon.com,Starbucks, Microsoft, and Costco.[39]HP Envy 17-2070nr Battery


Washington is one of eighteen states which has a government monopoly on sales of alcoholic beverages, although beer and wine with less than 20% alcohol by volume can be purchased in convenience stores and supermarkets. HP Envy 17-2090eg Battery

Liqueurs (even if under 20 percent alcohol by volume) and spirits can only be purchased in state-run or privately-owned-state-contracted liquor stores.[40] This will change on June 1, 2012, HP Envy 17-2090nr 3D Battery

due to passage of Initiative 1183 in the November 2011 elections. As a result, the state will close all state-run liquor stores and liquor sales will shift from the state to grocery and warehouse stores.[41]HP Envy 17-2093eg Battery


Among its resident billionaires, Washington boasts Bill Gates, former chairman ofMicrosoft, who, with a net worth of $40 billion, was ranked the second wealthiest man in the world as of February 2011, HP Envy 17-2096eg Battery

according to Forbes magazine.[42] Other Washington state billionaires include Paul Allen (Microsoft), Steve Ballmer (Microsoft), Jeff Bezos (Amazon),Craig McCaw (McCaw Cellular Communications), James Jannard (Oakley), Howard Schultz (Starbucks), and Charles Simonyi (Microsoft).[43]HP Envy 17 Notebook PC Battery


As of January 2010, the state's unemployment rate is 9.0 percent.[44]


The state of Washington is one of only seven states that does not levy a personal income tax. The state also does not collect a corporate income tax or franchise tax.HP Envy 17t-1000 Battery

However, Washington businesses are responsible for various other state levies, including thebusiness and occupation tax (B & O), a gross receipts tax which charges varying rates for different types of businesses. HP Envy 17t-2000 CTO 3D Battery


Washington's state base sales tax is 6.5 percent which is combined with a local rate. As of April 2010, the rate is 9.5 percent in Seattle and other cities.[45] These taxes apply to services as well as products.[46] HP Envy 17t-2000 CTO Battery

Most foods are exempt from sales tax; however, prepared foods, dietary supplements and soft drinks remain taxable. The combined state and local retail sales tax rates increase the taxes paid by consumers, depending on the variable local sales tax rates, generally between 8 and 9 percent.[47]HP Envy 17t Battery


An excise tax applies to certain select products such as gasoline, cigarettes, and alcoholic beverages. Property tax was the first tax levied in the state of Washington and its collection accounts for about 30 percent of Washington's total state and local revenue. HP G32 Battery

It continues to be the most important revenue source for public schools, fire protection,libraries, parks and recreation, and other special purpose districts. HP G42-100 Battery


All real property and personal property is subject to tax unless specifically exempted by law. Personal property also is taxed, although most personal property owned by individuals is exempt. HP G42-101XX Battery

Personal property tax applies to personal property used when conducting business or to other personal property not exempt by law. All property taxes are paid to the county treasurer's office where the property is located. HP G42-154CA Battery

Washington does not impose a tax on intangible assets such as bank accounts, stocks or bonds. Neither does the state assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. HP G42-240LA Battery

Washington does not collect inheritance taxes; however, the estate tax is decoupled from the federal estate tax laws, and therefore the state imposes its own estate tax. HP G42-164LA Battery


Washington's tax policy differs significantly from neighboring Oregon's, which levies no sales tax but a very high income tax. This leads to border economic anomalies in thePortland-Vancouver metropolitan area. Additional border economies exist with neighboring Canada. HP G42-250LA Battery


Washington is a leading agricultural state. (The following figures are from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and the USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Washington Field Office.) For 2003, HP G42-301NR Battery

the total value of Washington's agricultural products was $5.79 billion, the 11th highest in the country. The total value of its crops was $3.8 billion, the 7th highest. The total value of its livestock and specialty products was $1.5 billion, the 26th highest. HP G42-303DX Battery


In 2004, Washington ranked first in the nation in production of red raspberries (90.0 percent of total U.S. production), wrinkled seed peas (80.6 percent), hops (75.0 percent),spearmint oil (73.6 percent), apples (58.1 percent), sweet cherries (47.3 percent), HP G42-328CA Battery

pears(42.6 percent), peppermint oil (40.3 percent), Concord grapes (39.3 percent), carrots for processing (36.8 percent), and Niagara grapes (31.6 percent). Washington also ranked second in the nation in production of lentils, fall potatoes, dry edible peas, apricots, HP G42-352TU Battery

 grapes(all varieties taken together), asparagus (over a third of the nation's production), sweet corn for processing, and green peas for processing; third in tart cherries, prunes andplums, and dry summer onions; fourth in barley and trout; and fifth in wheat, cranberries, and strawberries. HP G42-352TX Battery


The apple industry is of particular importance to Washington. Because of the favorable climate of dry, warm summers and cold winters of central Washington, the state has led the U.S. in apple production since the 1920s.[48] HP G42-360TU Battery

Two areas account for the vast majority of the state's apple crop: the Wenatchee–Okanogan region (comprising Chelan,Okanogan, Douglas, and Grant counties), and the Yakima region (Yakima, Benton andKittitas counties).[49]HP G42-360TX Battery



This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challengedand removed. (May 2011) HP Envy 17-1050ep Battery

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