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9 avril 2012 1 09 /04 /avril /2012 03:26


Washington ranks second in the United States in the production of wine, behind onlyCalifornia.[50] By 2006, the state had over 31,000 acres (130 km2) of vineyards, a harvestof 120,000 short tons (109,000 t) of grapes, and exports going to over 40 countries around the world from the 600 wineries located in the state. HP G42-361TU Battery

While there are some viticulturalactivities in the cooler, wetter western half of the state, the majority (99%) of wine grape production takes place in the desert-like eastern half.[51] HP G42-361TX Battery

The rain shadow of the Cascade Range leaves the Columbia River Basin with around 8 inches (200 mm) of annual rain fall, making irrigation and water rights of paramount interest to the Washington wine industry. HP G42-364TX Battery

Viticulture in the state is also influenced by long sunlight hours (on average, two more hours a day than in California during the growing season) and consistent temperatures.[52] HP G42-365TX Battery


Washington has a system of state highways, called State Routes, as well as an extensiveferry system which is the largest in the nation[53] and the third largest in the world. HP G42-366TU Battery

There are 140 public airfields in Washington, including 16 state airports owned by theWashington State Department of Transportation. Boeing Field in Seattle is one of the busiest primary non-hub airports in the US. HP G42-366TX Battery

Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SeaTac) is the other major airport of greater Seattle.[54] The unique geography of Washington creates exceptional transportation challenges. HP G42-367CL Battery


There are extensive waterways in the midst of Washington's largest cites, includingSeattle, Bellevue, Tacoma and Olympia. The state highways incorporate an extensive network of bridges and the largest ferry system in the United States to serve transportation needs in the Puget Sound area. HP G42-367TU Battery

Washington's marine highway constitutes a fleet of twenty-eight ferries that navigate Puget Sound and its inland waterways to 20 different ports of call, completing close to 147,000 sailings each year. HP G42-368TX Battery

Washington is home to four of the five longest floating bridges in the world: the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge, Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge and Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge over Lake Washington, and the Hood Canal Bridge which connects the Olympic Peninsula and Kitsap Peninsula. HP G42-369TU Battery


The Cascade Mountain Range also provides unique transportation challenges. Washington operates and maintains roads over seven major mountain passes and eight minor passes. During winter months some of these passes are plowed, sanded, HP G42-370TU Battery

and kept safe with avalanche control. Not all are able to stay open through the winter. The North Cascades Highway, State Route 20, closes every year. This is because the extraordinary amount of snowfall and frequency of avalanches in the area of Washington Pass make it unsafe in the winter months. HP G42-370TX Battery


Washington was rated the best state (amongst fifty U.S. states) in the 2011 American State Litter Scorecard, for overall effectiveness and quality of its public space cleanliness from state and related litter/debris removal efforts, unseating Vermont, the previous topmost winner.[55] HP G42-371TU Battery


Washington is crossed by a number of freight railroads, and Amtrak's passenger Cascade route between Eugene, OR and Vancouver, BC is the eighth busiest Amtrak service in the USA and one of the few profitable routes in the system. HP G42-372TU Battery

Public transportation has generally lagged, although the much-delayed link light rail system in the greater Seattle region opened its first line in 2002. Residents of Vancouver have resisted proposals to extend Portland's mass transit system into Washington. HP G42-372TX Battery



In 2007, Washington became the first state in the nation to target all forms of highly toxicbrominated flame retardants known as PBDEs for elimination from the many common household products in which they are used. HP G42-375TX Battery

A 2004 study of 40 mothers from Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and Montana found PBDEs in the breast milk of every woman tested. HP G42-378TX Battery


Three recent studies by the Washington Department of Ecology showed that toxic chemicals banned decades ago continue to linger in the environment and concentrate in the food chain. HP G42-380TX Battery

In one of the studies, state government scientists found unacceptable levels of toxic substances in 93 samples of freshwater fish collected from 45 sites. The toxic substances included PCBs; HP G42-381TX Battery

dioxins, two chlorinated pesticides, DDE and dieldrin, and PBDEs. As a result of the study, the department will investigate the sources of PCBs in the Wenatchee River, where unhealthy levels of PCBs were found in mountain whitefish. HP G42-382TX Battery

Based on the 2007 information and a previous 2004 Ecology study, theWashington Department of Health is advising the public not to eat mountain whitefish from the Wenatchee River from Leavenworth downstream to where the river joins theColumbia, HP G42-383TX Battery

due to unhealthy levels of PCBs. Study results also indicated high levels of contaminants in fish tissue that scientists collected from Lake Washington and the Spokane River, where fish consumption advisories are already in effect.[56] HP G42-384TX Battery


On March 27, 2006 Governor Christine Gregoire signed into law the recently approved House Bill 2322. This bill would limit phosphorus content in dishwashing detergents statewide to 0.5 percent over the next six years. HP G42-385TX Battery

Though the ban would be effective statewide in 2010, it would take place in Whatcom County, Spokane County, and Clark County in 2008.[57] HP G42-386TX Battery

 A recent discovery had linked high contents of phosphorus in water to a boom in algae population. An invasive amount of algae in bodies of water would eventually lead to a variety of excess ecological and technological issues.[58] HP G42-387TX Battery



As of the 2008–2009 school year, 1,040,750 students were enrolled in elementary andsecondary schools in Washington, with 59,562 teachers employed to educate them.[62] HP G42-388TX Battery

As of August 2009, there were 295 school districts in the state, serviced by nine Educational Service Districts.[63] Washington School Information Processing Cooperative (a non-profit, opt-in, State agency) provides information management systems for fiscal & human resources and student data. HP G42-394TX Battery

Elementary and secondary schools are under the jurisdiction of the Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), led by State School Superintendent Randy Dorn.[64]HP G42-397TX Battery


High school juniors and seniors in Washington have the option of utilizing the state'sRunning Start program. Initiated by the state legislature in 1990, the program allows students to attend institutions of higher education at public expense, simultaneously earning high school and college credit.[65] HP G42-398TX Battery


The state also has several public arts focused high schools including Tacoma School of the Arts, Vancouver school of Arts and Academics, and The Center School. HP G42 Battery

There area also three Science and Math based high schools one in the Tri-Cities, Washington known as Delta, one in Tacoma, Washington known as SAMI, and another in Des Moines known as Aviation High School. HP G42T-200 CTO Battery


The state is typically thought of as politically divided by the Cascade Mountains, withWestern Washington being liberal (particularly the I-5 Corridor) and Eastern Washingtonbeing conservative. Washington has voted for the Democratic presidential nominee in every election since 1988. HP G42t-300 CTO Battery


Due to Western Washington's large population, Democrats usually fare better statewide. The Seattle metropolitan combined statistical area, home to almost two-thirds of Washington's population, HP G42t Battery

generally delivers stronger Democratic margins than most other parts of Western Washington. This is especially true of King County, home to Seattle itself and almost a third of the state's population. HP G42t Notebook PC Series Battery


Washington was considered a key swing state in 1968, and it was the only western state to give its electoral votes to Democratic nominee Hubert Humphrey over his Republican opponent Richard Nixon. HP G56-100SA Battery

Washington was considered a part of the 1994 Republican Revolution, and had the biggest pickup in the house for Republicans, who picked up seven of Washington's nine House seats.[59] HP G56-105SA Battery

However, this dominance did not last for long as Democrats picked up one seat in the 1996 election[60] and two more in 1998, giving the Democrats a 5–4 majority.[61] HP G56-106EA Battery


The two current United States Senators from Washington are Patty Murray and Maria Cantwell, both Democrats. The governorship is currently held by Democrat Christine Gregoire, HP G56-106SA Battery

who was re-elected to her second term in the 2008 gubernatorial election. Washington is the first and only state in the country to have elected women to both of itsUnited States Senate seats and the office of Governor. HP G56-107SA Battery

Both houses of the Washington State Legislature (the Washington Senate and the Washington House of Representatives) are also controlled by the Democratic Party. HP G56-108SA Battery


The Running Start program in Washington state allows high school juniors and seniors to attend college courses numbered 100 or above, tuition-free, while completing high school. HP G56-109SA Battery

It is similar to dual enrollment programs common at public and private colleges and universities in other states. The program was piloted in the early 1990s and officially approved to begin in the fall of 1993. HP G56-112SA Battery


Running Start provides up to two years of paid tuition at any state-run community collegeor four-year university that participates in the Running Start program. HP G56-130SA Battery

High school juniors who can pass the entrance exam for a local community college may take part or all of their coursework at the community college. Successfully passing a course earns a student both high school and college credit. HP G56 Battery


Running Start students can complete a substantial number of their first two years of college credits early. After high school, they pay for fewer community college credits before moving on to four-year institutions. It is possible for a motivated student to earn their high school diploma and a two-year college associate's degree simultaneously. HP G62-100 Battery

New state regulations took effect on July 26, 2011, limiting Running Start students to a 1.0 FTE (Full-Time Equivalent) limit for High School or Higher Education courses each, and a 1.2 FTE limit for both institutions combined. HP G62-100EB Battery

 (1.0 FTE is equivalent to 15 college credits, or 1500 High School weekly minutes of instruction).[1] Students who wish to take more than 15 college credits may pay the regular tuition rate and still receive dual credit. HP G62-100EE Battery


An associate degree is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior colleges, technical colleges, and bachelor's degree-granting colleges anduniversities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years.HP G62-100EJ Battery

In the United States, and to some extent in Western Canada, an associate degree is equivalent to the first two years of a four-year college or university degree. It is the lowest in the hierarchy of post-secondary academic degrees offered in these countries. HP G62-100SL Battery

Although an associate degree is not usually as lucrative as a bachelor's degree, the resulting careers can still afford a respectable income with greater job security[1] and much less student debt.[2] HP G62-101TU Battery

In most parts of Canada, these two and three year programs at a community or technical college are never associated with the term "Degree" but are called a "College Diploma",HP G62-101XX Battery

as there used to be a strict difference between what was termed a "University" and an Applied Arts, Community, or Technical College. It is roughly equivalent to the foundation degreeand the Business and Technology Education Council's Higher National Diploma in Britain, HP G62-103XX Battery

the two-year General Academic Studies Degree (French: diplôme d'études universitaires générales, DEUG) in France, the Higher Education and Training Awards Council's Higher Certificate in the Republic of Ireland.[3] In 2000, Hong Kong introduced associate degrees, HP G62-104SA Battery

as an equivalence to higher diplomas. These programs are mainly provided through affiliated colleges at universities. In 2004, Australia added "associate degree" to theAustralian Qualifications Framework. HP G62-105SA Battery

This title was given to more academically focused advanced diploma courses. However, very few courses yet use the new title. In the Netherlands, HP G62-106SA Battery

there were four pilots between 2005 and 2011 to assess the added value of the associate degree.[4] In 2011 the associate degree has been added to the Dutch system of higher education as a means to close the gap with the vocational education system.[5] HP G62-107SA Battery


Time requirements

The associate degree is awarded to students who complete 2 years of schooling. The requirements usually include courses such as English composition, Algebra, social interaction, humanities, HP G62-110ED Battery

etc. Some people refer to associate degrees as "two-year" degrees because it is possible to obtain the degree in approximately that long. For students who place into developmental (sometimes called pre-college or remedial) courses, the time will be extended since these credits will not apply toward the associate degree. HP G62-110EE Battery


A lesser diploma, called a certificate, is awarded for specific studies that may be completed in one year or less, for example certification in a particular field of information technology may only run for four to six months. HP G62-110EO Battery


At 2-year colleges in the United States, more students attend part-time than full-time.[6] To accommodate part-time students, many of whom work, most US community colleges offer required courses during evening and weekend hours and, increasingly, online (the Sloan Consortium reports that 51% of all degrees earned online are associate degrees.)[7] HP G62-110EY Battery


Computer data processing is any process that a computer program does to enter dataand summarise, analyse or otherwise convert data into usable information. HP G62-110SA Battery

The process may be automated and run on a computer. It involves recording, analysing, sorting, summarising, calculating, disseminating and storing data. Because data are most useful when well-presented and actually informativeHP G62-110SO Battery

data-processing systems are often referred to as information systems. Nevertheless, the terms are roughly synonymous, performing similar conversions; data-processing systems typically manipulate raw data into information, and likewise information systems typically take raw data as input to produce information as output. HP G62-110SS Battery


Data processing may or may not be distinguished from data conversion, when the process is merely to convert data to another format, and does not involve any data manipulation. HP G62-110SW Battery


Data analysis

Data Analysis is the domain from which the data are harvested is a science or an engineering field. Data processing and information systems are considered terms that are too broad and the more specialized term data analysis is typically used. HP G62-111EE Battery

This is a focus on the highly-specialized and highly-accurate algorithmic derivations and statistical calculations that are less often observed in the typical general business environment.HP G62-112EE Battery

 In these contexts data analysis packages like DAP, gretl or PSPP are often used. This divergence of culture is exhibited in the typical numerical representations used in data processing versus numerical; HP G62-112SO Battery

data processing's measurements are typically represented by integers or by fixed-point or binary-coded decimal representations of numbers whereas the majority of data analysis's measurements are often represented by floating-pointrepresentation of rational numbers. HP G62-113SO Battery



Basically, data are nothing but facts (organized or unorganized) which can be converted into other forms to make it useful, clear and pratically used. This process of converting facts to information is Processing. HP G62-115SE Battery

Practically all naturally occurring processes can be viewed as examples of data processing systems where "observable" information in the form of pressure, light, etc. HP G62-115SO Battery

are converted by human observers into electrical signals in thenervous system as the senses we recognize as touch, sound, and vision. Even the interaction of non-living systems may be viewed in this way as rudimentary information processing systems. HP G62-117SO Battery

Conventional usage of the terms data processing and information systems restricts their use to refer to the algorithmic derivations, logical deductions, and statistical calculations that recur perennially in general business environments, HP G62-118EO Battery

rather than in the more expansive sense of all conversions of real-world measurements into real-world information in, say, an organic biological system or even a scientific or engineering system.HP G62-120EC Battery


Data conversion is the conversion of computer data from one format to another. Throughout a computer environment, data is encoded in a variety of ways. For example,computer hardware is built on the basis of certain standards, which requires that data contains, HP G62-120EE Battery

for example, parity bit checks. Similarly, the operating system is predicated on certain standards for data and file handling. Furthermore, each computer program handles data in a different manner. HP G62-120EG Battery

Whenever any one of these variable is changed, data must be converted in some way before it can be used by a different computer, operating system or program. Even different versions of these elements usually involve different data structures. HP G62-120EH Battery

For example, the changing of bits from one format to another, usually for the purpose of application interoperability or of capability of using new features, is merely a data conversion. HP G62-120EK Battery

Data conversions may as simple as the conversion of a text file from onecharacter encoding system to another; or more complex, such as the conversion of office file formats, or the conversion of image and audio file formats. HP G62-120EL Battery


There are many ways in which data is converted within the computer environment. This may be seamless, as in the case of upgrading to a newer version of a computer program. HP G62-120EP Battery

Alternatively, the conversion may require processing by the use of a special conversion program, or it may involve a complex process of going through intermediary stages, or involving complex "exporting" and "importing" procedures, HP G62-120EQ Battery

which may converting to and from a tab-delimited or comma-separated text file. In some cases, a program may recognise several data file formats at the data input stage and then is also capable of storing the output data in a number of different formats. HP G62-120ER Battery

Such a program may be used to convert a file format. If the source format or target format is not recognised, then at times third program may be available which permits the conversion to an intermediate format, which can then be reformatted using the first program. There are many possible scenarios. HP G62-120ES Battery


Information basics

Before any data conversion is carried out, the user or application programmer should keep a few basics of computing and information theory in mind. These include: HP G62-120ET Battery


§  Information can easily be discarded by the computer, but adding information takes effort.

§  The computer can add information only in a rule-based fashion.[citation needed]

Upsampling the data or converting to a more feature-rich format does not add information; it merely makes room for that addition, which usually a human must do.[clarification needed] HP G62-120EY Battery


For example, a true color image can easily be converted[clarification needed] to grayscale, while the opposite conversion is a painstaking process. Converting a Unix text file to aMicrosoft (DOS/Windows) text file involves adding characters, HP G62-120SE Battery

but this does not increase the entropy since it is rule-based; whereas the addition of color information to a grayscale image cannot be done programmatically, since only a human[citation neededHP G62-120SL Battery

] knows which colors are needed for each section of the picture–there are no rules that can be used to automate that process. Converting a 24-bit PNG to a 48-bit one does not add information to it, it only pads existing RGB pixel values with zeroes[citation needed]HP G62-120SS Battery

so that a pixel with a value of FF C3 56, for example, becomes FF00 C300 5600. The conversion makes it possible to change a pixel to have a value of, for instance, FF80 C340 56A0, but the conversion itself does not do that, only further manipulation of the image can. HP G62-120SW Battery

Converting an image or audio file in a lossy format (like JPEG or Vorbis) to a lossless (likePNG or FLAC) or uncompressed (like BMP or WAV) format only wastes space, since the same image with its loss of original information (the artifacts of lossy compression) becomes the target. HP G62-121EE Battery

A JPEG image can never be restored to the quality of the original lossless[clarification needed] image from which it was made, no matter how much the user tries the "JPEG Artifact Removal" feature of his or her image manipulation program. HP G62-125EK Battery


Automatic restorage of information that was lost through a lossy compression process would probably require important advances in artificial intelligence. HP G62-125EL Battery


Because of these realities of computing and information theory, data conversion is more often[clarification needed] than not a complex and error-prone process that requires the help of experts. HP G62-125EV Battery

Pivotal conversion

Data conversion can occur directly from one format to another, but many applications that convert between multiple formats use a pivotal encoding by way of which any source format is converted to its target. HP G62-125SL Battery

For example, it is possible to convert Cyrillic text fromKOI8-R to Windows-1251 using a lookup table between the two encodings, but the modern approach is to convert the KOI8-R file to Unicode first and from that to Windows-1251. HP G62-130 Battery

This is a more manageable approach: an application specializing in character encoding conversion would have to keep hundreds of lookup tables, for all the permutations of character encoding conversions available, while keeping lookup tables just for each character set to Unicode scales down the number to a few tens. HP G62-130EG Battery


Pivotal conversion is similarly used in other areas. Office applications, when employed to convert between office file formats, use their internal, default file format as a pivot. HP G62-130EK Battery

For example, a word processor may convert an RTF file to a WordPerfect file by converting the RTF to OpenDocument and then that to WordPerfect format. An image conversion program does not convert a PCX image to PNG directly; HP G62-130ET Battery

instead, when loading the PCX image, it decodes it to a simple bitmap format for internal use in memory, and when commanded to convert to PNG, that memory image is converted to the target format. HP G62-130EV Battery

An audio converter that converts from FLAC to AAC decodes the source file to raw PCM data in memory first, and then performs the lossy AAC compression on that memory image to produce the target file. HP G62-130SD Battery

Lost and inexact data conversion

The objective of data conversion is to maintain all of the data, and as much of the embedded information as possible. This can only be done if the target format supports the same features and data structures present in the source file. HP G62-130SL Battery

Conversion of a word processing document to a plain text file necessarily involves loss of formatting information, because plain text format does not support word processing constructs such as marking a word as boldface. HP G62-134CA Battery

For this reason, conversion from one format to one which does not support a feature which is important to the user is rarely carried out, though it may be necessary for interoperability, e.g. converting a file from one version of Microsoft Word to an earlier version to eHP G62-135EV Battery

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nable transfer and use by other users who do not have the same later version of Word installed on their computer. HP G62-140EL Battery


Loss of information can be mitigated by approximation in the target format. There is no way of converting a character like ä to ASCII, since the ASCII standard lacks it, but the information may be retained by approximating the character as ae. Of course, this is not an optimal solution, HP G62-140ES Battery

and can impact operations like searching and copying; and if a language makes a distinction between ä and ae, then that approximation does involve loss of information. HP G62-140ET Battery


Data conversion can also suffer from inexactitude, the result of converting between formats that are conceptually different. The WYSIWYG paradigm, extant in word processors and desktop publishing applications, HP G62-140SF Battery

versus the structural-descriptive paradigm, found in SGML, XML and many applications derived therefrom, like HTML andMathML, is one example. Using a WYSIWYG HTML editor conflates the two paradigms, HP G62-140SS Battery

and the result is HTML files with suboptimal, if not nonstandard, code. In the WYSIWYG paradigm a double linebreak signifies a new paragraph, as that is the visual cue for such a construct, HP G62-140US Battery

but a WYSIWYG HTML editor will usually convert such a sequence to <BR><BR>, which is structurally no new paragraph at all. As another example, converting fromPDF to an editable word processor format is a tough chore, because PDF records the textual information like engraving on stone, HP G62-143CL Battery

with each character given a fixed position and linebreaks hard-coded, whereas word processor formats accommodate text reflow. PDF does not know of a word space character—the space between two letters and the space between two words differ only in quantity. HP G62-144DX Battery

Therefore, a title with ample letter-spacing for effect will usually end up with spaces in the word processor file, for example INTRODUCTION with spacing of 1 em as I N T R O D U C T I O N on the word processor. HP G62-145NR Battery

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