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Boston By the 1970s, the city's economy boomed after 30 years of economic downturn. A large number of high rises were constructed in the Financial District and in Boston's Back Bay during this time period. This boom continued into the mid-1980s and later began again. Boston has the second largest skyline in the Northeast (after New York) in terms of the number of buildings reaching a height of over 500 feet (150 m). Hospitals such as Massachusetts General Hospital,  COMPAQ Presario CQ42-228TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Brigham and Women's Hospital lead the nation in medical innovation and patient care. Schools such as Boston University, the Harvard Medical School, Northeastern University, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Berklee College of Musicand Boston Conservatory attract students to the area. Nevertheless, the city experienced conflict starting in 1974 overdesegregation busing, which resulted in unrest and violence around public schools throughout the mid-1970s. HP Pavilion dv6-3019tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1984, the City of Boston gave control of the Columbia Point public housing complex to a private developer, who redeveloped and revitalized the property from its rundown and dangerous state into an attractive residential mixed-income community called Harbor Point Apartments, which opened in 1988 and was completed by 1990. It was the first federal housing project to be converted to private, mixed-income housing in the United States, and served as a model for the federal HUD HOPE VI public housing revitalization program that began in 1992.[53]HP G42-364LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan  Gateway MX6447 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the early 21st century, the city has become an intellectual, technological, and political center. It has, however, experienced a loss of regional institutions,[55] which included the acquisition of The Boston Globe by The New York Times, and the loss to mergers and acquisitions of local financial institutions such as FleetBoston Financial, which was acquired byCharlotte-based Bank of America in 2004. Boston-based department stores Jordan Marsh and Filene's have both been merged into the Cincinnati–based Macy's. Boston has also experienced gentrification in the latter half of the 20th century,[56] with housing prices increasing sharply since the 1990s.[26] Compaq Presario C571NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Living expenses have risen, and Boston has one of the highest costs of living in the United States,[57] and was ranked the 99th most expensive major city in the world in a 2008 survey of 143 cities.[58] Despite cost of living issues, Boston ranks high on livability ratings, ranking 36th worldwide in quality of living in 2011 in a survey of 221 major cities.[59]Gateway NV55C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Owing to its early founding, Boston is very compact. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 89.6 square miles (232.1 km2)—48.4 square miles (125.4 km2) (54.0%) of land and 41.2 square miles (106.7 km2) (46.0%) of water. Boston is the country's third most densely populated city that is not a part of a larger city'smetropolitan area.[60] HP Pavilion dv4-1204tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This is largely attributable to the rarity of annexation by New England towns. Boston is surrounded by the "Greater Boston" region and is bordered by the cities and towns of Winthrop, Revere, Chelsea, Everett, Somerville,Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Brookline, Needham, Dedham, Canton, Milton, and Quincy. The Charles River separates Boston proper from Cambridge, Watertown, and the neighborhood of Charlestown. To the east lies Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area (BHINRA). SONY PCG-6S2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This includes part of the city's territory, specifically Calf Island, Gallops Island, Great Brewster Island, Green Island, Little Brewster Island, Little Calf Island, Long Island, Lovells Island, Middle Brewster Island, Nixes Mate, Outer Brewster Island, Rainsford Island, Shag Rocks, Spectacle Island, The Graves, and Thompson Island. The Neponset River forms the boundary between Boston's southern neighborhoods and the city of Quincy and the town ofMilton.[61]  FUJITSU CA49008-0271 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Mystic River separates Charlestown from Chelsea and Everett, and Chelsea Creek and Boston Harbor separate East Boston from Boston proper.[62] Boston's official elevation, as measured at Logan International Airport, is 19 ft (5.8 m) above sea level.[63] The highest point in Boston is Bellevue Hill at 330 feet (100 m) above sea level, and the lowest point is at sea level.[64] Boston is the only state capital in the contiguous United States with an ocean coastline.[65]HP Envy 17-1050eb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Much of the Back Bay and South End neighborhoods are built on reclaimed land—all of the earth from two of Boston's three original hills, the "Trimountain", was used as landfill material. Pemberton Hill, which would become Pemberton Square in theGovernment Center neighborhood, and Mount Vernon, were leveled completely. HP Mini 110-1116NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Only Beacon Hill—the smallest of the three original hills—remains partially intact; only half of its height was cut down for landfill. Tremont Street is named after the three hills. The downtown area and immediate surroundings consist mostly of low-rise brick or stone buildings, with many older buildings in the Federal style.  Toshiba Portege R835 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Several of these buildings mix in with modern high-rises, notably in the Financial District, Government Center, the South Boston waterfront, and Back Bay, which includes many prominent landmarks such as theBoston Public Library, Christian Science Center, Copley Square, Newbury Street, and New England's two tallest buildings—theJohn Hancock Tower and the Prudential Center.[66]HP Pavilion G72-a10EV Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Near the John Hancock Tower is the old John Hancock Building with its prominent weather forecast beacon—the color of the illuminated light gives an indication of weather to come: "steady blue, clear view; flashing blue, clouds are due; steady red, rain ahead; flashing red, snow instead". (In the summer, flashing red indicates instead that a Red Soxgame has been rained out.) Smaller commercial areas are interspersed among single-family homes and wooden/brick multi-family row houses. HP Pavilion dv6-3340et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Currently, the South End Historic District remains the largest surviving contiguous Victorian-era neighborhood in the U.S.[67] Along with downtown, the geography of South Boston was particularly impacted by the Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) Project (or the "Big Dig"). The unstable reclaimed land in South Boston posed special problems for the project's tunnels. In the downtown area, the CA/T Project allowed for the removal of the unsightly elevated Central Artery and the incorporation of new green spaces and open areas. HP Pavilion dv2610us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston Common, located near the Financial District and Beacon Hill, is the oldest public park in the United States.[69] Along with the adjacent Boston Public Garden, it is part of the Emerald Necklace, a string of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted to encircle the city. Jamaica Pond, part of the Emerald Necklace, is the largest body of freshwater in the city. Franklin Park, which is also part of the Emerald Necklace, is the city's largest park and houses the Franklin Park Zoo.[70] ACER Aspire 5710Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Another major park is the Esplanade, located along the banks of the Charles River. The Hatch Shell, an outdoor concert venue, is located adjacent to the Charles River Esplanade. Other parks are scattered throughout the city, with the major parks and beaches located near Castle Island (not part of the BHINRA, and connected to the mainland); in Charlestown; and along the Dorchester, South Boston, and East Boston shorelines. SONY Vaio VGN-BZAAPS Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston is sometimes called a "city of neighborhoods" because of the profusion of diverse subsections. There are 21 official neighborhoods in Boston used by the city.[71] These neighborhoods include: Allston/Brighton, Back Bay, Bay Village, Beacon Hill, Charlestown, Chinatown/Leather District, Dorchester, Downtown/Financial District, East Boston, Fenway/Kenmore, Hyde Park, Jamaica Plain, Mattapan, Mission Hill, North End, Roslindale,Roxbury, South Boston, South End, West End, and West Roxbury. SONY VGN-CS118E/R Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston has a climate that is continental in nature but with maritime influences owing to its coastal location, a phenomenon common to coastal southern New England. The climate is either classified as a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), using the −3 °C (26.6 °F) isotherm of the original Köppen scheme, or ahumid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm preferred by some climatologists.  SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Summers are typically warm, rainy, and humid, while winters are cold, windy, and snowy. Spring and fall are usually mild, but conditions are widely varied, depending on wind direction and jet stream positioning. Prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore affect Boston, minimizing the influence of the Atlantic Ocean. HP Pavilion dv7-4070us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The hottest month is July, with a mean temperature of 73.7 °F (23.2 °C). The coldest month is January, with a mean of29.3 °F (−1.5 °C). Periods exceeding 90 °F (32.2 °C) in summer and below 10 °F (−12.2 °C) in winter are not uncommon but rarely extended, with about 13 days per year seeing the former extreme,[72] and the most recent subzero reading occurring on January 24, 2011.[73] Extremes have ranged from −18 °F (−28 °C) on February 9, 1934, up to 104 °F (40 °C) on July 4, 1911.[73]HP Pavilion dv9890ep Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston's coastal location on the North Atlantic, although it moderates temperatures, also makes the city very prone toNor'easter weather systems that can produce much snow and rain.[74] The city averages 42.5 inches (1,080 mm) of precipitationa year, with 43.1 inches (109 cm) of snowfall a year. Snowfall increases dramatically as one goes inland away from the city (especially north and west of the city)—away from the warming influence of the ocean.[75] Most snowfall occurs from December through March. There is usually little or no snow in April and November, and snow is rare in May and October.[76][77] APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch A1151 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Fog is somewhat common, particularly in spring and early summer, and the occasional tropical storm or hurricane can threaten the region, especially in early autumn. Due to its situation along the North Atlantic, the city is often subjected to sea breezes, especially in the late spring, when water temperatures are still quite cold and temperatures at the coast can be more than 20 °F (11 °C) colder than a few miles inland, sometimes dropping by that amount near midday.[78][79]SONY Vaio VGN-TX5XN/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan From May to September, the city experiences thunderstorms that are occasionally severe; large hail, damaging winds and heavy downpours accompany such severe events. Although downtown Boston has never been struck by a violent tornado, the city itself has seen its fair share of tornado warnings, but damaging storms are more common to areas north, west, and northwest of the city. Toshiba UDQF2RH51C1N Laptop CPU Cooling Fan According to the 2000 United States Census,[92] there were 589,141 people, 239,528 households, and 115,212 families residing in the city. When including the Greater Boston region, rather than just the city itself, the total is approximately 4.5 million. Boston's population density was 12,166 people per square mile (4,697/km2). There were 251,935 housing units at an average density of 5,203 per square mile (2,009/km2). The 2010 U.S. Census population count for the city was 617,594,[6] SONY Vaio VGN-NR430DP Laptop CPU Cooling Fan a 4.8% increase over 2000. During weekdays, the population of Boston can grow during the daytime to over 1.2 million, and can reach as many as 2 million during special events. This fluctuation of people is caused by hundreds of thousands of suburban residents who travel to the city for work, education, health care, and special events.[93]HP Pavilion dv5-1140us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the city, the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 16.2% from 18 to 24, 35.8% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males.[94]  SONY Vaio VGN-C15GP/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There were 239,528 households, of which 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 27.4% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 51.9% were non-families. 37.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 3.17.[94]HP Pavilion dv7-4113tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The median income for a household in the city was $39,629, and the median income for a family was $44,151. Males had a median income of $37,435 versus $32,421 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,353. 19.5% of the population and 15.3% of families are below the poverty line. Of the total population, 25.6% of those under the age of 18 and 18.2% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.[95]HP Pavilion dv9850eb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1950, whites represented 94.7% of Boston's population.[96] From the 1950s to the end of the 20th century, the proportion of non-Hispanic whites in the city declined; in 2000, non-Hispanic whites made up 49.5% of the city's population, making the city majority-minority for the first time. However, in recent years the city has experienced significant gentrification, in which affluent whites have moved into formerly non-white areas. In 2006, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that non-Hispanic whites again formed a slight majority.  HP Pavilion dv7-4007eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan But as of 2010, in part due to the housing crash, as well as increased efforts to make more affordable housing more available the minority population has rebounded. This may also have to do with an increased Latino population and more clarity surrounding U.S. Census statistics, which indicate a Non-Hispanic White population of 47 percent (some reports give slightly lower figures).[97][98][99]ACER Aspire 4755G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan People of Irish descent form the largest single ethnic group in the city, making up 15.8% of the population, followed by Italians, accounting for 8.3% of the population. People of West Indian ancestry are another sizable group, at 6.4%,[101] about half of whom are of Haitian ancestry. Some neighborhoods, such as Dorchester, HP G62-b30SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan have received an influx of people of Vietnamese ancestry in recent decades. Neighborhoods such as Jamaica Plain and Roslindale have experienced a growing number of Dominican Americans. The city and greater area also has a large immigration population of South Asians, including the tenth-largest Indian community in the country, with an estimated 62,598 Indians.[102]SONY VAIO VGN-AW35GJ Laptop Keyboard The city also has a sizable Jewish population with an estimated 25,000 Jews within the city and 227,000 within the Boston metro area; the number of congregations in Boston is estimated at 22.[103][104] The adjacent communities ofBrookline and Newton are both approximately one-third Jewish.[103]SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard The "Boston accent" is widely parodied in the U.S. and the Kennedy family is often associated with it, though the Kennedys' speech is generally considered more an idiosyncratic mix of various accents such as Boston Brahmin.[105][106][107] It is non-rhotic (i.e., drops the "r" sound at the end of syllables unless the next syllable starts with a vowel) and traditionally uses a "broad a" in certain words, so "bath" can sound like "bahth".[108] Boston English has many dialect words, such as "frappe", meaning "milkshake made with ice cream" (as opposed to other milkshakes).[109] The accent originated in the non-rhotic speech of 17th century East Anglia and Lincolnshire.[110]SONY VAIO VGN-FS115M Laptop Keyboard The city has seen a great reduction in violent crime since the early 1990s. Boston's low crime rate over the past decade or so has been credited to the Boston Police Department's collaboration with neighborhood groups and church parishes to prevent youths from joining gangs, as well as involvement from the United States Attorney and District Attorney's offices. This helped lead in part to what has been touted as the "Boston Miracle". Murders in the city dropped from 152 in 1990 (for a murder rate of 26.5 per 100,000 people) to just 31—not one of them a juvenile—in 1999 (for a murder rate of 5.26 per 100,000).[111] SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard In the 2000s (decade), however, the annual murder count has fluctuated by as much as 50% compared with the year before, with 60 murders in 2002, followed by just 39 in 2003, 64 in 2004, and 75 in 2005. Although the figures are nowhere near the high-water mark set in 1990, the aberrations in the murder rate have been unsettling for many Bostonians and have prompted discussion over whether the Boston Police Department should reevaluate its approach to fighting crime.[111][112][113]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7132 Laptop Keyboard Encompassing $363 billion, the Greater Boston metropolitan area has the sixth-largest economy in the country and 12th-largest in the world.[115] Boston's colleges and universities have a significant effect on the regional economy, with students contributing an estimated $4.8 billion annually to the city's economy.[116] Boston's schools are major employers and attract industries to the city and surrounding region. Boston is home to a number of technology companies and is a hub forbiotechnology, with the Milken Institute rating Boston as the top life sciences cluster in the country.[117]Boston also receives the highest absolute amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health of all cities in the United States.[118]GATEWAY M-6883u Laptop Keyboard Tourism comprises a large part of Boston's economy. In 2004, tourists spent $7.9 billion and made the city one of the ten-most-popular tourist locations in the country.[17] Because of Boston's status as a state capital and the regional home of federal agencies, law and government are another major component of the city's economy.[17] The city is also a major seaport along the United States' East Coast and is also the oldest continuously operated industrial and fishing port in the Western Hemisphere.[119]TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Some of the other important industries are financial services, especially mutual funds and insurance.[17] Boston-based Fidelity Investments helped popularize the mutual fund in the 1980s and has made Boston one of the top financial cities in the United States. The city is home to the regional headquarters of Bank of America and Sovereign Bank, and it is a center for venture capital firms. State Street Corporation, which specializes in asset management and custody services, is based in the city. TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard A 2008 study ranked Boston among the top 10 cities in the world for a career in finance.[120] Boston is a printing and publishing center —Houghton Mifflin is headquartered within the city, along with Bedford-St. Martin's Press, Beacon Press, and Little, Brown and Company. Pearson PLC publishing units also employ several hundred people in Boston. The city is home to three major convention centers—the Hynes Convention Center in the Back Bay, and theSeaport World Trade Center and Boston Convention and Exhibition Center on the South Boston waterfront. HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard Some of the major companies headquartered within the city are the Liberty Mutual insurance company, Gillette (now owned by Procter & Gamble), and New Balance. Boston is also home to management consulting firms The Boston Consulting Group and Bain & Company, as well as the private equity group Bain Capital.[121] Other major companies are located outside the city, especially along Route 128,[122] which serves as the center of the region's high-tech industry. In 2006, Boston and its metropolitan area ranked as the fourth-largest cybercity in the United States with 191,700 high-tech jobs. Only NYC Metro, DC Metro, and Silicon Valley have larger high-tech sectors.[123]HP Pavilion DV6-1011tx Laptop Keyboard Boston is classified as an "incipient global city" by a 2004 study group at Loughborough University in England.[124] Classified as an Alpha-global city by GaWCstudies, comparable to Vienna, Dublin, or Istanbul, Boston is placed among the top 30 cities in the world.[citation needed]HP Mini 110-3138tu Laptop Keyboard Boston shares many cultural roots with greater New England, including a dialect of the non-rhoticEastern New England accent known as Boston English, and a regional cuisine with a large emphasis on seafood, salt, and dairy products. Irish Americans are a major influence on Boston's politics and religious institutions. Boston also has its own collection of neologisms known as Boston slang.[125]Lenovo 3000 Y510a 15303 Laptop Keyboard The city has a number of ornate theatres, including the Cutler Majestic Theatre, Boston Opera House, Citi Performing Arts Center, the Colonial Theater, and the Orpheum Theatre. Renowned performing-arts organizations include the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Boston Ballet, Boston Early Music Festival, Boston Lyric Opera Company, OperaBoston, Boston Baroque, and the Handel and Haydn Society (one of the oldest choral companies in the United States).[127] The city is also a major center for contemporary classical music, HP G56-127NR Laptop Keyboard with a number of performing groups, some of which are associated with the city's conservatories and universities. These include Boston Modern Orchestra Project, Boston Musica Viva, Calluthumpian Consort, and Dinosaur Annex. There are also many major annual events such as First Night, which occurs on New Year's Eve, the annual Boston Arts Festival at Christopher Columbus Waterfront Park, Italian summer feasts in the North End honoring Catholic saints, and several events during the Fourth of July period. These events include the week-long Harborfest festivities[128] and a Boston Pops concert accompanied by fireworks on the banks of the Charles River.[129]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Boston is also one of the birthplaces of the hardcore punk genre of music. Boston musicians have contributed significantly to this music scene over the years (see also Boston hardcore). Boston neighborhoods were home to one of the leading local third wave ska and ska punk scenes in the 1990s, led by bands such as The Mighty Mighty Bosstones and The Allstonians DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard The 1980s' hardcore punk-rock compilation This Is Boston, Not L.A. highlights some of the bands that built the genre. Several nightclubs, such as The Channel, Bunnratty's in Allston, and The Rathskeller, were renowned for showcasing both local punk-rock bands and those from farther afield. All of these clubs are closed. Many were razed or converted during recent gentrification.[130]HP Pavilion dv6-2170us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Because of the city's prominent role in the American Revolution, several historic sites relating to that period are preserved as part of the Boston National Historical Park. Many are found along the Freedom Trail, which is marked by a red line of bricks embedded in the ground. The city is also home to several prominent art museums, including the Museum of Fine Arts and the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. In December 2006, the Institute of Contemporary Art moved from its Back Bay location to a new contemporary building designed byDiller Scofidio + Renfro located in the Seaport District. Toshiba Satellite P300-19P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University of Massachusetts Boston campus on Columbia Point houses the John F. Kennedy Library. The Boston Athenaeum (one of the oldest independent libraries in the United States),[131]Boston Children's Museum, Bull & Finch Pub (whose building is known from the television show Cheers), Museum of Science, and the New England Aquarium are within the city. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard Boston has been a noted religious center from its earliest days. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston serves nearly 300 parishes and is based in theCathedral of the Holy Cross (1875) in the South End, while the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts, with the Cathedral Church of St. Paul (1819) as its episcopal seat, serves just under 200 congregations. Two Protestant faiths are headquartered in Boston: Unitarian Universalism, with its headquarters on Beacon Hill, and the Christian Scientists, TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard headquartered in Back Bay at the Mother Church (1894). The oldest church in Boston is King's Chapel, the city's first Anglican church, founded in 1686 and converted to Unitarianism in 1785. Other notable churches include Christ Church (better known as Old North Church, 1723), the oldest church building in the city, Trinity Church (1733), Park Street Church (1809), First Church in Boston (congregation founded 1630, building raised 1868), Old South Church (1874), Jubilee Christian Church and Basilica and Shrine of Our Lady of Perpetual Help on Mission Hill (1878).[citation needed]TOSHIBA P205-S6267 Laptop Keyboard The Boston Globe and the Boston Herald are two of Boston's major daily newspapers. The city is also served by other publications such as The Boston Phoenix,Boston magazineThe Improper BostonianBoston's Weekly Dig, and the Boston edition of MetroThe Christian Science Monitor, headquartered in Boston, was formerly a worldwide daily newspaper but ended publication of daily print editions in 2009, switching to continuous online and weekly magazine format publications.[132] The Boston Globe also releases a teen publication to the city's public high schools. The newspaper Teens in Print or T.i.P. is written by the city's teens and delivered quarterly within the school year.[133]HP Pavilion G60-243CL Laptop Keyboard The city's growing Latino population has given rise to a number of local and regional Spanish-language newspapers. These include El Planeta (owned by The Boston Phoenix), El Mundo, and La SemanaSiglo21, with its main offices in nearby Lawrence, is also widely distributed.[citation needed]HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard Boston has the largest broadcasting market in New England, with the Boston radio market being the eleventh largest in the United States.[134] Several major AMstations include talk radio WRKO 680 AM, sports/talk station WEEI 850 AM, and news radio WBZ 1030 AM. A variety of FM radio formats serve the area, as do NPRstations WBUR and WGBH. College and university radio stations include WERS (Emerson), WHRB (Harvard), WUMB (UMass Boston), WMBR (M.I.T.), WZBC (Boston College),WMFO (Tufts University), WBRS (Brandeis University), WTBU (Boston University, campus and web only), WRBB (Northeastern University) and WMLN (Curry College). DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard The Boston television DMA, which also includes Manchester, New Hampshire, is the seventh largest in the United States.[135] The city is served by stations representing every major American network, including WBZ 4 and its sister station WSBK 38 (the former with CBS, the latter an independent, nonaffiliated station), WCVB 5 (ABC), WHDH 7 (NBC), WFXT 25 (Fox), WUNI 27 (Univision), WBIN 50 (MyNetworkTV), and WLVI 56 (The CW). Boston is also home to PBS station WGBH 2, a major producer of PBS programs, which also operates WGBX 44. Most Boston television stations have their transmitters in nearby Needham and Newton along theRoute 128 corridor.[136]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The Boston Red Sox, a founding member of the American League of Major League Baseball in 1901, play their home games atFenway Park, near Kenmore Square in the Fenway section of Boston. Built in 1912, it is the oldest sports arena or stadium in active use in the United States among the four major professional American sports leagues, ACER Aspire 3003WLCi Laptop Keyboard encompassing Major League Baseball, the National Football League, National Basketball Association, and the National Hockey League.[138] Boston was also the site of the first game of the first modern World Series, in 1903. The series was played between the AL Champion Boston Americans and the NL champion Pittsburgh Pirates.[139][140] HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard Persistent reports that the team was known in 1903 as the "Boston Pilgrims" appear to be unfounded.[141] Boston's first professional baseball team was the Red Stockings, one of the charter members of the National Association in 1871, and of the National League in 1876. The team played under that name until 1883, under the name Beaneaters until 1911, and under the name Braves from 1912 until they moved to Milwaukee after the 1952 season. Since 1966 they have played in Atlanta as the Atlanta Braves.[142]DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard The TD Garden formerly called the FleetCenter and originally called the Boston Garden is adjoined to North Station and is the home of three major league teams: the Boston Blazers of the National Lacrosse League, the 2011 Stanley Cup champion Boston Bruins of the National Hockey League; and the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association. The arena seats 18,624 for basketball games and 17,565 for ice hockey games. The Bruins were the first American member of the National Hockey Leagueand an Original Six franchise.[143] APPLE A1181 Laptop Keyboard The Boston Celtics were founding members of the Basketball Association of America, one of the two leagues that merged to form the NBA.[144] The Celtics have the distinction of having won more championships than any other NBA team, with seventeen.[145]SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard While they have played in suburban Foxborough since 1971, the New England Patriots were founded in 1960 as the Boston Patriots, changing their name in 1971 to better reflect its status as New England's team. A charter member of the American Football League, the team joined the National Football League in 1970. The team has won the Super Bowl three times, in 2001, 2003, and 2004.[146] They shareGillette Stadium with the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer. The Boston Breakers of Women's Professional Soccer, which formed in 2009, play their home games at Harvard Stadium in Allston.[147]FUJITSU Lifebook T4210 Laptop Keyboard Boston's many colleges and universities are active in college athletics. Four NCAA Division I members play their games in the city—Boston College (Atlantic Coast Conference), Boston University (America East Conference), Harvard University (Ivy League), and Northeastern University (Colonial Athletic Association). HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard Of the four, only Boston College participates in college football at the highest level, the Football Bowl Subdivision. Harvard participates in the second-highest level, theFootball Championship Subdivision. Boston University and Northeastern University do not have football teams. All but Harvard belong to the Hockey East conference; Harvard belongs to the ECAC in hockey. The hockey teams of these four universities meet every year in a four-team tournament known as the "Beanpot Tournament", which is played at the TD Garden over two Monday nights in February.[148]SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard Boston Marathon One of the best known sporting events in the city is the Boston Marathon, the 42.195-kilometre (26.219 mi) run from Hopkinton to Copley Square in the Back Bay which is the world's oldest annual marathon run.[149] It is run on Patriots' Day in April and always coincides with a Red Sox home baseball game that starts at 11:05 am, the only MLB game all year to start before noon local time.[150] Another major event held annually in the city is the Head of the Charles Regattarowing competition on the Charles River.[151]HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Boston has a strong mayor – council government system in which the mayor is vested with extensive executive powers. The mayor is elected to a four-year term by plurality voting. The mayor of Boston is Thomas Menino. He was elected in 1993 and was reelected in 2009 for a fifth term, the longest in Boston history. Boston City Council is elected every two years. DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard There are nine district seats, each elected by the residents of that district through plurality voting, and four at-large seats. Each voter casts up to four votes for at-large councilors, with no more than one vote per candidate. The candidates with the four highest vote totals are elected. The president of the city council is elected by the councilors from within themselves. The school committee for the Boston Public Schools is appointed by the mayor.[153] The Boston Redevelopment Authority and the Zoning Board of Appeals (a seven-person body appointed by the mayor) share responsibility for land-use planning.[154]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In addition to city government, numerous commissions and state authorities—including the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, the Boston Public Health Commission, and the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport)—play a role in the life of Bostonians. As the capital of Massachusetts, Boston plays a major role in state politics. HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard The city has several properties relating to the United States federal government, including the John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building and the Thomas P. O'Neill Federal Building.[155] Boston also serves as the home of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit and of the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts; Boston is the headquarters of theFederal Reserve Bank of Boston (the First District of the Federal Reserve). SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Representation in Congress Federally, Boston is part of Massachusetts's 8th and 9th congressional districts,[156] represented respectively by Mike Capuano, elected in 1998, and Stephen Lynch, elected in 2001; both are Democrats. The state's senior member of the United States Senate is Democrat John Kerry, elected in 1984. The state's junior member of the United States Senate is Republican Scott Brown, who was elected in 2010 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of long-time Democratic senatorTed Kennedy. DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard Boston's reputation as a higher education center derives in large part from the teaching and research activities of more than 100 colleges and universities located in the Greater Boston Area, with more than 250,000 students attending college in Boston and Cambridge alone.[158] Within the city,Boston University exudes a large presence as the city's fourth-largest employer,[159] and maintains a campus along the Charles River on Commonwealth Avenue and its medical campus in the South End. Northeastern University,  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard another large private university, is located in the Fenway area, and is particularly known for its Engineering, Business and Health Science schools and cooperative education program. Suffolk University, the third largest university in Boston, is located in the Beacon Hill area, and is known for itslaw school and business school.[160][161]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Boston College, a private Catholic Jesuit university, whose original campus was located in the South End, straddles the Boston (Brighton)-Newton border, with planned expansions further into Brighton.[162] Boston's only public university is the University of Massachusetts Boston, located on Columbia Point in Dorchester. Roxbury Community College and Bunker Hill Community College are the city's two public community colleges. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Boston has several smaller private colleges and universities. Emmanuel College, Massachusetts College of Art and Design,Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Simmons College, Wheelock College, and Wentworth Institute of Technology are founding members of the Colleges of the Fenway and are located adjacent to Northeastern University. New England School of Law, a small private law school located in the theater district, was originally established as America's first all female law school.[163] Emerson College, a small private college with a strong reputation in the fields of performing arts, journalism, writing, and film, is located near Boston Common. HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard Boston is also home to several conservatories and art schools, including The Art Institute of Boston (Lesley University),Massachusetts College of Art, New England Institute of Art, New England School of Art and Design (Suffolk University), and the New England Conservatory (the oldest independent conservatory in the United States).[164] Other conservatories include theBoston Conservatory, the School of the Museum of Fine Arts and Berklee College of Music. HP G61-300CA Laptop Keyboard Several universities located outside Boston have a major presence in the city. Harvard University, the nation's oldest, is located across the Charles River in Cambridge. Its business and medical schools are in Boston, and there are plans for additional expansion into Boston's Allston neighborhood.[165] The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), HP G56-141US Laptop Keyboard which originated in Boston and was long known as "Boston Tech", moved across the river to Cambridge in 1916. Tufts Universityadministers its medical and dental school adjacent to the Tufts Medical Center, a 451-bed academic medical institution that is home to both a full-service hospital for adults and the Floating Hospital for Children. Tufts' main campus, including the renowned Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, is located just north of the city in Somerville and Medford. HP Mini 110-3001tu Laptop Keyboard Boston Public Schools, the oldest public school system in the U.S., enrolls 57,000 students from pre-kindergarten to grade 12.[18] The system operates 145 schools, which includes Boston Latin School (the oldest public high school in the United States, established in 1635) which, along with Boston Latin Academy andJohn D. O'Bryant School of Math & Science, are highly prestigious public exam schools admitting students in the 7th and 9th grades only and serving grades 7–12), DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard English High (the second oldest public high school, established 1821), and the Mather School (the oldest public elementary school, established in 1639).[18]In 2002, Forbes Magazine ranked the Boston Public Schools as the best large city school system in the country, with a graduation rate of 82%.[166] In 2005, the student population within the school system was 45.5% Black or African American, HP Pavilion G60-243CL Laptop Keyboard 31.2% Hispanic or Latino, 14% White, and 9% Asian, as compared with 24%, 14%, 49%, and 8% respectively for the city as a whole.[167][168] The city also has private, parochial, and charter schools and approximately 3000 students of racial minorities attend Compaq Presario CQ62-215TU Laptop Keyboard The Longwood Medical and Academic Area is a region of Boston with a concentration of medical and research facilities, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Children's Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School,Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard School of Dental Medicine,  Gateway MT6723 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences.[169] Massachusetts General Hospital is near the Beacon Hill neighborhood, with the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospitalnearby. St. Elizabeth's Medical Center is in Brighton Center of Boston's Brighton neighborhood.New England Baptist Hospital is in Mission Hill. Boston has Veterans Affairs medical centers in the Jamaica Plain and West Roxbury neighborhoods.[170] The Boston Public Health Commission, an agency of the Massachusetts government, oversees health concerns for Boston residents.[171]Toshiba GB0506PHV1-A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many of Boston's medical facilities are associated with universities. The facilities in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area and in Massachusetts General Hospital are well-known research medical centers affiliated with Harvard Medical School.[172] Tufts Medical Center (formerly Tufts-New England Medical Center), located in the southern portion of the Chinatown neighborhood, SONY Vaio VPC-EB11GD/BI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan is affiliated with Tufts University School of Medicine. Boston Medical Center, located in the South End neighborhood, is the primary teaching facility for the Boston University School of Medicineas well as the largest trauma center in the Boston area;[173] it was formed by the merger of Boston University Hospital and Boston City Hospital, which was the first municipal hospital in the United States.[174]  Toshiba Satellite A300-M01 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Water supply and sewage-disposal services are provided by the Boston Water and Sewer Commission.[175] The Commission in turn purchases wholesale water and sewage disposal from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. The city's water comes from the Quabbin Reservoir and the Wachusett Reservoir, which are about 65 miles (105 km) and 35 miles (56 km) west of the city respectively.[176] Boston's tap water has been ranked among the best in the country,[177]  HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and Boston is one of five cities in the country with tap water pure enough to be exempt from Environmental Protection Agency filtration requirements.[178] NSTAR is the exclusive electricity distributor to the city, though due to deregulation, customers have a choice of electric generation companies. ACER eMachines E625 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Natural gas is distributed by National Grid plc (originally KeySpan, the successor company to Boston Gas); only commercial and industrial customers may choose an alternate natural gas supplier.[179] Municipalsteam services are provided by Veolia Energy North America and its subsidiary Trigen Energy Corporation;[180][181] which comprise the original assets of the defunct Boston Heating Company.[182][183]HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Verizon, successor to New England Telephone, NYNEX, Bell Atlantic, and earlier, the Bell System, is the primary wired telephone service provider for the area. Phone service is also available from various national wireless companies. Cable television is available from Comcast and RCN, with broadband Internet access provided by the same companies in certain areas. A variety of DSL providers and resellers are able to provide broadband Internet over Verizon-owned phone lines.[184] Galaxy Internet Services (GIS) has also moved to the forefront to deploy municipal Wi-Fi broadband Internet throughout areas of the city of Boston.[185]HP G42-230US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Logan International Airport, located in the East Boston neighborhood, handles most of the scheduled passenger service for Boston.[186] Surrounding the city are three major general aviation relievers: Beverly Municipal Airport to the north, Hanscom Field in Bedford, to the west, and Norwood Memorial Airport to the south. T. F. Green Airport serving Providence, Rhode Island, and Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester, New Hampshire, also provide scheduled passenger service to the Boston area. SONY Vaio VPC-EB3HGX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Downtown Boston's streets were not organized on a grid, but grew in a meandering organic pattern from early in the 17th century. They were created as needed, and as wharves and landfill expanded the area of the small Boston peninsula.[187] Along with several rotaries, roads change names and lose and add lanes seemingly at random. By contrast, streets in the Back Bay,East Boston, the South End, and South Boston do follow a grid system. Compaq Presario V3839tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston is the eastern terminus of cross-continent I-90, which in Massachusetts runs along the Massachusetts Turnpike. Originally known as the Circumferential Highway, Route 128 carries I-95 over a portion of its route west and north of the city. U.S. 1 and I-93 run concurrently north to south through the city from Charlestown to Dorchester, joined byMassachusetts Route 3 after the Zakim Bridge over the Charles River. The elevated portion of the Central Artery, which carried these routes through downtown Boston, was replaced with the O'Neill Tunnel during the Big Dig, substantially completed in early 2006.  IBM ThinkPad T41 2687 Laptop Keyboard With nearly a third of Bostonians using public transit for their commute to work, Boston has the fourth-highest rate of public transit usage in the country.[188] The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) operates what was the first underground rapid transit system in the United States and is the fourth busiest rapid transit system in the country,[19]HP G61 Laptop Keyboard having been expanded to 65.5 miles (105 km) of track,[189] reaching as far north as Malden, as far south as Braintree, and as far west as Newton—collectively known as the "T". The MBTA also operates the nation's seventh busiest bus network, as well as water shuttles, and the nation's busiest commuter rail network outside of New York City or Chicago, totaling over 200 miles (320 km),[189] extending north to the Merrimack Valley, west to Worcester, and south to Providence and North Kingstown, Rhode Island. The MBTA lines are color coded as orange, green, red, blue, silver and purple. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and Chicago lines originate at South Station and stop at Back Bay. Fast Northeast Corridor trains, which serve New York City, Washington, D.C., and points in between, also stop at Route 128 Station in the southwestern suburbs of Boston.[190] Meanwhile, Amtrak's Downeasterservice to Maine originates at North Station.[191]DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard Nicknamed "The Walking City", Boston hosts more pedestrian commuters than do other comparably populated cities. Owing to factors such as the compactness of the city and large student population, 13% of the population commutes by foot, making it the highest percentage of pedestrian commuters in the country out of the major American cities.[192] In 2011, Walk Scoreranked Boston the third most walkable city in the United States.[193][194]HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Laptop Keyboard Bicycle commuters and programs Between 1999 and 2006, Bicycling magazine named Boston as one of the worst cities in the U.S. for cycling three times;[195]regardless, it has one of the highest rates of bicycle commuting.[196] In September 2007, Mayor Menino started a bicycle program called Boston Bikes with a goal of improving bicycling conditions by adding bike lanes, racks, and offering bikeshare programs. In 2008, as a consequence the same magazine put Boston on its list of its "Five for the Future" list as a "Future Best City" TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5248 Laptop Keyboard for biking,[197][198] and Boston's bicycle commuting percentage increased from 1% in 2000 to 2.1% in 2009.[199] The bikeshare program, called Hubway, launched in late July 2011,[200]logging more than 140,000 rides before the close of its first season.[201] In tandem with the program, police announced intention to step up enforcement of traffic laws, both on drivers and bikers,[202] as part of an effort to improve safety and ameliorate the city's growing clash between bikers and motorists.[203][204][205] The neighboring cities of Cambridge, Somerville, and Brookline all intend to sign on to the Hubway program for launch in summer 2012.[206] DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins University[4] (informally Johns HopkinsJHU, or just Hopkins) is a private research universitybased in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. The university was founded on January 22, 1876 and named for its benefactor, the philanthropist Johns Hopkins.[5] Daniel Coit Gilman was inaugurated as the first president on February 22, 1876.[6]COMPAQ Presario CQ42-203AU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Johns Hopkins maintains campuses in Maryland; Washington, D.C.; Italy; China and Singapore. The university

is organized into two undergraduate divisions and five graduate divisions on two main campuses—the Homewood campus and the Medical Institutions campus—both located in Baltimore. The university also consists of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the Peabody Institute, the Carey Business School, and various other facilities. SONY Vaio VGN-NW26M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Johns Hopkins pioneered the concept of the modern research university in the United States and has ranked among the world's top such universities throughout its history. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has ranked Johns Hopkins #1 among U.S. academic institutions in total science, medical and engineering research and development spending for 31 consecutive years.[7] As of 2011, thirty-seven Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins,[8] and the university's research is among the most cited in the world.[9]COMPAQ Presario CQ42-228TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million (between $140 million to $1.6 billion in 2011 dollars, by varying estimates) to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland.[10] At that time this fortune, generated primarily from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,[11] was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States.[12]FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons after his father and that son would be the university's benefactor. Toshiba Satellite L350-14F Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In his 2001 undergraduate commencement address, university president William R. Brody said about the name: "In 1888, just 12 years after the university was founded, Mark Twain wrote about this university in a letter to a friend. He said: 'A few months ago I was told that the Johns Hopkins University had given me a degree. ACER Aspire 5739G-6959 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan I naturally supposed this constituted me a Member of the Faculty and so I started in to help as I could there. I told them I believed they were perfectly competent to run a college as far as the higher branches of education are concerned, but what they needed was a little help here and there from a practical commercial man. I said the public is sensitive to little things and they wouldn't have full confidence in a college that didn't know how to spell the nameJohn.' More than a century later, we continue to bestow diplomas upon individuals of outstanding capabilities and great talent. And we continue to spell Johns with an s."[13] APPLE MacBook 13 inch MA701LL A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of JohnHopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh."[14]HP 493001-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University's viability depended on its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman, recruited from the presidency of theUniversity of California. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research. He dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "TToshiba Satellite P100-434 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan he best teachers are usually those who are free, competent and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the biologist H. Newell Martin; the physicistHenry A. Rowland (the first president of the American Physical Society), the classical scholars Basil Gildersleeve and Charles D. Morris;[15] the economistRichard T. Ely; and the chemist Ira Remsen, who became the second president of the university in 1901. Toshiba Satellite L300D-10Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan HP Pavilion dv6-2120es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Gilman focused on the expansion of knowledge, graduate education and support of faculty research. To Gilman, Johns Hopkins existed not for the sake of God, the state, the community, the board, the parents, or even the students, but for knowledge. Faculty who added to such knowledge were rewarded. A complementary focus on graduate education fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerousscholarly journals and associations with the founding of the first U.S. university press in 1878. HP Envy 14-3017nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research–focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of academic medicine, including William Osler, William Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William Welch. During this period Hopkins made more history by becoming the first medical school to admit women on an equal basis with men and to require a Bachelors degree, based on the efforts of Mary E. Garrett, who had endowed the school at Gilman's request. HP Pavilion dv6995la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In his will and in his instructions to the trustees of the university and the hospital, Hopkins requested that both institutions be built upon the vast grounds of his Baltimore estate, Clifton. When Gilman assumed the presidency, he decided that it would be best to use the university's endowment for recruiting faculty and students, deciding to "build men, not buildings." In his will Hopkins stipulated that none of his endowment should be used for construction; only interest on the principal could be used for this purpose.  HP 6820s Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Unfortunately, stocks in The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which would have generated most of the interest, became virtually worthless soon after Hopkins's death. The university's first home was thus in Downtown Baltimore delaying plans to site the university in Clifton. This decision became the only major criticism of Gilman's presidency. Gateway MT6723 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the early 20th century the university outgrew its buildings and the trustees began to search for a new home. Developing Clifton for the university was too costly, and so the estate became a public park. In the end, the 140 acres (57 ha) estate in north Baltimore known as Homewood was purchased as the university's new campus with assistance from prominent Baltimore citizens.  TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. Along with the hospital, Hopkins established one of the nation's oldest schools of nursing in 1889. The school of medicine was America's first coeducational, graduate-level medical school, and was a prototype for academic medicine that emphasized HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard projects, and laboratory training. In 1909, the university was among the first to start adult continuing educationprograms and in 1916 it founded the US' first school of public health. Programs in international studies and the performing arts were established in 1950 and 1977 when the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington D.C and the Peabody Institute in Baltimore became divisions of the university. SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard Hopkins was a prominent abolitionist who supported Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. After his death, reports said his conviction was a decisive factor in enrolling Hopkins' first African-Americanstudent, Kelly Miller, a graduate student in physics, astronomy and mathematics, and in admitting Harvard-trained physician Whitfield Winsey and two other African-American physicians to Maryland's Medical and Chirurgical Society MedChi.[17] ACER KB.I170A.083 Laptop Keyboard These physicians could attend meetings only because they were held on campus. As the memory of Hopkins faded and trustees like King died, Hopkins became like other Baltimore institutions, particularly in terms of race. The Johns Hopkins University chronology stated that on March 15, 1892, an administrator hired by Gilman recommended that the hospital should have a "…separate ward for colored patients."[18] Johns Hopkins Hospital subsequently became segregated. Johns Hopkins' "SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard separate but equal" stance was evident when it came to these segregated wards: "Special care will be taken to see that the heating and ventilation apparatus is as perfect as possible. A sun balcony will be erected on each floor on the east side, for convalescents, while a sun bay-window will be constructed at the south end of the south wing. On each floor there will be a dining room, kitchen, lavatory and bath-rooms...The building will be fireproof throughout."[18]HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard As segregation grew within Johns Hopkins institutions, it affected pay, hiring and promotions. Staff in segregated wards and those employed in the lower rungs of the service industries had the longest history within the Johns Hopkins Institutions. Johns Hopkins' students, physicians, administrators and staff of African descent had a much shorter history within these institutions. The first black undergraduate was Frederick Scott who entered the school in 1945. In 1967 the first black students earned graduate degrees. Dr. James Nabwangu a British-trained Kenyan, was the first black graduate of the medical school. A second was earned by Robert Gamble.[19]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The first African-American instructor was laboratory supervisor Vivien Thomas, who also invented and developed research instruments, served as an assistant in surgery to surgeon Alfred Blalock and worked closely with Blalock and Helen Taussig in developing and conducting the first successful blue baby operation. Black students and professionals were rare at Johns Hopkins Institutions and Maryland's state medical societies until after the 1940s. Diversity increased only in the 1960s and 1970s. African-Americans and women were labeled "The Uninvited" in the second major history of the university. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard Hopkins' most well–known battle for women's rights was the one led by daughters of trustees of the university; Mary E. Garrett, M. Carey Thomas, Mamie Gwinn, Elizabeth King, and Julia Rogers.[20] They donated and raised the funds needed to open the medical school, and required Hopkins' officials to agree to their stipulation that women would be admitted. Unfortunately, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard this stipulation applied only to the medical school. Other graduate schools were opened to women by president Ira Remsen only in 1907. Christine Ladd-Franklin was the first woman to earn a PhD at Hopkins, in mathematics in 1882. The trustees denied her the degree and refused to change the policy about admitting women; she finally received her degree 44 years later. In 1893 Florence Bascomb became the university's first female PhD.[20]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard The nursing school opened in 1889 and accepted women and men as students. The decision to admit women at undergraduate level was not considered until the late 1960s and was eventually adopted in October 1969; in the fall of 1970, 90 females, five of them African-American, became undergraduates. In the academic year 1970–1971, 4.7% of students in the Arts and Sciences programs were women. In the year 1985–1986 the proportion of female students in the Arts and Sciences programs had increased to around 38%. As of 2009–2010, the undergraduate population was 47% female and 53% male.[21]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard he first campus was located on Howard Street. Eventually, they relocated to Homewood, in northern Baltimore, the estate of Charles Carroll, son of the oldest surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll's Homewood House is considered one of the finest examples of Federal residential architecture. The estate then came to the Wyman family, which participated in making it the park-like main campus of the schools of arts and sciences and engineering at the start of the 20th century. Most of its architecture was modeled after the Federal style of Homewood House. Homewood House is preserved as a museum. Most undergraduate programs are here. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins entity is structured as two corporations, the university and The Johns Hopkins Health System, formed in 1986. The latter has grown into the bigger entity, with fiscal year 2005 consolidated net revenue of $3.3 billion, employing 27,700 people, including some 4,700 full–time physicians.[35] JHU's bylaws specify a Board of Trustees of between 18 and 65 voting members. Trustees serve six–year terms subject to a two–term limit. The alumni select 12 trustees. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Four recent alumni serve 4-year terms, one per year, typically from the graduating class. The bylaws prohibit students, faculty or administrative staff from serving on the Board, except the President as an ex–officio trustee.[41] The Johns Hopkins Health System has a separate Board of Trustees, many of whom are doctors or health care executives. Some JHU Trustees also serve on the Johns Hopkins Health System Board.[42]DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard In 2010, 87% of admitted students graduated in the top tenth of their high school class and the inter-quartile range on the SAT reading was 670–750, math was 690–780, and writing was 670–770. 97% of freshmen returned after the first year, 84% of students graduated in 4 years and 92% graduated in 6 years.[48] The average GPA of enrolled freshmen is 3.74SONY VAIO PCG-F60/BP Laptop Keyboard Over time, applications to Johns Hopkins University have risen steadily. As a result, the selectivity of Johns Hopkins University has also increased. Early Decision is an option at Johns Hopkins University for students who wish to demonstrate that the university is their first choice. These students, if admitted, are required to enroll. This application is due November 1. Most students, however, apply Regular Decision, which is a traditional non-binding round. These applications are due January 1 and students are notified April 1. APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch MA897X A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At the undergraduate level, Hopkins was ranked #13 among National Universities by U.S. News and World Report (USNWR).[57] It is ranked #1 in the nation in the high school counselor reputation rankings.[58] The 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranked Hopkins #17 internationally (#15 nationally) and 3rd in the world for Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy.[59] In 2010, Johns Hopkins ranked 13th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings[60] HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard and 16th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings.[61][62][63] Johns Hopkins also placed #2 in the 2010 University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP),[64] #2 in the 2011 HEEACT – Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities,[65] ranked #7 among Top Performing Schools according to the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index (FSPI) in 2008,[66] and was listed #9 among research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance in 2007.[67]HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard For medical and public health research U.S. News and World Report ranks the School of Medicine#2[68] and has consistently ranked the Bloomberg School of Public Health #1[69] in the nation. TheSchool of Nursing was ranked #1 nationally among peer institutions.[70] The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked Johns Hopkins University #3 in the world for biomedicine and life sciences.[71] DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Hopkins ranks #1 nationally in receipt of federal research funds and the School of Medicine is #1 among medical schools in receipt of extramural awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).[72] Newsweek named Johns Hopkins as the "Hottest School for Pre-meds" in 2008.[73] The Johns Hopkins Hospital was ranked as the top hospital in the United States for the eighteenth year in a row by the U.S. News and World Report annual ranking of American hospitals.[74]HP G62-b36EO Laptop Keyboard The university's graduate programs in the areas of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Engineering (Biomedical, Electrical& Environmental), Human Development & Family Studies, Health Sciences, Humanities, Physical & Mathematical Sciences andInternational Affairs & Development all rank among the top-10 of their respective disciplines.[75][76]HP G62-b15EL Laptop Keyboard The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) ranked #1 (2005), #2 (2007), and #2 (2009), by College of William and Mary's surveys conducted once every two years beginning in 2005, for its MA program among the world's top schools of International Affairs for those who want to pursue a policy career.[citation needed]TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard The School of Education is ranked #6 nationally by U.S. News and World Report.[77] Although no formal rankings exist formusic conservatories, the Peabody Institute is generally considered one of the most prestigious conservatories in the country, along with Juilliard and theCurtis Institute. HP Pavilion dv6-3210us Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins is ranked the #1 Social Media College by StudentAdvisor.[78] Several university departments have been known to actively engage on various social media platforms such as Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr to reach prospective students, current students, and alumni.[79]SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-FS775P/H Laptop Keyboard

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