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Because of its geographical isolation New Zealand is free of some pest and diseases that are problematic for agricultural production in other countries. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

With a high level of international trade and large numbers of inbound tourists biosecurity is of great concern since new any pest or diseases brought into the country could potentially have a huge effect on the economy of New Zealand.

There have been no outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in New Zealand. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

If an outbreak did occur there is potential for severe economic losses given that agricultural exports are a large segment of exports.[36] The main foot-and-mouth disease pathway is passenger arrivals and therefore there is an extensive biosecurity monitoring at ports and airports. There have been instances of suspected outbreaks of foot and mouth disease the most recent being on Waiheke Island, although this is thought to be a hoax. Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

Many areas of the high country of the South Island were set up as large sheep and cattle stations in the late 19th century. Much of this land was leased fromThe Crown but after the passing of the Crown Pastoral Land Act 1998 the leases were reviewed. Environmentalists and academics raised concerns about the process saying that farmers were gaining an advantage and that conservation issues were not being resolved. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

A fixture in many rural towns is the annual Agricultural and Pastoral (A&P) shows[37] where competitions are held for the best livestock and farm produce. Carnivals, sideshows, equestrian events and craft competitions are also held as part of the A&P shows.The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is the government agency responsible for the agricultural sector. It has both policy and operational arms. IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

Federated Farmers is a large and influential lobby group that represents farmers interests. It has a voluntary membership which stands at over 26,000.The Soil & Health Association of New Zealand, established in 1941, promotes organic food and farming.The New Zealand Young Farmers is a national organisation formed in 1927 with regional clubs throughout the country. It runs the annual Young Farmer Contest. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

Irrigation New Zealand is the national body representing farmers who use irrigation and the irrigation industry. It opposes Water conservation orders.

There are two main views on the immediate future of New Zealand agriculture. One is that, due to fast-rising consumer demand in India and China, the world is entering a golden age for commodities, and New Zealand is well placed to take advantage of this. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

The other view is that New Zealand will only gain limited rewards from this boom because of increasing production competition from developing countries. For New Zealand to remain competitive, farmers will either have to intensify production to remain commodity producers (increasing stock and fertiliser per hectare) or, instead, become producers of higher value, more customised products. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

AgResearch Ltd (New Zealand's largest Crown Research Institute) believes that new technologies will allow New Zealand farmers to double their output by 2020, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and other detrimental environmental impacts associated with farming practices.

Transport in New Zealand, with its mountainous topography and a relatively small population mostly located near its long coastline, ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

has always faced many challenges. Before Europeans arrived, Māori either walked or used watercraft on rivers or along the coasts. Later on, European shipping and railways revolutionised the way of transporting goods and people, before being themselves overtaken by road and air, which are nowadays the dominant forms of transport. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

However, bulk freight still continues to be transported by coastal shipping and by rail transport, and there are attempts to (re)introduce public transport as a major transport mode in the larger population centres.

Historically very car-dependent, as of 2010, transport funding in New Zealand is still heavily dominated by money for road projects – the National government proposes to spend $21 billion on roading infrastructure after 2012, ASUS F80S CPU Fan

yet only $0.7 billion on other transport projects (public transport, walking and cycling). This has been criticised by opponents of the current government strategy as irresponsible, in light of increasing fuel prices and congestion.[1] Government has claimed that their priority on roads is in line with New Zealanders' favoured travel modes, and as being the most promising in terms of economic benefits. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

The State Highway network is the principal road infrastructure connecting New Zealand urban centres. It is administered by the New Zealand Transport Agency. The majority of smaller or urban roads are managed by city or district councils, although some are fall under the control of other authorities, such as the New Zealand Department of Conservation or port and airport authorities. IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

Before Europeans arrived, Māori either walked or used watercraft on rivers or along the coasts. The road network of New Zealand has its origins in these tracks and paths used by Māori and later by Europeans in their early travels through New Zealand. Several major Māori tracks were known, such as the western coastal track was used along the whole length of the North Island, and the track on the East Coast, IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

which however left the coast near Castlepoint and rejoined it near Napier. In the South Island, another major track existed down the east coast with tributary tracks following streams up to the mountain passes to the West Coast.[2] Initial roads, such as the Great South Road southwards from Auckland, were often built by the British Army to move troops, and were constructed to a comparatively high standard.[2] IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

Early sheep farming required few high-standard roads, but the strong increase in dairy farming in the late 19th century created a strong demand for better links on which the more perishable goods could be transported to market or towards ports for export.[2] In many cases, later roads for motor vehicles follow paths used by bullock carts[3] which followed tracks made for humans.HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

These in turn in some cases became highways – with attendant problems all over New Zealand (but especially in the more mountainous regions), as the geography and contours of a slow-speed road laid out in the first half of the 20th century usually do not conform to safety and comfort criteria of modern motor vehicles.[4]

Early road construction was both hindered and helped by rail transport during the first half century of European settlement.DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

Authorities were reluctant to expend large amounts of capital on more difficult sections of a route where there was a hope that a railway might instead be built. However, where railways were constructed, roads often either preceded them for construction or quickly followed it when the newly accessible land started to be settled more closely.[2] HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

The New Zealand Highway system was extended massively after World War II. The first motorway was built in the environs of Wellington and opened in 1950, between Takapu Road and Johnsonville.[5] Following heavy investment in road construction from the 1950s onwards, public transport patronage fell nationwide. This has been described, in Auckland's case, as "one of the most spectacular declines in public transport patronage of any developed city in the world".IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

New Zealand has a State Highway network of 10,895 km (5,974 km in the North Island and 4,921 km in the South Island, as of August 2006) of which 170 km are motorways. These link to 82,000 km of local authority roads, both paved and unpaved. The state highways carry 50% of all New Zealand road traffic, with the motorways alone carrying 9% of all traffic (even though they represent only 3% of the whole State Highway network, and even less of the whole road network). ASUS A8H CPU Fan

The maximum speed limit on the open road is 100 km/h, with 50 km/h the common limit in residential areas. Speed limits of 60, 70, and 80 km/h are also used. Speeds are often reduced to 30 km/h beside roadworks.

The Land Transport Rule: Setting of Speed Limits (2003) allows road controlling authorities to set enforceable speed limits, including permanent speed limits, of less than 50 km/h on roads within their jurisdiction. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

However, there are still very few areas of the country's road network with permanent speed limits below 50 km/h.

Total road deaths in New Zealand are high by developed country standards. 2010 figures from the International Transport Forum placed New Zealand 25th out of 33 surveyed countries in terms of road deaths per capita, a rank that has changed little in 30 years.[9] HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

The fatality rate per capita is twice the level of Germany's, or that of the United Kingdom, Sweden or the Netherlands (2010 comparison).[10] This is variously blamed on aggressive driving, insufficient driver training, old and unsafe cars, inferior road design and construction, and a lack of appreciation of the skill and responsibility required to safely operate a motor vehicle.[9][11] APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

In 2010, 375 'road users' were killed in New Zealand, while 14,031 were injured, with 15–24 year olds the group at highest risk. The three most common vehicle movements resulting in death or injury were "head-on collisions (while not overtaking)", "loss of control (on straight)" and "loss of control (while cornering)".[12] In terms of deaths per 10,000 population, HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

the most dangerous areas were the Waitomo District (121 deaths) and the Mackenzie District (110). Larger cities were comparatively safe, with Auckland City (28), Wellington (22) and Christchurch (28), while Dunedin had a higher rate of 43.[13]

New Zealand has a large number of overseas drivers (tourists, business, students and new immigrants), as well as renting campervans/motorhomes/RV's during the New Zealand summer. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Overseas licensed drivers are significantly more likely to be found at fault in a collision in which they are involved (66.9%), compared to fully licenced New Zealand drivers (51.9%), and only slightly less likely to be found at fault than restricted (novice) New Zealand drivers (68.9%).[14]

Drunk driving is a major issue in New Zealand, especially among young drivers. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

New Zealand has relatively low penalties for drunk driving. In the late 2000s, reports indicated that the rate of drunk driving by under 20s in Auckland had risen 77% in three years, with similar increases in the rest of the country. Many drunk drivers already had convictions for previous drunk driving.[15]

The road toll has decreased over the 5 years from 421 in 2007 to 284 in 2011[16] SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

In the 'Safer Journeys' Strategy, intended to guide road safety developments between 2010 and 2020, the Ministry of Transport aims for a 'safe systems' approach, prioritised four areas, being "Increasing the safety of young drivers", "Reducing alcohol/drug impaired driving", "Safe roads and roadsides" and "Increasing the safety of motorcycling".HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

Historically, most roads in New Zealand were funded by local road authorities (often road boards) who derived their income from local rates. As the need for new roads was often most urgent in those parts of the country where little rate income could yet be collected, the funding was at least partly dependent on national-level subsidies, for which much lobbying was undertaken.[2] SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

Many acts and ordinances were passed in the first decades of the colony, but lack of funds and parochialism (the desire to spend locally raised money locally, rather than use it to link different provinces) hindered the growth of the road network. This lack of larger-scale planning eventually led to increased public works powers given to the Central Government.[17] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Today, all funding for state highways and around 50% of funding for local roads comes directly from road users through the National Land Transport Fund. Road user revenue directed to the fund includes all fuel excise duty on LPG and CNG, around 55% of revenue from fuel excise duty on petrol, all revenue from road user charges (a prepaid distance/weight licence that all vehicles over 3.5 tonnes, HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

and all non petrol/LPG/CNG vehicles are liable to pay) and most non-ACCrevenue from motor vehicle registration and licensing fees. In addition, in the last three years the government has increasing allocated additional funds to land transport, to the extent that today the total expenditure by the New Zealand Transport Agency on land transport projects exceeds road tax revenue collected.[when? SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

The remainder of funding for local city and district roads primarily comes from local authority property rates.

As of 2010, transport funding in New Zealand is still heavily biased towards road projects – the National government proposes to spend $21 billion on roading infrastructure after 2012, yet only $0.7 billion on other transport projects (public transport, walking and cycling). SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

This has been criticised by opponents of the current government strategy as irresponsible, in light of increasing fuel prices and congestion.[1] Government has claimed that their priority on roads is in line with New Zealanders' favoured travel modes, and as being the most promising in terms of economic benefits.

One of the earliest counts/estimates of motor vehicles in New Zealand had them at 82,000 in 1925. Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

This soon increased to 170,000 on the eve of World War II in 1939, continuing to 425,000 in 1953 and increasing to 1,000,000 in 1971.[18] Today, the New Zealand vehicle fleet (as of December 2011) counts 3.24 million vehicles. Of the fleet, 2.60 million were light passenger vehicles, 0.38 million were light commercial vehicles, 0.11 million were trucks, .08 million were buses and .11 million were motorcycles and mopeds. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

The mean age of a New Zealand car (as of end of 2011) was 13.2 years, with trucks at 15.1 years.[19]

Just over half of the light passenger vehicles first registered in New Zealand are used imports. In 2011, 86,703 such vehicles were registered, compared to 84,593 brand new vehicles first registered in New Zealand.

Transport by bus services form the main component of public transport services in New Zealand cities, ASUS G2P CPU Fan

and the country also has a network of long-distance bus orcoach services, augmented by door-to-door inter-city shuttle vans, a type of shared taxi.

The first widespread motor vehicle services were shared taxi services termed service cars; a significant early provider was Aard, operating elongated Hudson Super-Six Coaches.[20] Aard was taken over by New Zealand Railways Road Services in 1928,[20]Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

The road fleet of New Zealand Railways Corporation was privatisedin 1991[with the long-distance business still existing as Intercity, having more recently incorporated Newmans Coachlines. Another former extensive coach business was Mount Cook Landlines, which closed in the 1990s. Internet-based nakedbus.com is building another nationwide network, partly as a reseller of several smaller bus operators' capacity. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

While relatively popular for sport and recreation, bicycle use is a very marginal commuting mode, with the percentage share hovering around 1% in many major cities, and around 2% nationwide (2000s figures). This is primarily due to safety fears. For instance Auckland Regional Transport Authority reports that “over half of Aucklanders believe it is usually unsafe, or always unsafe, to cycle”.[23] HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

The high risk to bicycle users is due to a number of factors. Motorists tend to exhibit hostile attitudes towards bicycle riders.[24] Bicycles are classed as 'vehicles', a transport class legally obliged to use the road, forcing bicycle users to mingle with heavy and fast-moving motor vehicles; only postal workers are legally permitted to ride on footpaths.[25] Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

Bicycle infrastructure and the standards underpinning bicycle infrastructure planning are poor and bicycles receive relatively very low levels of funding by both central and local government.[26] It has also been argued that the introduction of New Zealand's compulsory bicycle helmet law contributed to the decline in the popularity of cycling.

There is a total of 3,898 km of railway line in New Zealand, built to the narrow gauge of 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in). Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

Of this, 506 km is electrified. The national network is owned by state-owned enterprise New Zealand Railways Corporation divisionKiwiRail Network. The national network consists of three main trunk lines, seven secondary main lines and during its peak in the 1950s, around ninety branch lines. The majority of the latter are now closed. Most lines were constructed by government but a few were of private origin, later nationalised. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

In 1931, the Transport Licensing Act was passed, protecting the railways from competition for fifty years. The transport industry became fully deregulated in 1983.Between 1982 and 1993 the rail industry underwent a major overhaul involving corporatisation, restructuring, downsizing, line and station closures and privatisation. In 1993 the network was privatised, and until 2003 the national network was owned byTranz Rail, previously New Zealand Rail Limited. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

The Government agreed to take over control of the national rail network back when Toll Holdings purchased Tranz Rail in 2003. In May 2008 the Government agreed to buy Toll NZ's rail and ferry operations for $665 million,[27] and renamed the operating company KiwiRail.

Bulk freights dominate services, particularly coal, logs and wood products, milk and milk products, fertiliser, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

containers, steel and cars. Long distance passenger services are limited to three routes – the TranzAlpine (Christchurch – Greymouth), the TranzCoastal (Christchurch – Picton) and the Northern Explorer (Wellington – Auckland). Urban rail services operate in Wellington and Auckland, and interurban services run betweenPalmerston North and Wellington (the Capital Connection) and Masterton and Wellington (the Wairarapa Connection). Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

For most of its history, New Zealand's rail services were operated by the Railways Department. In 1982, the Department was corporatised as the New Zealand Railways Corporation. The Corporation was split in 1990 between a limited liability operating company, New Zealand Rail Limited, and the Corporation which retained a number of assets to be disposed. New Zealand Rail was privatised in 1993, and renamed Tranz Rail in 1995. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

In 2001, Tranz Rail's long-distance passenger operations, under the guise of Tranz Scenic, became a separate company; Tranz Rail chose not to bid for the contract to run Auckland's rail services, and the contract was won by Connex (now Veolia Transport Auckland). Proposals to sell Tranz Rail's Wellington passenger rail services, Tranz Metro, did not come to fruition, although the division became a separate company in July 2003. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

In 2003 Tranz Rail was purchased by Australian freight firm Toll Holdings, which renamed the company Toll NZ.

The only other significant non-heritage operator is the tourist oriented Taieri Gorge Railway in Otago, which runs regular passenger trains on part of the former Otago Central Railway and some on the Main South Line.

New Zealand has a long history of international and coastal shipping. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Both Maori and the New Zealand European settlers arrived from overseas, and during the early European settler years, coastal shipping was one of the main methods of transportation,[28] while it was hard to move goods to or from the hinterlands, thus limiting the locations of early settlement.[2]

The two main islands are separated by Cook Strait, 24 km wide at its narrowest point, but requiring a 70-km ferry trip to cross.Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

This is the only large-scale long-distance car / passenger shipping service left, with all others restricted to short ferry routes to islands like Stewart Island/Rakiura or Great Barrier Island.

New Zealand has 1,609 km of navigable inland waterways; however these are no longer significant transport routes.

Historically, international shipping to and from New Zealand started out with the first explorer-traders, Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

with New Zealand waters soon becoming a favourite goal for whalers as well as merchants trading with the Maori and beginning European colonies.

In the 19th century, one of the most important changes for New Zealand shipping – and for New Zealand itself – came with the introduction of refrigerated ships, which allowed New Zealand to export meat to overseas, primarily to the United Kingdom. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

This led to a booming agricultural industry which was suddenly offered a way to ship their goods to markets around the world.Larger, deeper-draught ships from the middle of the 19th century made dredges a common sight in shipping channels around New Zealand, and tugboats were also often bought to assist them to the quays, where electric or hydraulic cranes were increasingly used for on- and off-loading. Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

However, manpower was still needed in large amounts, and waterfronts were the hotbeds of the industrial actions of the early 20th century.[29]In the 1970s, containerisation revolutionised shipping, eventually coming to New Zealand as well. The local harbour boards wrought massive changes on those ports selected (after much political wrangling) to handle the new giant vessels, such as Lyttelton and Auckland Port. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

Gantry cranes, straddle carriers and powerful tugboats were built or purchased, and shipping channels dredged deeper, while large areas of land were reclaimed to enable the new container terminals. The changes have been described as having been more radical than the changeover from sail to steam a century before.[30]

However, containerisation made many of the smaller ports suffer, this being only later recovered somewhat with newer, HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

smaller multi-purpose ships that could travel to smaller ports, and the loosening of the trade links with the United Kingdom, which diversified the trade routes. The time for river ports had gone however, and most of them disappeared, facing particular pressure from the new rail ferries,[29][30] In the 1980s, deregulation also involved and heavily changed the port industry, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

with harbour boards abolished, and replaced by more commercially-focussed companies. Many port jobs were lost, though shipping costs fell.

As noted above, coastal shipping has long played a significant role in New Zealand. It was very efficient for moving large amounts of goods, Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

and relatively quick. In 1910, it was noted in a discussion with the Minister of Railways that a fruit grower at Port Albert (near Wellsford, less than 150 km from Auckland) had found it cheaper to ship his canned fruit to Lyttleton in the South Island by boat, and thence back to Auckland again, rather than pay rail freight rates from nearby Wellsford to Auckland.[31] HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

The industry however also faced a number of troubled times as well, such as during World War II when ship requisitioning caused shortages in the transport operation.[32] While many ports reopened after the war, they (and coastal shipping in general) faced huge pressure from rail[29] (presumably now offering improved freight rates compared to the 1910 era). HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

After cabotage was abolished in 1994, international shipping lines became able to undertake coastal shipping as opportune to them on their international routes to New Zealand. While reducing the cargo reshipment rates for New Zealand industry, this is seen by some as a heavy blow for local competitors, who, specialised in coastal shipping only, HP G60-230us CPU Fan

are less able to achieve the costs savings of large lines – these can generally operate profitably even without cargo on New Zealand-internal legs of their routes, and are thus able to underbid others. The law change has been accused of having turned the New Zealand business into a 'sunset industry' which will eventually die out.[33]

In the financial year 2003 / 2004 coastal cargo in New Zealand totalled around 8.6 million tonnes, of which 85% was still carried by local, and 15% by overseas shipping.[34] HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

In 2009, the National Party announced that funding for coastal shipping and supporting infrastructure, part of the "Sea Change" plan of the previous Labour government, would be cut to a substantial degree. The move was heavily criticised, amongst others, by the Green Party,[35] and the Maritime Union of New Zealand.

Regular roll-on roll-off ferry services link the North and South Islands between Wellington and Picton, HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

since 1962.[18]Interisland Line, a division of KiwiRail, owns the main inter-island ferry service, the Interislander. Two of the three ferries used by the Interislander, Arahura and Aratere, are rail ferries with special rail decks. The largest and newest ferry, Kaitaki came into service in September 2005. A competitor service is operated by Strait Shipping Ltd, using the former French Santa Regina and the former Danish Straitsman, under the Bluebridge brand. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

Depending on the vessel, usual transit time between the North and South Islands is between three hours and three hours twenty minutes. Faster catamaran ferries were used by Tranz Rail and its competitors. To reduce voyage times, Tranz Rail proposed to relocate the South Island terminal of its services to Clifford Bay in Marlborough, which would also avoid a steep section of railway. IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

This proposal has been shelved since the takeover by Toll Holdings in 2003.

Smaller ferries operate in the Bay of Islands, Rawene (Northland), Auckland, Tauranga, Wellington, the Marlborough Sounds andLyttelton (Christchurch), and between Bluff and Halfmoon Bay (Stewart Island/Rakiura).

Passenger ferry service also operated for many years between Wellington and Lyttleton (the port closest to Christchurch). HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

This service was operated by the Union Steam Ship Company, and the passenger ferries typically operated an overnight service, although in later years the last of these vessels, the Rangatira, operated alternate nights in each direction plus a daylight sailing between Lyttleton up to Wellington on Saturdays (so as to get a balance of four sailings in each direction, each week). DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

One of these passenger ferries, the Wahine, was lost in a storm as it entered Wellington Harbour on 10 April 1968, with the loss of 51 passengers and crew. The final sailing of the Rangatira, which was custom built and entered service in 1972, was on 15 September 1976, after two money losing years (subsidised by the NZ government).

The economy of Oceania comprises more than 14 separate countries and their associated economies. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

On a total scale the region has approximately 34,700,201[1] inhabitants who are spread among 30,000 islands] in the South Pacific bordered between Asia and the Americas. This region has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial market of Australia to the much less developed economies that belong to many of its island neighbours. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

New Zealand is the only other 1st world nation in the region, although the economy of Australia is by far the largest and most dominant economy in the region and one of the largest in the world.

The smallest Pacific nations rely on trade with Australia, New Zealand and the United States for exporting goods and for accessing other products. Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

Australia and New Zealand's trading arrangements are known as Closer Economic Relations. Australia and New Zealand, along with other countries, are members of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the East Asia Summit (EAS), which may become trade blocs in the future particularly EAS.

The overwhelming majority of people living in the Pacific islands work in the service industry which includes tourism, education and financial services. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States and South Korea. The majority of people living in Australia and to a lesser extent, New Zealand work in mining, electrical and manufacturing sectors also.

Tourism has become a large source of income for many in the Pacific; tourists come from Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the United Kingdom and the USA. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Fijicurrently draws almost half a million tourists each year; more than a quarter from Australia. This contributes $1 billion or more since 1995 to Fiji's economy but the Government of Fiji islands underestimate these figures due to invisible economy inside tourism industry.

Agriculture and natural resources constitutes only 5% to 10% of Oceania's total jobs, but contributes substantially to export performance. Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

The most populous two nations, Australia and New Zealand, are also the most developed and have majority service industries. This dilutes the data from the less developed Pacific Island nations who have major agricultural economies. Most of the Pacific countries (excluding Australia and New Zealand) the primary industry is agriculture. Many nations are still quintessentially agricultural; ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

for example, 80% of the population of Vanuatu and 70% of the population of Fiji works in agriculture. The main produce from the pacific is copra or coconut, but timber, beef, palm oil, cocoa, sugar and ginger are also commonly grown across the tropics of thePacific. Fishing provides a major industry for many of the smaller nations in the Pacific, although many fishing areas are exploited by other larger countries, namely Japan. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Natural Resources, such as lead, zinc, nickel and gold, are mined in Australia and the Solomon Islands. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States, India, South Korea and the European Union.

\Oceania's most populous nations, Australia and New Zealand, are both highly developed nations and are large international aid donors. SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

These two wealthy nations share the region with less developed nations which still rely on foreign aid for development. In the 2007/08 financial year Australia provided $3.155 billion worth of official development assistance, of which $2.731 billion will be managed by AusAID. Every week, each Australian puts in around $2.40 to pay for Australia's aid program, SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

amounting to around 1% of the Australian Federal Government expenditure compared to the 42% spent on social security and welfare.New Zealand's electricity market is regulated by the Electricity Industry Participation Code administered by the Electricity Authority (NZ). The Authority was established in November 2010 to replace the Electricity Commission (NZ). HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

Until 1987, New Zealand had a centrally run system of providers of generation, transmission, distribution, and retailing. Since then, a step-by-step process of industry reform has led to the separation of the monopoly elements from the contestable elements to create competitive markets in energy generation and electricity retailing, while imposing regulation on the natural monopolies of transmission and distribution.[1] HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

Currently the market is split into the following areas: regulation, generation, administration and market clearing, transmission, distribution, metering and retailing.The wholesale market for electricity operates under the Electricity Industry Participation Code,[2] and is overseen by the market regulator, the Electricity Authority. Trade takes place at more than 200 pricing nodes across New Zealand.[3] HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

Generators can make offers to supply electricity at grid injection points, while retailers and some major industrial users make bids to withdraw "offtake" electricity at grid exit points. The market uses a locational marginal pricing auction which takes generators’ offers and retailers’ bids, and computes final prices and quantities at each node. The auction is held every half hour.Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

The Authority contracts out the services required to run the electricity market. The Reconciliation Manager, who reconciles all metered quantities, Pricing Manager, who determines the final prices at each node, and Clearing and Settlement Manager, who pays generators for their generation at the market clearing price and invoices all retailers for their offtake, HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

are all contracted to New Zealand Exchange (the NZX), who acquired the previous service provider M-Co in June 2009.The owner of the national transmission grid is Transpower, a state-owned enterprise. Transpower is also the System Operator, responsible for ensuring real time electricity supply security and quality. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

Transpower is the market scheduler, predicting likely demand to help generators make bids, and the dispatcher, in charge of matching demand and supply in real time.[4]

Distribution of electricity from the grid exit points to the end consumers' premises is the responsibility of 28 distributors who have monopoly control of the lines services on their networks. Ownership of distributors, COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

also known as lines companies, is through trust-owned companies and public companies. Some major industrial users are directly connected to the grid, such as New Zealand Steel and the Tiwai Point Aluminium Smelter.

As of October 2011, there are five major generators in New Zealand: Meridian Energy, Genesis Power, Mighty River Power, Contact Energy, and TrustPower. These five together produce about 95% of New Zealand's electricity. Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

The first two are state-owned enterprises; the others publicly traded companies. An important feature of the New Zealand market is that all the major generators also own retailing arms. The companies are thus commonly known as "gentailers". Retailers purchase electricity from the wholesale market, and on-sell it to consumers. Retailers currently active are: HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

Bay of Plenty Electricity, Bosco Connect, Contact Energy, Energy Direct, Empower,Energy Online, Genesis Energy, Just Energy, King Country Energy, Mercury Energy, Meridian Energy, Nova Energy, Powershop,Simply Energy, Pulse Energy, Tiny Mighty Power and TrustPower.[5]

Most of the retailers are linked to generating companies or have common ownership. HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

For example Empower is backed by Contact Energy, Powershop is owned by Meridian Energy, Bosco Connect is a brand owned by Mighty River Power, Energy Online is owned by Genesis Energy, Mercury Energy is owned by the generator Mighty River Power, and Nova Energy and Bay of Plenty Energy have common ownership.[6] Not all retailers supply to all locations, for instance Bosco Connect only supplies to Auckland inner-city apartments. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

Competition for retail customers varies across the country but since 1999, when full retail competition was introduced, customers have switched at a rate between 9% and 14% per annum.

Electricity is traded at a wholesale level in a spot market. The market operation is managed by several service providers under agreements with the Electricity Authority (NZ).[8] SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

The physical operation of the market is managed by Transpower in its role as System Operator.

Generators submit offers (bids) through a Wholesale Information and Trading System (WITS). Each offer covers a future half-hour period (called a trading period) and is an offer to generate a specified quantity at that time in return for a nominated price. HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

The System Operator (Transpower) uses a scheduling, pricing and dispatch (SPD) system to rank offers, submitted through WITS, in order of price, and selects the lowest-cost combination of offers (bids) to satisfy demand.The market pricing principle is known as bid-based security-constrained economic dispatch with nodal prices.The highest-priced bid offered by a generator required to meet demand for a given half-hour sets the spot price for that trading period. HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

Electricity spot prices can vary significantly across trading periods, reflecting factors such as changing demand (e.g. lower prices in summer when demand is subdued) and supply (e.g. higher prices when hydro lakes and inflows are below average). Spot prices can also vary significantly across locations, reflecting electrical losses and constraints on the transmission system (e.g. higher prices in locations further from generating stations). HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

Trades take place at approximately 285 nodes (grid injection points and grid exit points) across New Zealand every half-hour. Generators make offers to supply electricity at 59 grid injection points (GIPs) at power stations, while retailers and major users make bids to buy electricity at 226 grid exit points (GXPs) on the national grid.

Final prices at each node, taking account of grid losses and constraints, are processed and confirmed the following day.[9] HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

All electricity generated is required to be traded through the central pool, with the exception of small generating stations of less than 10MW.[10] Bilateral and other hedge arrangements are possible, but function as separate financial contracts. Trading develops by bids (purchaser/demand) and offers (generator/supply) for 48 half hour periods for each pricing nodes on the national grid. Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

Bids and offers start 36 hours before the actual real-time consumption or ‘trading period’. Up to 4 hours (pre-dispatch) before the ‘trading period’ starts a new ‘forecast price’ is calculated to guide participants in the market. From four hours to the start of the trading period every half hour a ‘dispatch price’ is calculated and communicated. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Two hours before the start of the ‘trading period’ bids and offers can no longer be revised (with some exceptions) and the new prices reflect Transpower's adjustments in load forecasts and system availability.

During each half hour period Transpower publishes a new real-time price every five minutes, and a time-weighted 30-minute average price. Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

The real-time prices are used by some large direct-connect consumers to adapt their demand. The above prices are however guidelines only as the ‘final prices’ are calculated ex-post (normally noon the following day, unless there are irregularities or disputes) using the offer prices as established two hours before the ‘trading period’ and volumes as established during the ‘trading period’. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

Differences between forecast, dispatch, real-time and final prices can be significant.

Regulation of the electricity market started in a light-handed fashion but there has been an increasing trend towards more heavy-handed regulation. Light-handed regulation is based on the threat of regulation providing an incentive on companies with market power to exercise self-regulation. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The normal regulatory legislation such as the Companies Act, Electricity Act, Resource Management Act 1991, Commerce Act 1986, and Fair Trading Act 1986 provide the framework for regulating normal commercial and environmental transactions.

The government has increased the extent of intervention through the Electricity Industry Reform Act 1998, HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

which forced power companies to divest either their energy or their lines business, and the Electricity Amendment Act 2001. The latter led to another round of industry reform concentrating on achieving bettergovernance of the electricity market and tighter control of monopoly functions. The "threat of regulation" was extended to the production of a set of regulations that would be brought into effect if the industry's self-regulation did not meet the Government's criteria. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

On 16 May 2003 the result of a referendum by industry participants and customer representatives on a proposed set of self-regulating rules was announced:Consumers voted 4.4% for the proposal Traders voted 66.2% for the proposal (traders = generating companies and retailers) Transporters voted 47.4% for the proposal (transporters = distributors and Transpower) HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

As there was not a substantial majority of all classes in favour of the proposal it was not implemented.

The result put paid to the prospect of a multilateral agreement on the governance and operational arrangements for the electricity market. The New Zealand government invoked the regulations already prepared to meet this contingency. The "threat of regulation" had been insufficient to stave off regulation. HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

On 2 July 2003 a draft set of Electricity Governance Regulations and Rules was issued on behalf of the Minister of Energy by the Electricity Commission Establishment Unit (ECEU). This set was for consultation purposes and after submissions were received and reviewed, a set of regulations and rules was recommended to the Governor-General. HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

In September 2003 a revised set of draft rules and regulations was issued by the ECEU for submissions by the end of October. The set did not include proposed transmission regulations, which were still being drafted. Also in September the Minister of Energy announced the chair and members of the Electricity Commission. SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

Roy Hemmingway, whose most recent position was chairperson of the Oregon Public Utility Commission in the USA, took on the role as chairperson of the Commission.The final set of Electricity Governance Regulations and Rules (excluding rules for transmission) became effective on 1 March 2004. The final chapter of the Electricity Governance Rules, on transmission, was gazetted on 28 April to become effective on 28 May 2004. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

A Ministerial Review of Electricity Market Performance was initiated on 1 April 2009 and led by an independent Electricity Technical Advisory Group, appointed by the Minister for Energy and Resources, with assistance from officials from the Ministry of Economic Development.[11] There were 29 recommendations arising from the review. [12] HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

One of the key recommendations approved by Cabinet was the transfer of ownership and operation of some power stations between Genesis Energy and Meridian Energyin order to increase retailer competition in both islands and to give Genesis a South Island generating base. It was decided that Genesis would receive the Tekapo A and Tekapo B hydroelectric power stations from Meridian, ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

and Meridian would receive the Whirinaki Power Station from the government (although Meridian eventually declined to accept). The transfer of Tekapo A and B was completed on 1 June 2011. [13]

On 1 November 2010, the Electricity Authority commenced operations, taking over from the Electricity Commission.[14] IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

In April 2013, the Labour Party and the Green Party said if they were to win the 2014 election, they would introduce a single buyer for electricity, in order to cut retail costs.[15] The Government responded by calling it "economic vandalism", comparing it to the Soviet Union,[16] but Greens co-leader Russel Norman said it would boost the economy and create jobs.[17] SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

By the following day, shares in privately owned power company Contact Energy had fallen by more than 10 percent. Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan,Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

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