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Bono Paul David Hewson (born 10 May 1960), most commonly known by his stage name Bono (/ˈbɒnoʊ/ bon-oh), is an Irish singer, musician, and humanitarian best known for being the main vocalist of the Dublin-based rock band U2. Bono was born and raised in Dublin, Ireland, and attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School where he met his future wife,  HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard Alison Stewart, and the future members of U2.[1][2][3] Bono writes almost all U2 lyrics, often using political, social, and religious themes.[4][5] During their early years, Bono's lyrics contributed to U2's rebellious and spiritual tone.[4] As the band matured, his lyrics became inspired more by personal experiences shared with members of U2.[2][4]SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard Outside the band, he has collaborated and recorded with numerous artists,[6][7][8] is managing director and a managing partner of Elevation Partners,[9] and has refurbished and owns The Clarence Hotel in Dublin with The Edge.[10][11] Bono is also widely known for his activism concerning Africa, for which he co-founded DATA, EDUN, the ONE Campaign and Product Red.[2][12] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard He has organised and played in several benefit concerts and has met with influential politicians.[12][13][14] Bono has been praised and criticised for his activism and involvement with U2.[15][16][17] He has been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, was granted an honorary knighthood by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, and was named as a Person of the Year by Time,[15][18][19] among other awards and nominations. TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01 Laptop Keyboard Bono was born in the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, on 10 May 1960.[20] He was raised in Northside suburb of Glasnevin with his brother, Norman Robert Hewson (who is eight years older than Bono), by their mother Iris (née Rankin), a Church of IrelandAnglican, and their father Brendan Robert "Bob" Hewson, a Roman Catholic.[1][2] His parents initially agreed that the first child would be raised Anglican and the second Catholic.[21] Although Bono was the second child, he also attended Church of Ireland services with his mother and brother.[21] SONY V072078BS1 Laptop Keyboard He went to the local primary Glasnevin National School.[22] Bono was 14 when his mother died on 10 September 1974 after suffering a cerebral aneurysm at her father's funeral.[2] Many U2 songs, including "I Will Follow", "Mofo", "Out of Control", "Lemon", and "Tomorrow", focus on the loss of his mother.[2][23][24] Other songs focus on the theme of childhood vs. maturity, such as "Into the Heart," "Twilight", and "Stories for Boys."[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv6-3218tx Laptop Keyboard Bono attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School, a multi denominational school in Clontarf. During his childhood and adolescence, Bono and his friends were part of a surrealist street gang called "Lypton Village". Bono met one of his closest friends, Guggi, in Lypton Village.[citation needed] The gang had a ritual of nickname-giving. Bono had several names: first, he was "Steinvic von Huyseman", then just "Huyseman", followed by "Houseman", "Bon Murray", "Bono Vox of O'Connell Street", and finally just "Bono".[2]HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop Keyboard "Bono Vox" is an alteration of Bonavox, a Latin phrase which translates to "good voice." It is said he was nicknamed "Bono Vox" by his friend Gavin Friday. Initially, Bono disliked the name. However, when he learned it loosely translated to "good voice", he accepted it. Hewson has been known as "Bono" since the late 1970s. Although he uses Bono as his stage name, close family and friends also refer to him as Bono, including his wife and fellow band members.[2]SAMSUNG NP-N150-KA03 Laptop Keyboard

Personal life

Bono is married to Alison Hewson (née Stewart).[3] The couple have four children: daughters Jordan (b. 10 May 1989) and Memphis Eve (b. 7 July 1991) and sons Elijah Bob Patricius Guggi Q (b. 18 August 1999) and John Abraham (b. 21 May 2001);[25] Memphis Eve portrayed the character Stella in the 2008 film The 27 Club.[26][27]SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard Bono is almost never seen in public without sunglasses. During a Rolling Stone interview he stated: [I have] very sensitive eyes to light. If somebody takes my photograph, I will see the flash for the rest of the day. My right eye swells up. I've a blockage there, so that my eyes go red a lot. So it's part vanity, it's part privacy and part sensitivity.[28]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard In 2002, he was listed as one of the 100 Greatest Britons in a poll conducted among the general public,[29] despite the fact that he is Irish. In May 2010, Bono suffered a spinal injury while preparing for the forthcoming U2 tour, and was taken to a German clinic in Munich for emergencyneurosurgery.[30][31] The entire North American leg was postponed and rescheduled into 2011.[32][33] ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard On 25 September 1976, Bono, David Evans ("The Edge"), his brother Dik, and Adam Clayton responded to an advertisement on a bulletin board at Mount Temple posted by fellow student Larry Mullen Jr. to form a rock band. The band had occasional jam sessions in which they did covers of other bands. Tired of long guitar solos and hard rock, Bono wanted to play Rolling Stones and The Beach Boys songs. Unfortunately the band could not play covers very well, so they started writing their own songs. HP G42-459TX Laptop Keyboard The band went by the name "Feedback" for a few months, before changing to "The Hype" later on. After Dik Evans left the group to join another local band, the Virgin Prunes, the remaining four officially changed the name from "The Hype" to "U2". Initially Bono sang, played guitar, and wrote the band's songs. He said of his early guitar playing in a 1982 interview, "Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard When we started out I was the guitar player, along with the Edge—except I couldn't play guitar. I still can't. I was such a lousy guitar player that one day they broke it to me that maybe I should sing instead. I had tried before, but I had no voice at all. I remember the day I found I could sing. I said, 'Oh, that's how you do it.'"[34] When The Edge's guitar playing improved, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Bono was relegated mostly to the microphone, although he occasionally still plays rhythm guitar and harmonica. As of 2006, Bono has taken piano lessons from his children's piano teacher as a means to improve his songwriting.[35] Bono writes the lyrics for almost all U2 songs, which are often rich in social and political themes.[4] His lyrics frequently allude to a religious connection or meaning, evident in songs such as "Gloria" from the band's album October, HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard and "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For" from The Joshua Tree.[5] During the band's early years, Bono was known for his rebellious tone which turned to political anger and rage during the band's WarThe Joshua Tree and Rattle and Humeras.[4] Following the Enniskillen bombing that left 11 dead and 63 injured on 8 November 1987, the Provisional IRA paramilitaries threatened to kidnap Bono.[2] HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard IRA supporters also attacked a vehicle carrying the band members.[2] These acts were in response to his speech condemning the Remembrance Day Bombing during a live performance of "Sunday Bloody Sunday".[2] The singer had been advised to cut his on-stage outburst from the Rattle and Hum film, but it was left in.[36]Also featured in the film is footage of Bono spray-painting a monument during an outdoor performance; Bono was forced to pay a fine.  SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard U2's sound and focus dramatically changed with their 1991 album, Achtung Baby. Bono's lyrics became more personal, inspired by experiences related to the private lives of the members of the band.[2][4] During the band's Zoo TV Tour several of his stage personas were showcased; these included "The Fly", a stereotypical rock star, the "Mirror Ball Man", a parody of Americantelevangelists, and "Mr. MacPhisto", a combination of a corrupted rock star and the Devil.[2][4]HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard During performances he attempts to interact with the crowd as often as possible and is known for pulling audience members onto the stage or moving himself down to the physical level of the audience.[2] This has happened on several occasions including at the Live Aid concert in 1985 where he leapt off the stage and pulled a woman from the crowd to dance with her as the band played "Bad", DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard and in 2005 during U2's Vertigo Tour stop in Chicago, where he pulled a boy onto the stage during the song "An Cat Dubh / Into the Heart".[2][37] Bono has often allowed fans to come on stage and perform songs with the band. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Bono has won numerous awards with U2, including 22 Grammy awards and the 2003 Golden Globe award for best original song, "The Hands That Built America", for the film Gangs of New York.[16][38] During the live broadcast of the ceremony, Bono called the award "really, really fucking brilliant!"[39] In response, the Parents Television Council condemned Bono for his profanity and started a campaign for its members to file complaints with the FCC.[40] HP 516884-001 Laptop Keyboard Although Bono's use of "fuck" violated FCC indecency standards, the FCC refused to fine NBC because the network did not receive advance notice of the consequences of broadcasting such profanity and the profanity in question was not used in its literal sexual meaning.[41]SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard In 2005, the U2 band members were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in their first year of eligibility.[42] In November 2008, Rolling Stone ranked Bono the 32nd greatest singer of all-time.[43] Bono and his bandmates were criticised in 2007 for moving part of their multi-million euro song catalogue from Ireland toAmsterdam six months before Ireland ended a tax exemption on musicians' royalties.[17][44] HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard Under Dutch tax law, bands are subject to low to non-existent tax rates.[17] U2's manager, Paul McGuinness, stated that the arrangement is legal and customary and businesses often seek to minimise their tax burdens.[17]TOSHIBA Satellite A75-S206 Laptop Keyboard The move prompted criticisms in the Irish parliament.[45][46] The band later responded by stating that approximately 95% of their business took place outside Ireland, and that they were taxed globally because of this.[47] Bono was one of several super-rich figures whose tax arrangements were singled out for criticism in a report by the charity Christian Aid in 2008.[48]Dell Latitude D400 Laptop Keyboard


In addition to his work with U2, he has collaborated with Frank Sinatra,[6] Johnny Cash,[7] Willie Nelson,[49] Luciano Pavarotti,[50] Sinéad O'Connor,[51] Green Day, Roy Orbison,[52] Bob Dylan,[8] Tina Turner,[53] B.B. King and Zucchero.[54][55][56] He has recorded with Ray Charles,[57] Quincy Jones, Kirk Franklin,[58] Bruce Springsteen,[59] Tony Bennett,[60] Clannad,[61] The Corrs,[62]Dell Latitude D410 Laptop Keyboard Wyclef Jean,[63] Kylie Minogue,[64] Carl Perkins,[65] Jay-Z and Rihanna, as well as reportedly completing an unreleased duet with Jennifer Lopez.[66] On Robbie Robertson's 1987 eponymous album, he plays bass guitar and vocals.[67] On Michael Hutchence's 1999 posthumous eponymous album, Bono completed a recording of "Slide Away" as a duet with Hutchence.[68]HP 407857-001 Laptop Keyboard Bono and The Edge also wrote the music and lyrics for the Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark. On May 25, 2011, a single titled "Rise Above 1: Reeve Carney Featuring Bono and The Edge" was released digitally.[69] The music video was released on 28 July 2011.[70] In 1992, Bono, along with the Edge, bought and refurbished Dublin's two-star 70-bedroom Clarence Hotel, and converted it into a five-star 49-bedroom hotel.[11]SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard The Edge and Bono have also recorded several songs together, exclusive of the band. They have also been working on penning the score for the 2011 rock musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark.[71] Bono is a known Celtic F.C. fan,[25] and in 1998 it was rumoured that Bono intended to buy shares in the Scottish club,[72] which Bono denied.[73]HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard In May 2007, MTV reported that Bono was writing the foreword for a collection of poetry entitled "Third Rail".[74] The book's foreword gives detail of the meanings of the poetry, saying "The poets who fill the pews here have come to testify, to bear witness to the mysterious power of rock and roll...Rock and roll is truly a broad church, but each lights a candle to their vision of what it is."[74] ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard The collection, which is edited by poet Jonathan Wells, contains titles such as "Punk rock You're My Big Crybaby","Variation on a Theme by Whitesnake", and "Vince Neil Meets Josh in a Chinese Restaurant in Malibu (After Ezra Pound)."[74]TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Laptop Keyboard Bono is on the board of the Elevation Partners private-equity firm, which attempted to purchase Eidos Interactive in 2005 and has since gone on to invest in other entertainment businesses.[10][75] Bono has invested in the Forbes Media group in the US through Elevation Partners. Elevation Partners became the first outsider to invest in the company, taking a minority stake in Forbes Media LLC, DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard a new company encompassing the 89-year-old business which includes Forbes magazine, the Forbes.com website and other assets. The terms of the deal were not disclosed, but reports said the stake was worth about €194 million ($250m).[76][77][78]Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard In film, Bono has played the character of "Dr. Robert", an anti-war shaman, in the musical Across the Universe.[79] Also in this movie, he sang The Beatles songs "I Am the Walrus" and "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds". Bono's other acting credits include cameos in 1999's Entropy and 2000'sMillion Dollar Hotel, the latter of which was based on a story conceived by Bono.[79] In 2000 he acted as himself in the short film Sightings of Bono, adapted from a short story by Irish writer Gerard Beirne.[79]DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard Elevation Partners, of which Bono is managing direct, owns a 1.5% stake in social networking site Facebook, originally purchased for $210m.[80] Currently, his stake is valued at approximately US$ 1 billion.[81]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

Humanitarian work

Bono has become one of the world's best-known philanthropic performers and was named the most politically effective celebrity of all time by the National Journal.[82][83][84] He has been dubbed, "the face of fusion philanthropy",[85]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard both for his success enlisting powerful allies from a diverse spectrum of leaders in government, religious institutions, philanthropic organisations, popular media, and the business world, as well as for spearheading new organizational networks that bind global humanitarian relief with geopolitical activism and corporate commercial enterprise.[86]HP 9J.N0Y82.H01 Laptop Keyboard HP 516884-001 Laptop Keyboard In a 1986 interview with Rolling Stone magazine, Bono explained that he was motivated to become involved in social and political causes by seeing one of the Secret Policeman's Ball benefit shows, staged by John Cleese and producer Martin Lewisfor the human-rights organisation Amnesty International in 1979.[87] "I saw 'The Secret Policeman’s Ball' and it became a part of me. It sowed a seed..." In 2001, Bono arranged for U2 to videotape a special live performance for that year's Amnesty benefit show. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Bono and U2 performed on Amnesty's Conspiracy Of Hope tour of the United States in 1986 alongside Sting.[13] U2 also performed in the Band Aid and Live Aid projects, organised by Bob Geldof.[88] In 1984, Bono sang on the Band Aid single "Do They Know it's Christmas?/Feed the World" (a role that was reprised on the 2004 Band Aid 20 single of the same name).[89] Geldof and Bono later collaborated to organise the 2005 Live 8 project, where U2 also performed.[14]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Since 1999, Bono has become increasingly involved in campaigning for third-world debt relief and raising awareness of the plight of Africa, including the AIDS pandemic. In the past decade Bono has met with several influential politicians, including former United States President George W. Bush and former Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin.[90] HP 516884-001 Laptop Keyboard During a March 2002 visit to the White House, after President Bush unveiled a $5 billion aid package, he accompanied the President for a speech on the White House lawn where he stated, "This is an important first step, and a serious and impressive new level of commitment. ... This must happen urgently, because this is a crisis."[90] In May of that year, Bono took US Treasury SecretaryPaul H. O'Neill on a four-country tour of Africa. HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard In contrast, in 2005, Bono spoke on CBC Radio, alleging then Prime Minister Martin was being slow about increasing Canada's foreign aid.[91] He was a nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003, 2005, and 2006 for his philanthropy.[15][92][93]HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard In 2004, he was awarded the Pablo Neruda International Presidential Medal of Honour from the Government of Chile.[94] TimeMagazine named Bono one of the "100 Most Influential People" in its May 2004 special issue,[95] and again in the 2006 Time 100 special issue.[96] In 2005, Time named Bono a Person of the Year along with Bill and Melinda Gates.[19] SONY NSK-S8101 Laptop Keyboard Also in 2005, he received the Portuguese Order of Liberty for his humanitarian work.[97] That year Bono was also among the first three recipients of the TED Prize, which grants each winner "A wish to change the world".[98] Bono made three wishes,[99] the first two related to the ONE campaign and the third that every hospital, health clinic and school in Ethiopia should be connected to the Internet. TED rejected the third wish as being a sub-optimal way for TED to help Africa[99] SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard and instead organised a TED conference in Arusha, Tanzania. Bono attended the conference, which was held in June 2007, and attracted headlines[100] with his foul-mouthed heckling of a speech by Andrew Mwenda. SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard In 2007, Bono was named in the UK's New Years Honours List as an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.[18][101] He was formally granted knighthood on 29 March 2007 in a ceremony at the residence of British AmbassadorDavid Reddaway in Dublin, Ireland.[102]SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard Bono also received the NAACP Image Award's Chairman's Award in 2007.[103] On 24 May 2007, the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia announced that Bono would receive the Philadelphia Liberty Medal on 27 September 2007 for his work to end world poverty and hunger.[104] On 28 September 2007, in accepting the Liberty Medal, Bono said, "When you are trapped by poverty, you are not free. HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard When trade laws prevent you from selling the food you grew, you are not free, ... When you are a monk in Burma this very week, barred from entering a temple because of your gospel of peace ... well, then none of us are truly free." Bono donated the $100,000 prize to the organisation. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala accepted the award for the Washington-based Debt AIDS Trade Africa.[105]Compaq Presario CQ57-310 Laptop Keyboard In 2005 he recorded a version of Don't Give Up with Alicia Keys, with proceeds going to Keep a Child Alive.[106] On 15 December 2005, Paul Theroux published an op-ed in the New York Times called The Rock Star's Burden (cf. Kipling's The White Man's Burden) that criticised stars such as Bono, Brad Pitt, and Angelina Jolie, labelling them as "mythomaniacs, people who wish to convince the world of their worth." Theroux, who lived in Africa as a Peace Corps Volunteer,  TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard added that "the impression that Africa is fatally troubled and can be saved only by outside help—not to mention celebrities and charity concerts—is a destructive and misleading conceit."[107] Elsewhere, Bono has been criticised, along with other celebrities, for "[ignoring] the legitimate voices of Africa and [turning] a global movement for justice into a grand orgy of narcissistic philanthropy".[108]TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard On 3 April 2005, Bono paid a personal tribute to John Paul II and called him "a street fighter and a wily campaigner on behalf of the world's poor. We would never have gotten the debts of 23 countries completely cancelled without him."[109] Bono spoke in advance of President Bush at the 54th Annual National Prayer Breakfast, held at the Hilton Washington Hotel on 2 February 2006. TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard In a speech containing biblical references, Bono encouraged the care of the socially and economically depressed. His comments included a call for an extra one percent tithe of the United States' national budget. He brought his Christian views into harmony with other faiths by noting that Christian, Jewish, and Muslim writings all call for the care of the widow, orphan, and stranger. SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard President Bush received praise from the singer-activist for the United States' increase in aid for the African continent. Bono continued by saying much work is left to be done to be a part of God's ongoing purposes.[12]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The organisation DATA (Debt, AIDS, Trade, Africa) was established in 2002 by Bono and Bobby Shriver, along with activists from the Jubilee 2000 Drop the Debt Campaign.[110] DATA aims to eradicate poverty and HIV/AIDS in Africa.[110] DATA encourages Americans to contact senators and other legislators and elected officials to voice their opinions.[110]DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard In early 2005, Bono, his wife Ali Hewson, and New York-based Irish fashion designer Rogan Gregory launched the socially conscious line EDUN in an attempt to shift the focus in Africa from aid to trade.[111] EDUN's goal is to use factories in Africa, South America, and India that provide fair wages to workers and practice good business ethics to create a business model that will encourage investment in developing nations.[112]Compaq Presario CQ71-314SA Laptop Keyboard Bono was a special guest editor of the July 2007 issue of Vanity Fair magazine. The issue was named "The Africa Issue: Politics & Power" and featured an assortment of 20 different covers, with photographs by Annie Leibovitz of a number of prominent celebrities, political leaders, and philanthropists. Each one showcased in the issue for their contributions to the humanitarian relief in Africa.[113]DELL R811H Laptop Keyboard In an article in Bloomberg Markets in March 2007, journalists Richard Tomlinson and Fergal O’Brien noted that Bono used his band's 2006 Vertigo world tour to promote his ONE Campaign while at the same time "U2 was racking up $389 million in gross ticket receipts, making Vertigo the second-most lucrative tour of all time, according to Billboard magazine. . . . Revenue from the Vertigo tour is funnelled through companies that are mostly registered in Ireland and structured to minimise taxes."[114]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Further criticism came in November 2007, when Bono's various charity campaigns were targeted by Jobs Selasie, head of African Aid Action. Selasie claimed that these charities had increased corruption and dependency in Africa because they failed to work with African entrepreneurs and grassroots organisations, and as a result, Africa has become more dependent on international handouts.[115] HP Pavilion dv6-2170sl Laptop Keyboard Bono responded to his critics in Times Online on 19 February 2006, calling them "cranks carping from the sidelines. A lot of them wouldn’t know what to do if they were on the field. They’re the party who will always be in opposition so they’ll never have to take responsibility for decisions because they know they’ll never be able to implement them."[116] SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard In November 2007, Bono was honoured by NBC Nightly News as someone "making a difference" in the world.[117] He and anchor Brian Williams had travelled to Africa in May 2007 to showcase the humanitarian crisis on the continent.[118] On 11 December 2008, Bono was given the annual Man of Peace prize, awarded by several Nobel Peace Prize laureates in Paris, France.[119]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Product Red is another initiative begun by Bono and Bobby Shriver to raise money for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria.[120] Bobby Shriver has been announced as the CEO of Product Red, whilst Bono is currently an active public spokesperson for the brand. Product Red is a brand that is licensed to partner companies, such as American Express, Apple, DELL XPS M1730 Laptop Keyboard Converse, Motorola, Microsoft, Dell, The Gap, and Giorgio Armani.[121] Each company creates a product with the Product Red logo and a percentage of the profits from the sale of these labelled products will go to the Global Fund.[122] SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard

The Edge

David Howell Evans (born 8 August 1961), more widely known by his stage name The Edge (or just Edge),[1] is a musician best known as the guitarist, backing vocalist, and keyboardist of the Irish rock band U2. A member of the group since its inception, he has recorded 12 studio albums with the band and has released one solo record. As a guitarist, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard The Edge has crafted a minimalistic and textural style of playing. His use of a rhythmic delay effect yields a distinctive ambient, chiming sound that has become a signature of U2's music. The Edge was born in England to a Welsh family, but was raised in Ireland after moving there as an infant. In 1976, atMount Temple Comprehensive School, he formed U2 with his fellow students and his older brother Dik. SONY VAIO VGN-FS115M Laptop Keyboard Inspired by the ethos of punk rock and its basic arrangements, the group began to write its own material. They eventually became one of the most popular acts in popular music, with successful albums such as 1987's The Joshua Tree and 1991's Achtung Baby. Over the years, The Edge has experimented with various guitar effects and introduced influences from several genres of music into his own style, SONY VAIO VGN-FS630W Laptop Keyboard including American roots music, industrial music, and alternative rock. With U2, The Edge has also played keyboards, co-produced their 1993 record Zooropa, and occasionally contributed lyrics. The Edge met his second and current wife, Morleigh Steinberg, through her collaborations with the band.  SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard As a member of U2 and as an individual, The Edge has campaigned for human rights and philanthropic causes. He co-foundedMusic Rising, a charity to support musicians affected by Hurricane Katrina. He has collaborated with U2 bandmate Bono on several projects, including songs for Roy Orbison and Tina Turner,  DELL Inspiron 8500 Laptop Keyboard and the soundtracks to the musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark and the Royal Shakespeare Company's London stage adaptation of A Clockwork Orange. In 2011, Rolling Stone magazine placed him at number 38 on its list of "The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard David Howell Evans was born at the Barking Maternity Hospital,[2] Essex, England to Welsh parents Garvin and Gwenda Evans.[1] When he was one, his family moved to County Dublin, Ireland where he attended St Andrew's National School. He received piano and guitar lessons and often performed with his brother Dik Evans before they both answered an advertisement posted by Larry Mullen, HP G62-b20ES Laptop Keyboard Jr. at their school, Mount Temple Comprehensive School, seeking musicians to form a band.[3] The band accepted both of them. This band went through several incarnations before emerging as U2 in March 1978 (Dik Evans left the band just before the name change).[3] U2 began performing in various venues in Ireland and eventually began developing a following. Their debut album, Boy, was released in 1980. DELL JVT97 Laptop Keyboard In 1981, leading up to the October tour, Evans came very close to leaving U2 for religious reasons, but he decided to stay.[3] During this period, he became involved with a group called Shalom Tigers, in which bandmates Bono and Larry Mullen Jr. were also involved.[4] Shortly after deciding to remain with the band, he wrote a piece of music that later became "Sunday Bloody Sunday".[3] DELL OPYTVX Laptop Keyboard The Edge married his high school girlfriend Aislinn O'Sullivan on 12 July 1983.[5] The couple had three daughters together: Hollie in 1984, Arran in 1985 and Blue Angel in 1989.[4] The couple separated in 1990, but were unable to get officially divorced because of Irish laws regarding marriage annulment; divorce was legalised in 1995 and the couple were legally divorced in 1996.[4]HP 9J.NOL82.W01 Laptop Keyboard In 1993, The Edge began dating Morleigh Steinberg, a professional dancer and choreographer employed by the band as a belly dancer during the Zoo TV Tour. They had a daughter, Sian (born 1997), and a son, Levi (born 25 October 1999),[4] before marrying on 22 June 2002.[4] He appeared in the 2009 music documentary filmIt Might Get Loud.[6]HP 444635-B31 Laptop Keyboard The Edge has been criticized for his efforts to build five luxury mansions on a 156 acre plot of land in Malibu, California.[7] TheCalifornia Coastal Commission voted 8-4 against the plans, with the project described by the commission's executive director, Peter Douglas, as "In 38 years...one of the three worst projects that I've seen in terms of environmental devastation... TOSHIBA Satellite l525 Laptop Keyboard It's a contradiction in terms – you can't be serious about being an environmentalist and pick this location."[7] The Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy agreed to remain neutral on the issue following a $1 million donation from The Edge and a commitment from The Edge to designate 100 acres of the land as open space for public footpaths.[7]HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard

Music style

As a guitar player, The Edge has a sound typified by a low-key playing style, a chiming, shimmering sound (thanks in part to the sound of VOX AC-30s) that he achieves with extensive use of delay effects and reverb. The feedback delay is often set to a dotted eighth note (3/16 of a measure), and the feedback gain is adjusted until a note played repeats two or three times. [[1]] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard On 1987's The Joshua Tree, The Edge often contributes just a few simple lead lines given depth and richness by an ever-present delay. For example, the introduction to "Where the Streets Have No Name" is simply a repeated six-note arpeggio, broadened by a modulated delay effect. The Edge has said that he views musical notes as "expensive", in that he prefers to play as few notes as possible. He said in 1982 of his style, TOSHIBA Satellite L450D Laptop Keyboard "I like a nice ringing sound on guitar, and most of my chords I find two strings and make them ring the same note, so it's almost like a 12-string sound. So for E I might play a B, E, E and B and make it ring. It works very well with the Gibson Explorer. It's funny because the bass end of the Explorer was so awful that I used to stay away from the low strings, ACER Aspire 1520 Series Laptop Keyboard and a lot of the chords I played were very trebly, on the first four, or even three strings. I discovered that through using this one area of the fretboard I was developing a very stylized way of doing something that someone else would play in a normal way."[9] SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard Many different influences have shaped The Edge's guitar technique.[citation needed] His first guitar was an old acoustic guitar that his mother bought him at a local flea market for only a few pounds; he was nine at the time. He and his brother Dik Evans both experimented with this instrument.[9] He said in 1982 of this early experimentation, "I suppose the first link in the chain was a visit to the local jumble sale where I purchased a guitar for a pound. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard That was my first instrument. It was an acoustic guitar and me and my elder brother Dik both played it, plonking away, all very rudimentary stuff, open chords and all that."[9] The Edge has stated that many of his guitar parts are based around guitar effects. This is especially true from the Achtung Baby era onwards, although much of the band's 1980s material made heavy use of echos. DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard The Edge also supplies the backing vocals for U2. U2's 1983 live album and video release, Under a Blood Red Sky and Live at Red Rocks: Under a Blood Red Sky are good reference points for his singing (as are the live DVDs from the Elevation Tour, U2 Go Home: Live from Slane Castle and Elevation 2001: Live from Boston). For example, he sings the chorus to "Sunday Bloody Sunday" (Bono harmonizes on the final 'Sunday'). U2 used this tradeoff technique later in "Bullet the Blue Sky" as well. His backing vocals are sometimes in the form of a repeated cry; TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5241 Laptop Keyboard examples of songs that use this approach include "Beautiful Day", "New Year's Day" and "Stay (Faraway, So Close!)". Another technique he uses in his backing vocals is the falsetto, in songs such as "Stuck in a Moment You Can't Get Out Of", "Sometimes You Can't Make It on Your Own", "A Man and a Woman", "The Wanderer", live versions of "The Fly", and "Window in the Skies".ACER PK1306F0200 Laptop Keyboard The Edge sings the lead vocal on "Van Diemen's Land" and "Numb", the first half of the song "Seconds", dual vocals with Bono in "Discotheque", and the bridge in the song "Miracle Drug".[4] HP Mini 210-2030ez Laptop Keyboard He also sings the occasional lead vocal in live renditions of other songs (such as "Sunday Bloody Sunday" during the PopMart Tour and "Party Girl" during the Rotterdam Zoo TV show when it was Bono's birthday).[10] He also plays a solo acoustic version of the song "Love is Blindness" that is featured in the documentary film From the Sky Down.  Lenovo 3000 N500 Laptop Keyboard He has played piano and keyboards on many of the band's songs, including "I Fall Down", "October", "So Cruel", "New Year's Day", "Running to Stand Still", "Miss Sarajevo", "The Hands that Built America", and "Original of the Species" and others. He plays the organ on "Please". In live versions of "New Year's Day", "The Unforgettable Fire", "Your Blue Room",HP Pavilion dv6-3122tx Laptop Keyboard and "Moment of Surrender", he plays both the piano and guitar parts alternately. In most live versions of "Original of the Species," piano is the only instrument played during the song. Although The Edge is the band's lead guitarist, he occasionally plays bass guitar, including the live performances of the song "40" where The Edge and bassistAdam Clayton switch instruments. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard   replacement instruments for those that were lost in Hurricane Katrina. The instruments were originally only replaced for professional musicians but they soon realized the community churches and schools needed instruments as well. The charity's slogan is "Rebuilding the Gulf Region note by note" and has so far helped over a hundred musicians who were affected by Hurricane Katrina. The Edge also serves on the board of the Angiogenesis Foundation, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization dedicated to improving global health by advancing angiogenesis-based medicine, diets, and lifestyle.[15]SONY Vaio PCG-K415B Laptop Keyboard Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard   EDUN was launched in Spring 2005 by Ali Hewson and her husband, U2 singer Bono as a global fashion brand bringing about positive change through its trading relationship with Africa. In May 2009 luxury group LVMH bought a 49% stake in the company.[1] Following LVMH's investment in the brand, Edun appointed a new creative director, Sharon Wauchob.[2] In 2010, Ali Hewson and Bono appear wearing EDUN in a Louis Vuitton campaign, shot by photographer Annie Leibovitz in Africa.[3]HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard   Edun's supply chain has always included countries outside of Africa.[4] EDUN requires every factory to be audited by a third party on an annual basis to ensure they follow the fashion brand's strict code of conduct.[5] Though EDUN's main focus is trade, the company sources organic and sustainable materials whenever possible.[6] Since its founding in 2007, Edun Live has produced 700,000 African made t-shirts. It's what Hewson calls 100 percent African grow-to-sew initiative.[7]HP G62-451SA Laptop Keyboard   In 2008, Edun established the Conservation Cotton Initiative Uganda (CCIU). CCIU provides funding, training and enterprise support to cotton farmers to help build sustainable businesses in Northern Uganda, one of the poorest areas of Uganda which is recovering from 25 years of civil war. It currently supports 5,000 farmers and their families and Edun's aim to keep growing this number to reach 8,000 farmers by 2013. [8]TOSHIBA Satellite L40-18Z Laptop Keyboard   According to Ali Hewson and Bono, 37% of the collection in September 2011 was produced in Africa. [9] Founder Ali Hewson said in March 2011, "There is a misconception that we moved business out of Africa. We didn’t. We’re now working in eight facto


The English name for the city is derived from the Irish name Dubhlinn, meaning "black pool". Dublin is situated near the midpoint of Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and the centre of the Dublin Region. SONY VAIO VGN-CR327 Laptop Keyboard   Originally founded as a Viking settlement, it evolved into the Kingdom of Dublin and became the island's principal city following the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century; it was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire and the fifth largest in Europe. Dublin entered a period of stagnation following the Act of Union of 1800, HP Pavilion dv6-3016sl Laptop Keyboard but it remained the economic centre for most of the island. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, the new parliament, the Oireachtas, was located in Leinster House. Dublin became the capital of theIrish Free State and later the Republic of Ireland. DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard Similar to the cities of Cork, Limerick, Galway, and Waterford—Dublin is administered separately from its respective County with its own City Council. The city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha-", placing Dublin among the top 30 cities in the world.[4][5] It is a historical and contemporary cultural centre for the country, as well as a modern centre of education, the arts, administration, economy, and industry. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard



Although the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, the writings of Ptolemy (the Egyptian astronomer and cartographer) in about 140 AD provide possibly the earliest reference to a settlement there. He called the settlement Eblana Civitas. SAMSUNG NP-NC10-JP01 Laptop Keyboard   The name Dublin comes from the Irish name Dubhlinn or Duibhlinn, meaning "black pool". This is made up of the elements dubh (black) and linn (pool). In most Irish dialects, dubh is pronounced [ˈd̪ˠʊvˠ]. The original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modernIcelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx DivlynDuibhlinn is the name of a few other places in Ireland, HP Mini 110-1110SA Laptop Keyboard whose names have been anglicized as Devlin,[6] Divlin[7] and Difflin.[8] Historically, in the Gaelic script, bh was written with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn. Those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name asDublin. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard   Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliathis a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery which is believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, currently occupied byWhitefriar Street Carmelite Church. DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard   The subsequent Scandinavian settlement was on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known asWood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor ships and was connected to the Liffey by the Poddle. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew. The Dubhlinn was situated where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne ("The Cattle Raid of Cooley") refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, which is called Ath Cliath".SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 9th century and, despite a number of rebellions by the native Irish, it remained largely under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.[9] The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough’s death, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5214 Laptop Keyboard Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England reaffirmed his sovereignty by mounting a larger invasion in 1171 and pronouncing himself Lord of Ireland.[10] Around this time, the county of the City of Dublin was established along with certain liberties adjacent to the city proper. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4050 Laptop Keyboard This continued down to 1840 when the Barony of Dublin City was separated from the Barony of Dublin. Since 2001, both baronies have been redesignated the City of Dublin. Dublin Castle, which became the centre of Norman power in Ireland, was founded in 1204 as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England.[11] Following the appointment of the first Lord Mayor of Dublin in 1229, the city expanded and had a population of 8,000 by the end of the 13th century. Dublin prospered as a trade centre, despite an attempt by King Robert I of Scotland to capture the city in 1317.[10HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard ] It remained a relatively small walled medieval town during the 14th century and was under constant threat from the surrounding native clans. In 1348, the Black Death, a lethal plague which had ravaged Europe, took hold in Dublin and killed thousands over the following decade.[12][13]ASUS F5R Laptop Keyboard Dublin was incorporated into the English Crown as The Pale, which was a narrow strip of English settlement along the eastern seaboard. The Tudor conquest of Ireland in the 16th century spelt a new era for Dublin, with the city enjoying a renewed prominence as the centre of administrative rule in Ireland. Determined to make Dublin a Protestant city, Queen Elizabeth I of England established Trinity College in 1592 as a solely Protestant university and ordered that the Catholic St. Patrick's andChrist Church cathedrals be converted to Protestant.[14] TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard The city had a population of 21,000 in 1640 before a plague in 1649–51 wiped out almost half of the city's inhabitants. However, the city prospered again soon after as a result of the wool and linen trade with England, reaching a population of over 50,000 in 1700.[15]APPLE 922-6637 Laptop Keyboard As the city continued to prosper during the 18th century, Georgian Dublin became, for a short period, the second largest city of the British Empire and the fifth largest city in Europe, with the population exceeding 130,000. The vast majority of Dublin's most notable architecture dates from this period, such as the Four Courts and the Custom House. Temple Bar andGrafton Street are two of the few remaining areas that were not affected by the wave of Georgian reconstruction and maintained their medieval character.[14]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Dublin grew even more dramatically during the 18th century, with the construction of many famous districts and buildings, such as Merrion Square, Parliament House and the Royal Exchange.[14] The Wide Streets Commission was established in 1757 at the request of Dublin Corporation to govern architectural standards on the layout of streets, bridges and buildings. TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard In 1759, the founding of the Guinness brewery resulted in a considerable economic gain for the city. For much of the time since its foundation, the brewery was Dublin's largest employer. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Dublin suffered a period of political and economic decline during the 19th century following the Act of Union of 1800, under which the seat of government was transferred to the Westminster Parliament in London. The city played no major role in theIndustrial Revolution, but remained the centre of administration and a transport hub for most of the island.  TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard Ireland had no significant sources of coal, the fuel of the time, and Dublin was not a centre of ship manufacturing, the other main driver of industrial development in Britain and Ireland.[9] Belfast developed faster than Dublin during this period on a mixture ofinternational trade, factory-based linen cloth production and shipbuilding.[16]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard   The Easter Rising of 1916, the Irish War of Independence, and the subsequent Irish Civil War resulted in a significant amount of physical destruction in central Dublin. The Government of the Irish Free State rebuilt the city centre and located the new parliament, the Oireachtas, in Leinster House. Since the beginning of Norman rule in the 12th century, SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard the city has functioned as the capital in varying geopolitical entities: Lordship of Ireland (1171–1541), Kingdom of Ireland (1541–1800), island as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922), an

d the Irish Republic (1919–1922).[17] Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, it became the capital of the Irish Free State (1922–1949) and now is the capital of the Republic of Ireland. One of the memorials to commemorate that time is the Garden of Remembrance. COMPAQ 367777-001 Laptop Keyboard   Since 1997, the landscape of Dublin has changed immensely. The city was at the forefront of Ireland's rapid economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period, with enormous private sector and state development of housing, transport and business. HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard HP 317443-001 Keyboard From 1842, the boundaries of the city were comprehended by the baronies of Dublin City and the Barony of Dublin. In 1930, the boundaries were extended by the Local Government (Dublin) Act.[18] Later in 1953, the boundaries were again extended by theLocal Government Provisional Order Confirmation Act[19]DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard   Dublin City Council is a unicameral assembly of 52 members elected every five years from Local Election Areas. It is presided over by the Lord Mayor, who is elected for a yearly term and resides in Mansion House. Council meetings occur at Dublin City Hall, while most of its administrative activities are based in the Civic Offices on Wood Quay. The party or coalition of parties, ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard with the majority of seats adjudicates committee members, introduces policies, and appoints the Lord Mayor. The Council passes an annual budget for spending on areas such as housing, traffic management, refuse, drainage, and planning. The Dublin City Manager is responsible for implementing City Council decisions. SONY VAIO VGN-FS775P/H Laptop Keyboard   As the capital city, Dublin seats the national parliament of Ireland, the Oireachtas. It is composed of the President of Ireland, Seanad Éireann as the upper house, and Dáil Éireann as the lower house. The President resides in Áras an Uachtaráin in the Phoenix Park, while both houses of the Oireachtas meet in Leinster House, a former ducal palace on Kildare Street. It has been the home of the Irish parliament since the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922. The old Irish Houses of Parliament of the Kingdom of Ireland were located in College Green. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard   Government Buildings house the Department of the Taoiseach, the Council Chamber, the Department of Finance and the Office of the Attorney General. It consists of a main building (completed 1911) with two wings (completed 1921) TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard . It was designed by Thomas Manley Dean and Sir Aston Webb as the Royal College of Science. The First Dáil originally met in the Mansion House in 1919. The Irish Free State government took over the two wings of the building to serve as a temporary home for some ministries, while the central building became the College of Technology until 1989.[20] Although both it and Leinster House were intended to be temporary, they became the permanent homes of parliament from then on. Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard   For elections to Dáil Éireann the city is divided into five constituencies: Dublin Central (4 seats), Dublin North–Central (3 seats), Dublin North-East (3 seats), Dublin North–West (3 seats), Dublin South–Central (5 seats) and Dublin South–East (4 seats). 22 TD's are elected in total. Dublin North–East, Dublin North–West and Dublin South–Central also take in parts of Fingal and South Dublin. SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard   Dublin is situated at the mouth of the River Liffey and encompasses a land area of approximately 115 km2. It is bordered by a low mountain range to the south and surrounded by flat farmland to the north and west.[22] The Liffey divides the city in two between the Northside and the Southside. Each of these is further divided by 2 lesser rivers, SONY VAIO VGN-NR10 Laptop Keyboard the River Tolka running northwest from Dubin Bay, and the River Dodder running southwest from the mouth of the Liffey. Two further water bodies - theGrand Canal on the southside and the Royal Canal on the northside - ring the inner city on their way to the west and theRiver ShannonTOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard The Liffey bends at Leixlip from a predominantly east-west direction to a southwesterly route, and this point also marks the change from urban development to a more agricultural land usage.[23]HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard A north-south division has traditionally existed, with the River Liffey as the divider. The Northside is generally seen as working-class, while the Southside is seen as middle to upper middle class. The divide is punctuated by examples of Dublin "sub-culture" stereotypes, with upper-middle class constituents seen as tending towards an accent and demeanour synonymous with the Southside,  HP Pavilion G6-1139TX Laptop Keyboard and working-class Dubliners seen as tending towards characteristics associated with Northside and inner-city areas. Dublin's economic divide is east-west as well as north-south. There are also social divisions evident between the coastal suburbs in the east of the city, including those on the northside, and the newer developments further to the west.[24]SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard



Similar to much of northwest Europe, Dublin experiences a maritime climate with mild winters, cool summers, and a lack of temperature extremes. The average maximum January temperature is 8.8 °C (48 °F), while the average maximum July temperature is 20.2 °C (68 °F). On average, the sunniest months are May and June, while the wettest month is October with 76 mm (3 in) of rain, and the driest month is February with 46 mm (2 in). Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year. HP COMPAQ NX6120 Laptop Keyboard   Dublin records the least amount of rainfall in Ireland, with the average annual precipitation in the city centre being 714 mm (28 in). The main precipitation in winter is rain; however snow showers do occur between November and March. Hail is more common than snow. The city experiences long summer days and short winter days. Strong Atlantic winds are most common in autumn. These winds can affect Dublin, but due to its easterly location it is least affected compared to other parts of the country. However conversely in winter, easterly winds render the city more prone to snow showers. SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard ACER 90.4CD07.S1D Laptop Keyboard   Dublin has many landmarks and monuments dating back hundreds of years. One of the oldest is Dublin Castle, which was first founded as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England in 1204, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, when it was commanded that a castle be built with strong walls and good ditches for the defence of the city, HP Pavilion DV6-1210sa Laptop Keyboard the administration of justice, and the protection of the King’s treasure.[26] Largely complete by 1230, the castle was of typical Norman courtyard design, with a central square without a keep, bounded on all sides by tall defensive walls and protected at each corner by a circular tower. Sited to the south-east of Norman Dublin, the castle formed one corner of the outer perimeter of the city, using the River Poddle as a natural means of defence. SONY VAIO PCG-FR215H Laptop Keyboard One of Dublin's newest monuments is the Spire of Dublin, or officially titled "Monument of Light".[27] It is a 121.2 metres (398 ft) conical spire made of stainless steel and is located on O'Connell Street. It replaces Nelson's Pillar and is intended to mark Dublin's place in the 21st century. The spire was designed by Ian Ritchie Architects,[28]Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard who sought an "Elegant and dynamic simplicity bridging art and technology". During the day it maintains its steel look, but at dusk the monument appears to merge into the sky. The base of the monument is lit and the top is illuminated to provide a beacon in the night sky across the city. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard Many people visit Trinity College, Dublin to see the Book of Kells in the library there. The Book of Kells is an illustrated manuscript created by Irish monks circa. 800 AD. The Ha'penny Bridge; an old iron footbridge over the River Liffey is one of the most photographed sights in Dublin and is considered to be one of Dublin's most iconic landmarks.[29]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Other popular landmarks and monuments include the Mansion House, the Anna Livia monument, the Molly Malone statue, Christ Church Cathedral, St Patrick's Cathedral, Saint Francis Xavier Church on Upper Gardiner Street near Mountjoy Square, The Custom House, andÁras an Uachtaráin. The Poolbeg Towers are also iconic features of Dublin and are visible in many spots around the city. TOSHIBA Satellite M640 Laptop Keyboard Dublin has more green spaces per square kilometre than any other European capital city, with 97% of city residents living within 300 metres of a park area. The city council provides 2.96 hectares (7.3 acres) of public green space per 1,000 people and 255 playing fields. The council also plants approximately 5,000 trees annually and manages over 1,500 hectares (3,700 acres) of parks.[30]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard There are many park areas around the city, including the Phoenix Park, Herbert Park and St Stephen's Green. The Phoenix Park is 2–4 km west of the city centre, north of the River Liffey. Its 16 km perimeter wall encloses 707 hectares (1,750 acres) one of the largest walled city parks in Europe.[31][32] It includes large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues, and since the 17th century has been home to a herd of wild Fallow deer. TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard The residence of the President of Ireland (Áras an Uachtaráin), which was built in 1754, is located in the park. The park is also home to Dublin Zoo, the official residence of the United States Ambassador, and Ashtown Castle. Music concerts have also been performed in the park by many singers and musicians. HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard St Stephen's Green is adjacent to one of Dublin's main shopping streets, Grafton Street, and to a shopping centre named for it, while on its surrounding streets are the offices of a number of public bodies and the city terminus of one of Dublin'sLuas tram lines. St Anne's Park is a public park and recreational facility, shared between Raheny and Clontarf, HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard both suburbs on the North Side of Dublin. The park, the second largest municipal park in Dublin, is part of a former 2 km² (500 acre) estate assembled by members of the Guinness family, beginning with Benjamin Lee Guinness in 1835 (the largest municipal park is nearby (North) Bull Island, also shared between Clontarf and Raheny). Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard HP G56-141US Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard

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