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16 juin 2011 4 16 /06 /juin /2011 09:20

Galleries and museums

Berlin is home to 153 museums. The ensemble on the Museum Island is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is situated in the northern part of the Spree Island between the Spree and the Kupfergraben.Dell Mini 1011 battery

As early as 1841 it was designated a "district dedicated to art and antiquities" by a royal decree. Subsequently, the Altes Museum (Old Museum) in the Lustgarten displaying the bust of Queen Nefertiti, the Neues Museum (New Museum), Alte Nationalgalerie (Old National Gallery),Pergamon Museum, and Bode Museum were built there.toshiba pa3332u-1brs battery

While these buildings once housed distinct collections, the names of the buildings no longer necessarily correspond to the names of their collections.

Apart from the Museum Island, there are many additional museums in the city. HP Compaq 6710b Adapter

The Gemäldegalerie (Painting Gallery) focuses on the paintings of the "old masters" from the 13th to the 18th centuries, while the Neue Nationalgalerie (New National Gallery, built by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe) specializes in 20th century European painting.HP Compaq nx6325 Adapter

The Hamburger Bahnhof, located in Moabit, exhibits a major collection of modern and contemporary art. In spring 2006, the expanded Deutsches Historisches Museum re-opened in the Zeughaus with an overview of German history through the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. The Bauhaus Archive is an architecture museum.Acer Aspire 5720 Adapter

The Jewish Museum has a standing exhibition on two millennia of German-Jewish history. The German Museum of Technology in Kreuzberg has a large collection of historical technical artifacts. The Museum für Naturkunde exhibits natural history near Berlin Hauptbahnhof.Toshiba Equium A110-252 Battery

It has the largest mounted dinosaur in the world (a brachiosaurus), and a preserved specimen of the early bird Archaeopteryx.

In Dahlem, there are several museums of world art and culture, such as the Museum of Asian Art, the Ethnological Museum,Acer Aspire 5052ANWXMi Battery

the Museum of European Cultures, as well as the Allied Museum (a museum of the Cold War) and the Brücke Museum (an art museum). In Lichtenberg, on the grounds of the former East German Ministry for State Security (Stasi), is the Stasi Museum. Dell Mini 1011v battery

The site ofCheckpoint Charlie, one of the most renowned crossing points of the Berlin Wall, is still preserved and also has a museum, a private venture which exhibits comprehensive documentation of detailed plans and strategies devised by people who tried to flee from the East.HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter

The Beate Uhse Erotic Museum near Zoo Station claims to be the world's largest erotic museum.

Performing arts

Berlin is home to more than 50 theaters. The Deutsches Theater in Mitte was built in 1849–50 and has operated continuously since then, except for a one-year break (1944–45) due to the Second World War. Dell Vostro 1510 Battery

The Volksbühne at Rosa Luxemburg Platz was built in 1913–14, though the company had been founded in 1890. The Berliner Ensemble, famous for performing the works of Bertolt Brecht, was established in 1949, not far from the Deutsches Theater.Toshiba PA3534U-1BRS Battery

TheSchaubühne was founded in 1962 in a building in Kreuzberg, but in 1981 moved to the building of the former Universum Cinema on Kurfürstendamm.

Berlin has three major opera houses: the Deutsche Oper, the Berlin State Opera, and the Komische Oper. Asus M50 battery

The Berlin State Opera on Unter den Linden opened in 1742 and is the oldest of the three. Its current musical director isDaniel Barenboim. The Komische Oper has traditionally specialized in operettas and is located at Unter den Linden as well.Asus Eee PC 901 Battery

The Deutsche Oper opened in 1912 in Charlottenburg. During the division of the city from 1961 to 1989 it was the only major opera house in West Berlin.

There are seven symphony orchestras in Berlin. The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the preeminent orchestras in the world;Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery

it is housed in the Berliner Philharmonie near Potsdamer Platz on a street named for the orchestra's longest-serving conductor, Herbert von Karajan. The current principal conductor is Simon Rattle. The Konzerthausorchester Berlin was founded in 1952 as the orchestra for East Berlin, since the Philharmonic was based in West Berlin. HP Compaq Business NC6220 Battery

Its current principal conductor is Lothar Zagrosek. The Haus der Kulturen der Welt presents various exhibitions dealing with intercultural issues and stages world music and conferences.

Cuisine

Berlin is home to a diverse gastronomy scene reflecting the immigrant history of the city.Sony VGP-BPS9 battery

Twelve restaurants in Berlin have been included into the Michelin guide, which ranks the city at the top for the number of its restaurants having this distinction in Germany.

Many local foods originated from north-German culinary traditions and include rustic and hearty dishes with pork, goose, fish, peas, beans, cucumbers or potatoes.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

Typical Berliner fares include Currywurst, invented in 1949, Eisbein, the Berliner known as a Pfannkuchen, and Leber Berliner Art(Berlin-style liver). HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter

Turkish and Arab immigrant workers brought their culinary traditions to the city; for example, the döner kebab, falafel and lahmacun, which have become common fast-food staples. The modern fast-food version of the döner was invented in Berlin in 1971.[HP Compaq 2510p Adapter]

Recreation

Zoologischer Garten Berlin, the older of two zoos in the city, was founded in 1844, and presents the most diverse range of species in the world.It was the home of the captive-born celebrity polar bear Knut, born in December 2006.Dell Studio PP39L battery

The city's other zoo is Tierpark Friedrichsfelde, founded in 1955 on the grounds of Schloss Friedrichsfelde in the Borough of Lichtenberg.

Berlin's Botanischer Garten includes the Botanic Museum Berlin. Nikon COOLPIX 5700  Battery

With an area of 43 hectares (110 acres) and around 22,000 different plant species it is one of the largest and most diverse gardens in the world. Other gardens in the city include the Britzer Garten, site of the 1985 Bundesgartenschau, and the Erholungspark Marzahn, promoted under the name Gardens of the world.[Dell Studio XPS 16 battery]

The Tiergarten is Berlin's largest park located in Mitte and was designed by Peter Joseph Lenné.In Kreuzberg the Viktoriapark provides a good viewing point over the southern part of inner city Berlin. Treptower Park beside the Spree in Treptow has a monument honoring the Soviet soldiers killed in the 1945Battle of Berlin. HP Compaq nx7400 Adapter

The Volkspark in Friedrichshain, which opened in 1848, is the oldest park in the city. Its summit is man-made and covers a Second World War bunker and rubble from the ruins of the city; at its foot is Germany's main memorial to Polish soldiers.HP Pavilion DV6500 Adapter

Berlin is known for its numerous beach bars along the river Spree. Together with the countless cafés, restaurants and green spaces in all districts, they create an important source of recreation and leisure time.

Sports

Berlin has established a high-profile reputation as a host city of international sporting events.Dell T117C battery

Berlin hosted the 1936 Olympics and was the host city for the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final. The IAAF World Championships in Athletics were held in the Olympiastadion in August 2009. The annual Berlin Marathon and the annual ÅF Golden League event ISTAF for athletics are also held here.Acer PA-1650-02 Adapter

The FIVB World Tour has chosen an inner-city site near Alexanderplatz to present a beach volleyball Grand Slam every year.

Open Air gatherings of several hundred thousands spectators have become popular during international football competitions, like the World Cup or the UEFA European Football Championship. Acer Aspire 5920G Adapter

Many fans and viewers are coming together to watch the matches on huge video screens. The event is known as the Fan Mile and takes place at the Brandenburg Gate every two years.

The economy of Berlin has been affected through the years by the city's changing political fortunes.Asus S1 Adapter

Berlin was once a major manufacturing center and the economic and financial hub of Germany. The city suffered economically during the Cold War, when West Berlin was isolated geographically and East Berlin suffered from poor economic decisions made by East Germany’s socialist central planners. HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery

Since reunification, the city has relied increasingly on economic activity in the service sectors, but nevertheless still has one of the lowest per capita income of all metropolitan regions in Germany and a record accumulated state debt .Ibm Thinkpad T30 Battery

Berlin was founded at a point where trade routes crossed the River Spree and quickly became a commercial center. During the early modern period, the city prospered from its role as Prussian capital by manufacturing luxury goods for the Prussian court and supplies for the Prussian military.Dell Studio PP39L battery

During the mid-19th century, the Industrial Revolution transformed the city’s economy. Berlin became Germany’s main rail hub and a center of locomotivemanufacturing. The city became a leader in the manufacture of other kinds of machinery as well, and developed an important chemical industry sector. HP Pavilion dv5 Adapter

Toward the end of the 19th century, Berlin became a world leader in the then cutting-edge sector of electrical equipment manufacturing. As the de facto center of the German Zollverein, or Customs Union, and later the seat of the Reichsbank, Berlin became Germany’s banking and financial center as well.HP Compaq Business NC6400 Battery

Berlin suffered from both the German hyperinflation of the 1920s and the Great Depression of the 1930s. The city’s economy revived as a center of weapons production under the Nazis, but it lost a pool of entrepreneurial talent when the Nazis forced Jewish businessmen to sell their holdings and ultimately massacred most who did not flee Germany. HP Compaq 490306-001 battery

World War II severely damaged Berlin’s industrial infrastructure, and Soviet expropriation of machinery and other capital equipment as “war reparations” further damaged Berlin’s industrial base. Soviet restrictions on transport impeded communication with West Germany and ended hopes that Berlin Compaq Presario CQ35-100 battery

would resume a role as Germany’s financial center; most banks established headquarters in Frankfurt. In East Berlin, socialist central planners rebuilt a manufacturing sector, but one that was not competitive internationally or responsive to market demand.HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51 battery

West Berlin’s economy grew increasingly dependent on state subsidies and on its role as an educational and research center.

Berlin’s and Germany’s unification brought the collapse of many of East Berlin’s producers, which could not compete with market-disciplined Western competitors. HP Pavilion ZE4500 battery

Massive unemployment was only partly compensated by the growth of jobs in the construction and infrastructural sectors involved in rebuilding and upgrading East Berlin’s infrastructure. The arrival of the federal government in 1999 brought some economic stimulus to Berlin. HP G62-100EB battery

Berlin’sservice sectors have also benefited from improved transportation and communications links to the surrounding region. While some manufacturing remains in the city (Siemens and Schering have headquarters in Berlin, for instance), the service sectors have become the city’s economic mainstay. HP Pavilion DV6-1211AX battery

Recently, research and development have gained significance, and Berlin now ranks among the top three innovative regions in the EU (after Baden-Württemberg and the Île-de-France region). However, growth in the research and development sector has not been sufficient to offset job losses, and unemployment remains high, at 16.5% as of October 2006. HP Pavilion DV6-1220SO battery

Berlin has been called the "Capital of poverty", because in no other State of Germany so many people are living on welfare benefits (in percentage, not in absolute numbers). In 2005 an estimated 15,2% of the population received welfare (ALGII or Sozialgeld).HP EliteBook 6930P battery

In 2006 36,1% percent of all Berlin children aged 15 and younger received Sozialgeld, which is given to children, who live with an able bodied person, who qualifies for welfare. According to the Bertelsmann Stiftung the high rate of families headed by a very young single caretaker is to blame for this.HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery

Fast-growing sectors are communications, life sciences, mobility and services with information and communication technologies, media and music, advertising and design, biotechnology and environmental services, transportation and medical engineering.Compaq Presario CQ71 battery

Berlin is among the top five congress cities in the world and is home to Europe's biggest convention center in the form of the Internationales Congress Centrum (ICC). It contributes to the rapidly increasing tourism sector encompassing 592 hotels with 90,700 beds and numbered 17.3 million overnight stays and 7.5 million hotel guests in 2007. HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery

Berlin has established itself as the third most visited city destination in the European Union. The figures indicate the first surplus in the history of the city state. Due to increasing growth rates and tax revenues, the Senate of Berlin forecasted budget surpluses in 2008 and 2009.HP G6000 battery

Berlin has developed a highly complex transportation infrastructure providing very diverse modes of urban mobility.[1] 979 bridges cross 197 kilometers of innercity waterways, 5,334 kilometres (3,314 mi) of roads run through Berlin, of which 73 kilometres (45 mi) are motorways.HP HDX X18-1005EA battery

Long-distance rail lines connect Berlin with all of the major cities of Germany and with many cities in neighboring European countries. Regional rail lines provide access to the surrounding regions of Brandenburg and to the Baltic Sea.HP Pavilion DV6-3013SL battery

In 2006, 1.416 million motor vehicles were registered in the city. With 416 vehicles per 1000 inhabitants (587/1000 in Germany), Berlin as a German state and as a major European city has one of the lowest numbers of cars per capita.HP Compaq HSTNN-IB62 battery

Autobahn links

Berlin is linked to the rest of Germany and neighbouring countries by the country's autobahn network, including the:

  • A2 to Hannover and the Ruhr area, with links to Frankfurt am Main and western Germany HP Pavilion DV6100 battery
  • A9 to Leipzig, Nuremberg and Munich, with links to Frankfurt am Main and southern Germany
  • A11 to Szczecin, with links to north-east Germany and Poland
  • A12 to Frankfurt (Oder), with links to Poland  HP EliteBook 2730P battery
  • A13 to Dresden, with links to Poland and the Czech Republic
  • A24 to Hamburg, with links to north-west Germany  HP Pavilion DV9000 battery

All of these autobahn terminate at the A10 Berliner Ring, a 196 kilometres (122 mi) long autobahn that encircles the city at some distance from the centre, and largely in the surrounding state of Brandenburg. Central Berlin is connected to the A 10 by several shorter autobahn:HP Pavilion DV7 battery

  • A111 to the northwest (towards the A24 and Tegel Airport)
  • A113 to the southeast (towards the A12, A13 and Schönefeld Airport)
  • A114 to the north (towards the A11) HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery
  • A115 to the southwest (towards the A2 and A9)

The A111, A113 and A115 connect with the A100 Berliner Stadtring, an autobahn that forms a half circle to the west of the inner city, and is one of the busiest motorways in Germany. There are plans to extend this motorway to form a full circle around the inner city.HP Compaq Business 6735S battery

Berlin is known for its highly developed bike lane system. Around 400,000 daily riders accounting for 12% of total traffic in 2007. The Senate of Berlin aims to increase the number to 15% of city traffic by the year 2010. HP 540 battery

Riders have access to 620 kilometres (390 mi) of bike paths including some 150 kilometres (93 mi) of mandatory bicycle paths, 190 kilometres (120 mi) of off-road bicycle routes, 60 kilometres (37 mi) of bike lanes on the roads, 70 kilometres (43 mi) of shared bus lanes which are also open to bicyclists, HP Compaq Business NW9440 battery

100 kilometres (62 mi) of combined pedestrian/bike paths and 50 kilometres (31 mi) of marked bike lanes on sidewalks.

Water transport

Berlin is linked to the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, and the River Rhine by an extensive network of rivers, lakes and canals.HP Compaq Business  TC4400 battery

An equally extensive network of waterways exists within the city boundaries, providing local access and various short-cuts. The waterways accommodate a mixture of commercial traffic, sightseeing tour boats, ferries and a large fleet of private leisure boats.HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

The waterways of Berlin

Berlin city centre is located on the River Spree, which runs roughly east to west across the city. The River Dahme joins the Spree at Köpenick, in the city's eastern suburbs. At Spandau the Spree joins the River Havel, which flows roughly north to south along the city's western boundary. HP HSTNN-LB31 battery

To both east and west of the centre of Berlin, all three of these rivers flow through substantial chains of lakes. These include the Tegeler See and Großer Wannsee to the west, and theMüggelsee, Langer See, Seddinsee and Zeuthener See to the east. HP Pavilion DV5-1211EM  battery

The Elbe–Havel Canal links the River Havel downstream of Spandau with both the River Elbe, which flows into the North Sea at Hamburg, and with theMittelland Canal, which stretches across Germany to a network of canals that provide a link to the River Rhine. HP Pavilion DV3-4000  battery

Both the Oder–Havel and Oder–Spree canals provide routes from the Berlin area to the River Oder, which flows into the Baltic Sea near Szczecin and provides links to Poland. The Oder-Havel Canal links with the River Havel north of Spandau, whilst the Oder-Spree Canal links with the River Dahme east of Köpenick.HP Pavilion TX1000 battery

The most important canals within Berlin run roughly east to west between the rivers Spree and Havel. The canal system to the north of the Spree begins with the Berlin-Spandau Ship Canal, which runs from the Spree near the Hauptbahnhof to the River Havel above Spandau. HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA  battery

The Westhafen Canal and the Charlottenburg Canal, both near Charlottenburg, provide further connections between the Berlin-Spandau Ship Canal and the River Spree.

The main canal to the south of the Spree is the Teltow Canal, which runs from the Dahme south of Köpenick through the southern part of Berlin to an arm of the Havel just east of Potsdam. HP 448007-001 battery

A shorter canal, the Landwehr Canal, parallels the Spree through the centre of Berlin. It begins at the Spree between Treptow and Kreuzberg and rejoins the Spree in Charlottenburg. The Neukölln Ship Canal connects the Landwehr Canal with the Teltow Canal; while the Britz Canal connects the Teltow Canal with the Spree at Baumschulenweg. HP Compaq Business  6530B  battery

Whilst not within Berlin, the existence of the city and its partition led to the construction of the Havel Canal in 1951-2. This canal provides an alternative route betweenHennigsdorf and Paretz, both then in East Germany, and avoids the stretch of the River Havel that was under the political control of West Berlin.HP Pavilion DV5-1211EM  battery

Waterborn traffic

Berlin's largest port is the Westhafen ("west port"), in Moabit (Mitte), with an area of 173,000 m² (42.75 acres). It lies at the intersection of the Berlin-Spandau Ship Canal and the Westhafen Canal. It handles the shipping of grain and pieced and heavy goods.HP Pavilion DV5-1015EA  battery

The Südhafen ("south port"), which actually lies along the Havel in Spandau, in far western Berlin, covers an area of about 103,000 m² (25.5 acres) and also handles the shipping of pieced and heavy goods. The Osthafen ("east port"), with an area of 57,500 m² (14.2 acres), lies along the Spree in Friedrichshain.HP Pavilion DV6-1230SB battery

The Hafen Neukölln, with only 19,000 m² (4.7 acres), is located along the Neuköllner Ship Canal in Neukölln. It handles the shipping of building materials.

Sightseeing boats operate on the central section of the River Spree and its adjoining waterways on a frequent basis.HP Pavilion ZD8181EA  battery

Common tours operated include short tours on the River Spree in the city centre, and a three hour circuit of the city centre via the River Spree and the Landwehr Canal. Other sightseeing boats operate on the various lakes to the east and west of Berlin.

Several ferry services operate on and across Berlin's waterways (see ferries below).HP Pavilion DV9500  battery

Public transport

Berlin's local public transport network consists of several integrated systems. These include the U-Bahn and S-Bahn urban rail systems, regional railway services, a tramway system, a bus network and a number of ferry services. There are a large number of common interchange stations between the different modes.HP Pavilion DV4-1125BR  battery

All these services form part of the common public transport tariff run by the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg (VBB). This covers the city of Berlin and approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) beyond the city boundaries. The area is split into three zones.HP Pavilion DV5-1111EA Battery

Zone A is the central parts of the city (inside theRingbahn), and zone B is the outer parts of Berlin City. Zone C covers an area beyond the city boundaries.

Ticket fares have a slight price difference between these three zones. For instance in June 2010, a one-day ticket for zone A+B was priced at €6.10, a zone B+C one-day travel ticket was €6.30, and for all three zones A+B+C, the price was €6.50.HP Pavilion DV6-1234TX battery

U-Bahn

The U-Bahn is an urban rapid transit rail system, and is entirely within the city borders. Whilst the majority of the system is underground, significant sections operate on elevated tracks or at street level. HP Pavilion DV3-2008TX  battery

It is operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG), the city owned municipal transport operator, and uses the common public transport tariff managed by the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg (VBB).

The U-Bahn now comprises nine lines with 173 stations and a total length of 147 kilometres (91.3 mi). HP Pavilion DV8  battery

Trains run every two to five minutes during peak hours, every five minutes for the rest of the day and every ten minutes in the evening and on Sunday. They travel 132 million km (83 million mi), carrying 400 million passengers, over the year.HP Pavilion DV6-1215SA  battery

The first line of the U-Bahn opened in 1902, and construction has continued spasmodically since then, with the most recent line opening in 2009. The first four lines to be built were built with a narrower profile and a slightly different electrification method to the later lines. HP Compaq 490306-001  battery

This is most noticeably seen in the narrower trains on the earlier lines, and rolling stock cannot easily be interchanged between the two groups of lines.

During the division of the city, the U-Bahn system was itself partitioned.Compaq Presario CQ50  battery

One line – the U5 – was entirely within East Berlin, and another – the U2 – was operated in two sections, one by each of the two sides. The remaining lines were nominally within West Berlin, although two of them passed under East Berlin without stopping, except at the Friedrichstraße station, which served as a transfer point and border crossing.HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO  battery

Whilst the city remained partitioned, there was major expansion of the U-Bahn in the west, driven both by the availability of funds from commercially successful West Germany and by the desire to provide alternatives to the East German run S-Bahn. Since reunification, expansion has been less fast.HP Compaq 490306-001  battery

S-Bahn

The S-Bahn has aspects of both rapid transit and commuter rail operation. Historically it developed from commuter services provided by main line railway operators, but now runs on tracks that are separate from, but often parallel to, other trains. Compaq Presario CQ35-100 battery

Most of the system is operated at ground level, but there are significant sections of elevated tracks and tunnels. It has a somewhat longer average distance between stations than the U-Bahn, and it also serves some of the closer suburbs in Brandenburg.HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51  battery

It is operated by a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn, the national rail operator, and uses the common public transport tariff managed by the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg (VBB).

The S-Bahn now comprises 15 routes with 166 stations and a total length of 331 kilometres (205.7 mi). HP Pavilion ZE4500  battery

Over much of the network more than one route provides service over the same tracks, and these routes all feed into one of three core lines: a central, elevated east-west line (the Stadtbahn), a central, mostly underground north-south line (the Nord-Süd-Tunnel), and a circular, mostly elevated line (the Ringbahn).HP G62-100EB  battery

The Stadtbahn carries both S-Bahn trains and regional and long-distance trains, on two separate pairs of tracks. This line passes through most of the city's long-distance and regional train stations, including Berlin-Charlottenburg, Berlin Zoologischer Garten, Berlin Hauptbahnhof, Friedrichstraße, Alexanderplatz, and Berlin Ostbahnhof. HP Pavilion DV6-1211AX  battery

The Ringbahn forms a circle around the inner city and crosses the Stadtbahn at Westkreuz ("west crossing") and Ostkreuz ("east crossing"). The Nord-Süd-Tunnel intesects the Stadtbahn at Friedrichstraße and the Ringbahn at Südkreuz and Gesundbrunnen. HP EliteBook 6930P battery

During the East German era the S-Bahn was run by the communist state, initially even in West Berlin. As a result, and as a protest against the building of theBerlin Wall, the S-Bahn was boycotted by West Berliners, and much of the system in West Berlin eventually closed through lack of traffic. HP Pavilion DV9500  battery

In 1984 the BVG took over operation of the West Berlin section of the S-Bahn. After reunification, the two halves of the S-Bahn were reunited under the ownership of the Deutsche Bahn. Compaq Evo N610C  battery

Regional trains

Berlin is the centre of a system of regional trains operated by Deutsche Bahn, which operate to destinations within the Berlin-Brandeburg suburban area beyond the range of the S-Bahn. There are two kinds of regional trains, the stopping Regionalbahn (RB) and the faster Regional-Express (RE).HP Pavilion DM3-1050EO battery

Unlike the S-Bahn, the network of regional trains does not have its own segregated tracks, but rather shares tracks with longer distance passenger and freight services. Within Berlin, regional services stop less frequently than S-Bahn services, especially where they run parallel to U-Bahn or S-Bahn lines.Compaq Presario 1245  battery

Regional trains often continue outside the Berlin-Brandenburg suburban area, but within that suburban area they use the common public transport tariff managed by the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg (VBB). This covers the city of Berlin and approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) beyond the city boundaries. HP G6000  battery

These tickets are not valid on DB InterCity trains, Intercity-Express trains and international trains, even within Berlin.

Trams

Berlin has a tram network comprising 22 tram lines serving 377 tram stops and measuring 293.78 kilometres (182.55 mi) in length.HP Compaq 451086-661  battery

All these services are operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) and use the common public transport tariff run by the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg (VBB). HP Pavilion DV2166EA  battery

Of the 22 BVG-operated tram routes, nine are designated as part of the MetroNetz, which provide a high frequency service in areas poorly served by the U-Bahn and S-Bahn. These MetroTram tram lines are recognisable by an M prefix to their route number, and are the only tram routes to operate 24 hours a day.HP Compaq 464119-143  battery

Berlin's first horse tram opened in 1865, running from Brandenburger Tor to Charlottenburg. In 1881, the world's first electric tramway was opened by Werner von Siemens in Groß-Lichterfelde, now part of Berlin. By 1910, the horse trams had been entirely replaced by electric trams.Compaq Presario CQ71  battery

Prior to the division of Berlin, tram lines existed throughout the city, but all the tram lines in the former West Berlin had been replaced by bus or U-Bahn services by 1967. However East Berlin retained its tram lines, and the current network is still predominantly in that area, although there have been a few extensions back across the old border.HP Pavilion DV9565EA  battery

Besides the BVG tram routes, two further tram lines (numbered 87 and 88) cross the Berlin city boundary in order to connect suburban S-Bahn stations within the city to the Brandenburg towns of Woltersdorf, Schöneiche and Rüdersdorf. HP Pavilion DV6203TX battery

A similar line operates within the nearby town of Strausberg, whilst the adjacent city of Potsdam has its own sizable tram network. Whilst none of these lines is operated by the BVG, they all use the VBB common tariff.HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO  battery

Buses

Berlin has a network of 149 daytime bus routes serving 2634 bus stops and with a total route length of 1,675 kilometres (1,041 mi). All these services are operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) and use the common public transport tariff run by theVerkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg (VBB).HP HSTNN-OB51  battery

Of the BVG-operated bus routes, 17 are designated as part of the MetroNetz, which provides a high frequency service in areas poorly served by the U-Bahn and S-Bahn. Like the MetroTram tram routes, these MetroBus routes can be recognised by an M prefix to their route number.HP Pavilion DV7-2185DX  battery

A further 13 BVG-operated bus routes are express routes with an X prefix to their route number.

At nighttime, Berlin is served by a night bus network of 63 bus routes serving 1508 stops and a total route length of 795 kilometres (494 mi). HP Compaq Business  6830S  battery

Most of theMetroNetz bus routes operate 24 hours a day, and form part of both the day and night networks. Again services are operated by BVG and use the VBB tariff.

BVG bus service is provided by a fleet of 1349 buses, of which no fewer than 407 are double-decker buses. HP PP2200 battery

Whilst such buses are common in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, their use elsewhere in Europe is extremely uncommon.

Ferries

Berlin has an extensive network of waterways within its city boundaries, including the Havel, Spree and Dahme rivers, and many linked lakes and canals.Compaq CQ50 battery

These are crossed by six passenger ferry routes that are operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) and use the common public transport tariff managed by the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg (VBB). HP Pavilion DV8 battery

There are also a number of other ferry routes that are not managed by BVG, and do not form part of the VBB common tariff. These include passenger and car ferries serving islands within Berlin's lakes, as well as a car ferry across the River Havel. The adjacent city of Potsdam operates a ferry that is within the VBB common tariff.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

Airports

Berlin is served by two commercial airports. Tegel Airport (TXL) the largest (inside Berlin), and Schönefeld Airport (SXF) outside of Berlin. They both handled around 21 million passengers in 2007. Together they serve 144 destinations – 124 of them in Europe.HP DV9700 battery

Tegel Airport is scheduled to close in 2012 and Schoenefeld Airport will be renamed Berlin-Brandenburg International Airport in 2011 and will handle all commercial flights to and from Berlin.

The third, Tempelhof Airport, handled short distance and commuter flights.Compaq CQ35-100 battery

It was closed against fierce opposition by a lot of Berliners at the end of October 2008.

Early aviation

The first airport in Berlin was Johannisthal Air Field which opened on 26 September 1909. HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO Battery

Followed shortly after by Staaken Airport around 1915, known for its two zeppelin halls and Lufthansa base. Then came Tempelhof Airport in 1923 and Gatow Air Field in 1934. Tegel Airport was built during the Berlin Blockade in 1948.Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

Tempelhof was the first airport in the world with regular passenger flights, opening in 1923 with flights to Königsberg (now Kaliningrad). Lufthansastarted its operations from the airport in 1926, while zeppelins also frequented the airport. HP 448007-001 battery

The airport expanded rapidly, becoming one of the largest airports in the world in the 1930s, fittingly provided with enormous halls, which are still visible today, unfinished though they may be. Tempelhof also had another first: it was the first airport to feature its own underground station. Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/L Battery

After 1945

Following World War II, Tempelhof was used as a U.S. Air Force base, while the Soviet air force relocated to Schönefeld, outside Berlin, during 1946. The Soviets had reached Tempelhof before the Western Allies. Gatow Air Field, which was taken over by the RAF in July 1945, was partially outside Berlin. Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

At thePotsdam Conference it was then decided to exchange the western half of Staaken, including Staaken Airport, for the needed territory in Gatow. Staaken Airport was then used by the Soviet air force for some time to come. Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

In April 1948, as a result of growing tension between the Soviet and the Western Allied occupying powers, West Berlin was closed off from the surrounding Soviet sector. Supplies were flown in for over a year; enormous numbers of transport planes flew in and out of Berlin every day of this period.Apple A1280 battery

The capacity of the airports then in the three Western sectors was not large enough; to relieve pressure on Gatow and Tempelhof, Tegel Airport was built in the French sector. It was constructed by a labour force mainly consisting of Berlin women, under the supervision of French engineers, within just 90 days.Apple A1281 battery

It featured a 2400 m runway - the longest in Europe at the time. Because of special Allied bylaws, Lufthansa was not allowed to use Tegel until after German reunification.

Tempelhof was returned to civil administration in 1951, Schönefeld in 1954 and Tegel in 1960.HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery

Gatow Airport remained a military airfield, used by the RAF until 1994 and closed in 1995. Tegel, the newest airport, became the main civilian airport for West Berlin, while Schönefeld served the population of East Berlin. Since the smaller airport at Tempelhof is surrounded by urban development, it could not expand.HP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery

Change to one airport

Following German reunification in 1990, the efficiency of operating three separate airports became increasingly problematic. Berlin's airport authority (the Berliner Flughafen GmbH, a subsidiary of the Flughafen Berlin-Schönefeld GmbH)Dell Latitude E6400 Battery Battery

aims to transfer all of Berlin's air traffic in November 2011 to a greatly expanded airport at Schönefeld, to be renamed Berlin Brandenburg International Airport. One airport would be more efficient and would decrease the noise pollution. The existing airport in Schönefeld will be greatly expanded to the south from its current state to allow this. HP Pavilion DM4 Battery

In fact, the new airport will only have the current southern runway (the new designated northern runway) in common with the existing airport.

Berlin-Brandenburg International is expected to become Germany's third busiest airport,Apple MB772LL/A battery

as Berlin's airports served over 21.4 million passengers in 2008. Frankfurt Airport, which served 54 million passengers in 2007, is the country's busiest airport, followed by Munich Airport, which served 34 million passengers in 2007.Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

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