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Bernard Montgomery November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and the "Spartan General"[9]was a British Army officer. He saw action in the First World War, when he was seriously wounded, and during the Second World War he commanded the 8th Army from August 1942 in the Western Desert until the final Allied victory in Tunisia. This command included the Battle of El Alamein, DELL Latitude E5410 Laptop Keyboard a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign. He subsequently commanded the Eighth Army in Sicily and Italy before being given responsibility for planning the D-Day invasion in Normandy. He was in command of all Allied ground forces during Operation Overlord from the initial landings until after the Battle of Normandy. He then continued in command of the 21st Army Group for the rest of the campaign in North West Europe.  DELL Latitude D531 Laptop Keyboard As such he was the principal field commander for the failed airborne attempt to bridge the Rhine at Arnhem and the Allied Rhine crossing. On 4 May 1945 he took the German surrender atLuneburg Heath in northern Germany. After the War he became Commander-in-Chief of the British Army of the Rhine(BAOR) in Germany and then Chief of the Imperial General Staff. lENOVO IdeaPad G550 Laptop Keyboard Montgomery was born in Kennington, London, in 1887, the fourth child of nine, to an Anglo-Irish Anglican priest, the Revd Henry Montgomery, and Maud Montgomery (née Farrar). Henry Montgomery, at the time the Vicar of St Mark's, Kennington, was the second son of the noted Indian administrator, Sir Robert Montgomery, who died a month after Bernard's birth.[10]  ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard Bernard's mother, Maud, was the daughter of the well-known preacher Frederic William Farrar, and was eighteen years younger than her husband.[11] After the death of Sir Robert Montgomery, Henry inherited the Montgomery ancestral estate of New Park at Moville, a town on the Inishowen Peninsula of northern County Donegalin the west of Ulster. However, there was still £13,000 to pay on a mortgage, SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard a fairly large amount of money in the 1880s, and Henry was at the time still only a mere parish priest. Despite selling off all of those farms that were at Ballynally, "there was barely enough to keep up New Park and pay for the blasted summer holiday" (i.e., at New Park).[12] It was a financial relief of some magnitude when, in 1889, Henry was made Bishop of Tasmania, then still a British colony. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard He considered it his duty to spend as much time as possible in the outlying country of Tasmania and was away six months at a time. While he was away his wife, still in her mid-twenties, gave her children "constant" beatings,[13] then ignored them most of the time as she performed the public duties of the bishop's wife. Of Bernard's siblings, Sibyl died prematurely in Tasmania, and Harold, Donald and Una all emigrated.[14] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In the absence of her husband, Maud Montgomery took little active interest in the education of her young children other than to have them taught by tutors brought from England. The loveless environment made Bernard something of a bully, as he himself later recalled "I was a dreadful little boy. I don't suppose anybody would put up with my sort of behaviour these days."[15] Later in life Montgomery refused to allow his son David to have anything to do with his grandmother and he refused to attend her funeral in 1949.[16] HP Pavilion DV7-2200 Laptop Keyboard The family returned home once for the Lambeth Conference in 1897, and Bernard and his brother Harold were educated for a term at The King's School, Canterbury.[17] In 1901, Bishop Montgomery became secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and the family returned to London. Montgomery went to St Paul's School and then theRoyal Military College, SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard Sandhurst, from which he was almost expelled for rowdiness and violence.[18] On graduation he joined the 1st Battalion, The Royal Warwickshire Regiment in September 1908 as a second lieutenant,[19] and first saw service later that year in India.[18] He was promoted to lieutenant in 1910.[20]He became adjutant of the 1st Battalion of his regiment at Shorncliffe in 1912.[18]  SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard The First World War began in August 1914 and Montgomery moved to France with his regiment that month.[18] He saw action at theBattle of Le Cateau that month and during the retreat from Mons.[18] At Méteren, near the Belgian border at Bailleul on 13 October 1914, during an Allied counter-offensive, he was shot through the right lung by a sniper.[18]  HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard Montgomery was hit once more though, in the knee.[21] He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for gallant leadership: the citation for this award, published in the London Gazette in December 1914 reads: Conspicuous gallant leading on 13th October, when he turned the enemy out of their trenches with the bayonet. He was severely wounded.[22]HP G62-355DX Laptop Keyboard After recovering in early 1915, he was appointed to be brigade major[23] first of 112th Brigade and then with 104th Brigadeunder training in Lancashire.[24] He returned to the Western Front in early 1916 as a general staff officer in the 33rd Division and took part in the Battle of Arras in April / May 1917.[24] He became a general staff officer with IX Corps, part of General Sir Herbert Plumer's Second Army, in July 1917.[24]HP Mini 311-1037NR Laptop Keyboard Montgomery served at the Battle of Passchendaele in Autumn 1917 before finishing the war as General Staff Officer 1 and effectively chief of staff of the 47th (2nd London) Division,[24] with the temporary rank of lieutenant-colonel.[25]TOSHIBA Portege M200 Laptop Keyboard

Between the wars

After the First World War Montgomery commanded the 17th Battalion the Royal Fusiliers,[26] a battalion in the British Army of the Rhine, before reverting to his substantive rank of captain (brevet major) in November 1919.[27] He then attended the army's Staff College, Camberley, before being appointed Brigade Major in the 17th Infantry Brigade in January 1921.[28]ACER Aspire 5742Z Laptop Keyboard The brigade was stationed in County Cork carrying out counter-insurgency operations during the final stages of the Irish War of Independence.[24] Montgomery came to the conclusion that the conflict could not be won without harsh measures, and that self-government was the only feasible solution; in 1923, after the establishment of the Irish Free State and during the Irish Civil War, Montgomery wrote to ColonelArthur Percival of the Essex Regiment: HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard Personally, my whole attention was given to defeating the rebels but it never bothered me a bit how many houses were burnt. I think I regarded all civilians as 'Shinners' and I never had any dealings with any of them. My own view is that to win a war of this sort, you must be ruthless. Oliver Cromwell, or the Germans, would have settled it in a very short time. DELL NSK-D9001 Laptop Keyboard Nowadays public opinion precludes such methods, the nation would never allow it, and the politicians would lose their jobs if they sanctioned it. That being so, I consider that Lloyd George was right in what he did, if we had gone on we could probably have squashed the rebellion as a temporary measure, but it would have broken out again like an ulcer the moment we removed the troops. I think the rebels would probably [have] refused battles, and hidden their arms etc. until we had gone.[29]DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard In May 1923, Montgomery was posted to the Territorial 49th Division.[24] He returned to the 1st Royal Warwickshire Regiment in 1925 as a company commander.[24]In January 1926 having been promoted to major in 1925,[30] he was appointed Deputy Assistant Adjutant General at the Staff College, Camberley in the temporary rank of lieutenant-colonel,[31] a position he held until January 1929 by which time he had been made a (brevet lieutenant-colonel).[32]TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Laptop Keyboard In 1927, he met and married Elizabeth Carver, widow of Oswald Carver, Olympic rowing medalist who was killed in the First World War.[33] Their son, David, was born in August 1928.[24] Elizabeth Carver was the sister of the Second World War commander Percy Hobart.[24]ACER Aspire 7741ZG Laptop Keyboard He returned to 1st Royal Warwickshire Regiment again as Commander of Headquarters Company in January 1929 and went to the War Office to help write the Infantry Training Manual in Summer 1929.[24] In 1931 Montgomery became lieutenant-colonel[34] commanding the 1st Battalion of The Royal Warwickshire Regiment and saw service in Palestine and India.[24] He was promoted to full colonel in 1934[35] and became an instructor at the Indian Army Staff College in Quetta, India.[36]DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard On completion of his tour of duty in India, Montgomery returned to Britain in June 1937[37] where he became commanding officer of the 9th Infantry Brigade with the temporary rank of brigadier,[38] but that year also saw tragedy for him; his wife was bitten by an insect while on holiday in Burnham-on-Sea. The bite became infected, and his wife died in his arms from septicaemia following an amputation.[24] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard The loss devastated Montgomery, but he insisted on throwing himself back into his work immediately after the funeral.[39] In 1938, he organised an amphibious combined operations landing exercise that impressed the new commander-in-chief, Southern Command, General Wavell. He was promoted to major-general in October 1938[40] and took command of the 8th Infantry Division[41] in Palestine.[24]HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard HP laptop keyboard There he quashed an Arab revolt before returning in July 1939 to Britain, suffering a serious illness on the way, to command the 3rd (Iron) Infantry Division.[24] On hearing of the rebel defeat in April 1939, Montgomery said, "I shall be sorry to leave Palestine in many ways, as I have enjoyed the war out here".[42] SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard

Retreat To Dunkirk and Evacuation

Britain declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939. The 3rd Division was deployed to Belgium as part of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). Montgomery's training paid off when the Germans began their invasion of the Low Countries on 10 May 1940 and the 3rd Division advanced to the River Dijle and then withdrew to Dunkirk with great professionalism, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard entering the Dunkirk perimeter in a famous night-time march which placed his forces on the left flank which had been left exposed by the Belgian surrender.[43] The 3rd Division returned to Britain intact with minimal casualties. During Operation Dynamo — the evacuation of 330,000 BEF and French troops to Britain — Montgomery assumed command of the II Corps.[44]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard On his return Montgomery antagonised the War Office with trenchant criticisms of the command of the BEF[45] and was briefly relegated to divisional command. He was however made a Companion of the Order of the Bath. In July 1940, he was appointed acting lieutenant-general,[46] placed in command of V Corps, responsible for the defence of Hampshire and Dorset,  HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard and started a long-running feud with the new commander-in-chief, Southern Command, Claude Auchinleck.[47] In April 1941, he became commander of XII Corps responsible for the defence of Kent.[44] During this period he instituted a regime of continuous training and insisted on high levels of physical fitness for both officers and other ranks. ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard He was ruthless in sacking officers he considered would be unfit for command in action.[48] In December 1941 Montgomery was given command of South-Eastern Command[49] overseeing the defence of Kent, Sussex and Surrey.[48] He renamed his command the South-Eastern Army to promote offensive spirit. During this time he further developed and rehearsed his ideas and trained his soldiers, culminating in Exercise Tigerin May 1942, a combined forces exercise involving 100,000 troops.[50] HP 550 Laptop Keyboard In 1942, a new field commander was required in the Middle East, where Auchinleck was fulfilling both the role of commander-in-chief Middle East Command and commander Eighth Army. He had stabilised the Allied position at the First Battle of El Alamein, but after a visit in August 1942, the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, replaced him as C-in-C with Alexander andWilliam Gott as commander of the Eighth Army in the Western Desert. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard After Gott was killed flying back to Cairo Churchill was persuaded by Brooke, who by this time was Chief of the Imperial General Staff to appoint Montgomery, who had only just been nominated to replace Alexander as commander of the British ground forces for Operation Torch.[51]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard A story, probably apocryphal but popular at the time, is that the appointment caused Montgomery to remark that "After having an easy war, things have now got much more difficult." A colleague is supposed to have told him to cheer up – at which point Montgomery is supposed to have said "I'm not talking about me, I'm talking about Rommel!"[52]HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard Montgomery's assumption of command transformed the fighting spirit and abilities of the Eighth Army.[53] Taking command on 13 August 1942, he immediately became a whirlwind of activity. He ordered the creation of the X Corps, which contained all armoured divisions to fight alongside his XXX Corps which was all infantry divisions. This was in no way similar to a German Panzer Corps.  HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard One of Rommel's Panzer Corps combined infantry, armour and artillery units under one corps commander. The only common commander for Montgomery's all infantry and all armour corps was the Eighth Army Commander himself. Correlli Barnett commented that Montgomery's solution "...was in every way opposite to Auchinleck's and in every way wrong, for it carried the existing dangerous separatism still further."[54]  HP Pavilion DV6-1038ca Laptop Keyboard Montgomery reinforced the 30 miles (48 km) long front line at El Alamein, something that would take two months to accomplish. He asked Alexander to send him two new British divisions (51st Highland and 44th) that were then arriving in Egypt and were scheduled to be deployed in defence of the Nile Delta. He moved his field HQ to Burg al Arab, close to the Air Force command post in order better to coordinate combined operations.[53] ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard Montgomery was determined that the Army, Navy and Air Forces should fight their battles in a unified, focused manner according to a detailed plan. He ordered immediate reinforcement of the vital heights of Alam Halfa, just behind his own lines, expecting the German commander, Erwin Rommel, HP G42t-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard to attack with the heights as his objective, something that Rommel soon did. Montgomery ordered all contingency plans for retreat to be destroyed. "I have cancelled the plan for withdrawal", he told his officers at the first meeting he held with them in the desert. "If we are attacked, then there will be no retreat. If we cannot stay here alive, then we will stay here dead."[55] HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard Montgomery made a great effort to appear before troops as often as possible, frequently visiting various units and making himself known to the men, often arranging for cigarettes to be distributed. Although he still wore a standard British officer's cap on arrival in the desert, he briefly wore an Australian broad-brimmed hat before switching to wearing the black beret (with the badge of the Royal Tank Regiment next to the British General Officer's badge) for which he became notable. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard The black beret had been offered to him by a soldier upon climbing into a tank to get a closer look at the front lines. Both Brooke and Alexander were astonished by the transformation in atmosphere when they visited on 19 August, less than a week after Montgomery had taken command.[55] SONY V072078BS1 Laptop Keyboard

First battles with Rommel

Rommel attempted to turn the left flank of the Eighth Army at the Battle of Alam Halfa from 31 August 1942. The German/Italian armoured Corps infantry attack was stopped in very heavy fighting. Rommel's forces had to withdraw urgently lest their retreat through the British minefields be cut off.[56] Montgomery was criticised for not counter-attacking the retreating forces immediately, HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop Keyboard but he felt strongly that his methodical build-up of British forces was not yet ready. A hasty counter-attack risked ruining his strategy for an offensive on his own terms in late October, planning for which had begun soon after he took command.[57]He was confirmed in the permanent rank of lieutenant-general in mid October.[58]SAMSUNG NP-N150-KA03 Laptop Keyboard The conquest of Libya was essential for airfields to support Malta and to threaten the rear of Axis forces opposing Operation Torch. Montgomery prepared meticulously for the new offensive after convincing Churchill that the time was not being wasted. (Churchill sent a telegram to Alexander on 23 September 1942 which began, "We are in your hands and of course a victorious battle makes amends for much delay."[59]) SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard He was determined not to fight until he thought there had been sufficient preparation for a decisive victory, and put into action his beliefs with the gathering of resources, detailed planning, the training of troops—especially in clearing minefields and fighting at night[60]—and in the use of 252[61] of the latest American-built Sherman tanks, 90 M7 Priest self-propelled howitzers, and making a personal visit to every unit involved in the offensive. By the time the offensive was ready in late October, Eighth Army had 231,000 men on its ration strength.[62]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard The Second Battle of El Alamein began on 23 October 1942, and ended 12 days later with the first large-scale, decisive Allied land victory of the war. Montgomery correctly predicted both the length of the battle and the number of casualties (13,500[63]). However, soon after Allied armoured units and infantry broke through the German and Italian lines and were pursuing the enemy forces at speed along the coast road,  ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard a violent rainstorm burst over the region, bogging down the tanks and support trucks in the desert mud. Montgomery, standing before his officers at headquarters and close to tears, announced that he was forced to call off the pursuit. Corelli Barnett has pointed out that the rain also fell on the Germans, and that the weather is therefore an inadequate explanation for the failure to exploit the breakthrough, HP G42-459TX Laptop Keyboard  HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard but nevertheless the Battle of El Alamein had been a great success. Over 30,000[64] prisoners were taken including the German second in command, General von Thoma, as well as eight other general officers.[65] Rommel, having been in a hospital in Germany at the start of the battle, was forced to return on 25 October 1942 after General Stumme – his replacement as German commander – died of a heart attack in the early hours of the battle.[66]TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01 Laptop KeyboardTunisia Montgomery was knighted and promoted to full general.[67] Montgomery kept the initiative, applying superior strength when it suited him, forcing Rommel out of each successive defensive position. On 6 March 1943, Rommel's attack on the over-extended Eighth Army at Medenine (Operation Capri) with the largest concentration of German armour in North Africa was successfully repulsed.[68] SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard At the Mareth Line, 20 to 27 March, when Montgomery encountered fiercer frontal opposition than he had anticipated, he switched his major effort into an outflanking inland pincer, backed by low-flying RAF fighter-bomber support.[69] For his role in North Africa he was awarded the Legion of Merit by the United States government in the rank of Chief Commander.[70]Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard The next major Allied attack was the Allied invasion of Sicily (Operation Husky). Montgomery considered the initial plans for the Allied invasion, which had been agreed in principle by Eisenhower and Alexander, to be unworkable because of the dispersion of effort. He managed to have the plans recast to concentrate the Allied forces, having Patton's Seventh US Army land in the Gulf of Gela (on the left flank of Eighth Army, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard which landed around Syracuse in the south-east of Sicily) rather than near Palermo in the west and north of Sicily.[71] Inter-Allied tensions grew as the American commanders Patton and Bradley (then commanding II US Corps under Patton), took umbrage at what they perceived as Montgomery's attitudes and boastfulness.[69]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard During the autumn of 1943, Montgomery continued to command the Eighth Army during the landings on the mainland of Italy itself.[72] In conjunction with the Anglo-American landings at Salerno (near Naples) by Mark Clark's Fifth Army and seaborne landings by British paratroops in the heel of Italy (including the key port of Taranto, where they disembarked without resistance directly into the port),  HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard Montgomery led the Eighth Army up the toe of Italy.[72] Montgomery abhorred the lack of coordination, the dispersion of effort, and the strategic muddle and opportunism he perceived in the Allied effort in Italy and was glad to leave the "dog's breakfast" on 23 December 1943.[69] SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard Montgomery returned to Britain in January 1944[73] to take command of the 21st Army Groupwhich consisted of all Allied ground forces that would take part in Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy.[72] At St Paul's School on 7 April and 15 May he presented his strategy for the invasion. He envisaged a ninety day battle, ending when all the forces reached the Seine, pivoting on an Allied-held Caen, with British and Canadian armies forming a shoulder and the US armies wheeling on the right.[69]HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard During the hard fought two and a half month Battle of Normandy that followed, the impact of a series of unfavourable autumnal weather conditions disrupted the Normandy landing areas.[69] Montgomery's initial plan was for an immediate break-out toward Caen. Unable to do so, as the British did not get enough forces ashore to exploit the successful landing, DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard Montgomery's advance was checked. When it appeared unlikely that the British Second Army would break out, Montgomery's contingency was designed to attract German forces to the British sector to ease the passing of United States Army through German defences to the west, during Operation Cobra. This series of battle plans by the British, Canadian and American armies trapped and defeated the German forces in Normandy in the Falaise pocket. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard The campaign that Montgomery fought was essentiallyattritional until the middle of July with the occupation of the Cotentin Peninsula and a series of offensives in the east, which secured Caen and attracted the bulk of German armour there. An American break-out was achieved with Operation Cobra and the encirclement of German forces in the Falaise pocket at the cost of British sacrifice with the diversionary Operation Goodwood.[74]HP 516884-001 Laptop Keyboard Advance to the Rhine The increasing preponderance of American troops in the European theatre (from five out of ten divisions at D-Day to 72 out of 85 in 1945) made it a political impossibility for the Ground Forces Commander to be British. After the end of the Normandy campaign, General Eisenhower himself took over Ground Forces Command on 1 September, while continuing as Supreme Commander, SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard with Montgomery continuing to command the 21st Army Group, now consisting mainly of British and Canadian units. Montgomery bitterly resented this change, although it had been agreed before the D-Day invasion.[75] Winston Churchill had Montgomery promoted to field marshal[76] by way of compensation.[75]HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard Montgomery was able to persuade Eisenhower to adopt his strategy of a single thrust to the Ruhr with Operation Market Gardenin September 1944. It was uncharacteristic of Montgomery's battles: the offensive was strategically bold, but poorly planned. Montgomery either did not receive or ignored ULTRA intelligence which warned of the presence of German armoured units near the site of the attack.[77]Dell Latitude D400 Laptop Keyboard When the surprise attack on the Ardennes took place on 16 December 1944, starting the Battle of the Bulge, the front of theU.S. 12th Army Group was split, with the bulk of the U.S. First Army being on the northern shoulder of the German 'bulge'. The Army Group commander, General Omar Bradley, was located south of the penetration at Luxembourg and command of the U.S. First Army became problematic. Dell Latitude D410 Laptop Keyboard Montgomery was the nearest commander on the ground and on 20 December, Eisenhower (who was in Versailles) transferred Courtney Hodges' U.S. First Army and William Simpson's U.S. Ninth Army to his 21st Army Group, despite Bradley's vehement objections on national grounds.[nb 1] Montgomery grasped the situation quickly, visiting all divisional, corps, HP 407857-001 Laptop Keyboard and army field commanders himself and instituting his 'Phantom' network of liaison officers. He grouped the British XXX Corps as a strategic reserve behind the Meuse and reorganised the US defence of the northern shoulder, shortening and strengthening the line and ordering the evacuation of St Vith. The German commander of the 5th Panzer Army, Hasso von Manteuffel said: SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard The operations of the American 1st Army had developed into a series of individual holding actions. Montgomery's contribution to restoring the situation was that he turned a series of isolated actions into a coherent battle fought according to a clear and definite plan. It was his refusal to engage in premature and piecemeal counter-attacks which enabled the Americans to gather their reserves and frustrate the German attempts to extend their breakthrough.[78]HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard Montgomery's 21st Army Group advanced to the Rhine with operations Veritable and Grenade in February 1945. A meticulously planned Rhine crossing occurred on 24 March. While successful it was weeks after the Americans had unexpectedly captured theLudendorff Bridge and crossed the river. Montgomery's river crossing was followed by the encirclement of the German Army Group B in the Ruhr. Initially Montgomery's role was to guard the flank of the American advance. TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Laptop Keyboard This was altered, however, to forestall any chance of a Red Army advance into Denmark, and the 21st Army Group occupied Hamburg and Rostock and sealed off the Danish peninsula.[69] On 4 May 1945, on Lüneburg Heath, Montgomery accepted the surrender of German forces in northern Germany, Denmark and theNetherlands.[79]DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard After the war Montgomery became the C-in-C of the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR), the name given to the British Occupation Forces and the British member of the Allied Control Council.[80] He was created 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein in 1946.[81] He was Chief of the Imperial General Staff from 1946 until 1948, succeeding Alanbrooke, Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard but was largely a failure as it required strategic and political skills he did not possess. He was barely on speaking terms with his fellow chiefs, sending his VCIGS to attend their meetings[80] and he clashed particularly with Arthur Tedder, who as Deputy Supreme Commander had intrigued for Montgomery's dismissal during the Battle of Normandy, and who was by now Chief of the Air Staff. When Montgomery's term of office expired, DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard Prime Minister Clement Attlee appointed General (later Field-Marshal) William Slim as his successor; when Montgomery protested that he had told his protégé John Crocker, a former corps commander from the 1944-5 campaign, that the job was to be his, Attlee is said to have given the memorable retort "Untell him".[82]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Montgomery was then appointed Chairman of the Western European Union's commanders-in-chief committee.[80] Volume 3 of Nigel Hamilton's Life of Montgomery of Alamein gives a good account of the bickering between Montgomery and his land forces chief, a French general, which created splits through the Union headquarters. He was thus pleased to become Eisenhower's deputy in creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's European forces in 1951.[83] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard He was an effective inspector-general and mounted good exercises, but out of his depth politically, and his exacting manner and emphasis on efficiency created ill-feeling. He continued to serve under Eisenhower's successors, Matthew Ridgway and Al Gruenther, until his retirement, aged nearly 71, in 1958.[84] His mother died in 1949; Montgomery did not attend the funeral, claiming he was "too busy".[69]HP 9J.N0Y82.H01 Laptop Keyboard He was chairman of the governing body of St John's School, Leatherhead, Surrey from 1951 to 1966 and a generous supporter. Montgomery was an Honorary Member of the Winkle Club, a noted charity in Hastings, East Sussex, and introduced Winston Churchill to the club in 1955.[85]HP 516884-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1953, the Hamilton Board of Education in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, wrote to Montgomery and asked permission to name a new school in the city's east end after him. Viscount Montgomery Elementary was billed as "the most modern school in North America" and the largest single-storey school in Hamilton, when the sod was turned on 14 March 1951. The school officially opened on 18 April 1953HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard , with Montgomery in attendance among almost 10,000 well-wishers. At the opening, he gave the motto "Gardez Bien" from his own family's coat of arms.[86] Montgomery referred to the school as his "beloved school" and visited on five separate occasions, the last being in 1960. On his last visit, he said to "his" students:[86]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Let's make Viscount Montgomery School the best in Hamilton, the best in Ontario, the best in Canada. I don't associate myself with anything that is not good. It is up to you to see that everything about this school is good. It is up to the students to not only be their best in school but in their behaviour outside of Viscount. Education is not just something that will help you pass your exams and get you a job, it is to develop your brain to teach you to marshal facts and do things. HP 516884-001 Laptop Keyboard In retirement he spoke out against the legalisation of homosexuality in the United Kingdom, arguing that the Sexual Offences Act 1967 was a "charter for buggery"[87] and that "this sort of thing may be tolerated by the French, but we're British – thank God."[88] However, Nigel Hamilton has suggested that he may himself have been a repressed homosexual;[89] in the late 1940s he conducted an affectionate friendship with a 12-year-old Swiss boy.[90] One biographer called the friendship "bizarre" although not "improper" and a sign of "pitiful loneliness"[91] DELL Inspiron 8500 Laptop Keyboard The Imperial War Museum holds a variety of material relating to Montgomery in its collections. These include Montgomery's Grant command tank (on display in the atrium at the Museum's London branch), his command caravans as used in North West Europe (on display at IWM Duxford), and his papers are held by the Museum's Department of Documents. The Museum maintains a permanent exhibition about Montgomery, entitled Monty: Master of the Battlefield.[98]SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard The Field Marshal Montgomery Pipe Band from Northern Ireland is named after him.[99] His Rolls Royce staff car is on display at the Royal Logistic Corps Museum, Deepcut, Surrey.[100]HP G62-b20ES Laptop Keyboard The Montgomery cocktail is a martini mixed at a ratio of 15:1, facetiously named that because Montgomery supposedly refused to go into battle unless his numerical advantage was at least that high.[101] Following severe internal injuries received in the First World War, Montgomery himself could neither smoke nor drink.[77]DELL JVT97 Laptop Keyboard

Shopping

Dublin is a popular shopping destination for both locals and tourists. The city has numerous shopping districts, includingGrafton Street, Henry Street. Dublin is also the location of large department stores. HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard A major €800m development for the city centre, known as the "Northern Quarter" is currently in doubt. It involved the construction of 47 new shops, 175 apartments and a four-star hotel. Dublin City Council gave Arnotts planning permission for the plans to change the area bounded by Henry Street, O'Connell Street, Liffey Street and Abbey Street. Following appeals toAn Bord Pleanála, the extensive scale of the development was reduced. Prince's Street, HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard which runs off O'Connell Street, was to become a full urban street and pedestrian thoroughfare.[64] In July 2010 the project was effectively abandoned as Anglo Irish Bank and Ulster Bank took control of Arnotts due to the large debts incurred in pursuing the development.[65] The Carlton cinema site further up O'Connell Street is currently undergoing redevelopment by Crossidge Developments, who were responsible for the construction of Dundrum Town Centre, and will be anchored by British department store John Lewis.[66]SONY NSK-S8101 Laptop Keyboard The city retains a thriving market culture, despite new shopping developments and the loss of some traditional market sites. Several historic locations, including Moore Street, remain one of the city's oldest trading districts.[67] There has also been a significant growth in local farmers' markets and other markets.[68][69] In 2007, Dublin Food Co-op relocated to a larger warehouse in The Liberties area, SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard where it is home to many market and community events.[70][71] Suburban Dublin has several modern retail centres, including Dundrum Town Centre, Blanchardstown Centre, The Square in Tallaght, Liffey Valley Shopping Centre in Clondalkin, Omni Shopping Centre, in Santry, Nutgrove Shopping Centre inRathfarnham, and Pavilions Shopping Centre in Swords. SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard Dublin is the centre of both media and communications in Ireland, with many newspapers, radio stations, television stations and telephone companies based there. RTÉ is Ireland's national state broadcaster, and is based in Donnybrook. Fair City is RTÉ's soap opera, located in the fictional Dublin suburb of Carraigstown. TV3 and Setanta Sports are also based in the city. SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard The headquarters of An Post and telecommunications companies such as Eircom, as well as mobile operators Meteor, Vodafone, O2 and 3 are all located there. Dublin is also the headquarters of important national newspapers such as The Irish Times and Irish Independent, as well as local newspapers such as The Evening Herald. HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard Dublin is home to national commercial radio networks Today FM and Newstalk, and numerous local stations. The most popular radio stations in Dublin, by adult (15+) listenership share, are RTÉ Radio 1 (30.3%), FM104 (13.3%), 98FM (11.9%), RTÉ 2fm (10.4%), Q102 (7%), Spin 1038 (7%), Newstalk (6.8%), Today FM (5.7%),RTÉ lyric fm (2.7%), Dublin's Country Mix 106.8 (2.6%) and Phantom FM (1.8%).Compaq Presario CQ57-310 Laptop Keyboard Among the under 35s, this figures are very different with FM104 (24.9%), Spin 1038 (17.3%) and 98FM (15.6%) being the most popular.[72] There are two Irish-language radio stations which can be picked up in the Dublin area: RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, and Raidió na Life 106.4fm, both of which have studios in the city.  TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard

Sport

Croke Park is the largest sports stadium in Ireland. The headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association, it has a capacity of 82,300. It is the third largest stadium in Europe after Nou Camp in Barcelona and Wembley in London.[73] Traditionally, it hosted the premier Gaelic football and hurling games, and after major renovations in recent years, added international rules football, rock concerts, and other significant national events. TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard The Dublin team plays most of their home league hurling and Gaelic Football games at Parnell Park. I.R.F.U. Stadium Lansdowne Road was laid out in 1874. This was the venue for home games of both the Irish Rugby Union Team and the Republic of Ireland national football team. A joint venture between theIrish Rugby Football Union, the FAI and the Government, TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard saw it replaced by a new state-of-the-art 50,000 seat Aviva Stadium, which opened in May 2010.[74] Aviva Stadium hosted the 2011 UEFA Europa League Final. The game was played on 18 May 2011, when Portuguese club Porto beat fellow Portuguese side Braga 1-0.[75] Rugby union team Leinster Rugby play their home games in theRDS Arena & the Aviva Stadium. SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard County Dublin is home to five League of Ireland clubs, all playing in the Premier Division. Dalymount Park in Phibsboro, is home to Bohemians F.C. Current League Champions and the first Irish side to reach the group stages of a European competition: 2011–12 UEFA Europa League group stageShamrock Rovers play at Tallaght Stadium in South Dublin, St Patrick's Athletic play at Richmond Park, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard and University College Dublin play their home games at the UCD Bowl in Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, while Shelbourne is based at Tolka Park. Tolka Park, Dalymount Park, UCD Bowl and Tallaght Stadium, along with the Carlisle Grounds in Bray, hosted all Group 3 games in the intermediary round of the 2011 UEFA Regions' Cup. DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard The National Aquatic Centre in Blanchardstown is Ireland's largest indoor water leisure facility. The Dublin area has several race courses including Shelbourne Park and Leopardstown. The Dublin Horse Show takes place at the RDS, which hosted the Show Jumping World Championships in 1982. TOSHIBA Satellite A75-S206 Laptop Keyboard The national boxing arena is located in The National Stadium on the South Circular Road. There are also basketball, handball, hockey and athletics stadia, most notably Morton Stadium in Santry, which held the athletics events of the 2003 Special Olympics. TOSHIBA Satellite L450D Laptop Keyboard Australian Rules Football has had a presence in the city since 1999 and there are now three clubs in the Capital; the Dublin Demons, the South Dublin Swans and the West Dublin Saints. All three clubs play in the Aussieproperty.com Premiership and many of their players have represented Ireland's National Aussie Rules Team, the Irish Warriors. Ireland's domestic Rugby League competition has been running since 1997.[76] TACER Aspire 1520 Series Laptop Keyboard he North Dublin Eagles play in Ireland's Carnegie League. Recent popularity has been increased with the Irish Wolfhound's success in the Rugby League World Cup which was held in Australia in 2008. The Dublin Marathon has been run since 1980 on the last Monday in October.  SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard The Women's Mini Marathon has been run since 1983 on the first Monday in June, which is also a bank holiday in Ireland. It is said to be the largest all female event of its kind in the world.[77] The Dublin Roller Girls were the first roller derby league to form in the country.[78]TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard During the 1990s, the English football club Wimbledon, based in London, expressed interest in relocating to the city after being forced to leave their Plough Lane stadium and ground-share with Crystal Palace at Selhurst Park. However, this bizarre relocation plan never materialised and when the club finally did relocate in 2003, it was to the Buckinghamshire town ofMilton Keynes.[79]DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard There are 10,469 students in the Dublin region attending the 31 gaelscoileanna (Irish-language primary schools) and 8 gaelcholáistí (Irish-language secondary schools).[80] Dublin has the highest number of Irish-medium schools in the country. There may be also up to another 10,000 Gaeltacht speakers living in Dublin. Two Irish language radio stations Raidió na Life and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta both have studios in the city. TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5241 Laptop Keyboard Many other radio stations in the city broadcast at least an hour of Irish language programming per week. Many Irish language agencies are also located in the capital. Conradh na Gaeilge offers language classes, has a book shop and is a regular meeting place for different groups. The closest Gaeltacht to Dublin is the Meath Gaeltacht of Ráth Cairn and Baile Ghib which is 55 km (34 mi) away. ACER PK1306F0200 Laptop Keyboard Heuston and Connolly stations are the two main railway stations in Dublin. Operated by Iarnród Éireann, the Dublin Suburban Rail network consists of five railway lines serving the Greater Dublin Area and commuter towns such as Drogheda and Dundalkin County Louth. One of these lines is the electrified Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) line,  Lenovo 3000 N500 Laptop Keyboard which runs primarily along the coast of Dublin, from Malahide and Howth southwards as far as Greystones in County Wicklow.[39] Commuter rail operates on the other four lines using Irish Rail diesel multiple units. HP Mini 210-2030ez Laptop Keyboard The Luas is a two-line light rail or tram network which has been operated in Dublin by Veolia Transport since 2004. The network consists of two routes, the Red Line and Green Line, with a total 54 stations and 38.2 kilometres (23.7 mi) of track.[40] A decision on whether to expand the Luas system will be made in September 2011, when a new national development plan is to be published. Proposed multi-million euro projects such as the Dublin Metro and the DART Underground will also be considered in light of the current difficult economic climate.[41]Compaq Presario CQ71-314SA Laptop Keyboard DELL R811H Laptop Keyboard Dublin Airport is operated by the Dublin Airport Authority and is located north of Dublin City in the administrative county of Fingal. It is the headquarters of Ireland's flag carrier Aer Lingus, low-cost carrier Ryanair and regional airlines Aer Arann and CityJet. The airport offers an extensive short and medium haul network, as well as domestic services to many regional airports in Ireland. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard There are also extensive Long Haul services to the United States, Canada and the Middle East. Dublin Airport is the busiest airport in Ireland, followed by Cork and Shannon. Construction of a second terminal began in 2007 and was officially opened on 19 November 2010.[42]HP Pavilion dv6-2170sl Laptop Keyboard Dublin Airport currently ranks as the 25th busiest airport in Europe recording nearly 19 million passengers during 2011.

Cycling

Dublin City Council began installing cycle lanes and tracks throughout the city in the 1990s, and as of 2012 the city has over 200 kilometres (120 mi) of specific on- and off-road tracks for cyclists.[43] In 2011, the city was ranked 9th of major world cities on the Copenhagenize Index of Bicycle-Friendly Cities.[44] SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard Dublinbikes is a self-service bicycle rental scheme which has been in operation in Dublin since 2009. Sponsored by JCDecaux, the scheme consists of 550 French-made unisex bicycles stationed at 44 terminals throughout the city centre. Users must make a subscription for either an annual Long Term Hire Card costing €10 or a 3 Day Ticket costing €2. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard The first 30 minutes of use is free, but after that a service charge depending on the extra length of use applies.[45] Dublinbikes now has over 58,000 subscribers and there are plans to dramatically expand the service across the city and its suburbs to provide for up to 5,000 bicycles and approximately 300 terminals.[46]DELL XPS M1730 Laptop Keyboard Dublin is the primary centre of education in Ireland, with three universities and many other higher education institutions. There are 20 third-level institutes in the city. Dublin will be European Capital of Science in 2012.[47][48] The University of Dublin is the oldest university in Ireland dating from the 16th century, and is located in the city centre. Its sole constituent college,  SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard Trinity College, was established by Royal Charter in 1592 under Elizabeth I and was closed to Roman Catholics until Catholic Emancipation. The Catholic hierarchy then banned Roman Catholics from attending it until 1970. It is situated in the city centre, on College Green, and has 15,000 students. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard The National University of Ireland (NUI) has its seat in Dublin, which is also the location of the associated constituent university of University College Dublin (UCD), the largest university in Ireland with over 22,000 students. UCD's main campus at Belfield is located about 5 km south east of the city centre. The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) is a medical school which is a recognised college of the NUI, SONY VAIO VGN-FS115M Laptop Keyboard it is situated at St. Stephen's Green in the city centre. The National University of Ireland, Maynooth, another constituent university of the NUI, is in neighbouring Co. Kildare, about 25 km (16 mi) from the city centre. The Institute of European Affairs is also in Dublin. SONY VAIO VGN-FS630W Laptop Keyboard Dublin City University (DCU) specialises in business, engineering, and science courses, particularly with relevance to industry. It has around 10,000 students, and is located about 7 km north of the city. Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) is a modern technical college and is the country's largest non-university third-level institution. It specialises in technical subjects but also offers many arts and humanities courses.  SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard It is soon to be relocated to a new campus at Grangegorman. Two suburbs of Dublin, Tallaght and Blanchardstown have Institutes of Technology: Institute of Technology, Tallaght, andInstitute of Technology, Blanchardstown. Portobello College has its degrees conferred through the University of Wales.[49]Dublin Business School (DBS) is Ireland's largest private third level institution with over 9,000 students. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard The college is located on Aungier Street. The Dún Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology (IADT) support training and research in art, design, business, psychology and media technolog

y. The National College of Art and Design (NCAD) supports training and research in art, design and media. The National College of Ireland (NCI) is also based in Dublin. The Economic and Social Research Institute, a social science research institute, is based on Sir John Rogerson's Quay, Dublin 2. DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard The Irish public administration and management training centre has its base in Dublin, the Institute of Public Administration provides a range of undergraduate and post graduate awards via the National University of Ireland and in some instances, Queen's University Belfast. There are also smaller specialised colleges, including Griffith College Dublin, The Gaiety School of Acting and the New Media Technology College. SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard

Demographics

The City of Dublin is the area administered by Dublin City Council, but the term "Dublin" normally refers to the contiguous urban area which includes parts of the adjacent local authority areas of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin. Together, the four areas form the traditional County Dublin. This area is sometimes known as the Dublin Region. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5214 Laptop Keyboard The population of the administrative area controlled by the City Council was 525,383 in the 2011 census, while the population of the urban area was 1,110,627. The County Dublin population was 1,273,069 and that of the Greater Dublin Area 1,804,156. The city's population is expanding rapidly, and it is estimated by the CSO that it will reach 2.1 million by 2020.[50]TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4050 Laptop Keyboard Since the late 1990s, Dublin has experienced a significant level of net immigration, with the greatest numbers coming from the European Union, especially the United Kingdom, Poland and Lithuania.[51] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard There is also a considerable number from outside Europe, particularly China and Nigeria. Dublin is home to a greater proportion of new arrivals than any other parts of the country. 60% of Ireland's Asian population lives in Dublin even though less than 40% of the overall population lives in the Greater Dublin Area.[52] By 2006, the percentage of foreign-born population had increased to just over 15% in Dublin.[53]ASUS F5R Laptop Keyboard Dublin has a world famous literary history, having produced many prominent literary figures, including Nobel laureatesWilliam Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Beckett. Other influential writers and playwrights include Oscar Wilde,Jonathan Swift and the creator of Dracula, Bram Stoker. It is arguably most famous as the location of the greatest works ofJames Joyce, including Ulysses,  TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard which is set in Dublin and full of topical detail. Dubliners is a collection of short stories by Joyce about incidents and typical characters of the city during the early 20th century. Other renowned writers include J. M. Synge, Seán O'Casey, Brendan Behan, Maeve Binchy, and Roddy Doyle. Ireland's biggest libraries and literary museums are found in Dublin, including the National Print Museum of Ireland and National Library of Ireland. In July 2010, Dublin was named as a UNESCO City of Literature, joining Edinburgh, Melbourne and Iowa City with the permanent title.[54]APPLE 922-6637 Laptop Keyboard There are several theatres within the city centre, and various world famous actors have emerged from the Dublin theatrical scene, including Noel Purcell, Sir Michael Gambon,Brendan Gleeson, Stephen Rea, Colin Farrell, Colm Meaney and Gabriel Byrne. The best known theatres include the Gaiety,Abbey, Olympia, Gate, and Grand Canal. The Gaiety specialises in musical and operatic productions, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard and is popular for opening its doors after the evening theatre production to host a variety of live music, dancing, and films. The Abbey was founded in 1904 by a group that included Yeats with the aim of promoting indigenous literary talent. It went on to provide a breakthrough for some of the city's most famous writers, such as Synge, Yeats himself and George Bernard Shaw. TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard The Gate was founded in 1928 to promote European and American Avant Garde works. The Grand Canal Theatre is a new 2,111 capacity theatre which opened in March 2010 in the Grand Canal Dock. Apart from being the focus of the country's literature and theatre, Dublin is also the focal point for much of Irish Art and the Irish artistic scene. The Book of Kells, a world-famous manuscript produced by Celtic Monks in AD 800 and an example ofInsular art, is on display in Trinity College. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard The Chester Beatty Library houses the famous collection of manuscripts, miniature paintings, prints, drawings, rare books and decorative arts assembled by American mining millionaire (and honorary Irish citizen) Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (1875–1968). The collections date from 2700 BC onwards and are drawn from Asia, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe.  TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard Work by local artists is often put on public display around St. Stephen's Green, the main public park in the city centre. In addition large art galleries are found across the city, including the Irish Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery, the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery, The City Arts Centre, The Douglas Hyde Gallery, The Project Arts Centre and The Royal Hibernian Academy. DELL OPYTVX Laptop Keyboard Three branches of the National Museum of Ireland are located in Dublin: Archaeology in Kildare Street, Decorative Arts and History in Collins Barracks and Natural History in Merrion Street.[55] Dublin is home to the National College of Art and Design, which dates from 1746, and Dublin Institute of Design, founded in 1991. HP 9J.NOL82.W01 Laptop Keyboard Dublin has long been a city with a strong underground arts scene. Temple Bar was the home of many artists in the 1980s, and spaces such as the Project Arts Centre were hubs for collectives and new exhibitions. The Guardian noted that Dublin's independent and underground arts flourished during the economic recession of 2010.[56] Dublin also has many acclaimed dramatic, musical and operatic companies, HP 444635-B31 Laptop Keyboard including Festival Productions, Lyric Opera Productions, The Pioneers Musical & Dramatic Society, The Glasnevin Musical Society, Second Age Theatre Company, Opera Theatre Company, and Opera Ireland. Ireland is well known for its love of baroque music, which is highly acclaimed at Trinity College.[57] Perhaps the most famous Dublin theatre company is the renowned Rathmines and Rathgar Musical Society, which has been in existence since 1913. TOSHIBA Satellite l525 Laptop Keyboard It produced full scale productions of popular musicals and operettas including Oklahoma!CarouselThe MikadoGuys and DollsThe Pirates of PenzanceMe and My GirlMy Fair LadyThe Yeoman of the GuardGigiFiddler on the RoofThe GondoliersAnything GoesThe Merry WidowIolantheThe Producers and HMS Pinafore. At present, the society is performing a tribute concert to the works of Rodgers and Hammersteinat the National Concert Hall. The society recreated their 1913 production of The Mikado in November 2010 at the National Concert Hall. HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard Dublin is shortlisted to be World Design Capital 2014.[58] Taoiseach Enda Kenny was quoted to say that Dublin “would be an ideal candidate to host the World Design Capital in 2014”.[59]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Dublin has a vibrant nightlife and is reputedly one of Europe's most youthful cities, with an estimate of 50% of citizens being younger than 25.[60][61] There are many pubs across the city centre, with the area around St. Stephen's Green and Grafton Street, especially Harcourt Street, Camden Street, Wexford Street and Leeson Street, having the most popular nightclubs and pubs. HP Pavilion dv6-3122tx Laptop Keyboard The best known area for nightlife is Temple Bar, south of the River Liffey. The area has become popular among tourists, including stag and hen parties from Britain.[62] It was developed as Dublin's cultural quarter and does retain this spirit as a centre for small arts productions, photographic and artists' studios, and in the form of street performers and small music venues. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard However, it has been criticised as overpriced, false and dirty by Lonely Planet.[63] In general, it is regarded by locals as tourist orientated with false "ye olde Irish" pretensions. The areas around Leeson Street, Harcourt Street, South William Street and Camden/George's Street are popular nightlife spots for locals. SONY Vaio PCG-K415B Laptop Keyboard Live music is popularly played on streets and at venues throughout Dublin in general, and the city has produced several musicians and groups of international success, including U2, Westlife, The Dubliners, The Thrills, Horslips, Jedward, The Boomtown Rats, Boyzone, Ronan Keating, Thin Lizzy, Paddy Casey, Sinéad O'Connor, The Script and My Bloody Valentine. Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard The two best known cinemas in the city centre are the Savoy Cinema and the Cineworld Cinema, both north of the Liffey. Alternative and special-interest cinema can be found in the Irish Film Institute in Temple Bar, in the Screen Cinema on d'Olier Street and in the Lighthouse Cinema in Smithfield. Large modern multiscreen cinemas are located across suburban Dublin. The O2 venue in the Dublin Docklands has played host to many world renowned performers. HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard The Dublin region is the economic centre of Ireland, and was at the forefront of the country's rapid economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period. In 2009, Dublin was listed as the fourth richest city in the world by purchasing power and 10th richest by personal income.[33][34] HP G62-451SA Laptop Keyboard According to Mercer's 2011 Worldwide Cost of Living Survey, Dublin is the 13th most expensive city in the European Union (down from 10th in 2010) and the 58th most expensive place to live in the world (down from 42nd in 2010).[35] As of 2005, approximately 800,000 people were employed in the Greater Dublin Area, of whom around 600,000 were employed in the services sector and 200,000 in the industrial sector.[36][dated info]TOSHIBA Satellite L40-18Z Laptop Keyboard Many of Dublin's traditional industries, such as food processing, textile manufacturing, brewing, and distilling have gradually declined, although Guinness has been brewed at the St. James's Gate Brewery since 1759. Economic improvements in the 1990s have attracted a large number of global pharmaceutical, information and communications technology companies to the city and Greater Dublin Area. SONY VAIO VGN-CR327 Laptop Keyboard Companies such as Microsoft, Google, Amazon, eBay, PayPal, Yahoo!, Facebook, Twitter and Pfizernow have European headquarters and/or operational bases in the city. Intel and Hewlett-Packard have large manufacturing plants in Leixlip, County Kildare, 15 km (9 mi) to the west. HP Pavilion dv6-3016sl Laptop Keyboard Financial services have also become important to the city since the establishment of Dublin's International Financial Services Centre in 1987, which is globally recognised as a leading location for a range of internationally traded financial services. More than 500 operations are approved to trade in under the IFSC programme. The centre is host to half of the world's top 50 banks and to half of the top 20 insurance companies.[37] DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard Many international firms have established major headquarters in the city, such as Citibank andCommerzbank. The Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ), Internet Neutral Exchange (INEX) and Irish Enterprise Exchange (IEX) are also located in Dublin. The economic boom led to a sharp increase in construction, with large redevelopment projects in the Dublin Docklands and Spencer Dock. Completed projects include the Convention Centre, The O2FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The road network in Ireland is primarily focused on Dublin. The M50 motorway, a semi-ring road which runs around the south, west and north of the city, connects important national primary routes to the rest of the country. HP Mini 110-1110SA Laptop Keyboard In 2008, the West-Linktoll bridge was replaced by the eFlow barrier-free tolling system, with a three-tiered charge system based on electronic tags and car pre-registration. The toll is currently €2 for vehicles with a pre-paid tag, €2.50 for vehicles whose number plates have been registered with eFlow, and €3 for unregistered vehicles.[38]SAMSUNG NP-NC10-JP01 Laptop Keyboard The first phase of a proposed eastern bypass for the city is the Dublin Port Tunnel, which officially opened in 2006 to mainly cater for heavy vehicles. The tunnel connects Dublin Port and the M1 motorway close to Dublin Airport. Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard The city is also surrounded by an inner and outer orbital route. The inner orbital route runs approximately around the heart of the Georgian city and the outer orbital route runs primarily along the natural circle formed by Dublin's two canals, the Grand Canal and the Royal Canal, as well as the North and South Circular Roads. SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard Dublin is served by an extensive network of nearly 200 bus routes which serve all areas of the city and suburbs. The majority of these are controlled by Dublin Bus, but a number of smaller companies also operate. Fares are generally calculated on a stage system based on distance travelled. There are several different levels of fares, which apply on most services. The Bus Arrival Information Service is being rolled out which provides bus stops with information on the distance of buses based on GPS positions of the buses. SONY VAIO VGN-NR10 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard

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