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Bob Geldof Robert Frederick Zenon "Bob" Geldof, KBE,[1] (born 5 October 1951) is an Irish singer, songwriter, author, occasional actor and political activist. He rose to prominence as the lead singer of the Irish rock band The Boomtown Rats in the late 1970s and early 1980s alongside the punk rock movement. The band had hits with his compositions "Rat Trap" and "I Don't Like Mondays".[2][3] He co-wrote "Do They Know It's Christmas?", one of the best-selling singles of all time[2][4][5], and starred in Pink Floyd's 1982 film Pink Floyd The Wall. TOSHIBA Satellite L450D Laptop Keyboard Geldof is widely recognised for his activism, especially anti-poverty efforts concerning Africa.[6] In 1984 he and Midge Urefounded the charity supergroup Band Aid to raise money for famine relief in Ethiopia.[4] They went on to organise the charity super-concert Live Aid the following year and the Live 8 concerts in 2005.[7] Geldof currently serves as an adviser to the ONE Campaign, founded by fellow Irish humanitarian Bono.[8] ACER Aspire 1520 Series Laptop Keyboard A single father, Geldof has also been outspoken for thefathers' rights movement.[9] Geldof has been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, was granted an honorary knighthood by Queen Elizabeth II, and is a recipient of the Man of Peace title which recognises individuals who have made "an outstanding contribution to international social justice and peace", among numerous other awards and nominations.[10][11] SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

Early life

Geldof was born and raised in Dún Laoghaire, Ireland, the son of Evelyn and Robert (known as Rob) Geldof, and attended Blackrock College.[4][12] His paternal grandfather was a Belgian[13] immigrant, Xenon (sometimes mistakenly spelt Lenon) Geldof (born 1881), TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard who was a hotel chef,[13] and his paternal grandmother, Amelia "Minnie" Falk, was a Jewish[13] English woman (born 1873 in London). Zenon Geldof and Amelia Falk were married in 1906 in Westminster and also had two daughters, Cleo Zenobie Geldof (born 1906 in Grantham), and May Geldof (born 1909 in Dublin).[14]DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard At the age of 41, Geldof's mother complained of a headache and died shortly thereafter, having suffered a haemorrhage. Geldof attended Blackrock College inDublin, whose Catholic ethos he disliked. He was bullied for his lack of rugby prowess and over his third forename, Zenon.[15][16] After work as a slaughter man,road navvy and pea canner in Wisbech, he started as a music journalist in Vancouver, Canada, for the weekly publication Georgia Straight. TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5241 Laptop Keyboard ACER PK1306F0200 Laptop Keyboard Upon returning to Ireland in 1975, he became the lead singer of the band The Boomtown Rats, a rock group closely linked with the punk movement. In 1978, The Boomtown Rats had their first No. 1 single in the UK with "Rat Trap", which was the first New Wave chart-topper in Britain. In 1979, the group gained international renown with their second UK No. 1, "I Don't Like Mondays".[17] This was equally successful, as well as controversial; Geldof wrote it in the aftermath of Brenda Ann Spencer's attempted massacre at an elementary school across the street from her house in San Diego, California, at the beginning of 1979.  Lenovo 3000 N500 Laptop Keyboard In 1980, The Boomtown Rats released the album Mondo Bongo. Its single "Up All Night" in 1981 was a hit in the U.S. and its video played on MTV with heavy rotation.[18] Geldof quickly became known as a colourful interview. The Boomtown Rats' first appearance on Ireland's The Late Late Show saw Geldof as deliberately brusque to host Gay Byrne and during his interview attacked Irish politicians and the Catholic Church which he blamed for many of the country's problems at the time, HP Mini 210-2030ez Laptop Keyboard and responded to nuns in the audience that had tried to shout him down by saying they had "an easy life with no material worries in return for which they gave themselves body and soul to the church". He also criticised his old private school Blackrock College. The interview caused uproar across the country, making it impossible for the Boomtown Rats to play in Ireland again thereafter (apart from one gig at Leixlip Castle in 1980).[19]Compaq Presario CQ71-314SA Laptop Keyboard DELL R811H Laptop Keyboard Geldof left the Boomtown Rats in 1986, to launch a solo career and publish his autobiography, Is That It?, which was a UK best-seller. His first solo records sold reasonably well and spawned the hit singles "This Is The World Calling" (co-written with Dave Stewart ofEurythmics) and "The Great Song of Indifference". He also occasionally performed with other artists, such as David Gilmour of Pink Floyd and Thin Lizzy. A performance of "Comfortably Numb" with David Gilmour is documented in the 2002 DVD David Gilmour in Concert. In 1992, he performed at the Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert with the survivinSONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard g members of Queen at the old Wembley Stadium, singing a song he had co-written with Mercury, called "Too Late God". Geldof has also worked as a DJ for XFM radio. In 1998, he erroneously announced Ian Dury's death from cancer, possibly due to hoax information from a listener who was disgruntled at the station's change of ownership.[20] The event caused music paper NME (who had been involved in a running feud with Geldof since his Boomtown Rats days primarily due to his disparagement of The Clash) to call Geldof "the world's worst DJ".[21]HP Pavilion dv6-2170sl Laptop Keyboard Along with U2's Bono, he has devoted much time since 2000 to campaigning for debt relief for developing countries. His commitments in this field, including the organisation of the Live 8 concerts, kept Geldof from producing any more musical output since 2001'sSex, Age & Death album.  SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard In 2002, he was listed as one of the 100 Greatest Britons in a poll conducted among the general public,[22] despite the fact that he is Irish. After Live 8, Geldof returned to his career as a musician by releasing a box set containing all of his solo albums entitled Great Songs of Indifference - The Anthology 1986–2001 in late 2005. Following that release, Geldof also toured, albeit with mixed success. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard In July 2006 Geldof arrived at Milan's Arena Civica, a venue capable of holding 12,000 people, to play a scheduled concert to find that the organisers had not put the tickets on general sale and that only 45 people had shown up.[23] Geldof refused to go on stage once he found out how small the attendance was. To offer some compensation for fans, Geldof stopped to sign autographs to those who had shown up. He then played a well-attended free "Storytellers" concert for MTV Italy in Naples in October 2006. DELL XPS M1730 Laptop Keyboard Controversy At one point during his charity work, Geldof swore on CD:UK appearing to think he could get away with it, when he said "Fuck the tape" whilst concluding his chat with Cat Deeley.[citation needed] At the NME awards in 2006, when accepting an award, Geldof referred to the host Russell Brand as a "cunt". Brand responded by saying "It's no wonder Bob Geldof knows so much about famine - he's been dining out on 'I Don't Like Mondays' for 30 years".[24] SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard In mid-July 2006, he infuriated many New Zealanders by criticising the New Zealand government's foreign aid contribution as "shameful" and "pathetic".[25]Winston Peters, the Minister of Foreign Affairs responded that Geldof failed to recognise the "quality" of New Zealand aid as well as other New Zealand contributions.[26]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard During mid-November 2008, a local for-profit organisation Diversity@Work invited Geldof to Melbourne, to speak about the tragedy of Third World poverty and the failure of governments to combat the crisis. However, it was subsequently revealed that he was paid AU$100,000 for his one-off speech which included a luxury hotel room and first-class airfares. Criticism has been raised at the contradiction of demanding such fees to speak on world poverty and human misery.[27]SONY VAIO VGN-FS115M Laptop Keyboard Geldof's first major charity involvement took place in September 1981, when he performed as a solo artist for Amnesty International's benefit show The Secret Policeman's Other Ball, at the invitation of Amnesty show producer Martin Lewis; he performed a solo version of "I Don't Like Mondays". Other rock artists had 'planted a seed' and appeared to have affected Geldof in a similar manner. SONY VAIO VGN-FS630W Laptop Keyboard Main article: Band Aid (band) In 1984, Geldof responded to a BBC news report from Michael Buerk about the famine in Ethiopia by mobilising the pop world to do something about the images he had seen.[29] With Midge Ure of Ultravox he wrote "Do They Know It's Christmas?" in order to raise funds. The song was recorded by various artists under the name of Band Aid.  SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard In its first week of release the single became the UK's fastest seller of all time, entering the chart at number one and going on to sell over three million copies, making it the biggest-selling single in UK history up to that point, a title it held for almost 13 years. The single was also a major US hit, peaking at #13 on the Billboard Hot 100. "Do They Know It's Christmas?" returned to the UK chart a year later, reaching number three, and eventually it raised over £8 million.  DELL Inspiron 8500 Laptop Keyboard As Geldof began to learn more about the situation, he discovered that one of the main reasons why African nations were in such dire peril was because of repayments on loans that their countries had taken from Western banks. For every pound donated in aid, ten times as much would have to leave the country in loan repayments. It became obvious that one song was not enough. SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard On 13 July 1985, Geldof and Ure organised Live Aid, a huge event staged simultaneously at the Wembley Stadium in London and John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia. Thanks to an unprecedented decision by the BBC to clear its schedules for 16 hours of rock music, the event was also broadcast live in the UK on television and radio. It was one of the most monumental stage shows in history, with Phil Collins flying on Concorde so that he could play at both Wembley and Philadelphia on the same day. HP G62-b20ES Laptop Keyboard During the broadcast of Live Aid, Geldof shocked viewers into giving cash by not only twice mouthing profanities but also by slamming his fist on the table and ordering them not to go out to the pub but to stay in and watch the show. DELL JVT97 Laptop Keyboard Nearly seven hours into the concert in London, Geldof gave an infamous interview in which he used the word 'fuck'. The BBC presenter David Hepworth, conducting the interview, had attempted to provide a list of addresses to which potential donations should be sent; Geldof interrupted him in mid-flow and shouted: "Fuck the address, let's get the [phone] numbers!" It has passed into folklore [30] that he yelled at the audience, "Give us your fucking money!" although Geldof has stated that this phrase was never uttered.[31] After the outburst, giving increased to £300 per second. HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard The harrowing video of dying, skeletal children that had been made by photo-journalists setting their films to the tune of "Drive" by The Cars, contributed to the concert's success. In total, Live Aid raised over £150 million for famine relief. Geldof was subsequently knighted, at age 34, for his efforts. His autobiography, written soon after with Paul Vallely, was entitled Is That It?.[32] This book achieved further fame for being featured on the GCSE examination syllabus in a following year. HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard Much of the money raised by Live Aid went to NGOs in Ethiopia, some of which were under the influence or control of the Derg military junta. Some journalists have suggested that the Derg was able to use Live Aid and Oxfam money to fund its enforced resettlement and "villagification" programmes, under which at least 3 million people are said to have been displaced and between 50,000 and 100,000 killed.[33] SONY NSK-S8101 Laptop Keyboard However in November 2010 the BBC formally apologized to Geldof for misleading implications in its stories on the subject of Band Aid, saying it had 'no evidence' that Band Aid money specifically went to buy weapons.[34]SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

Commission for Africa

In January 2004, on a visit to friends in Ethiopia, Geldof came to believe that more people were at risk of starvation there than had died in the famine of 1984/85 which had prompted Live Aid. He rang the British Prime Minister Tony Blair from Addis Ababa. According to the Live 8 programme notes by Geldof's biographer and friend, Paul Vallely, the Prime Minister responded: "Calm down Bob. ... And come and see me as soon as you get back.[35] "SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard The result was the Commission for Africa. Blair invited Geldof and 16 other Commissioners, the majority from Africa and many of them politicians in power, to undertake a year-long study of Africa's problems. They came up with two conclusions: that Africa needed to change, to improve its governance and combat corruption, and that the rich world needed to support that change in new ways. SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard That meant doubling aid, delivering debt cancellation, and reforming trade rules. The Commission drew up a detailed plan of how that could be done. It reported in March 2005. In the months that followed it became clear that world leaders were not taking its recommendations seriously.[neutrality is disputed]HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard To force the issue Geldof decided to create a new international lobby for Africa with eight simultaneous concerts around the world to put pressure on the G8. He called it Live 8. The Commission's recommendations later became the blueprint for the G8Gleneagles African debt and aid package. Compaq Presario CQ57-310 Laptop Keyboard On 31 March 2005, Geldof and Ure announced the Live 8 project, to raise awareness of issues that burden Africa, including government debt, trade barriers, hunger, and AIDS issues. Geldof organised six concerts on 2 July 2005 in large cities throughout the industrialised world. They featured musicians from different genres and locations around the world. The cities where Live 8 concerts were played were in industrialised countries, and drew huge crowds. The locations were London, Paris,Berlin, Rome, Philadelphia, Barrie, Chiba, Johannesburg, Moscow, Cornwall and Edinburgh TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard The concerts were free, and were scheduled just days before world leaders gathered in Gleneagles, for the G8 economic summit, on 6 July. Ure organised the 'final push' Live 8 concert at Edinburgh. 'The boys and girls with guitars will finally get to turn the world on its axis,' Geldof said in a statement.[38] Pink Floyd's performance in London was its first since 1981 to include original bassist, Roger Waters. TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard

Criticism of Band Aid/Live Aid

In 1985 singer Morrissey was heavily critical of the song Do They Know It's Christmas?: 'I'm not afraid to say that I think Band Aid was diabolical. Or to say that I think Bob Geldof is a nauseating character. Many people find that very unsettling, but I'll say it as loud as anyone wants me to. In the first instance the record itself was absolutely tuneless. One can have great concern for the people of Ethiopia, but it's another thing to inflict daily torture on the people of England. It was an awful record considering the mass of talent involved. And it wasn't done shyly it was the most self-righteous platform ever in the history of popular music.'[39]TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard In 1986, the anarchist band Chumbawamba released the album Pictures of Starving Children Sell Records, as well as an EP entitled "We Are the World", jointly recorded with US band A State of Mind, both of which were intended as anti-capitalist critiques of the Band Aid/Live Aid phenomenon.[citation needed] They argued that "Do They Know It's Christmas?" was primarily a cosmetic spectacle, designed to draw attention away from the real political causes of world hunger.[citation needed]SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard A cartoon in Private Eye showed two emaciated Ethiopians, with one of them saying "We're having a famine, in aid of fading rock stars."[citation needed]

Criticism of Live 8

Although part of the campaign "Make Poverty History" (MPH), Live 8 was then accused of hijacking MPH by planning its concerts on the same day as the giant MPH march in Edinburgh, which was said to be the biggest social justice march in Scottish history.[40]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Geldof was also criticised for the lack of African acts performing at Live 8.[41] Geldof responded that only the biggest-selling artists would attract the huge audience required to capture the attention of the world in the run-up to the G8 meeting. Geldof added that there was insufficient public interest in African music among the concert's target markets in Europe and the United States. Including African artists at the expense of recognised artists would have beentokenist, he said, and would have undermined the effect of the concert.[42]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In the lead-up to the G8 summit, Geldof, who had been a member of Tony Blair's Commission for Africa on which the Gleneagles recommendations were largely based, labelled critics of the summit "a disgrace".[this quote needs a citation] Some leading African campaigners have asked Geldof to stand down from the global anti-poverty movement, and the New Internationalist (between January and February 2006) said 'It would be long overdue if he did.'[43]SAMSUNG NP-NC10-JP01 Laptop Keyboard There were also accusations that Live 8 gave unqualified support to the personal and political agendas of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown, particularly in the lead up to an election. Though many felt that it was the British politicians who had accepted Geldof's agenda, rather than the other way round, this led to accusations that Geldof had compromised his cause.[44] In contrast with the media support given to Live Aid, Live 8 was subject to criticism by some sections of the media.[citation needed]HP Mini 110-1110SA Laptop Keyboard The promises made for Africa at the Gleneagles summit, were widely praised: "the greatest summit for Africa ever" (Kofi Annan), "an important, if incomplete, boost to the development prospects of the poorest countries" economist (Jeffrey Sachs) or "a major breakthrough on debt" (Kevin Wakins, until recently head of research at Oxfam). But many aid agencies pronounced their disappointment with the outcome, feeling that the strict conditions imposed on African countries for accepting debt relief left them little better off than before. Some critics[who?]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard have claimed that Live 8 had been more about rehabilitating the careers of ageing rock stars, including Geldof himself, than it was about the poor people of Africa. Geldof himself has made no attempt to revive his music career, although, as the New Internationalist points out, since becoming prominent in the salvation of Africa, "Geldof has re-released the entire back catalogue of the Boomtown Rats."[45]DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard Oasis's Noel Gallagher became one of the more vocal sceptics about the impact of Live 8, citing his belief that rock stars have less influence over world leaders than popular culture may believe. His explanation was: "Correct me if I'm wrong, but are they hoping that one of these guys from the G8 is on a quick 15-minute break at Gleneagles and sees Annie Lennox singing "Sweet Dreams" and thinks, 'Fuck me, she might have a point there, you know?' And Keane doing "Somewhere Only We Know" and some Japanese businessman going, 'Aw, look at him. ... we should really fucking drop that debt, you know.' It's not going to happen, is it?"[46]SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard By 1992 Bob Geldof had established himself as a businessman through co-ownership of the TV production company Planet 24, which pioneered early morning television with The Big Breakfast. Planet 24 was sold to Carlton TV in 1999. TV production company Ten Alps was founded the next day by Geldof and business partner Alex Connock. In April 2011 a new entertainment formats company, Pretend, was launched.[49]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5214 Laptop Keyboard As of 2009, he has been patron of the Exeter Entrepreneurs Society at the University of Exeter.[50]

Political views

Bob Geldof adopted an anti-euro stance by appearing in an advertisement against the single currency,[51] in 2002. Geldof also criticised the European Union (EU) in 2004 for what he called its 'pathetic' response to Ethiopia's food crisis,[52] although one MEP has claimed he is "misinformed".[53]TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4050 Laptop Keyboard During a visit to Ethiopia, Geldof also praised President George W. Bush's proposal to fight AIDS in Africa.[54] This proposal has received criticism from some aid groups due to its heavy emphasis on Christian morality and sexual abstinence.[55]HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard   Geldof has recently[when?] spoken out about environmental issues, taking some positions that may be considered unusual compared to many other prominent artists and performers, such as advocating for the increased use of nuclear power, saying that, "In the UK, we'll soon have to scramble for more nuclear power. On this issue, I don't care what anyone says: we're going to go with it, big-time. We may mess around with wind and waves and other renewable energy sources, trying to make them sustainable, but they're not. They're Mickey Mouse."[56]ASUS F5R Laptop Keyboard   Geldof has also called for the industrial development of developing nations such as China and India to be taken into account when negotiating greenhouse gas emissions targets, and has suggested that the developed world has a role to play in assisting these nations to roll out non-fossil energy systems.[57] TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard   Some on the political left[who?] have charged Geldof with hypocrisy[why?], due to his lack of support for causes such as the UK miners' strike (1984-1985) and theanti-war movement. In 2006, Geldof told a business conference that "Back in the 1970s there was no chance for a boy with an idea. Everything was stitched up by the unions."[58]APPLE 922-6637 Laptop Keyboard From January 2002, until sometime in 2005, Geldof listened very closely to Father's Rights campaigners, and it was reported that he had sacks of mail arriving at his door on a daily basis from fathers who were denied justice from the British family courts. He was noted as saying, "I am heartbroken. I just cannot believe what happens to people, what is done to them in the name of the law.[59] You only have to open your eyes to see what I call the 'Sad Dads on Sundays Syndrome'". He has also called for The Children Act to be repealed and his latest statement to Father's Rights campaigners was, "It's not in my nature to shut up".[60]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard   In December 2005, Geldof agreed to give advice on global poverty to the Conservative Party.[61] He stated, however, that he was uninterested in party politics, and would continue to 'shake hands with the devil on my left and the devil on my right,' in order to achieve results. In April 2008 Geldof hit the news again when a survey showed that nearly a quarter of British people confused passages from the Bible with speeches made by the famous activist.[62] TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard   Geldof has received many awards for his fund-raising work, including an honorary knighthood (as Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire) from Queen Elizabeth II, in 1986.[63] Geldof is entitled to use the post-nominal letters "KBE" but, as he is not a citizen of a Commonwealth realm, he is precluded from using the title "Sir".[64] Regardless, the nickname "Sir Bob" has stuck and media reports continue to refer to him erroneously as "Sir Bob Geldof".[65]DELL OPYTVX Laptop Keyboard In 1986 Geldof was made a Freeman of the Borough of Swale, in north Kent, England. Geldof had for some years been resident in the borough, at Davington Priory,Faversham, and is still living there as of 2009.[citation needed] He received his award during a special meeting of the Swale Borough Council from the mayor, Councillor Richard Moreton, and the mayoress, Rose Moreton. HP 9J.NOL82.W01 Laptop Keyboard   Geldof's longtime girlfriend and eventual wife was Paula Yates. Yates was a rock journalist, presenter of the cutting-edge music show The Tube, and later notorious for her in-bed interviews on the show The Big Breakfast. Geldof met Yates when she became an obsessed fan of the Boomtown Rats during the band's early days. They got together as a couple in 1976 when Yates travelled by aeroplane to Paris to surprise him when the band was playing there. HP 444635-B31 Laptop Keyboard   Before they married, the couple had a daughter, Fifi Trixibelle Geldof, born 31 March 1983 (and while Geldof was still conducting an affair with the young Claire King). She was named Fifi after Bob's aunt Fifi, and Trixibelle because Paula wanted a belle in the family.[4] After 10 years together, Bob and Paula married in June 1986 in Las Vegas, with Simon Le Bon (of Duran Duran) acting as Geldof's best man. The couple later had two more daughters, Peaches Honeyblossom Geldof[75] (TOSHIBA Satellite l525 Laptop Keyboard known as Peaches Geldof) on 13 March 1989,[76] and Little Pixie Geldof (known as Pixie Geldof) on 17 September 1990.[77] Pixie is said to be named after a celebrity daughter character from the cartoon Celeb in the satirical magazine Private Eye, itself a lampoon of the names the Geldofs gave to their other children. Geldof has stated that his children find his music 'crap' and him an 'embarrassment'.[78]HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard   In 1995, Yates left Geldof for Michael Hutchence, the lead singer of INXS, whom she had met several years previously when she interviewed him on The Tube (TV series), and again in 1994 when she interviewed Hutchence again for The Big Breakfast. Geldof and Yates divorced in May 1996 and Yates moved in with Hutchence. Yates and Hutchence had a daughter, Heavenly Hiraani Tiger Lily, born 22 July 1996.[citation needed] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Hutchence later was found hanged in a hotel room on 22 November 1997. Geldof soon after went to court and obtained full custody of his own three daughters and has since become an outspoken advocate of fathers' rights. After Paula Yates's death from a drug and alcohol overdose in 2000 Geldof became the legal guardian of Tiger Lily, believing it best that she be raised with her three half-sisters. In 2007, Geldof formally adopted her, changing her name to Heavenly Hiraani Tiger Lily Hutchence Geldof although she simply goes by the name of Tiger Hutchence-Geldof. HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard   Geldof currently resides in Battersea, South London with his partner, French actress Jeanne Marine, and Tiger. His father died on 26 August 2010 at the age of 96.[79]Band Aid was a charity supergroup featuring leading British and Irish musicians and recording artists.[1][2][3] It was founded in 1984 by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise money for anti-poverty efforts in Ethiopia by releasing the song "Do They Know It's Christmas?" for the Christmas market that year. On 25 November 1984, the song was recorded at Sarm West Studios in Notting Hill, HP 317443-001 Keyboard London, and was released in the UK four days later.[4][5] The single surpassed the hopes of the producers to become the Christmas number one on that release. Two subsequent re-recordings of the song to raise further money for charity also topped the charts. The original was produced by Midge Ure. The 12" version was mixed by Trevor Horn. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard The original 1984 Feed The World logo was based on a pencil sketch by Bob Geldof after watching a BBC television news report by Michael Buerk from famine-stricken Ethiopia. Geldof was so moved by the plight of starving children that he decided to try to raise money using his contacts in pop music. Geldof enlisted the help of Midge Ure, from the group Ultravox, to help produce a charity record. Ure took Geldof's lyrics, ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard and created the melody and backing track for the record. Geldof called many of the most popular British and Irish performers of the time (Kool & The Gang and Jody Watley were the only Americans present at the original recording), persuading them to give their time free. His one criterion for selection was how famous they were, in order to maximise sales of the record. He then kept an appointment to appear on a show on BBC Radio 1, SONY VAIO VGN-FS775P/H Laptop Keyboard with Richard Skinner, but instead of promoting the new Boomtown Rats material as planned, he announced the plan for Band Aid. The recording studio gave Band Aid no more than 24 free hours to record and mix the record, on 25 November 1984. The recording took place at SARM Studios in Notting Hill between 11am and 7pm, and was filmed by director Nigel Dick to be released as the pop video though some basic tracks had been recorded the day before at Midge Ure's home studio. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard The first tracks to be recorded were the group / choir choruses which were filmed by the international press. The footage was rushed to newsrooms where it aired while the remainder of the recording process continued. Later, drums by Phil Collinswere recorded. The introduction of the song features a slowed down sample from a Tears for Fears' track called "The Hurting", rTOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard eleased in 1983. Tony Hadley, ofSpandau Ballet, was the first to record his vocal, while a section sung by Status Quo was deemed unusable, and replaced with section comprising Paul Weller,Sting, and Glenn Gregory. Simon Le Bon from Duran Duran sang between contributions from George Michael and Sting. Paul Young has since admitted, in a documentary, Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard that he knew his opening lines were written for David Bowie, who was not able to make the recording but made a contribution to the B-side (Bowie performed his lines at the Live Aid concert the following year). Boy George arrived last at 6pm, after Geldof woke him up by 'phone to have him flown over fromNew York on Concorde to record his solo part. (At the time, Culture Club was in the middle of a US tour.) SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard The following morning, Geldof appeared on the Radio 1 breakfast show with Mike Read, to promote the record further and promise that every penny would go to the cause. This led to a stand-off with the British Government, who refused to waive the VAT on the sales of the single. Geldof made the headlines by publicly standing up to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and, sensing the strength of public feeling, the government backed down and donated the tax back to the charity. SONY VAIO VGN-NR10 Laptop Keyboard The record was released on November 29, 1984, and went straight to No. 1 in the UK singles chart, outselling all the other records in the chart put together. It became the fastest- selling single of all time in the UK, selling a million copies in the first week alone. It stayed at No. 1 for five weeks, selling over three million copies and becoming easily the biggest-selling single of all time in the UK, TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard thus beating the seven-year record held by Mull of Kintyre. It has since been surpassed by Elton John's "Candle in the Wind 1997" (his tribute to Diana, Princess of Wales) but it is likely to keep selling in different versions for many years to come. HP Pavilion dv6-3122tx Laptop Keyboard   After Live Aid, "Do They Know It's Christmas?" was re-released in late 1985 in a set that included a special-edition 'picture disc' version, modelled after the Live Aid logo with 'Band' in place of 'Live'. An added bonus, "One Year On" (a statement from Geldof and Ure on the telephone) was available as a b-side. "One Year On" can also be found in transcript form in a booklet which was included in the DVD set of Live Aid, the first disc of which features the BBC news report, as well as the Band Aid video. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard   Pink Floyd were an English rock band that achieved international success with their progressive and psychedelic music. Distinguished by their use of philosophical lyrics, sonic experimentation, and elaborate live shows, they are one of the most commercially successful and musically influential groups in the history of popular music. They have sold over 250 million records worldwide, including 74.5 million certified units in the United States, and were inducted into the US Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996, and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. SONY Vaio PCG-K415B Laptop Keyboard   Founded in 1965, Pink Floyd originally consisted of university students Roger Waters, Nick Mason, Richard Wright, and Syd Barrett. They first gained popularity performing in London's underground music scene during the late 1960s, and under Barrett's creative leadership they released two charting singles, "Arnold Layne" and "See Emily Play", as well as a successful début album, Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard The Piper at the Gates of Dawn (1967). Guitarist and vocalist David Gilmour joined as a fifth member in December 1967, and Barrett left the band in April 1968 due to his deteriorating mental health. With this four-piece line-up they achieved critical and commercial success with the concept albums The Dark Side of the Moon (1973), Wish You Were Here (1975), Animals (1977) and The Wall (1979). After 1972, Waters became the band's primary songwriter and lyricist. HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard Wright left the group in 1979, followed by Waters in 1985. Gilmour and Mason continued as Pink Floyd, and were subsequently rejoined by Wright. They continued to record and tour through 1994; two more albums followed, A Momentary Lapse of Reason(1987) and The Division Bell (1994). After almost two decades of acrimony, the band reunited in 2005 for a performance at the global awareness event Live 8. HP G62-451SA Laptop Keyboard Wright died in 2008. Surviving members Gilmour and Mason joined Waters at one of his The Wall Tour shows on 12 May 2011 at the O2 Arena in London; Gilmour performed "Comfortably Numb" along with Waters and "Outside the Wall" with Mason and Waters. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-18Z Laptop Keyboard The beginning Roger Waters and Nick Mason met while they were both studying architecture at the London Polytechnic at Regent Street.[1] The pair first played music together in a group formed by Keith Noble and Clive Metcalfe with Noble's sister Sheilagh. They were later joined by fellow architecture student Richard Wright, becoming a sextet named Sigma 6, the first band to feature Waters, Wright and Mason.[2][nb 1]SONY VAIO VGN-CR327 Laptop Keyboard The band started performing during private functions, while rehearsing in atearoom in the basement of the Regent Street Polytechnic. They covered songs by The Searchers and material written by their manager and songwriter, fellow student Ken Chapman.[4]HP Pavilion dv6-3016sl Laptop Keyboard In September 1963, Waters and Mason moved into a flat at 39 Stanhope Gardens, near Crouch End London, owned by Mike Leonard, a part-time tutor at the Regent Street Polytechnic and Hornsey College of Art.[5][nb 2] Mason later moved out of the flat, and guitarist Bob Klose moved in.[6][nb 3] Sigma 6 went through a number of other short-lived names, including The Meggadeaths, DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard The Abdabs and The Screaming Abdabs, Leonard's Lodgers, and The Spectrum Five before settling on The Tea Set.[7][nb 4] In 1964, as Metcalfe and Noble left to form their own band, Klose and Waters were joined at Stanhope Gardens by Syd Barrett.[11] Barrett moved to London in 1963 to study at the Camberwell College of Art.[12] Waters and Barrett were childhood friends;  HP Pavilion G6-1139TX Laptop Keyboard Waters had often visited Barrett and watched him play guitar at Barrett's mother's home.[13] Mason said this about Barrett: "In a period when everyone was being cool in a very adolescent, self-conscious way, Syd was unfashionably outgoing; my enduring memory of our first encounter is the fact that he bothered to come up and introduce himself to me."[12]SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard   After The Tea Set lost Noble and Metcalfe's vocal abilities, Klose introduced the band to Chris Dennis, a technician with the Royal Air Force.[14] Soon after, Dennis was posted to Bahrain, leaving Barrett to step-in as their front-man.[14] The band first recorded in a studio in December 1964, though without Wright, who was taking a break from his studies. HP COMPAQ NX6120 Laptop Keyboard They managed to secure recording time at a studio in West Hampstead, through one of Wright's friends, who let them use some down time for free. The four-song session became The Tea Set's first demo and included the R&B classic "I'm a King Bee", and three Syd Barrett originals, "Butterfly", "Lucy Leave" and "Double O Bo", a song Mason described as "Bo Diddley meets the 007 theme".[15] SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard In early 1965, they became the resident band at the Countdown Club, near Kensington High Street in London, where from late night until early morning they played three sets of ninety minutes each. During this period, spurred by the group's need to lengthen their sets in order to minimise song repetition, came the band's "realisation that songs could be extended with lengthy solos", wrote Mason.[16] ACER 90.4CD07.S1D Laptop Keyboard In early 1965, the band auditioned for ITV's Ready Steady Go!, which Mason described as "the definitive music show of the day".[17] Despite sounding what Mason considered "too radical for the general viewer", they were called back for a second audition, with the request that they play material more familiar to the judges; they did not earn an appearance on the show.[18][nb 5]HP Pavilion DV6-1210sa Laptop Keyboard After pressure from his parents and advice from his college tutors, Klose quit the band in mid 1965 and Barrett took over on lead guitar.[19] In late 1965, the group was first referred to as the Pink Floyd Sound, a name created by Barrett on the spur of the moment when he discovered that another band, also called the Tea Set, were to perform at one of their gigs.[20][nb 6]SONY VAIO PCG-FR215H Laptop Keyboard   By 1966, the group's repertoire consisted mainly of rhythm and blues songs and they had began to receive paid bookings, including one for a performance at the Marquee Club, in March 1966, where they were noticed by Peter Jenner. A lecturer at the London School of Economics, Jenner was impressed by the sonic effects Barrett and Wright created, and with his business partner and friend Andrew King, became their manager.[22] Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard The pair had little experience in the music industry and used King's inherited money to set up Blackhill Enterprises, purchasing about £1,000 worth of new instruments and equipment for the band. It was around this time that Jenner suggested they drop the "Sound" part of their band name, thus becoming the Pink Floyd.[23][nb 7] Under Jenner and King's guidance the group became part of London's underground music scene, DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard playing at venues including All Saints Hall and The Marquee.[25] While performing at the Countdown Club the band had experimented with long instrumental excursions and they began to expand upon these with rudimentary but visually effective light shows, projected by coloured slides and domestic lights.[26][nb 8] To celebrate the launch of the London Free School's magazine International Times, SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard they performed in front of 2,000 people at the opening of The Roundhouse, attended by celebrities including Paul McCartney and Marianne Faithfull.[28] Jenner and King's social connections helped gain the band important coverage in The Financial Times and an article in the The Sunday Times which stated: "At the launching of the new magazine IT the other night a pop group called the Pink Floyd played throbbing music while a series of bizarre coloured shapes flashed on a huge screen behind them ... apparently very psychedelic."[29]TOSHIBA Satellite M640 Laptop Keyboard   Their financial relationship with Blackhill Enterprises was strengthened when they became equal partners, with the band members, Jenner and King, each holding a one-sixth share.[30] By late 1966, their set included fewer R&B standards and more Barrett originals, many of which would later make up most of their first album.[31] While they had began to increase the frequency of their performances, the band was not widely accepted at the time. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard Following a performance at a Catholic youth club, the owner refused to pay them claiming that the band's performance "wasn't music".[32] When the group's managment filed a case in a small claims court against the owner of the youth club, a local magistrate upheld the owner's decision. However, they were much better received at the UFO Club in London, where a small fanbase began to build-up around the band.[33] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Barrett's performances were generally exuberant, "leaping around and the madness, and the kind of improvisation he was doing ... he was inspired ... to get past his limitations and into areas that were very, very interesting. Which none of the others could do", wrote biographer Nicholas Schaffner.[34] As time went on, their audiences grew more receptive to the music they played, SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard audiences that were often high on drugs, whereas the band typically remained drug-free before and during performances, Mason wrote: "We were out of it, not on acid, but out of the loop, stuck in the dressing room at UFO."[35]COMPAQ 367777-001 Laptop Keyboard

Signing with EMI

\Whereas Pink Floyd began their career at the vanguard of London's underground psychedelic music scene and would later be classified by some as space rock, by 1967 they began to attract the attention of the mainstream music industry.[37] While in negotiations with record companies, IT co-founder and UFO club manager Joe Boyd and Pink Floyd's booking agent Bryan Morrison arranged for and funded the recording of several songs at Sound Techniques inWest Hampstead, SAMSUNG NP-NC10-JP01 Laptop Keyboard ncluding the band's stand-out track "Arnold Layne" and "Candy and a Currant Bun" as its B-side, both of which were recorded on 29 January 1967.[38][nb 9] Pink Floyd were signed to EMI on 1 February 1967, with a £5,000 advance.[40][nb 10] "Arnold Layne" became Pink Floyd's first single, released on 10 March 1967.[41][nb 11] The song's references to cross-dressing caused it to be banned by several radio stations, however some creative manipulation at the shops which supplied sales figures to the music industry meant that it peaked in the UK charts at number 20.[43][nb 12]Lenovo ThinkPad T410s-2912 Laptop Keyboard   The band's second single, "See Emily Play", was released on 16 June, faring slightly better than "Arnold Layne", and peaking at number 6 in the UK.[41][nb 13]They performed on the BBC's Look of the Week, where an erudite and engaging Waters and Barrett faced rigorous questioning from Hans Keller.[47] They were also invited to appear on the BBC's Top Of The Pops, HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard which was immensely popular but which controversially required artists to simply mime their singing and playing. They returned after the single climbed to number six, but a scheduled third appearance was cancelled when Barrett refused to perform.[48] HP G61-405SL Laptop Keyboard It was around this time the rest of the band first noticed changes in Barrett's behaviour.[49] By early 1967, he was regularly using LSD, and Mason observed him to be "completely distanced from everything going on, whether simply tripping or suffering from a more organic neural disturbance I still have no idea."[50]HP G62-b20SA Laptop Keyboard The Piper at the Gates of Dawn Main article: The Piper at the Gates of Dawn Pink Floyd's recording contract was negotiated by Morrison and EMI producer Norman Smith. Pink Floyd were obliged to make their first album at EMI's Abbey Road Studios in London.[51] At Abbey Road they experimented with musique concrète and were invited to watch The Beatles record "Lovely Rita".[52] Mason recalled that the sessions were relatively trouble-free, HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard however Smith disagreed, stating that Barrett was unresponsive to his suggestions and constructive criticism.[53] The Piper at the Gates of Dawn was released in August 1967, and Pink Floyd continued to draw huge crowds at the UFO Club, however, Barrett's mental deterioration was by then giving them serious concern. The band initially hoped that his erratic behaviour would be a passing phase, TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard but some were less optimistic, including Jenner and his assistant, June Child, who commented: "I found [Barrett] in the dressing room and he was so ... gone. Roger Waters and I got him on his feet, [and] we got him out to the stage ... The band started to play and Syd just stood there. He had his guitar around his neck and his arms just hanging down."[54]HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard To their consternation the band were forced to cancel their appearance at the prestigious National Jazz and Blues Festival, informing the music press that Barrett was suffering from nervous exhaustion. Jenner and Waters arranged for Barrett to see a psychiatrist (he did not attend the appointment); a stay inFormentera, with Sam Hutt, a doctor well-established in the underground music scene, HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard led to no visible improvement. A few dates in September were followed by the band's first tour of the United States.[55] Blackhill's late application for work permits forced the band to cancel several dates[56] and Barrett's condition grew steadily worse.[57] He detuned his guitar during a performance at the Winterland Ballroom, causing the strings to come off; Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard during a recording for The Pat Boone Show he confounded the director by miming the song perfectly during the rehearsal, then standing motionless during the take. King quickly curtailed the band's US visit, sending them home on the next flight.[58]HP G56-141US Laptop Keyboard   Shortly after their return from the US the band supported Jimi Hendrix's tour of England, where on one date at Chatham in Kent, Nick Mason played his drums out of view behind the amps rather than use the tour kit.[58] However, Barrett's depression worsened the longer the tour continued.[59] His absence on one occasion forced the band to book David O'List as his replacement.[55] ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard Wynne Willson left his role as lighting manager and allied himself with the guitarist.[60] Pink Floyd released the single "Apples and Oranges" in November 1967 in the UK (although not in the US).[61] Barrett's condition had reached a crisis point, and they responded by adding a new member to their line-up.[55]HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Barrett had recently suggested adding four new members: in the words of Waters, "two freaks he'd met somewhere. One of them played the banjo, the other the saxophone ...

 [and] a couple of chick singers".[62] In December 1967, the band asked David Gilmour to become the fifth member of Pink Floyd; Gilmour accepted.[63] He was previously acquainted with Barrett, having studied with him at Cambridge Tech in the early 1960s.[13] SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard The two had performed at lunchtimes together with guitars and harmonicas, and later hitch-hiked and busked their way around the south of France.[64] In 1965, while a member of Joker's Wild, Gilmour had watched the Tea Set.[65] Barrett reluctantly agreed to Gilmour's addition to Pink Floyd. Steve O'Rourke (an assistant to Bryan Morrison) gave Gilmour a room at his house and a salary of £30 per week.[66] ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard Gilmour immediately went out and bought a custom-made yellow Fender Stratocaster from a music shop in Cambridge(the instrument became one of Gilmour's favourite guitars throughout his career with Pink Floyd) and in January 1968 he was announced as the band's newest member.[67] To the general public he was then the second guitarist, the fifth member of Pink Floyd, SAMSUNG R20 Laptop Keyboard and the group originally intended to keep Barrett in the group as a non-performing songwriter.[68] According to Jenner, "The idea was that Dave would ... cover for [Barrett's] eccentricities and when that got to be not workable, Syd was just going to write. Just to try to keep him involved, but in a way where the others could work and function."[69] HP Pavilion DV6-1013tx Laptop Keyboard One of Gilmour's first duties was to pretend to play a guitar on an "Apples and Oranges" promotional film.[67] In a demonstration of his frustration at being effectively sidelined, Barrett tried to teach the band a new song, "Have You Got It Yet?", but changed the structure on each performance—making it impossible for them to learn.[70]HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard Working with Barrett eventually proved too difficult and matters came to a head en route to a performance in Southampton when someone in the van asked if they should collect Barrett, the response was "No, fuck it, let's not bother".[71] ASUS Z91E Laptop Keyboard DELL Studio 1558 Laptop Keyboard Waters later admitted, "He was our friend, but most of the time we now wanted to strangle him".[72] In early March 1968 they met with business partners Peter Jenner and Andrew King of Blackhill Enterprises, to discuss the band's future. Barrett agreed to leave and Pink Floyd agreed to Blackhill's legal entitlement to receive royalties in perpetuity from the band's previous recordings.[73]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Jenner and King, who believed Barrett to be the creative genius of the band, decided to represent him and end their relationship with Pink Floyd.Povey 2008, p. 78–80 Morrison then agreed that Steve O'Rourke should become the group's manager.[74] A formal announcement about Barrett's departure was made on 6 April 1968 though for a short period after, he would turn up at occasional gigs, apparently confused about his standing with the band.[75] HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard Gilmour mimed to his voice on the group's European television appearances but while playing on the university circuit, Waters and Wright created their own new material, such as "It Would Be So Nice" and "Careful with That Axe, Eugene", a song which would help galvanised Pink Floyd's standing as an art rock band.[76] They were joined by road manager Peter Watts before touring Europe in 1968.[77]  HP Probook 4320s Laptop Keyboard HP G71-442NR Laptop Keyboard In July 1969, perhaps because of their space-related music and lyrics, they were part of the live BBC television coverage of the Apollo 11 moon landing, performing an instrumental piece which they called "Moonhead".[78]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7135 Laptop Keyboard Live performances Pink Floyd are regarded as pioneers in the live music experience and were renowned for their lavish stage shows, in which the performers themselves were almost secondary. Pink Floyd also set high standards in sound quality, making use of innovative sound effects and quadraphonic speaker systems.[270] From their earliest days they were well known for their use of visual effects,  SONY 91160363 Laptop Keyboard which accompanied the psychedelic rock pieces performed at venues such as the UFO Club in London.[33]The quality of their live performances, even when pre-recorded, was considered by the band to be extremely important; they boycotted the press release of The Dark Side of the Moon as they felt presenting the album through a poor-quality PA system was not good enough.[271][272]TOSHIBA Satellite 2805-s201 Laptop Keyboard The album had been composed and refined mostly while the band toured the UK, Japan, North America, and Europe.[273] An inflatable floating pig named "Algie" became the inspiration for a number of pig themes used throughout the "In the Flesh Tour",[274] which began in Dortmund and continued through Europe to the UK, and then the US. SONY KFRMBA152A Laptop Keyboard Although Pink Floyd were experienced live performers the behaviour of the audience on their "In the Flesh" tour, and the sizes of the venues they played, were a powerful influence on their concept album The Wall. The subsequent The Wall Tour featured a 40 feet (12 m) high wall, built from cardboard bricks, constructed between the band and the audience. ASUS F5R Laptop Keyboard Animations were projected onto the wall, and gaps allowed the audience to view various scenes in the story. Several characters from the story were realised as giant inflatables.[275] One of the more notable elements of the tour was the performance of "Comfortably Numb". While Waters sang his opening verse, Gilmour waited for his cue on top of the wall in darkness.  HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard When it came, bright blue and white lights would suddenly illuminate him. Gilmour stood on a flight case on castors, a dangerous set-up supported from behind by a technician, both supported by a tall hydraulic platform.[276]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In 1987 Pink Floyd embarked on their A Momentary Lapse of Reason Tour. Starting in Ottawa on 9 September they spent about two years touring the US, Japan, Europe, and Central Asia.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard In Venice, Italy, the band played to an audience of 200,000 fans at the Piazza San Marco. The resulting storm of protest over the city's lack of toilet provision, first aid, and accommodation resulted in the resignation of Mayor Antonio Casellati and his government. At the end of the tour Pink Floyd released Delicate Sound of Thunder,[277] and in 1989 released the Delicate Sound of Thunder concert video.[278]TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7467 Laptop Keyboard During the band's "Division Bell" tour, Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard an unidentified person using the name Publius posted a message on an internet newsgroup, inviting fans to solve a riddle supposedly concealed in the new album. The veracity of the user was demonstrated when white lights in front of the stage at the Pink Floyd concert in East Rutherford spelled out the words Enigma Publius. During a televised concert at Earls Court in October 1994 the word enigma was projected in large letters on to the backdrop of the stage. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Mason later acknowledged that the Publius Enigma did exist, and that it had been instigated by the record company rather than the band. As of 2012 the puzzle remains unsolved.[279]

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