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By January 2014 the construction costs have been reported to exceed the $50 billion mark, making it the most expensive Olympic Games in history.[52]According to a report by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, this cost will not boost Russia's national economy, but may attract business to Sochi and the southern Krasnodar region of Russia in the future as a result of improved services. [53] HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi have been surrounded by concern and controversy following a new federal law approved in Russia in June 2013 that bans "homosexual propaganda to minors".[54] Many voices have since then claimed to boycott the 2014 Winter Olympics, including British actor Stephen Fry who published an open letter[55] to David Cameron and to the International Olympic Committee asking for a boycott and relocation of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia. APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL CPU Fan

There has also been concern regarding possible terrorist attacks primarily by Islamist militants.

The state-controlled RAO UES announced in July 2007 that it might spend 30 billion roubles (about US$1.2 billion) on upgrading the electrical power system in the Sochi area by 2014.[57] The power generating companies Inter RAO UES and RusHydro would have to build or modernize four thermal power plants and four hydroelectric plants—and the federal grid company FGC UES has to replace the Central-Shepsi electricity transmission line, which reportedly often fails in bad weather. HP G71-340US CPU Fan

The new power line would run partly on power towers and partly across the bottom of the Black Sea. By 2011, the power supply of the resort area would increase by 1129 MW—of which 300 MW would be used for Olympic sports facilities “The cost of the work is estimated at 83.6 billion rubles (about US $3.26 billion), of which 50 billion rubles (about US$2 billion dollars) will go to investments in the electricity grid,” power company announced. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

They did not say how much of the bill the state would foot. In February 2007, when UES had planned to spend 48.8 billion rubles (about US$1.9 billion) on the Sochi area, the share the state had been ready to pay 38 billion roubles (about US$1.48 billion) of that.

The Tsentralny City District, or Sochi proper, borders Lazarevsky City District in the west and Khostinsky City District in the north and in the east. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the southwest, it is bounded by the Black Sea. Population: 137,677 (2010 Census);[2] 133,935 (2002 Census);[5] 137,968 (1989 Census).[6]

The district covers an area of 32 square kilometers (12 sq mi) and, as of the 2010 Census, has a population of 137,677.

Adlersky City District (Russian: А́длерский райо́н) is the southernmost of four city districts of the city of Sochi inKrasnodar Krai, Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Russia, lying along the Black Sea coast near the southern Russian border with Abkhazia. The city district borders Maykopsky District of Adygea in the north, Mostovsky District of Krasnodar Krai in the east, Abkhazia in the south, and Khostinsky City District in the northwest. In the southwest, it is bordered by the Black Sea. Population: 76,534 (2010 Census);[2] 69,120 (2002 Census);[4] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

68,827 (1989 Census).[5] Adlersky District was chosen to host the 2014 Winter Olympics.

The historical center of the district is Adler Microdistrict (А́длер) — formerly classified as a town, but today amicrodistrict of Adlersky City District—located at the mouth of the Mzymta River.

The settlement was founded by Russians on 18 June 1837 as the fort of Svyatoy Dukh (Holy Spirit). HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

However, this area had been inhabited long before the Russian arrival. During the Middle Ages, it was the site of Liesh, a Sadz Abkhazianvillage. In the 13th century, the Genoese merchants arrived to establish a factory which became known as Layso. At that time the upland area was controlled by the Sadz princes of Aredba, one of whose principal estates was located within the modern district boundaries. HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO CPU Fan

The current name was given to the area by the Ottoman Turks, who called it eitherArtlar or Artı.

Adler is home to the Sochi International Airport, which serves the whole Greater Sochi area.

Adler railway station is also the effective southern terminus of the Russian section of the North Caucasus Railway, which has ceased to carry international traffic to Georgia since hostilities between Russia and Georgia closed the cross-border line in 1992.Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA CPU Fan

The summer months see direct train services bringing visitors to Adler from as far away asBerlin in the west (a journey of 3,714 km), Vorkuta in the north (4,286 km away, beyond the Arctic Circle), andKhabarovsk in the Russian Far East, with the 9,816 km of the latter journey taking eight days to complete. Passenger service to Sukhumi starts and stops from time to time.  ASUS M51SE CPU Fan

For the 2014 Winter Olympics, new suburban network was put in operation. There is currently frequent suburban service to Sochi, with most of the trains stopping also in Khosta and Matsesta, both in Khostinsky City District. The service continues in the direction of Abkhazian border, where trains stop at Olympiyskaya Derevnya railway platform. HP G42-415DX CPU Fan

The service terminates at Olympiysky Park train station. Both the station and the platform were constructed for the Olympics. Furthermore, a connection to the airport is open, with regular service to Sochi through Adler railway station. Finally, a new line was constructed between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana, where some of the Olympic competitions will be held, with two railway stations, Esto-Sadok and Krasnaya Polyana. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

Kudepsta railway platform has been disused.Vesyoloye railway station is only in operation when there is passenger traffic to Abkhazia; at this station, customs and border controls take place.

Buses connect Adler with other localities of the city of Sochi.

The district covers an area of 1,352 square kilometers (522 sq mi) and has under its jurisdiction a network of mountain auls HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx CPU Fan

the Estonian colony at Estosadok, and the ski resort of Krasnaya Polyana which will host the snow events (alpine and Nordic) of the 2014 Winter Olympics. The Fisht Olympic Stadium and associated facilities will be located closer to the shore.

The landmarks of the former town of Adler include two Russian Orthodox churches, dedicated to the Holy Trinity and the Holy Ghost, as well as the Armenian Saint Sarkis Cathedral.  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee CPU Fan

Apart from a pebbly and narrow beach backed by the railway line, the district also has a municipal historical museum and a dolphinarium, which makes it popular among tourists. It is also possible to visit the largest trout farm in Russia (founded in 1964) and a breeding nursery for great apes.

Among the natural wonders of the district is the Akhshtyr Gorge with a 160-meter-long cave which contains traces of human habitation about 30,000 years ago.  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG CPU Fan

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), is a major international multi-sport event being held in Sochi, Russia in the tradition of the Winter Olympic Games.

Scheduled for 7–23 February 2014, opening rounds in certain events were held on the eve of the Opening Ceremony, 6 February 2014.  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

Both the Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics are being organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee (SOC). Sochi was selected as the host city in July 2007, during the 119th IOC Session held in Guatemala City. It is the first Olympics in Russia since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Soviet Union was the host nation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er CPU Fan

A total of 98 events in 15 winter sport disciplines are being held during the Games. A number of new competitions—a total of 12 accounting for gender—are being held during the Games, including biathlon mixed relay, women's ski jumping, mixed-team figure skating, mixed-team luge, half-pipe skiing, ski and snowboard slopestyle, and snowboard parallel slalom. HP 606575-001 CPU Fan

The events are being held around two clusters of new venues; an Olympic Park constructed in Sochi's Imeretinsky Valley on the coast of the Black Sea, with Fisht Olympic Stadium and the Games' indoor venues located within walking distance, and snow events in the resort settlement of Krasnaya Polyana.

In preparation, organizers focused on modernizing the telecommunications, electric power, and transportationinfrastructures of the region.  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us CPU Fan

While originally budgeted at US$12 billion, various factors caused the budget to expand to over US$51 billion, surpassing the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing as the most expensive Olympics in history.

The lead-up to the 2014 Games was marked by major controversies, including allegations of corruption leading to the aforementioned cost overruns, DELL DFS491105MH0T CPU Fan

concerns for the safety and human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) athletes and supporters during the Games due to the country's recent anti-LGBT policies. This led to ongoing Olympic protests of Russian anti-gay laws, protests by ethnic Circassian activists over the site of Sochi (the site of what they consider to be a genocide) and various security concerns over threats by jihadist groups tied to the insurgency in the North Caucasus. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

Sochi was elected on 4 July 2007 during the 119th International Olympic Committee (IOC) session held in Guatemala City,Guatemala, defeating bids from Salzburg, Austria, and Pyeongchang, South Korea.[3] This is the first time that the Russian Federation has hosted the Winter Olympics. The Soviet Union was the host of the 1980 Summer Olympics held in and aroundMoscow. Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX CPU Fan

As of October 2013, the estimated combined cost of the 2014 Winter Olympics had topped US$51 billion.[5] This amount includes the 214 billion rubles (US$ 6.5 billion) cost for Olympic games themselves and cost of Sochi infrastructural projects (roads, railroads, power plants). This total, if borne out, would be over four times the initial budget of $12 billion (compared to the $8 billion spent for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver), HP Pavilion dv7-3060us CPU Fan

and would make the Sochi games the most expensive Olympics in history, exceeding the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing,[6] which hosted 3 times as many events.[7]

According to Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Organizing Committee President and CEO Dmitry Chernyshenko, partnership and commercial programs allowed the use of funds generated by Sochi 2014 for the 2009–10 development period,  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

postponing the need for the state funds guaranteed by the Russian Government. He confirmed that the Organizing Committee had raised more than $500 million through marketing in the first five months of 2009.[8] The Russian Government provided nearly 327 billion rubles (about US$10 billion) for the total development, expansion and hosting of the Games.[9] Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

192 billion rubles (US$6 billion) coming from the federal budget and 7 billion rubles (US$218 million) from the Krasnodar Krai budget and from the Sochi budget. The organizers expect to have a surplus of US$300 million when the Games conclude.

With an average February temperature of 8.3 °C (42.8 °F) and a humid subtropical climate, Sochi is the warmest city to host a Winter Olympic Games.[12] HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sochi 2014 is the 12th straight Olympics to outlaw smoking; all Sochi venues, Olympic Park bars and restaurants and public areas are smoke-free during the Games.[13] It is also the first time that an Olympic Park has been built for hosting a winter games.

The Sochi Olympic Park was built by the Black Sea coast in the Imeretin Valley, about 4 km (2.5 miles) from Russia'sborder with Georgia.[14][15] HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The venues are clustered around a central water basin on which the Medals Plaza is built, allowing all indoor venues to be within walking distance.

After the Olympics, a Formula One street circuit is planned for the site. The deal to hold the Russian Grand Prix was signed on 14 October 2010, and runs from 2014 to 2020.[17] HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The first race will take place after the Closing Ceremony of the Games, and the IOC has announced that the race will be delayed until 2015 if construction of the circuit interferes with preparations for the 2014 Olympics.

The emblem of the 2014 Winter Olympics, unveiled in December 2009, carries a minimalistic style, and unlike previous Olympic emblems, consists of typefaces with no drawn elements at all. HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

While more elaborate designs with influence from Khokhloma were considered, organizers eventually decided to use a simpler and more "futuristic" design instead. The "Sochi" and "2014" lettering is designed to mirror each other vertically (particularly on the "hi" and "14" characters), "reflecting" the contrasts of Russia's landscape (such as Sochi itself, a meeting point between the Black Sea and the Western Caucasus).[19] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Critics, including Russianbloggers, panned the logo for being too simplistic and lacking any real symbolism; Guo Chunning, designer of the 2008 Summer Olympics emblem Dancing Beijing, criticized the logo for its lack of detail, and believed it should have contained more elements that represented winter and Russia's national identity, aside from its blue color scheme and its use of .ru, the top-level domain of Russia.[19] HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Games' official slogan, "Hot.Cool.Yours." ("Жаркие.Зимние.Твои." in Russian) was unveiled on September 25, 2012 to mark the 500-day milestone before the Opening Ceremony. Presenting the slogan, SOC president Dmitry Chernyshenko explained that it represented the "passion" of the Games' athletes, the climate of Sochi itself, and a sense of inclusion and belonging. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Russian-language version of the slogan uses words that can be translated as "heated" and "wintry", a more accurate reflection of Chernyshenko's explanation than the simpler terms used by the English slogan, which is intended to emphasize the "hot" coastal climate and "cool" mountain climate of the Games.

For the first time in Olympic history, a public vote was held to decide the mascots for the 2014 Winter Olympics; HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the 10 finalists, along with the results, were unveiled during live specials on Channel One. On 26 February 2011, the official mascots were unveiled, consisting of a polar bear, a snow hare, and an snow leopard. The initial rounds consisted of online voting among submissions, while the final round involved text messaging.[22][23][24] Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG CPU Fan

A satirical mascot known as Zoich (its name being an interpretation of the stylized "2014" lettering from the Games' emblem as a cyrillic word), a fuzzy blue frog with hypnotic multi-coloured rings (sharing the colors of the Olympic rings) on his eyeballs and the Imperial Crown ("to remind about statehood and spirituality"), proved popular in initial rounds of online voting, and became a local internet meme among Russians HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

(with some comparing it to Futurama's "Hypnotoad"). Despite its popularity, Zoich did not qualify for the final round of voting, with its creator, political cartoonist Egor Zhgun, claiming that organizers were refusing to respect public opinion. However, it was later revealed that Zoich was deliberately plantedby organizers to help virally promote the online mascot vote. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The official Olympic video game is the fourth game in the Mario & Sonic series, Mario & Sonic at the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games. It was released byNintendo for the Wii U on 8 November 2013 in Europe, and 15 November 2013 in North America.[26] Others are Sochi 2014: Ski Slopestyle Challenge for Androidoperating system and Sochi 2014: Olympic Games Resort for online social network Facebook.  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Olympic infrastructure is being constructed according to a Federal Target Program (FTP). In June 2009 the Games' organizers reported they are one year ahead in building the main Olympic facilities as compared to recent Olympic Games.[29]In November 2011 IOC President Jacques Rogge was in Sochi and concluded that the city has made significant progress since he last visited eighteen months earlier. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to the FTP, US$580 million would be spent on construction and modernization of telecommunications in the region.Avaya was named by the Sochi Organizing Committee as the official supplier of telecommunications equipment. Avaya provides the data network equipment, including switches, routers, security, telephones and contact-center systems. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It provides engineers and technicians to design and test the systems, and works with other technology partners to provide athletes, dignitaries and fans information about the Games.[31][32]

The 2014 Olympics is the first "fabric-enabled" Games using Shortest Path Bridging (SPB) technology.[33] The network is capable of handling up to 54,000 Gbit/s (54 Tbit/s) of traffic. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

During the Games, the core networks of Rostelecom and Transtelekom are used.[35]

In January 2012, the newest equipment for the television coverage of the Games arrived in the port of Adler. Prepared specifically for the Games, a team of regional specialists and the latest technology provide a qualitatively new level of television production in the region.[36] HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The fiber-optic channel links Sochi between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana. The 46-kilometre-long (29 mi) channel enables videoconferencing and news reporting from the Olympics.[37]

In November 2013, it was reported that the fiber-optic cable that was built by the Federal Communications Agency, Rossvyaz, had no operator. HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

With Rostelecom and Megafon both refusing to operate it, the line was transferred to the ownership of the state enterprise Center of the IT world (Russian: Центр МИР ИТ).[38]

Russian mobile phone operator Megafon expanded and improved Sochi's telecom infrastructure with over 700 new 2G/3G/4G cell towers. Sochi is the first Games to offer 4G connectivity at a speed of 10 MB/sec. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It has started to provide content delivery services to Russian state television and radio. The content delivery network of Megafon unites servers located in the major cities of Russia, into a single infrastructure that can speed up information from the Internet for users. CDN service allows major media companies to provide users quick access to content without interruption and delays when transferring large amounts of data. HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Russian segment of the bandwidth of the CDN- network of MegaFon is about 250 Gbit/s.[39]

MTS provide full coverage of the Sochi and the Krasnodar Territory, with network capacity doubled. In preparation for the Olympics, Tele2 Russia increased the number of base stations in Sochi and Krasnaya Polyana by 15% and the network capacity up to 70%, and provides 100% coverage of the Olympic facilities in the mountain cluster.[40] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Rostelecom also built LTE 4th generation network. It covers an area of 40 km2 (15 sq mi) in the mountains and 50 km2 in the coastal clusters. The 4th generation is available in all major Olympic venues in the Imereti lowland and mountain cluster, as well as Sochi airport and in the Olympic Park.[41] The Russian Ministry of Communications, together with mobile operators organized internetwork roaming at Olympic venues. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This measure allows subscribers access to the largest Russian operators at their standard fare to use the network of MegaFon, which has the exclusive right to work at Olympic venues.

Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network (RTRS), the state operator of Russia's extensive broadcasting infrastructure, commissioned three mobile digital television broadcasting complexes. DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Mobile systems can broadcast a signal to a radius of about 30 km (19 miles), depending on terrain. They are used as a backup transmitter, two multiplexes and two FM-radio stations in the event of a fault or power failure in fixed installations, as well as for the organization of video play-out.[42]

On 11 December 2013 Rostelecom said it had completed its infrastructure for the games. DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The transport component of the infrastructure includes about 500 kilometres (310 miles) of fiber-optic communication lines linking 35 facilities. The main network's capacity has been increased to 140 Gbit/sec. The Olympic Information Technology Center was the core of the project, the largest IT facility for Sochi with an area of more than 2,000 square metres (0.5 acre). HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Center is aimed to process information flows, manage the Games' united network and integrate special solutions for each sport.[43]

In January 2014, Rostelecom reported that it had connected the Olympic media center in Sochi to the Internet and organized channels of communication with the main media center of the Olympic Games in the coastal cluster and press center in Moscow.HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The media center was built at total cost of 17 million rubles.

A five-year strategy for increasing the power supply of the Sochi region was presented by Russian energy experts during a seminar on 29 May 2009, held by the Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee, and attended by International Olympic Committee (IOC) experts and officials from the Russian Ministry of Regional Development, HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the Russian Ministry of Energy, the State Corporation Olimpstroy and the Krasnodar Krai administration.[46]

According to the strategy, the capacity of the regional energy network increase by two and a half times by 2014, guaranteeing stable power supply during and after the Games.

Power demand of Sochi in the end of May 2009 was 424 MW. Power demand of the Olympic infrastructure is expected to be about 340 MW. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Earlier plans also include building combined cycle (steam and gas) power stations near the cities of Tuapse and Novorossiysk and construction of a cable-wire powerline, partially on the floor of the Black Sea.[48]

President Putin had instructed Alexander Novak, the country's Energy Minister to exert strict control over the energy system of Sochi to prevent possible power failures during the games.  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sochi's electricity distribution network included 900 kilometres (560 mi) of cables and overhead transmission lines, as well as 500 substations.

The transport infrastructure prepared to support the Olympics includes many roads, tunnels, bridges, interchanges, railroads and stations in and around Sochi. Among others, 8 flyovers, 102 bridges, tens of tunnels and a bypass route for heavy trucks — 367 km (228 miles) of roads were paved.[50]  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Sochi Light Metro is located between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana connecting the Olympic Park, Sochi International Airport, and the venues in Krasnaya Polyana.

The existing 102 km (63-mile), Tuapse-to-Adler railroad was renovated to provide double track throughout, increasing capacity and enabling a reliable regional service to be provided and extending to the airport. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In December 2009 Russian Railwaysordered 38 Siemens Mobility Desiro trains for delivery in 2013 for use during the Olympics, with an option for a further 16 which would be partly built in Russia.[52] Russian Railways established a high-speed Moscow-Adler link and a new railroad (more than 60 kilometres or 37 miles long) passing by the territory of Ukraine.[53] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At Sochi International Airport, a new terminal had been built along a 3.5 km (2.2-mile) runway extension, overlapping Mzymta River.[54] Backup airports were built in Gelendzhik, Mineralnye Vody and Krasnodar by 2009.[55] A new railway line was built to connect central Sochi and the local airport. The line is served by Lastochka trains;  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

a new type of electric locomotive, based on the Siemens Desiro design, eveloped for commuting in the Russian environment. All Russian Railways facilities in Sochi have been built or retrofitted to accommodate disabled passengers.At the Port of Sochi, a new offshore terminal 1.5 km (0.93 mi) from the shore allows docking for cruise ships with capacities of 3,000 passengers.[56] HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The cargo terminal of the seaport is to be moved from the centre of Sochi.

Roadways have been detoured, some going around the construction site and others being cut off.[57]

In May 2009, Russian Railways started the construction of tunnel complex No. 1 (the final total is six) on the combined road (automobile and railway) from Adler to Alpica Service Mountain Resort in the Krasnaya Polyana region. ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Russian Railways president Vladimir Yakunin said the road construction would cost more than 200 billion rubles.[59]

In addition, Sochi's railway stations were renovated. These are Dagomys, Sochi, Matsesta, Khosta, Lazarevskaya, and Loorailway stations. In Adler, a new railway station was built while the original building was preserved, and in the Olympic park cluster,SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

a new station was built from scratch, the Olympic Park railway station. Another new railway station was built in Estosadok, close to Krasnaya Polyana.

New bus routes for the guests of the Olympics have begun operating in the city, stretching some 150 kilometres (93 mi) along the Black Sea coast. The buses run with 5-minute intervals during the Games. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some 963 operate during the Olympics, while half of all the transport facilities will be used during the Paralympics. The guests will be able to board buses at transportation hubs, located near the railway station in the centre of Sochi and also in Matsesta, Khosta, and Adler neighborhoods, as well as in Krasnaya Polyana, Estosadok, Rosa Khutor Alpine Center, and near the Sliding Center Sanki. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Funds were spent on the construction of hotels for 10,300 guests.[61] The first of the Olympic hotels, Zvezdny (Stellar), is rebuilt anew.[62] Significant funds were spent on the construction of an advanced sewage treatment system in Sochi, designed by Olimpstroy. The system meets BREF standards and employs top available technologies for environment protection, including tertiary treatment with microfiltration.[63] Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Six post offices were opened at competition venues, two of them in the main media centre in Olympic Park and in the mountain village of Estosadok. In addition to standard services, clients have access to unique services including two new products: "Fotomarka" and "Retropismo". Fotomarka gives the opportunity to get a stylized post block with eight souvenir stamps with one's own photos, using the services of a photographer in the office. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Retropismo service gives the customer to write their own stylus or pen on antique paper with further letters, winding string and wax seal affixing. All new postal items and Post Offices in Sochi will be working during the Olympics until late at night all week, and workers were trained to speak English.

The torch relay lasted 123 days and measured over 64,000 kilometres (40,000 mi) in length, excluding Earth orbits in space.ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A total of 14,000 torch carriers took part in the relay. The Olympic flame was taken to the Caucasus’ tallest peak — Mount Elbrus, lowered to the bottom of Lake Baikal, and visited the North Pole and the International Space Station.[50]

On 29 September 2013, the Olympic torch was lit in Ancient Olympia, HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

beginning a seven-day journey across Greece and on to Russia, then the torch relay started at Moscow on 7 October 2013 before passing 83 Russian cities and arriving at Sochi on the day of the opening ceremony, 7 February 2014.[65] It is the longest torch relay in Olympic history, a 40,000-mile route that passes through all regions of the country, from Kaliningrad in the west to Chukotka in the east. HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Olympic torch reached the North Pole for first time via a nuclear-powered icebreaker (50 Let Pobedy). The torch was also passed for the first time in space, though not lit for the duration of the flight for safety reasons, on flight Soyuz TMA-11Mto the International Space Station (ISS). The spacecraft itself was adorned with Olympic-themed livery including the Games' emblem. Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and Sergey Ryazansky waved the torch on a spacewalk outside ISS.  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The torch returned to Earth five days later on board Soyuz TMA-09M.[66][67] The torch also reached the Europe's highest mountain Mount Elbrus, and even the depths of Siberia's Lake Baikal.The opening ceremony took place on February 7, 2014. More than 3,000 people from artistic groups participated in dance, ballet, acrobatic and circus performances during the opening ceremony which was watched by a 40,000 strong audience at Sochi's Fisht Olympic Stadium. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Figure skater Irina Rodnina and ice hockey player Vladislav Tretiak lit the torch.

A record 88 nations qualified to compete,[70] which beat the previous record of 82 set at the previous Winter Olympics inVancouver. The number of athletes who qualified per country is listed below . Seven nations, HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Dominica, Malta, Paraguay,Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, and Zimbabwe, are making their Winter Olympics debut.[71]

Kristina Krone qualified to compete in her second consecutive games for Puerto Rico, but the island's Olympic Committee chose not to send her to compete again as they did in 2010.[72] Similarly, South Africa decided not to send alpine skier Sive Speelman to Sochi.[73] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

Algeria also did not enter its only qualified athlete, Mehdi-Selim Khelifi.

Security during the Games will is being handled by over 40,000 law enforcement officials, including police and the Russian Armed Forces.[103][104] A Presidential Decree signed by President Vladimir Putin took effect on 7 January, requiring that any protests and demonstrations in Sochi and the surrounding area through 21 March (the end of the Paralympics) be approved by the Federal Security Service.[105] HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

For the duration of the decree, travel restrictions will also be in effect in and around Sochi: "controlled" zones, dubbed the "ring of steel" by the media, cover the Coastal and Mountain clusters which encompass all of the Games' venues and infrastructure, including transport hubs such as railway stations. To enter controlled areas, visitors must pass through security checkpoints with x-ray machines, metal detectors and explosive material scanners.[1HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

06] Several areas are designated as "forbidden", including Sochi National Park and the border with Abkhazia.[105][107] An unmanned aerial vehicle squadron, along with S-400 and Pantsir-S1 air defense rockets will be used to protect Olympic airspace. Fourgunboats were also deployed on the Black Sea to protect the coastline.[108]

A number of security organizations and forces began stationing in and around Sochi in January 2014; HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

Russia's Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM) was stationed in Sochi for the Games beginning on 7 January 2014.[109][110] A group of 10,000 Internal Troops of the Ministry of Interior will also provide security services during the Games.[111] In mid-January, 1,500 Siberian Regional Command troops were stationed in a military town near Krasnaya Polyana.[112] HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

A group of 400 cossacks in traditional uniforms are also present to accompany police patrols.[113][114] The 58th Army unit of the Russian Armed Forces, will defend theGeorgia-Russia border.[115] The United States also supplied Navy ships and other assets for security purposes.

Organizers received several threats prior to the Games. SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

In a July 2013 video release, Chechen Islamist commander Dokka Umarov called for attacks on the Games, stating that the Games were being staged "on the bones of many, many Muslims killed ...and buried on our lands extending to the Black Sea."[117]

Threats were received from the group Vilayat Dagestan, which had claimed responsibility for the Volgograd bombings under the demands of UmarovHP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

, and a number of National Olympic Committees had also received threats via e-mail, threatening that terrorists would kidnap or "blow up" athletes during the Games. However, while the IOC did state that the letters "[contained] no threat and appears to be a random message from a member of the public", the U.S. ski and snowboarding teams hired a private security agency to provide additional protection during the Games.[ HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

On 7 February 2014, during the opening ceremony, a Pegasus Airlines jetliner from Kharkiv, Ukraine, to Istanbul, Turkey, was threatened by a passenger claiming to have a bomb and wanting to hijack the plane to fly it to Sochi. The plane landed at its intended destination in Istanbul. The Ukrainian foreign ministry reported that the passenger was arrested, and no weapons or bombs were found aboard the plane. ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

The goal of the attempt was related to protesters being arrested during the Euromaidan protests in Ukraine.

In most regions, broadcast rights to the 2014 Winter Olympics were packaged together with broadcast rights for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but some broadcasters obtained rights to further games as well. Domestic broadcast rights were sold by Sportfive to a consortium of three Russian broadcasters; IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

Channel One, VGTRK, and NTV Plus.[123]

In the United States, the 2014 Winter Olympics will be the first in a US$4.38 billion contract with NBC, extending its broadcast rights to the Olympic Games through 2020.[124]

In Canada, after losing the 2010 and 2012 Games to CTV, the 2014 Winter Olympics will mark the return of the Olympics to CBC Television and French sister network Ici Radio-Canada Télé for the first time since 2008.[125] SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

In Australia, after all three major commercial networks pulled out of bidding on rights to both the 2014 and 2016 Games due to cost concerns, the IOC awarded broadcast rights to just the 2014 Winter Olympics to Network Ten for A$20 million.

The lead-up to the Games were affected by numerous controversies and concerns; primarily concerning exploitation of workers engaged in Olympic construction; Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan

allegations of the illegal dumping of construction waste threatening residents' health and safety; evictions and displacement of residents to make way for Olympic venues; economic issues; and harassment of environmental and human rights activists and journalists who criticise Olympic preparations or thegovernment's anti-LGBT policies;[ Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan

and disputes with Circassian nationalists, who demanded that the events be cancelled or moved unless Russia apologises for the 19th-century deaths, which Circassians regard to be a genocide.

LGBT rights in Russia were a major concern leading up to the Games. In March 2012, the Russian government blocked the establishment of a Pride House in Sochi for the Games, HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

ruling that it would "[lead] to propaganda of non-traditional sexual orientation which can undermine the security of Russian society", and that it contradicted with public morality and the country's policies "in the area of family motherhood and childhood protection."[138] The passing of a law in June 2013 banning the distribution of "propaganda of non-traditional sexual relations" to minors was criticized by LGBT rights activists, Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan

human rights activists, and world leaders, for being a broad attempt to suppress LGBT culture in Russia. In particular, activists argued the law was too vague (Human Rights Campaign president Chad Griffin believed that even kissing a same-sex partner or displaying LGBT symbols like the rainbow flag in public was illegal under the law), attributed it to an increase in the level of homophobic violence in the country,[ Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan

and considered it inconsistent with the Olympic Charter, which states that "[discrimination] on grounds of race, religion, politics, gender or otherwise is incompatible with belonging to the Olympic Movement."[144] On 16 February 2013, Italian LGBT activist Vladimir Luxuriaannounced that she had been briefly detained by Sochi police after carrying a rainbow flag that said "Gay is OK" in Russian.[145] Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Although the IOC and Russian President Vladimir Putin both guaranteed the safety of LGBT athletes and spectators during the Games,[146] Olympic protests of Russian anti-gay laws were held and there were calls to boycott the Games,[134][147] although a writer for the Financial Times felt that a boycott would have been counter-productive, as there was no boycott of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing despite China's poor human rights record.[148] Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan

In early February 2014, a group of 40 major human and LGBT rights organizations sent a joint letter to the ten Worldwide Olympic Partner companies, urging them to support the rights of LGBT people under the Olympic Charter, and pressure the IOC to show greater scrutiny towards the human rights abuses of future host countries.[149] On 3 February 2014, HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan

AT&T, a supporter of the United States Olympic Committee, issued a statement in support of LGBT rights at the Games, becoming the first major Olympic advertiser to condemn Russia's policies.[150]

A number of world leaders, including Barack Obama, David Cameron, François Hollande and Stephen Harper, declined to attend the Opening Ceremony as national delegates. HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan

Although they denied their decisions were for political reasons, there was speculation it may had been a symbolic boycott related to the anti-LGBT laws. In response to the controversy, the U.S. appointed Billie Jean King and Caitlin Cahow, who are both openly gay, as its delegation instead. Although he stressed diversity and made no reference to the controversy when announcing them,Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan

U.S. president Barack Obama confirmed the intent of the selections in an interview prior to the games, stating that "there is no doubt we wanted to make it very clear that we do not abide by discrimination in anything, including discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation."[154][155] Although the U.S. government was praised by HRC for the decision, a writer for The Washington Post has since noted that, though not to the same extent as the Russian law, HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan

eight U.S. states (including Utah, which hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics) have laws regulating or banning the coverage of homosexuality in school sex education classes.

Some Circassian organisations have objected to the Games being held on land their ancestors held until 1864,[157][158] HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan

when most of them were vanquished at the end of the Russian-Circassian War (1763–1864), in what they consider to be ethnic cleansing or genocide. The Games also coincide with the 150th anniversary of this event.[159][160] They demanded the Games be cancelled or moved unless Russia apologises.[161] Some Circassian groups accepted the Olympics, and argued that symbols of Circassian history and culture should be featured, HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan

as Australia, the United States and Canada did for their indigenous cultures in 2000, 2002, and 2010 respectively.[162]

The Games use of Krasnaya Polyana as a site for skiing and snowboarding events was also considered controversial to Circassians, as Krasnaya Polyana (which translates to "Red Hill" or "Red Glade"), was named for a group of Circassians who were defeated in a bloody battle with Russians while attempting to return home over it in 1864. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan

While Olympic Games typically have high cost overruns, for the 2014 Games they are much higher than usual, with the costs being more than all the previous 21 Winter Olympics combined.[165] Allison Stewart of the Saïd Business School at Oxford, notes that relations between the government and construction companies appear closer in Sochi than in other games.[166] Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan

Oligarch Arkady Rotenberg has won contracts worth $7.4 billion.[166] In a press conference, IOC president Thomas Bach defended the high costs of the Games, stating that the costs were in line with previous Olympics, but that the additional costs were a "long-term investment" into making Sochi a year-round resort and winter sports complex.[167] Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan

Criticism also surfaced over the quality and availability of accommodation in Sochi during the final weekend before the Games. Due to contractors failing to meet deadlines, along with inclement weather, three of the nine hotels for accredited media were left with unfinished rooms. Journalists reported various issues, including rooms that were unclean, no working water, discoloured tap water, and missing furniture or amenities. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Executive Director Gilbert Felli stated that the rooms would be finished by 5 February, while Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Kozak noted that the media hotels just needed a "final cleaning".TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan,HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan,Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan,DELL R859C CPU Fan

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