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18 mai 2012 5 18 /05 /mai /2012 03:34

Impact outside Great Britain

Evolutionary ideas, although not natural selection, were accepted by German biologists accustomed to ideas of homology inmorphology from Goethe's Metamorphosis of Plants and from their long tradition of comparative anatomy. Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/R Battery

Bronn's alterations in his German translation added to the misgivings of conservatives, but enthused political radicals. Ernst Haeckel was particularly ardent, aiming to synthesise Darwin's ideas with those of Lamarck and Goethe while still reflecting the spirit of Naturphilosophie.[68][160] Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/W Battery

Their ambitious programme to reconstruct the evolutionary history of life was joined by Huxley and supported by discoveries in palaeontology.  Sony VGN-FW31ZJ battery

Haeckel used embryology extensively in his recapitulation theory, which embodied a progressive, almost linear model of evolution. Darwin was cautious about such histories, and had already noted that von Baer's laws of embryology supported his idea of complex branching.[159]Dell Inspiron M5030 battery

Asa Gray promoted and defended Origin against those American naturalists with an idealist approach, notably Louis Agassiz who viewed every species as a distinct fixed unit in the mind of the Creator, classifying as species what others considered merely varieties. Edward Drinker Cope and Alpheus Hyatt reconciled this view with evolutionism in a form of neo-Lamarckisminvolving recapitulation theory.[160] Sony VGN-FZ38 battery

French speaking naturalists in several countries showed appreciation of the much modified French translation by Clémence Royer, but Darwin's ideas had little impact in France, where any scientists supporting evolutionary ideas opted for a form of Lamarckism.[71]  Sony VGN-SR29XN/S battery

The intelligentsia in Russia had accepted the general phenomenon of evolution for several years before Darwin had published his theory, and scientists were quick to take it into account, although the Malthusian aspects were felt to be relatively unimportant. Asus A32-F82 battery

The political economy of struggle was criticised as a British stereotype by Karl Marx and by Leo Tolstoy, who had the character Levin in his novel Anna Karenina voice sharp criticism of the morality of Darwin's views.[67]

Challenges to natural selection

There were serious scientific objections to the process of natural selection as the key mechanism of evolution, includingKarl von Nägeli's insistence that a trivial characteristic with no adaptive advantage could not be developed by selection. Sony VGN-CS11S/P battery

Darwin conceded that these could be linked to adaptive characteristics. His estimate that the age of the Earth allowed gradual evolution was disputed by William Thomson (later awarded the title Lord Kelvin), who calculated that it had cooled in less than 100 million years. HP Pavilion dv2-1137ax battery

Darwin accepted blending inheritance, but Fleeming Jenkin calculated that as it mixed traits, natural selection could not accumulate useful traits.  HP 500028-142 battery

Darwin tried to meet these objections in the 5th edition. Mivartsupported directed evolution, and compiled scientific and religious objections to natural selection. In response, Darwin made considerable changes to the sixth edition. The problems of the age of the Earth and heredity were only resolved in the 20th century.[60][161]Sony vaio VPCYB35JC battery

By the mid 1870s, most scientists accepted evolution, but relegated natural selection to a minor role as they believed evolution was purposeful and progressive. The range of evolutionary theories during "the eclipse of Darwinism" included forms of "saltationism"  HP Pavilion dv2-1137ax battery

in which new species were thought to arise through "jumps" rather than gradual adaptation, forms of orthogenesis claiming that species had an inherent tendency to change in a particular direction, and forms of neo-Lamarckism in which inheritance of acquired characteristics led to progress. HP Pavilion g6 battery

The minority view of August Weismann, that natural selection was the only mechanism, was called neo-Darwinism. It was thought that the rediscovery of Mendelian inheritance invalidated Darwin's views.[162][163]HP 513130-321 battery

RELIGIOUS ATTITUDES

The book produced a wide range of religious responses at a time of changing ideas and increasing secularisation.  HP WD548AA battery

The issues raised were complex and there was a large middle ground. Developments in geology meant that there was little opposition based on a literal reading of Genesis,[164] but defence of the argument from design and natural theology was central to debates over the book in the English speaking world.[165][166]HP WD549AA battery

Natural theology was not a unified doctrine, and while some such as Louis Agassiz were strongly opposed to the ideas in the book, others sought a reconciliation in which evolution was seen as purposeful.[164] In the Church of England,  HP NBP6A175 battery

some liberal clergymen interpreted natural selection as an instrument of God's design, with the cleric Charles Kingsley seeing it as "just as noble a conception of Deity".[168][169] In the second edition of January 1860, Darwin quoted Kingsley as "a celebrated cleric",  HP Pavilion dv3-2028tx battery

and added the phrase "by the Creator" to the closing sentence, which from then on read "life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one".[170] While some commentators have taken this as a concession to religion that Darwin later regretted,[57] Sony VGP-BPS10 battery

Darwin's view at the time was of God creating life through the laws of nature,[171][172] and even in the first edition there are several references to "creation".[173] Sony VGN-CR290 battery

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Baden Powell praised "Mr Darwin's masterly volume [supporting] the grand principle of the self-evolving powers of nature".[174] In America, Asa Gray argued that evolution is the secondary effect, or modus operandi, of the first cause, design,[175] HP Pavilion dv9000 Laptop Battery

and published a pamphlet defending the book in terms of theistic evolution, Natural Selection is not inconsistent with Natural Theology.[168][176][177] Theistic evolution became a popular compromise, and St. George Jackson Mivart was among those accepting evolution but attacking Darwin's naturalistic mechanism. Dell Studio 1735 battery

Eventually it was realised that supernatural intervention could not be a scientific explanation, and naturalistic mechanisms such as neo-Lamarckism were favoured overnatural selection as being more compatible with purpose.[164]HP Pavilion dv7-4000eh battery

Even though the book had barely hinted at human evolution, it quickly became central to the debate as mental and moral qualities were seen as spiritual aspects of the immaterial soul, and it was believed that animals did not have spiritual qualities.  Asus A32-U80 battery

This conflict could be reconciled by supposing there was some supernatural intervention on the path leading to humans, Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

or viewing evolution as a purposeful and progressive ascent to mankind's position at the head of nature.[164] While many conservative theologians accepted evolution, Charles Hodge argued in his 1874 critique "What is Darwinism?" Toshiba Tecra M5 Battery

that "Darwinism", defined narrowly as including rejection of design, was atheism though he accepted that Asa Gray did not reject design.[178][179] Asa Gray responded that this charge misrepresented Darwin's text.[180] By the early 20th century, four noted authors of The Fundamentals were explicitly open to the possibility that God created through evolution,[181] Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

 but fundamentalism inspired the American creation–evolution controversy that began in the 1920s. Some conservative Roman Catholic writers and influential Jesuits opposed evolution in the late 19th and early 20th century,  Sony VGP-BPS8B battery

but other Catholic writers, starting with Mivart, pointed out that early Church Fathers had not interpreted Genesis literally in this area.[182] The Vatican stated its official position in a 1950 papal encyclical, which held that evolution was not inconsistent with Catholic teaching.[183][184]Toshiba Satellite M55 Series Battery

Modern influence

Various alternative evolutionary mechanisms favoured during "the eclipse of Darwinism" became untenable as more was learned about inheritance and mutation. The full significance of natural selection was at last accepted in the 1930s and 1940s as part of the modern evolutionary synthesis. Ibm/Lenovo Thinkpad X300 Battery

During that synthesis biologists and statisticians, including R. A. Fisher, Sewall Wright and J.B.S. Haldane, merged Darwinian selection with a statistical understanding of Mendelian genetics.[163]Dell Studio 1537 Laptop Battery

Modern evolutionary theory continues to develop. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, with its tree-like model of branching common descent, has become the unifying theory of the life sciences. The theory explains the diversity of living organisms and their adaptation to the environment. Dell Latitude C640 AC Adapter/Charger

It makes sense of the geologic record, biogeography, parallels in embryonic development, biological homologies, vestigiality, cladistics, phylogeneticsand other fields, with unrivalled explanatory power; it has also become essential to applied sciences such asmedicine and agriculture.[185][186] HP Pavilion dm4 Laptop Battery

Despite the scientific consensus, a religion-based political controversy has developed over how evolution is taught in schools, especially in the United States.[187]Acer Aspire 557x Battery

Interest in Darwin's writings continues, and scholars have generated an extensive literature, the Darwin Industry, about his life and work. The text of Origin itself has been subject to much analysis including a variorum, detailing the changes made in every edition, Acer Aspire 5052ANWXMi Battery

first published in 1959,[188] and a concordance, an exhaustive external index published in 1981.[189] Worldwide commemorations of the 150th anniversary of the publication of On the Origin of Species and the bicentenary of Darwin's birth were scheduled for 2009.[190] They celebrated the ideas which "over the last 150 years have revolutionised our understanding of nature and our place within it".[191]Acer Aspire 5920G AC Adapter,Charger

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CONTRIBUTION OF GEORGE MARTIN

George Martin's close involvement in his role as producer made him one of the leading candidates for the informal title of the "fifth Beatle".[307] He applied his classical musical training in various ways, and functioned as "an informal music teacher" to the progressing songwriters.[308] Dell Mini 1010 Laptop Battery

Martin suggested to a sceptical McCartney that the arrangement of "Yesterday" should feature a string quartet accompaniment; according to MacDonald, his contribution was significant for its "disclosure to them of a hitherto unsuspected world of classical instrumental colour."[309] Dell Latitude D820 AC Adapter,Charger

The Beatles' creative development was also facilitated by Martin's willingness to experiment in response to their suggestions, such as adding "something baroque" to a particular recording.[310] As well as scoring orchestral arrangements for recordings, Martin often performed, playing instruments including piano, organ and brass.[311]Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

Collaborating with Lennon and McCartney required Martin to adapt to their different approaches to songwriting and recording. MacDonald comments, "While [he] worked more naturally with the conventionally articulate McCartney, HP Pavilion ZX5200 Battery

the challenge of catering to Lennon's intuitive approach generally spurred him to his more original arrangements, of which 'Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!' is an outstanding example."[312] Martin said of the two composers' distinct songwriting styles, and of his own stabilizing influence: HP Pavilion dv2-1000 Laptop Battery

Compared with Paul's songs, all of which seemed to keep in some sort of touch with reality, John's had a psychedelic, almost mystical quality ... John's imagery is one of the best things about his work — 'tangerine trees', 'marmalade skies', 'cellophane flowers' ... Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Laptop Battery

I always saw him as an aural Salvador Dalí, rather than some drug-ridden record artist. On the other hand, I would be stupid to pretend that drugs didn't figure quite heavily in the Beatles' lives at that time ... they knew that I, in my schoolmasterly role, didn't approve ... HP Pavilion ZT1270 Battery

Not only was I not into it myself, I couldn't see the need for it; and there's no doubt that, if I too had been on dope, Pepper would never have been the album it was. Perhaps it was the combination of dope and no dope that worked, who knows?[313]HP Compaq 6710b AC Adapter/Charger

Harrison echoed Martin's description of his stabilizing role: "I think we just grew through those years together, him as the straight man and us as the loonies; but he was always there for us to interpret our madness—we used to be slightly avant-garde on certain days of the week, and he would be there as the anchor person, to communicate that through the engineers and on to the tape."[314]Dell Latitude E6400 Laptop Battery

IN THE STUDIO

The Beatles made innovative use of technology, expanding the possibilities of recorded music. They urged experimentation by Martin and his recording engineers, while seeking ways to put chance occurrences to creative use. Ibm/Lenovo Thinkpad X200 Battery

Accidental guitar feedback, a resonating glass bottle, a tape loaded the wrong way round so that it played backwards—any of these might be incorporated into their music.[315] Dell Inspiron 1464 Laptop Battery

Their desire to create new sounds on every new recording, combined with Martin's arranging abilities and the studio expertise of EMI staff engineers Norman Smith, Ken Townsend, and Emerick, all contributed significantly to their records fromRubber Soul and, Fujitsu Siemens LifeBook S6000 AC Adapter/Charger

especially, Revolver forward.[315] Along with innovative studio techniques such as sound effects, unconventional microphone placements, tape loops, double tracking and vari-speed recording, they augmented their songs with instruments that were unconventional for rock music at the time. Compaq Presario C700 AC Adapter/Charger

These included string and brass ensembles as well as Indian instruments such as the sitar in "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)" and the swarmandal in "Strawberry Fields Forever".[316] They also used early electronic instruments such as the Mellotron, Sony DSC-P5 Battery

with which McCartney supplied the flute voices on the "Strawberry Fields" intro,[317] and the clavioline, an electronic keyboard that created the unusual oboe-like sound on "Baby, You're a Rich Man".[318]HP 586006-361 Laptop Battery

Legacy

The Beatles' influence on popular culture was—and remains—immense. Former Rolling Stone associate editor Robert Greenfield compares the band to Picasso, in that they were "artists who broke through the constraints of their time period to come up with something that was unique and original".[279] HP Compaq 6715b AC Adapter/Charger

Greenfield comments, "[I]n the form of popular music, no one will ever be more revolutionary, more creative and more distinctive".[279] From the 1920s, the United States had dominated popular entertainment culture throughout much of the world, via Hollywood movies, jazz, Acer Aspire 5920 Battery

the music of Broadway and Tin Pan Alley and, later, the rock and roll that first emerged in Memphis, Tennessee.[263] The Beatles not only "ushered in" the British Invasion of the US,[319] they also became a globally influential phenomenon.[320]Dell XPS M1530 AC Adapter/Charger

Their musical innovations and commercial success inspired musicians worldwide,[321] and many artists have acknowledged their influence, or have enjoyed chart success with covers of Beatles songs.[322] On radio, sony VAIO PCG-SRX3E/BD Battery

their arrival marked the beginning of a new era; programme director Rick Sklar of New York's WABC went so far as to forbid his DJs from playing any "pre-Beatles" music.[323] The Beatles helped to redefined the LP as something more than just a few hits padded out with "filler",[324] and they were a primary innovator of the modern music video.[325] HP Pavilion dv5 AC Adapter/Charger

The Shea Stadium show with which they opened their 1965 North American tourattracted an estimated 55,600 people,[116] then the largest audience in concert history, which Spitz describes as a "major breakthrough" and "a giant step toward reshaping the concert business."[326]HP 391173-001 AC Adapter/Charger

 Gould observes that the emulation of their clothing and especially their hairstyles, which became a mark of rebellion, had a global impact on fashion.[94]Acer Travelmate 2200 AC Adapter/Charger

According to Gould, the band changed the way people listened to popular music and experienced its role in their lives.[327] From what began as the Beatlemania fad, he writes, grew to be perceived by many fans and cultural observers as an embodiment of the ideals shared by the era's sociocultural revolutions.[327] HP Pavilion DV6500 AC Adapter/Charger

Gould further claims that as icons of the 1960s counterculture, they became a catalyst for bohemianism and activism in various social and political arenas, fuelling movements such as women's liberation, gay liberation and environmentalism.[327] HP Compaq nx6310 AC Adapter/Charger

According to author Peter Lavezzoli, after the "more popular than Jesus" controversy in 1966, the Beatles felt considerable pressure to say the right things and "began a concerted effort to spread a message of wisdom and higher consciousness."[134]Sony VAIO PCG-955A Battery - 4400mAh

Awards and achievements

In 1965 Queen Elizabeth II appointed Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Starr Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBE).[108] The film Let It Be (1970) won the 1971 Academy Award for Best Original Song Score.[232] Sony VAIO PCG-NV Battery

The Beatles have received 7 Grammy Awards[328] and 15 Ivor Novello Awards.[329] They have been awarded 6Diamond albums, as well as 24 Multi-Platinum albums, 39 Platinum albums and 45 Gold albums in the United States,[241][330] Sony NP-FH70 Battery

while in the UK they have 4 Multi-Platinum albums, 4 Platinum albums, 8 Gold albums and 1 Silver album.[242] The group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988. HP Pavilion ZD7300 Battery

In 2008, Billboard magazine released a list of the all-time most successful Hot 100 artists to celebrate the US singles chart's fiftieth anniversary—The Beatles ranked number one.[331] As of 2012, they hold the record for most number one hits on the Hot 100 chart with 20,[332] HP Pavilion N6195 Battery

and the Recording Industry Association of America certifies that the group have sold 177 million units in the US, more than any other artist.[333] They have had more number one albums, 15, on the UK charts and held down the top spot longer, 174 weeks, than any other musical act.[334] Sony vaio VPCYB16KG/S Laptop Battery

They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation ofthe 20th century's 100 most influential people.[335] The Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over one billion units.[2][336][337]Asus A31-K42 Laptop Battery

Song catalogue

The Beatles' catalogue was published almost exclusively by Northern Songs Ltd., a company formed in February 1963 by music publisher Dick James specifically for Lennon and McCartney, though it later acquired songs by other artists. Sony VGN-SR45H/B Laptop Battery

The company was organised with James and his partner, Emmanuel Silver, owning a controlling interest, variously described as 51% or 50% plus one share. McCartney had 20%. Reports again vary concerning Lennon's portion—19 or 20%—and Brian Epstein's—9 or 10%—which he received in lieu of a 25% band management fee.[338][339][340]Sony vaio VPCY11V9E Laptop Battery

In 1965 the company went public, and five million shares were created, of which the original principals retained 3.75 million. James and Silver each received 937,500 shares (18.75% of 5 million); Lennon and McCartney each received 750,000 shares (15%); Sony vaio VPCS149FJ/P Laptop Battery

and Epstein's management company NEMS Enterprises, received 375,000 shares (7.5%). Of the 1.25 million shares put up for sale, Harrison and Starr each acquired 40,000.[341] At the time of the stock offering, Lennon and McCartney renewed their three-year publishing contracts, binding them to Northern Songs until 1973.[342]Sony vaio VPCS139GC/B Laptop Battery

Harrison created Harrisongs to represent his solo compositions, but signed a three-year contract with Northern Songs that gave it the copyright to his work through March 1968, which included "Taxman" and "Within You Without You".[343] Sony vaio VPCY115FGS Laptop Battery

The songs on which Starr received co-writing credit before 1968, such as "What Goes On" and "Flying", were also Northern Songs copyrights.[344] Harrison did not renew his contract with Northern Songs when it ended, signing instead withApple Publishing while retaining the copyright to his work from that point forward. Sony vaio VPCM13M1E/L Laptop Battery

Harrisongs thus owns the rights to his later Beatles songs such as "While My Guitar Gently Weeps" and "Something". Also that year, Starr created Startling Music, which holds the rights to his solo Beatles compositions "Don't Pass Me By" and "Octopus's Garden".[345][346]Sony vaio VPCYA16EC/R Laptop Battery

In March 1969, James and his partners arranged to sell their shares of Northern Songs to the British broadcasting company Associated Television (ATV), founded by impresario Lew Grade, without first informing the band. HP 506066-721 Battery

The Beatles made a bid to gain controlling interest by attempting to work out a deal with a consortium of London brokerage firms that had accumulated a 14% holding.[347] The deal collapsed over the objections of Lennon, who declared, HP 506781-001 Battery

"I'm sick of being fucked about by men in suits sitting on their fat arses in the City."[348] By the end of May, ATV had acquired a majority stake in Northern Songs, controlling nearly the entire Lennon–McCartney catalog, as well as any future material until 1973.[349] In frustration, Lennon and McCartney sold their shares to ATV in late October 1969.[350]HP HSTNN-CB86 Battery

In 1981, financial losses by ATV's parent company ACC prompted the sale of its music division when according to authors Brian Southall and Rupert Perry, Grade contacted McCartney offering to sell ATV Music and Northern Songs for $30 million.[351] HP HSTNN-E01C Battery

According to McCartney, he met with Grade and explained he was only interested in the Northern Songs catalog, but that if he were ever willing to "separate off" that portion of ATV Music he would be interested, and soon after, Grade offered to sell him Northern Songs for £20 million, giving the ex-Beatle "a week or so" to decide.[352] HP HSTNN-XB87 Battery

By McCartney's 1995 account, he and Ono countered with a £5 million bid that was rejected, though reports at the time cited £21–£25 million, and had Grade refusing to separate Northern Songs from ATV Music. In 1982 "the whole of ACC" was sold to Australian business magnate Robert Holmes à Court for £60 million.[353]HP 586006-761 Battery

Three years later, Michael Jackson purchased ATV for a reported $47.5 million. The acquisition gave Jackson control over the publishing rights to more than 250 Northern Songs titles, including over 200 Beatles songs as well as 40,000 other copyrights.[354] HP 586007-121 Battery

In 1995, in a deal that earned him a reported $110 million, Jackson merged his music publishing business with Sony, creating a new company, Sony/ATV Music Publishing, in which he held a 50% stake. The merger made the new company, then valued at over half a billion dollars, the third largest music publisher in the world.[355]HP 586007-141 Battery

Despite the lack of publishing rights to most of their songs, they continue to receive their respective shares of the writers' royalties, which together are 33⅓% of total commercial proceeds in the US and which vary elsewhere around the world between 50 and 55%.[356] HP 586007-541 Battery

Two of their earliest songs—"Love Me Do" and "P.S. I Love You"—were published by an EMI subsidiary, Ardmore & Beechwood, before signing with James. McCartney acquired their publishing rights from Ardmore in the mid 1980s,[357] and they are the only two Beatles songs owned by McCartney's company MPL Communications.[358]HP 586007-851 Battery

In The Beatles as Musicians, Walter Everett describes Lennon and McCartney's contrasting motivations and approaches to composition: "McCartney may be said to have constantly developed—as a means to entertain—HP 586028-321 Battery

a focused musical talent with an ear for counterpoint and other aspects of craft in the demonstration of a universally agreed-upon common language that he did much to enrich. Conversely, Lennon's mature music is best appreciated as the daring product of a largely unconscious, searching but undisciplined artistic sensibility."[284]HP 586028-341 Battery

Ian MacDonald, comparing the two composers in Revolution in the Head, describes McCartney as "a natural melodist—a creator of tunes capable of existing apart from their harmony". His melody lines are characterized as primarily "vertical",HP 588178-141 Battery

employing wide, consonant intervals which express his "extrovert energy and optimism". Conversely, Lennon's "sedentary, ironic personality" is reflected in a "horizontal" approach featuring minimal, dissonant intervals and repetitive melodies which rely on their harmonic accompaniment for interest: HP 593550-001 Battery

"Basically a realist, he instinctively kept his melodies close to the rhythms and cadences of speech, colouring his lyrics with bluesy tone and harmony rather than creating tunes that made striking shapes of their own."[285] HP 593553-001 Battery

MacDonald praises Harrison's lead guitar work for the role his "characterful lines and textural colourings" play in supporting Lennon and McCartney's parts, and describes Starr as "the father of modern pop/rock drumming .... His faintly behind-the-beat style subtly propelled The Beatles, HP 593554-001 Battery

his tunings brought the bottom end into recorded drum sound, and his distinctly eccentric fills remain among the most memorable in pop music."[286]HP 593562-001 Battery

INFLUENCES

The Beatles' earliest influences include Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Little Richard and Chuck Berry.[287] During their co-residency with Little Richard at theStar-Club in Hamburg, from April to May 1962, he advised them on the proper technique for performing his songs.[288] Of Presley, Lennon said, "Nothing really affected me until I heard Elvis. If there hadn't been Elvis, there would not have been the Beatles."[289]HP HSTNN-CB0W Battery

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Other early influences include Buddy Holly, Eddie Cochran, Roy Orbison[290] and the Everly Brothers.[291] The Beatles continued to absorb influences long after their initial success, often finding new musical and lyrical avenues by listening to their contemporaries, HP HSTNN-F01C Battery

including Bob Dylan, Frank Zappa, The Lovin' Spoonful, The Byrds and The Beach Boys, whose 1966 album Pet Sounds amazed and inspired McCartney.[292][293][294] Martin stated, "Without Pet SoundsSgt. Pepperwouldn't have happened ... Pepper was an attempt to equal Pet Sounds".[295] HP HSTNN-F02C Battery

Ravi Shankar, with whom Harrison studied for six weeks in India in late 1966, had a significant effect on his musical development during the band's later years.[296]HP HSTNN-I78C Battery

GENRES

Originating as a skiffle group, they quickly embraced 1950s rock and roll, and their repertoire ultimately expanded to include a broad variety of pop music.[297HP HSTNN-I79C Battery

] Reflecting the range of styles they explored, Lennon said of Beatles for Sale, "You could call our new one a Beatles country-and-western LP",[298] while Gould credits Rubber Soul as "the instrument by which legions of folk-music enthusiasts were coaxed into the camp of pop."[299]HP HSTNN-I81C Battery

The 1965 song "Yesterday" made prominent use of a string quartet; and while it was not the first pop record to employ strings, it was the group's first incorporation of classical music elements in their recordings.[300] They continued to experiment with string arrangements to various effect, as with Sgt. HP HSTNN-I83C Battery

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Pepper's "She's Leaving Home"; Gould writes, "[It] is cast in the mold of a sentimental Victorian ballad, its words and music filled with the clichés of musical melodrama."[301]HP HSTNN-IB0N Battery

The band's stylistic range expanded in another direction in 1966 with the B-side to the "Paperback Writer" single: "Rain", described by Martin Strong as "the first overtly psychedelic Beatles record".[302] HP HSTNN-IB0W Battery

Other psychedelic numbers followed, such as "Tomorrow Never Knows" (recorded before "Rain"), "Strawberry Fields Forever", "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" and "I Am the Walrus". The influence of Indian classical music was evident in Harrison's songs, HP HSTNN-IB0X Battery

"The Inner Light", "Love You To" and "Within You Without You"; Gould describes the latter two as attempts "to replicate the raga form in miniature".[303]HP HSTNN-IB1E Battery

Describing the band's creative evolution, music historian and pianist Michael Campbell identifies innovation as its most striking feature. He writes, "'A Day in the Life' encapsulates the art and achievement of the Beatles as well as any single track can. HP HSTNN-LB10 Battery

It highlights key features of their music: the sound imagination, the persistence of tuneful melody, and the close coordination between words and music. It represents a new category of song—more sophisticated than pop ... and uniquely innovative. There literally had never before been a song—classical or vernacular—that had blended so many disparate elements so imaginatively."[304]HP HSTNN-OB0X Battery

 Philosophy professor Bruce Ellis Benson agrees: "The Beatles ... give us a wonderful example of how such far-ranging influences as Celtic music, rhythm and blues, and country and western could be put together in a new way."[305]HP HSTNN-OB0Y Battery

Author Dominic Pedler describes the way they crossed genres: "One of [their] greatest ... achievements was the songwriting juggling act they managed for most of their career. Far from moving sequentially from one genre to another (as is sometimes conveniently suggested) the group maintained in parallel their mastery of the traditional, HP HSTNN-Q47C Battery

catchy chart hit while simultaneously forging rock and dabbling with a wide range of peripheral influences from Country to vaudeville. One of these threads was their take on folk music, which would form such essential groundwork for their later collisions with Indian music and philosophy."[306] HP HSTNN-Q48C Battery

As the personal relationships between the band members grew increasingly strained, their individual tastes became more apparent. The minimalistic cover artwork for the White Album contrasted with the complexity and diversity of its music, HP HSTNN-Q49C Battery

which encompassed Lennon's "Revolution 9", whose musique concrète approach was influenced by Yoko Ono; Starr's country song "Don't Pass Me By"; Harrison's rock ballad "While My Guitar Gently Weeps"; and the "proto-metal roar" of McCartney's "Helter Skelter".[204]HP HSTNN-Q50C Battery

2000s

1, a compilation album of every UK and US number one Beatles hit, was released on 13 November 2000. It became the fastest-selling album of all time with 3.6 million sold in its first week,[262] 13 million within a month,[263] and it was a number one in 28 countries.[264]HP HSTNN-Q51C Battery

 As of April 2009 it had sold 31 million copies globally,[265] and was the best selling album of the decade in the United States.[266]HP HSTNN-Q60C Battery

Harrison died from metastatic lung cancer on 29 November 2001.[267][268] McCartney and Starr were among the musicians who performed at the Concert for George, organized by Eric Clapton and Harrison's widow, Olivia. The tribute event took place at the Royal Albert Hall on the first anniversary of Harrison's death. HP HSTNN-Q61C Battery

As well as songs he composed for the group and his own solo career, the concert included a celebration of Indian classical music, which had influenced the band through Harrison's interest.[269]HP HSTNN-Q62C Battery

In 2003, Let It Be... Naked, a reconceived version of the album with McCartney supervising production, was released to mixed reviews. One of the main differences with the Spector-produced version was the omission of the original string arrangements. HP HSTNN-Q63C Battery

It was a top-ten hit in both the UK and the US. The US album configurations from 1964 to 1965 were released as box sets in 2004 and 2006 (The Capitol Albums Volume 1 and Volume 2 respectively); these included both stereo and mono versions based on the mixes that were prepared for vinyl at the time of the music's original American release.[270]HP HSTNN-Q64C Battery

As a soundtrack for Cirque du Soleil's Las Vegas Beatles stage revue Love, George Martin and his son Giles remixed and blended 130 of the band's recordings to create what Martin called "a way of re-living the whole Beatles musical lifespan in a very condensed period".[271] HP HSTNN-UB0W Battery

The show premiered in June 2006, and the Lovealbum was released that November. Attending the show's first anniversary, McCartney and Starr were interviewed on Larry King Live along with Ono and Olivia Harrison.[272] HP HSTNN-UB1G Battery

Also in 2007, reports circulated that McCartney was hoping to complete "Now and Then", a third Lennon demo worked on during the Anthologysessions. It would be credited as a Lennon–McCartney composition with the addition of new verses, HP HSTNN-YB0W Battery

and feature a new drum track by Starr and archival recordings of Harrison playing guitar.[273] In 2008 McCartney discussed his hope that "Carnival of Light", a 14-minute experimental recording made at Abbey Road Studios in 1967, would receive an official release.[274]HP HSTNN-YB0X Battery

The Beatles were among the few major artists whose recorded catalogue was not available through online music services such as iTunes or Napster during the first decade of the 2000s.[275] Residual disagreement stemming from Apple Corps' dispute with Apple, Inc. HP MU06047 Battery

 (owners and creators of iTunes) over the use of the name "Apple" was partly responsible, although in November 2008, McCartney stated that the main obstacle was that EMI "want something we're not prepared to give them."[276]HP MU06055 Battery

On 9 September 2009, the band's entire back catalogue was reissued following an extensive digital remastering process that lasted four years.[251] Stereo editions of all twelve original UK studio albums, along with Magical Mystery Tour and the compilation Past Masters, were released on compact disc both individually and as a box set. HP MU06062 Battery

A second collection, The Beatles in Mono, included all mono titles along with the original 1965 stereo mixes of Help! and Rubber Soul (the 1987 CD issues of these two albums had been remixed by George Martin).[277]HP MU06 Battery

 For a limited time, a brief video documentary about the remastering was included on each stereo CD.[278] The Beatles: Rock Band, a music video game in the Rock Band series, was also released on this day.[279]HP MU09 Battery

Mojo's Danny Eccleston writes, "Ever since the Beatles first emerged on CD in 1987, there have been complaints about the sound." He singles out "Paperback Writer" and "Rain" as examples of a songs which had superior clarity and dynamism on their original 45 RPMHP MU09XL Battery

vinyl release. He praises the remastered sound quality, particularly its effects on the group's singing: "[T]he remastered vocals are purer, more natural-sounding and give the illusion of sitting slightly higher in the mix."[280]HP NBP6A174B1 Battery

In December 2009, The Beatles' catalogue was officially released in FLAC and MP3 format in a limited edition of 30,000 USB flash drives.[281] On 16 November 2010, the official canon of thirteen studio albums, Past Masters and the Red and Blue greatest-hits albums were made available on iTunes.[282]HP NBP6A174 Battery

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Musical style and development

In Icons of Rock: An Encyclopedia of the Legends Who Changed Music Forever, Scott Schinder and Andy Schwartz describe the band's musical evolution: HP NBP6A175 Battery

In their initial incarnation as cheerful, wisecracking moptops, the Fab Four revolutionized the sound, style, and attitude of popular music and opened rock and roll's doors to a tidal wave of British rock acts. Their initial impact would have been enough to establish the Beatles as one of their era's most influential cultural forces, HP NBP6A175 Battery

but they didn't stop there. Although their initial style was a highly original, irresistibly catchy synthesis of early American rock and roll and R&B, the Beatles spent the rest of the 1960s expanding rock's stylistic frontiers, consistently staking out new musical territory on each release. HP WD548AA Battery

The band's increasingly sophisticated experimentation encompassed a variety of genres, including folk-rock, country, psychedelia, and baroque pop, without sacrificing the effortless mass appeal of their early work.[283]HP WD549AA Battery

DEPORTATION ATTEMPT

Following the impact of "Give Peace a Chance" and "Happy Xmas (War Is Over)", both strongly associated with the anti–Vietnam War movement, the Nixon administration, hearing rumours of Lennon's involvement in a concert to be held in San Diego at the same time as the Republican National Convention,[196] HP 513130-321 Battery

tried to have him deported. Nixon believed that Lennon's anti-war activities could cost him his re-election;[197] Republican Senator Strom Thurmond suggested in a February 1972 memo that "deportation would be a strategic counter-measure" against Lennon.[198] HP 535808-001 Battery

The next month the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) began deportation proceedings, arguing that his 1968 misdemeanor conviction for cannabis possession in London had made him ineligible for admission to the United States. HP 591998-141 Battery

Lennon spent the next three and a half years in and out of deportation hearings until on 8 October 1975, when a court of appeals barred the deportation attempt, stating " ... the courts will not condone selective deportation based upon secret political grounds."[199][103] HP 593576-001 Battery

While the legal battle continued, Lennon attended rallies and made television appearances. Lennon and Ono co-hosted the Mike Douglas Show for a week in February 1972, introducing guests such as Jerry Rubin and Bobby Seale to mid-America.[200] In 1972, Bob Dylan wrote a letter to the INS defending Lennon, stating: HP HSTNN-1B1D Battery

John and Yoko add a great voice and drive to the country's so-called art institution. They inspire and transcend and stimulate and by doing so, only help others to see pure light and in doing that, put an end to this dull taste of petty commercialism which is being passed off as Artist Art by the overpowering mass media. HP HSTNN-OB89 Battery

Hurray for John and Yoko. Let them stay and live here and breathe. The country's got plenty of room and space. Let John and Yoko stay![201][202]HP HSTNN-W79C-7 Battery

On 23 March 1973, Lennon was ordered to leave the US within 60 days.[203] Ono, meanwhile, was granted permanent residence. In response, Lennon and Ono held a press conference on 1 April 1973 at the New York City Bar Association, HP HSTNN-XB89 Battery

where they announced the formation of the state of Nutopia; a place with "no land, no boundaries, no passports, only people".[204] Waving the white flag of Nutopia (two handkerchiefs), they asked for political asylum in the US. The press conference was filmed, and would later appear in the 2006 documentary The U.S. vs. John Lennon.[205] HP NBP8A157B1 Battery

Lennon's Mind Games (1973) included the track "Nutopian International Anthem", which comprised three seconds of silence.[206] Soon after the press conference, Nixon's involvement in a political scandal came to light, and in June the Watergate hearings began in Washington, DC. HP NZ375AA Battery

They led to the president's resignation 14 months later. Nixon's successor, Gerald Ford, showed little interest in continuing the battle against Lennon, and the deportation order was overturned in 1975. The following year, his US immigration status finally resolved, HP HSTNN-1B52 Battery

Lennon received his "green card" certifying his permanent residency, and when Jimmy Carter was inaugurated as president in January 1977, Lennon and Ono attended the Inaugural Ball.[207]HP HSTNN-1B89 Battery

FBI URVEILLANCE AND DECLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS

After Lennon's death, historian Jon Wiener filed a Freedom of Information Act request for FBI files documenting the Bureau's role in the deportation attempt.[208] The FBI admitted it had 281 pages of files on Lennon, HP HSTNN-IB89 Battery

but refused to release most of them on the grounds that they contained national security information. In 1983, Wiener sued the FBI with the help of the American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California. It took 14 years of litigation to force the FBI to release the withheld pages.[209] HP HSTNN-I62C-7 Battery

The ACLU, representing Wiener, won a favourable decision in their suit against the FBI in the Ninth Circuit in 1991.[210] The Justice Department appealed the decision to the Supreme Court in April 1992, but the court declined to review the case.[211]HP HSTNN-I61C-5 Battery

 In 1997, respecting President Bill Clinton's newly instigated rule that documents should be withheld only if releasing them would involve "foreseeable harm", the Justice Department settled most of the outstanding issues outside court by releasing all but 10 of the contested documents.[211]HP HSTNN-I60C-5 Battery

 Wiener published the results of his 14-year campaign in January 2000. Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI Files contained facsimiles of the documents, including "lengthy reports by confidential informants detailing the daily lives of anti-war activists, HP 535753-001 Battery

memos to the White House, transcripts of TV shows on which Lennon appeared, and a proposal that Lennon be arrested by local police on drug charges".[212] The story is told in the documentary The U.S. vs. John Lennon. The final 10 documents in Lennon's FBI file, HP 516479-121 Battery

which reported on his ties with London anti-war activists in 1971 and had been withheld as containing "national security information provided by a foreign government under an explicit promise of confidentiality", were released in December 2006. HP HSTNN-DB94 Battery

They contained no indication that the British government had regarded Lennon as a serious threat; one example of the released material was a report that two prominent British leftists had hoped Lennon would finance a left-wing bookshop and reading room.[213]HP HSTNN-IB93 Battery

Recognition of other churches' orders

The Roman Catholic Church unconditionally recognizes the validity of ordinations in the Eastern churches. Eastern Orthodox bishops would most likely re-ordain a

Catholic priest if one were to convert; that is part of the policy called church economy. HP HSTNN-IB94 Battery

Anglican churches, unlike most other Protestant churches, claim to have maintained apostolic succession.[12] The succession of Anglican bishops is not universally recognized, however. HP HSTNN-LB93 Battery

The Roman Catholic Church judged Anglican orders invalid whenPope Leo XIII in 1896 wrote in Apostolicae Curae that Anglican orders lack validity because the rite by which priests were ordained was not correctly worded from 1547 to 1553 and from 1558 to the time of Archbishop William Laud. This caused a break of continuity in apostolic succession, making all further ordinations null and void. HP HSTNN-LB94 Battery

Eastern Orthodox bishops have, on occasion, granted "economy" when Anglican priests convert to Orthodoxy. Various Orthodox churches have also declared Anglican Orders valid subject to a finding that the bishops in question did indeed maintain the true faith, HP HSTNN-OB93 Battery

the Orthodox concept of Apostolic Succession being one in which the faith must be properly adhered to and transmitted, not simply that the ceremony by which a man is made a bishop is conducted correctly. HP HSTNN-OB94 Battery

Changes in the Anglican Ordinal since King Edward VI, and a fuller appreciation of the pre-Reformation ordinals, suggest that the correctness of the enduring dismissal of Anglican Orders is questionable. HP HSTNN-XB93 Battery

To reduce doubt concerning Anglican apostolic succession, especially since the 1930 Bonn agreement between the Anglican and Old Catholic churches, some Anglican bishops have included among their consecrators bishops of the Old Catholic Church, whose holy orders are recognised as valid and regular by the Roman Catholic Church. HP HSTNN-XB94 Battery

Neither Roman Catholics nor Anglicans recognize the validity of ordinations of ministers inProtestant churches that do not maintain Apostolic Succession; but Anglicans, especially Low Church or Evangelical Anglicans, commonly treat Protestant ministers and their sacraments as valid. Rome also does not recognize the apostolic succession of those Lutheran bodies which retained Apostolic Succession. HP NU089AA Battery

Officially, the Anglican Communion accepts the ordinations of those denominations which are in full communion with their own churches, such as the Lutheran state churches of Scandinavia. Those clergy may preside at services requiring a priest if one is not otherwise available. In a 2006 Guardian article, HP HSTNN-DB95 Battery

Jon Wiener wrote: "For young people in 1972, it was thrilling to see Lennon's courage in standing up to [US President] Nixon. That willingness to take risks with his career, and his life, is one reason why people still admire him today."[235]HP HSTNN-IB95 Battery

Whilst for music historians Urish and Bielen, Lennon's most significant effort was "the self-portraits ... in his songs [which] spoke to, for, and about, the human condition."[236]HP HSTNN-LB95 Battery

Lennon continues to be mourned throughout the world and has been the subject of numerous memorials and tributes. In 2010, on what would have been Lennon's 70th birthday, the John Lennon Peace Monument was unveiled in Chavasse Park, HP HSTNN-XB95 Battery

Liverpool, by Cynthia and Julian Lennon.[237] The sculpture entitled 'Peace & Harmony' exhibits peace symbols and carries the inscription "Peace on Earth for the Conservation of Life · In Honour of John Lennon 1940–1980".HP NU090AA Battery

AWARDS AND SALES

The Lennon–McCartney songwriting partnership is regarded as one of the most influential and successful of the 20th century.[citation needed]As performer, writer or co-writer Lennon has had 25 number one singles on the US Hot 100 chart.a His album sales in the US stand at 14 million units.[238]HP 500028-142 Battery

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 Double Fantasy, released shortly before his death, and his best-selling, post-Beatles' studio album[239] at three million shipments in the US,[240] won the 1981 Grammy Award for Album of the Year.[241] The following year, the BRIT Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music went to Lennon.[242]HP HSTNN-IB83 Battery

Participants in a 2002 BBC poll voted him eighth of "100 Greatest Britons".[243] Between 2003 and 2008, Rolling Stone recognised Lennon in several reviews of artists and music, ranking him fifth of "100 Greatest Singers of All Time"[244] and 38th of "100 Greatest Artists of All Time",[245] HP 579320-001 Battery

and his albums John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band and Imagine, 22nd and 76th respectively of "The RS 500 Greatest Albums of All Time".[245][246] HP HSTNN-OB92 Battery

He was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) with the other Beatles in 1965.[51] He was posthumously inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1987[247] and into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994.[107HP HSTNN-XB92 Battery

Legacy

Music historians Schinder and Schwartz, writing of the transformation in popular music styles that took place between the 1950s and the 1960s, say that The Beatles' influence cannot be overstated: having "revolutionized the sound, style, HP HSTNN-DB90 Battery

and attitude of popular music and opened rock and roll's doors to a tidal wave of British rock acts", the group then "spent the rest of the 1960s expanding rock's stylistic frontiers".[233] Liam Gallagher, his group Oasis among the many who acknowledge the band's influence, HP 292389-001 Battery

identifies Lennon as a hero; in 1999 he named his first child Lennon Gallagher in tribute.[234] On National Poetry Day in 1999, after conducting a poll to identify the UK's favourite song lyric, the BBC announced "Imagine" the winner.[94]HP 337607-001 Battery

Marriage and holy orders

The rules discussed in this section are not considered to be among the infallible dogmas of the Catholic Church, but are mutable rules of discipline. See clerical celibacy for a more detailed discussion. HP 337607-003 Battery

Married men may be ordained to the diaconate as Permanent Deacons, but in the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church generally may not be ordained to the priesthood. In theEastern Catholic Churches and in the Eastern Orthodox Church, HP 338794-001 Battery

married deacons may be ordained priests but may not become bishops. Bishops in the Eastern Rites and the Eastern Orthodox churches are almost always drawn from among monks, who have taken a vow of celibacy. They may be widowers, though; it is not required of them never to have been married. HP 342661-001 Battery

In some cases, widowed permanent deacons have been ordained to the priesthood. There have been some situations in which men previously married and ordained to the priesthood in an Anglican church or in a Lutheran church have been ordained to the Catholic priesthood and allowed to function much as an Eastern Rite priest but in a Latin Rite setting. HP 345027-001 Battery

This is never sub conditione (conditionally), as there is in Catholic canon law no true priesthood in Protestant denominations. Such ordination may only happen with the approval of the priest's Bishop and a special permission by the Pope. HP 346970-001 Battery

Anglican clergy may be married and/or may marry after ordination. In the Old Catholic Church and the Independent Catholic Churches there are no ordination restrictions related to marriage. HP 361742-001 Battery

Other concepts of ordination

Ordination ritual and procedures vary by denomination. Different churches and denominations specify more or less rigorous requirements for entering into office, and the process of ordination is likewise given more or less ceremonial pomp depending on the group. Many Protestants still communicate authority and ordain to office by having the existing overseers physically lay hands on the candidates for office. HP 367759-001 Battery

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The American Methodist model is an episcopal system loosely based on the Anglican model, as the Methodist Church arose from the Anglican Church. It was first devised under the leadership of Bishops Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the late 18th century. HP 371786-001 Battery

In this approach, an elder (or "presbyter") is ordained to word (preaching and teaching), sacrament (administering Baptism and the Lord's Supper), order (administering the life of the church and, in the case of bishops, ordaining others for mission and ministry), and service. A deacon is a person ordained only to word and service. HP 372772-001 Battery

In the United Methodist Church, for instance, seminary graduates are examined and approved by the Conference Board of Ordained Ministry and then the Clergy Session. They are accepted as "probationary (provisional) members of the conference." HP 383220-001 Battery

The resident bishop may commission them to full time ministry as "provisional" ministers. (Before 1996, the graduate was ordained as a transitional deacon at this point, a provisional role since eliminated. The order of deacon is now a separate and distinct clergy order in the United Methodist Church.) HP 395789-001 Battery

After serving the probationary period, of a minimum of two years, the probationer is then examined again and either continued on probation, discontinued altogether, or approved for ordination. Upon final approval by the Clergy Session of the Conference, HP 396008-001 Battery

the probationer becomes a full member of the Conference and is then ordained as an elder or deacon by the resident Bishop. Those ordained as elders are members of the Order of Elders, and those ordained deacons are members of the Order of Deacons. HP 398876-001 Battery

The British Methodist Conference has two distinct orders of presbyter and deacon. It does not have bishops as a separate order of ministry. HP 411462-421 Battery

John Wesley appointed Thomas Coke (above mentioned as bishop) as 'Superintendent', his translation of the Greek 'episcopos' - which is normally translated 'bishop' in English. The British Methodist Church has more than 500 Superintendents who are not a separate order of ministry but a role within the order of Presbyters. HP 417066-001 Battery

In British Methodism the roles normally undertaken by bishops are expressed in ordaining presbyters and deacons by the annual Conference through its President (or a past president); in confirmation by all presbyters; in local oversight by Superintendents and in regional oversight by Chairs of District. HP 916-2150 Battery

Presbyterian churches, following their Scottish forebears, reject the traditions surrounding overseers and instead identify the offices of bishop (episkopos in Greek) and elder (presbuteros in Greek, from which the term "presbyterian" comes). HP BAT0302001 Battery

The two terms seem to be used interchangeably in the Bible (compare Titus 1.5–9 and I Tim. 3.2–7). Their form of church governance is known as presbyterian polity. While there is increasing authority with each level of gathering of elders ('Session' over a congregation or parish, then presbytery, then possibly a synod, HP CGR-B1870AE Battery

then the General Assembly), there is no hierarchy of elders. Each elder has an equal vote at the court on which they stand. HP DG103A Battery

Elders are usually chosen at their local level, either elected by the congregation and approved by the Session, or appointed directly by the Session. Some churches place limits on the term that the elders serve, while others ordain elders for life. HP DM842A Battery

Presbyterians also ordain (by laying on of hands) ministers of Word and Sacrament (sometimes known as 'teaching elders'). These ministers are regarded simply as Presbyters ordained to a different function, but in practice they provide the leadership for local Session. HP DP390A Battery

Some Presbyterians identify those appointed (by the laying on of hands) to serve in practical ways (Acts 6.1–7) as deacons (diakonos in Greek, meaning "servant"). In many congregations, a group of men or women is thus set aside to deal with matters such as congregational fabric and finance, HP DP399A Battery

 releasing elders for more 'spiritual' work. These persons may be known as 'deacons', 'board members' or 'managers', depending on the local tradition. Unlike elders and minister, they are not usually 'ordained', and are often elected by the congregation for a set period of time. HP EF419A Battery

Other Presbyterians have used an 'order of deacons' as full-time servants of the wider Church. Unlike ministers, they do not administer sacraments or routinely preach. TheChurch of Scotland has recently begun ordaining deacons to this role. HP EG417AA Battery

Unlike the Episcopalian system, but similar to the United Methodist system described above, the two Presbyterian offices are different in kind rather than in degree, since one need not be a deacon before becoming an elder. HP EV087AA Battery

Since there is no hierarchy, the two offices do not make up an "order" in the technical sense, but the terminology of Holy Orders is sometimes still developed. HP EV088AA Battery

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