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By the end of November 1809, Patriot Spain was in poor shape. In Catalonia, Gerona was in its last moments, Spain's two largest armies had been defeated and the British army was preparing to leave the Guadiana. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

Disgusted by what he regarded as the Junta's stupidity, Wellington was convinced that a French march on Lisbon was imminent. Intelligence reports of large masses of fresh enemy troops crossing from France were received.[118] Scattered along the length of the Sierra Morena, the defenders had no way of stopping the French insurgence 19 January 1810. HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

60,000 French troops—the corps of Victor, Mortier and Sebastiani together with other formations—advanced southwards to assault the Spanish positions. Overwhelmed at every point, Aréizaga's men fled eastwards and southwards, leaving town after town to fall into the hands of the enemy. The result was revolution. IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

Abandoning last-minute efforts to turn Seville into another Zaragossa, on 23 January the Junta Central decided to flee to the safety of Cádiz,[119]dissolved itself on 29 January 1810 and set up a five-person Regency Council of Spain and the Indies, charged with convening the Cortes.[67] Soult cleared all of southern Spain except Cádiz, which he left Victor to blockade.[99] ASUS A8H CPU Fan

The system of juntas was replaced by a regency and the Cádiz Cortes, which established a permanent government under the Constitution of 1812.

Joseph contented himself with working within the apparatus extant under the old regime, while placing responsibility for local government in many provinces in the hands of royal commissioners. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

After much preparation and debate, on 2 July 1809 Spain was divided into 38 new provinces, each headed by an Intendent appointed by King Joseph, and on 17 April 1810 these provinces were converted into French-style prefectures and sub-prefectures. Named after their chief towns rather than after their dominant geographical features, HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

the new territorial divisions, which were almost equal in size, bore little relation to any historic units.[120] The decision to retain the historic names of many old provinces in this fashion was a significant concession.[120]

The Proclamation of the Conde de Montarco on 25 March 1812 described the government in Cadiz as an "infamous and illegitimate government ... APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

composed,of the very scum of Spain, dependent on the caprice of an ignorant mob, dominated by British influence, and possessed of no more territory than the prison in which it resides ... that has deceived the foolish Spaniards who submit to its tyranny by promising them an illusory liberty".[121] Under threat of punishment by sequestration of property, HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

escape to the Patriot zone was not a practical possibility except for officials with a secure position in government service, notables with property in the Patriot zone, or career-oriented young men with no family responsibilities. Thus the French obtained a measure of acquiescence among the propertied classes. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

While refusing to take service with the French, and in instances serving as spies or couriers, they accepted the presence of the occupying forces and on occasion struck up friendships with them. Francisco de Goya, who remained in Madrid throughout the French occupation, painted Joseph's picture and documented the war a series of 82 prints called Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War). Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

For many imperial officers, life could be comfortable. The German Heinrich von Brandt—an officer in one of Napoleon’s Polish regiments stationed in Aragón after the fall of Zaragoza—said that the French "were not as hated as has since been alleged".[122]

Amongst the liberal, republican and radical segments of the Spanish and Portuguese populations there was much support for a potential French invasion, SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

despite Napoleon's having by 1807 abandoned many liberal and republican ideals. Before the invasion, the term afrancesado ("turned French") was used to denote those who supported the Enlightenment, secular ideals, and the French Revolution.[123] Napoleon relied on support from these afrancesados both in the conduct of the war and administration of the country. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

But while Napoleon—through his brother Joseph—fulfilled his promises to remove all feudal and clerical privileges, most Spanish liberals soon came to oppose the occupation because of the violence and brutality it brought.[123] Marxians wrote that there are a positive identification on the part of the people with the Napoleonic revolution, SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

but this is probably impossible to substantiate by the reasons for collaboration being practical rather than ideological.

The Peninsular War is regarded as one of the first people's wars, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare. It is from this conflict that the English language borrowed the word.[125] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The Spanish War of Independence was one of the most successful partisan wars in history. This guerrilla warfare was costly for both sides; the guerrillas troubled the French troops, but they frightened their own countrymen with forced conscription and looting. Many of the partisans were either fleeing the law or trying to get rich. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

Later in the war the authorities tried to make the guerrillas reliable, and many of them formed regular army units such as Espoz y Mina's "Cazadores de Navarra".

The idea of turning the guerrillas into an armed force had both positive and negative effects. Uniforms and strict military discipline stopped men from deserting; the more disciplined the unit, the easier it was for French troops to catch them when they sprang an ambush. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

Some partisan leaders joined up with the military authorities to avoid criminal charges, to retain their status as officers in the Spanish army, or to receive weaponry, clothes, and food. The guerrilla style of fighting was the Spanish military's single most effective tactic. Most organized attempts by regular Spanish forces to take on the French ended in defeat. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

Once a battle was lost and the soldiers reverted to their guerrilla roles, they tied down large numbers of French troops over a wide area with a much lower expenditure of men, energy, and supplies. According to Glover, "[i]t was these obscure triumphs—a platoon shot down in an ambush, a courier and his message captured as he galloped across the plain—which made possible the orthodox victories of Wellington and his Anglo-Portuguese army and the liberation of Portugal and Spain".[126] Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

Mass resistance by the people of Spain prefigured the total wars of the 20th century and inspired parallel struggles by the Russians and Prussians. Tsar Alexander, when threatened with war, told the French ambassador, "If the Emperor Napoleon decides to make war, it is possible, probable, that we shall be defeated ... But ... the Spaniards have been defeated; and they are not beaten, nor have they surrendered."[127] Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

In Spain and Portugal, the populace were inured to hardship, were suspicious of foreigners and were versed in ways of life—such as banditry and smuggling—that were characterised by violence and involved constant skirmishes with the security forces. The conviction of General Bigarre became the foundation of the phenomenon of the "customs guards and smugglers who covered the whole of the country under the Prince of the Peace", ASUS G2P CPU Fan

Captain Blaze saying that, as the Spaniards were "accustomed to extol the exploits of the robbers and smugglers", the chieftains "have been in readiness to become chiefs of the guerrillas".[128][129] In the same way, it has been claimed that enlightened absolutism made less progress in Spain and Portugal than elsewhere, Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

with the result that the reforms of the new régime grated on them far more than would have been the case. Tantamount to suggesting that resistance was the product of backwardness—or as the French would have put it, of savagery, ignorance and want of civilisation—this latter argument could be supplemented by arguing that Spain was Catholic and therefore given over ipso facto to obscurantism, DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

superstition and counter-revolution. Common French complaints as they grappled with occupying such an independent and spirited Spanish citizenry was that Spain was at least a century behind the rest of Europe in knowledge and the progress of social habits. Spain's insularity and the severity of its religious institutions had prevented the Spaniards from taking part in the disputes and controversies which had agitated and enlightened Europe.[130] HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

Hatred of the French and devotion to God, King and Fatherland were not the only the reason to join the Partisans.[131] The French imposed restrictions on movement and on many traditional aspects of street life, so opportunities to find alternative sources of income were limited—industry was at a standstill and many señores were unable to pay their existing retainers and domestic servants, Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

and could not take on new staff. Hunger and despair reigned on all sides.[132] Because the military record was so dismal, many Spanish politicians and publicists took exaggerated comfort from the activities of the guerrillas and elevated them to the status of national heroes, while the issue was exploited by factions determined to argue that the struggle against Napoleon was a people’s war. Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

Cadiz was built at the end of a sand spit five miles long jutting out from a triangular piece of land known as the Isla de León, reached by crossing a narrow causeway-cum-bridge known as the Puente de Suazo that crossed a wide strip of creeks and salt marshes known as the Rio Sancti Petri. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

The possible site for a siege battery—a peninsula that half-closed the mouth of the harbour protected by the Isla—was held by troops ensconced at its seaward end in the fort ofMatagorda. Batteries and redoubts commanded the entire length of the Sancti Petri, the Puente de Suazo had been blown up, the isthmus was studded with defences and Cadiz was protected by massive walls.ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

Every boat for miles around had been scuttled, burnt or taken to the Isla de León, while the harbour was full of British and Spanish warships. The Spaniards had fitted out a large number of gunboats and launches that could patrol the Sancti Petri. Alburquerque’s army and the Voluntarios Distinguidos having been reinforced by 3,000 soldiers who had fled Seville and reached the sea at Ayamonte, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

and a strong Anglo-Portuguese brigade commanded by General William Stewart. Shaken by their experiences, the Spaniards had abandoned their earlier scruples about a British garrison.[134]

These defences thwarted the French; an effort to persuade the garrison to surrender was rejected. Victor's French troops camped at the shoreline and tried to bombard the city into surrender. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

Joseph wrote to Napoleon appealing for naval assistance, but this was never forthcoming; the emperor did not want to risk a second Trafalgar. Large numbers of troops and guns were therefore pushed forward to attack Matagorda and the garrison was evacuated on 22 April.[135] With Matagorda in their hands, the French could harass the harbour and isthmus and shell Cadiz itself. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

Large mortars were constructed for this purpose at Seville, and the city was thereafter bombarded. The bombardment was ineffectual and the confidence of the gaditanos grew and persuaded them that they were heroes. Alcalá Galiano wrote, "From December 1810 bombs ... fired by the enemy batteries had started to fall inside Cádiz. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

However, these shots ... came very infrequently, and then only a few at a time ... in order to carry so far, the projectiles had had to be increased in weight, and were consequently mostly made up of lead without much space for powder. As a result, they caused little damage ... and in the end little notice was taken of them other than to make them the subject of humour. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

In theatre and streets, then, a popular couplet was sung 'From the bombs fired by the popinjays, the girls of Cádiz make hair curlers.'"[136] With food abundant and falling in price, the bombardment was hopeless despite both hurricane and epidemic—a storm destroyed many ships in the spring of 1810 and the city was ravaged by yellow fever.[137] Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

Once Cádiz was secured, attention turned to the political situation. It was dominated by three factors: the instructions that had been left by the Junta Suprema Central y Gubernativa del Reino concerning the convocation of the Cortes Generales, the installation of a new Consejo de Regencia de España e Indias; and the emergence of Cádiz itself as a player in the political process.[137] Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

On 28 October 1809, the Junta Central announced that after a three-month electoral process beginning on the first day of the new year, the cortes would open on 1 March. On 1 January 1810 instructions had appeared that the suffrage was to be extended to all male householders over 25. Voting was to be public and the electors were to choose parish representatives who would attend district-level assemblies. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

These would choose deputies to send to the provincial meetings that would be the bodies from which the members of the cortes would emerge. There would be one deputy to every 50,000 inhabitants. The provincial juntas and the towns and cities that had been represented in the cortes of the antiguo régimen would elect one deputy each. Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

Whether the new assembly should have a single chamber or whether the clergy and nobility should have their own organs of representation were unclear.[138] From 1 February 1810—the date when it first met—the implementation of these decrees had been in the hands of the new council of regency selected by the Junta Central. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

Composed of General Castaños— the former minister and president of the Junta of Seville, Francisco Saavedra, Admiral Antonio Escaño,Miguel de Lardizábal—an official of the Ministry of State who had represented his native Mexico in the Junta Central, and the Bishop of Orense—who was in Galicia and did not appear in Cádiz until 29 May. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

This was a conservative body which in theory enjoyed absolute power. The leading reformer Argilelles said, "Its authority was as absolute and arbitrary as that of the governments of the past. There was no remedy against the use of power. The freedoms of speech and of publication ... were as chained up as they were before the insurrection.[139] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The Junta agreed that the viceroyalties of the overseas territories; New Spain, Peru, New Kingdom of Granada, and Buenos Aires, and the independent captaincies general of the island of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Chile, Province of Venezuela, and Philippines would send one representative. This scheme was criticized in America for providing unequal representation to the overseas territories. Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

Several important and large cities had no direct representation in the Supreme Central Junta. In particular Quito and Charcas, which saw themselves as the capitals of kingdoms and resented being subsumed in the larger "kingdom" of Peru. This unrest led to the establishment of juntas in these cities in 1809, which were quashed by the authorities within the year. HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

 (See Luz de América and Bolivian War of Independence.) Throughout early 1809 the governments of the capitals of the viceroyalties and captaincies general elected representatives to the Junta, but none arrived in time to serve on it.

The French took the Spanish fortified town of Ciudad Rodrigo after a siege lasting from 26 April to 9 July 1810. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Fearing a new French assault on Portugal, Wellesley created a powerful defensive position near Lisbon, to which he could fall back if necessary.[140] To protect the city, he ordered the construction of the Lines of Torres Vedras—three strong lines of forts, blockhouses, redoubts, and ravelins with fortified artillery positions—under the supervision of Sir Richard Fletcher. HP G60-230us CPU Fan

The various parts of the lines communicated with each other by semaphore, allowing immediate response to any threat. The work began in the autumn of 1809 and the first line was finished one year later. To further hamper the enemy, the areas in front of the lines were subjected to a scorched earth policy: they were denuded of food, forage and shelter. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

200,000 inhabitants of neighbouring districts were relocated inside the lines. Though not without its problems, Wellington exploited the facts that the French could conquer Portugal only by conquering Lisbon, and that they could in practice reach Lisbon only from the north. He exploited Lisbon's geographical situation and the harshness of the Portuguese countryside. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

In consequence, despite serious worries about his army, Wellesley was confident. He wrote to Lord Liverpool on 14 November 1809:

From all I have learned of the state of the enemy’s force at present in the Peninsula, I am of opinion that unless the Spanish armies should meet with misfortune, the enemy could not make an attack upon Portugal; COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

and [that] if events in Spain should enable the enemy to make such an attack, the force at present in Portugal is able to defend that country. If in consequence of the peace in Germany the enemy’s army in the Peninsula should be reinforced, it is obvious that the enemy will acquire the means of attacking Portugal... IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

in this case I conceive that till Spain shall have been conquered... the enemy will find it difficult, if not impossible, to obtain possession of Portugal.[141]

Until these changes occurred the Portuguese administration was free to resist British influence, Beresford's position being rendered tolerable by the firm support of the Minister of War, Miguel de Pereira Forjaz.[142] HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

Wellesley held him to be the ablest man in Portugal.[143]

The French re-invaded Portugal with an army of around 65,000, led by Marshal Masséna, and forced Wellesley back through Almeida to Busaco.[99] The first significant clash in Portugal was at the Battle of the Côa, where the French drove back Robert Crauford's outnumbered Light Division. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Masséna moved to attack the held British position on the heights of Bussaco—a 10-mile (16 km)-long ridge—resulting in the Battle of Buçaco on 27 September. Suffering heavy casualties, the French failed to dislodge the Anglo-Portuguese army. Masséna was now cut off from Spain by the militia and the ordenança, tied to one of the worst roads in the peninsula, SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

surrounded by deserted towns and villages, and running short of food. Large cavalry patrols were soon riding out to examine the countryside, and within a matter of hours discovered an unguarded track leading northwards around the Allied line.[144] Trant’s militia had been sent to hold this road, but Wellesley did not believe they could do so. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

By doing the unexpected, Masséna had wrong-footed Wellington, and frustrated his plan to turn back the invasion before it reached Lisbon.[145] The next day, Masséna turned Wellington's flank, and the latter thereupon retired, devastating the countryside as he went into a fortified position called the "Lines of Torres Vedras".[99] Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

By 10 October 1810, the British light division and cavalry patrols remained outside the "Lines".[146] Wellesley manned the fortifications with "secondary troops"—25,000 Portuguese militia, 8,000 Spaniards and 2,500 British marines and artillerymen—keeping his main field army of British and Portuguese regulars dispersed to meet a French assault on any point of the Lines.[147]Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

Masséna's Army of Portugal concentrated around Sobral in preparation to attack. After a fierce skirmish on 14 October in which the strength of the Lines became apparent, the French dug themselves in rather than launch a full-scale assault.[95] Surprised by the French army's resilience in the desert-like conditions of Portugal, Wellington wrote to Lord Liverpool on 21 December 1810:Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

It is astonishing that the enemy have been able to remain in this country so long; and it is an extraordinary instance of what a French army can do. It is a fact that they brought no provisions with them, and they have not received a letter since they entered Portugal. With all our money and having in our favour the good inclinations of the country, Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

I assure you that I could not maintain one division in the district in which they have maintained not less than 60,000 men and 20,000 animals for more than two months.[148]

In late October, after holding his starving army before Lisbon for a month, Masséna fell back to a position between Santarém and Rio Maior, [149]where Wellesley choose not to attack him. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

In March, with supplies exhausted, Masséna managed a skillful retreat on Salamanca, with Ney again displaying a savage talent for rear-guard fighting.[99] Following Masséna's withdrawal, Wellesley moved the 2nd Division under Lieutenant General Hill, along with two Portuguese brigades and an attachment of Dragoons, across the Tagus to protect the plains of Alentejo—both from Masséna and a possible attack from Andalusia by the French Army of the South.[150] Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

The British suffered a setback at about the same time in the Battle of Fuengirola. On 15 October, a much smaller Polish garrison held off British troops under Lord Blayney, who was taken captive and held by the French until 1814.

During 1811, Victor's force was diminished because of requests for reinforcement from Soult to aid his siege of Badajoz.[151]SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

This brought the French numbers down to between 20,000 and 15,000 and encouraged the defenders of Cádiz to attempt a breakout,[152] in conjunction with the arrival of an Anglo-Spanish relief army of around 16,000 troops under the overall command of Spanish General Manuel La Peña, with the British contingent being led by Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Graham.SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

Marching towards Cádiz on February 28, this force met two French divisions under Victor at Barrosa. Indecisive,[152] the Battle of Barrosa on 5 March was part of an unsuccessful manoeuvre to break the siege of Cádiz, but the cowardice of La Peña made it a fruitless success and Victor soon renewed the blockade.[99] Soult came from the south to threaten Extremadura. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

He captured the fortress town of Badajoz before returning to Andalusia with most of his army. This timid surrender contrasted with the resistance mounted at Girona and Zaragoza. Badadoz's garrison numbered 8,000 effectives, had a month's ammunition and food, and was expecting a relief column under Beresford. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

The city's fall crowned a campaign in which, with 20,000 men, Soult had seized two fortress, taken 16,000 prisoners and defeated the Spanish army in Extremadura. Soult was relieved at the operation's speedy conclusion, for three pieces of disturbing information had reached him on 8 March and his presence was required elsewhere. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

Wellesley's confidence and moral authority had been much boosted by Torres Vedras, the spring of 1811 found him intending to move over to the offensive, for which policy he had received de facto authorisation from London, where talks of major reductions in the size of the army employed in Portugal had been replaced by promises of major reinforcements. Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

Supply difficulties, sickness among the troops and want of siege artillery meant that in the short term no great strokes of strategy could be envisaged, but it was hoped that Almeida, Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz might be all recaptured, opening the way for lightning strikes on Salamanca or Seville.[154] HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

In March 1811 in Cadiz, Henry Wellesley was tricked by serviles eager to engineer British discontent with the Regency into putting forward a plan favoured by both himself and his eldest brother; the elder Wellesley would be given command of the Spanish army and British officers posts in its ranks in exchange for the UK granting the enormous loan which the Spaniards saw as the way out of their penury. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

This was impractical—gaditano opinion was hostile, while Arthur Wellesley's enthusiasm failed to win over his Cabinet colleagues. A further suggestion that the provinces bordering on Portugal should be placed under British authority was also rejected. With the French ensconced in Almeida, Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, the problems these measures were designed to combat—a repetition of the troubles of the Talavera campaign—were academic.[155] COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

An Anglo-Portuguese army led by the British Marshal William Beresford and a Spanish army led by the Spanish generals Joaquín Blake and Francisco Castaños, attempted to retake Badajoz by laying siege to the French garrison Soult had left behind. Soult regathered his army and marched to relieve the siege. Beresford lifted the siege and his army intercepted the marching French.Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

Part of Wellington's army had besieged Badajoz until Soult forced it to retire after the Battle of Albuera. Soult outmaneuvered Beresford but could not win the battle, writing later that he had never seen "so desperate and bloody a conflict" and commenting on the steadfastness of the British troops: "There is no beating these troops ... HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

 I had turned their right, pierced their centre and everywhere victory was mine—but they did not know how to run!"[156] He retired his army to Seville.

The allies, reinforced by fresh British troops in early 1811, began an offensive. In April, Arthur Wellesley besieged Almeida. Massena advanced to its relief, attacking Wellesley at Fuentes de Oñoro (3–5 May). HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

The French claimed victory because they won the passage at Poco Velho, cleared the wood, turned the British right flank, obliged the cavalry to retire, and forced Wellesley to relinquish three miles of ground. The British claimed victory because they took the village of Fuentes and their object (covering the blockade of Almeida) was attained. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

The French retired without being attacked. The innate toughness of Wellesley's troops and Bessières's failure to support Masséna assisted the Allied effort. Bessières led the cavalry of the Imperial Guard and refused to obey Masséna's orders. After this battle, the Almeida garrison escaped through the British lines in a night march.[99] SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

An infuriated Wellesley wrote, "I have never been so much distressed by any military event as by the escape of a man of them."[157] Napier wrote, "In the battle of Fuentes Onoro, more errors than skill were observable on both sides, and the train of accidents did not stop there. The prize contended for was to present another example of the uncertainty of war."[158HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

]Masséna was forced to withdraw, having lost a total of 25,000 men in Portugal, and was replaced by Auguste Marmont. Wellesley joined Beresford and renewed the siege of Badajoz. Marmont joined Soult and Wellesley retired.[99]

The greatest Spanish coup at this time was the work of the Catalans. HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

Aided by three young clerks employed by the garrison, on the night of 9–10 April the former cleric, Francisco Rovira, let himself into the fortress of Figueras at the head of 2,000 men. Because it commanded the main road from Barcelona to the frontier, the French would not accept its loss and after confused fighting in which Rovira and his men received ineffectual support from troops of the First Army brought up by its latest commander, HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

the Conde de Campoverde, the fortress was blockaded. Thinking that relief was unlikely, Marshal Macdonald, the commander of the French Army of Catalonia, eschewed formal siege operations in favour of starving the defenders into surrender. Defended by irregulars, the fortress held out much longer than expected, but on 17 August, with no food remaining it was forced to capitulate after a desperate attempt at a break-out was foiled. Macdonald wrote, HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

"The unevenness of the ground caused the head of the columns to waver and made their weapons jingle, and this attracted the attention of our advanced outposts... We awaited their approach, and as soon as they opened the attack we threw hand grenades amongst them... The Spaniards lost a large number of killed, wounded and... prisoners; on our side no one had a scratch. Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

Next day the enemy ran up the white flag... I accorded them the honours of war. The garrison laid down their arms and remained prisoners; out of respect for their bravery the officers retained their swords."[159]

The fighting had not prevented the French from seizing more ground. The French next attacked the vital city of Tarragona. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The Spaniards had been able to maintain a small, regular army in southern and central Catalonia because Tarragona was a port, a fortress, and the last region whose resources remained intact as far as the Patriot cause was concerned. The emperor had deemed that it should be taken. Tasked with this was the Army of Aragón under its commander, General Suchet, who was given a third of the Army of Catalonia to ensure that his operations were not marred by friction with Macdonald.[160] Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

Wellesley soon appeared before Ciudad Rodrigo. In September, Marmont repelled him and re-provisioned the fortress.[99] Sorties continued to be made out of Cádiz from April to August 1811,[161] and British naval gunboats destroyed French positions at St. Mary's.[162] An attempt by Victor to crush the small Anglo-Spanish garrison at Tarifaover the winter of 1811-1812 was frustrated by torrential rains and an obstinate defence, HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

marking an end to French operations against the city's outer works. The war now fell into a temporary lull, with the superior French unable to find an advantage and coming under increasing pressure from Spanish guerrillas. The French had over 350,000 soldiers in L'Armée de l'Espagne, but over 200,000 were deployed to protect the French lines of supply, rather than as substantial fighting units. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Wellesley renewed the allied advance into Spain in early 1812, besieging and capturing the border fortress towns of Ciudad Rodrigo on 19 January and Badajoz on 6 April after an assault. The allied army took Salamanca on 17 June, as Marshal Marmont approached. The two forces met on 22 July, when Wellesley soundly defeated the French at the Battle of Salamanca, HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

during which Marmont was wounded.The emperor wants me to take the offensive ... but his Majesty does not realize that the smallest movement in these parts expends quantities of resources and of horses ... To make a requisition on the poorest village we have to send a detachment of 200 men and, to be able to live, we have to scatter over distances. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

After the allied victory at Salamanca on 22 July 1812, King Joseph Bonaparte abandoned Madrid on 11 August.[164] Because Suchet had a secure base at Valencia, Joseph and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan retreated there. Soult, realising he would soon be cut off from his supplies, ordered a retreat from Cádiz set for August 24; HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

the French were forced to end the two-and-a-half year long siege.[4] After a long artillery barrage, the French placed together the muzzles of over 600 cannons to render unusable to the Spanish and British. Although the cannons were useless, the Allied forces captured 30 gunboats and a large quantity of stores.[165] HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

The French were forced to abandon Andalusia for fear of being cut off by the allied armies.[166] In August, Wellesley entered Madrid, destroying a famous ceramic factory in the city, and a wool factory and Roman bridge at Alcantara.[99] Marshals Suchet and Soult joined Joseph and Jourdan at Valencia. Spanish armies defeated the French garrisons at Astorga and Guadalajara. HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

As the French regrouped, the allies advanced towards Burgos. Between September 19 and October 21 Wellesley besieged Burgos but failed to capture it. Together, Joseph and the three marshals planned to recapture Madrid and drive Wellesley from central Spain. The French counteroffensive caused Wellesley to lift the Siege of Burgos and retreat to Portugal in the autumn of 1812,[167] SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

pursued by the French and losing several thousand men.[99] Napier wrote that about 1,000 allied troops were killed, wounded and missing in action, and that Hill lost 400 between the Tagus and the Tormes, and another 100 in the defence of Alba de Tormes. 300 were killed and wounded at the Huebra where many stragglers died in woodland, and 3,520 allied prisoners were taken to Salamanca up to 20 November. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

Napier estimated that the double retreat cost the allies around 9,000, including the loss in the siege, and said French writers said 10,000 were taken between the Tormes and the Agueda. But Joseph's dispatches said the whole loss was 12,000, including the garrison of Chinchilla, whereas English authors mostly reduced the British loss to hundreds.[168] HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

As a consequence of the Salamanca campaign, the French were forced to evacuate the provinces of Andalusia and Asturias. For Napoleon, losing in Spain in 1812 or 1813 would have meant little if a decisive victory had occurred in Germany or Russia.

By the end of 1812 the Grande Armée that had invaded the Russian Empire had ceased to exist. ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

Unable to resist the oncoming Russians, the French had to evacuateEast Prussia and the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. With both the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia joining his opponents, Napoleon withdrew more troops from Spain,[169] including some foreign units and three battalions of sailors sent to assist with the Siege of Cádiz. 20,000 men were withdrawn; IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

the numbers were not overwhelming, but the occupying forces were left in a difficult position. In much of the area under French control—the Basque provinces, Navarre, Aragon, Old Castile, La Mancha, the Levante, and parts of Catalonia and León—their presence was a few scattered garrisons. Trying to hold a front line in an arc fromBilbao to Valencia, they were still vulnerable to assault, and with hopes of victory abandoned. SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

According to Esdaile, the best policy would have been to have fallen back to the Ebro, but the political situation in 1813 made this impossible; Napoleon wanted to avoid being seen as weak in the face of German princes watching the advancing Russians and wondering whether they should change sides.[170] Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan

 French prestige suffered another blow when on 17 March el rey intruso left Madrid in the company of another vast caravan of refugees.[170]

The following year, Wellesley marched 121,000 troops (53,749 British, 39,608 Spanish, and 27,569 Portuguese)[171] from northern Portugal across the mountains of northern Spain and the Esla River, Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan

skirting Jourdan's army of 68,000 strung out between the Douro and the Tagus. British and Portuguese forces swept northwards in late May and seized Burgos, outflanking the French army and forcing Joseph Bonaparte into the Zadorra valley. At the Battle of Vitoria on 21 June, Joseph's 65,000-man army were routed by 52,000 British, 28,000 Portuguese, and 25,000 Spaniards.[171]HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

Wellesley failed to pursue and the French recovered. Wellesley shortened his communications by shifting his base of operations to the northern Spanish coast, and began operations against San Sebastian and Pampeluna. Soult was given command of all French troops in Spain and advanced through the western Pyrenees, but was repulsed.[99] Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan

The Spanish army of Enrique José O'Donnell tookPancorbo on 3 July, with the French troops capitulating.[172] With 18,000 men, Wellesley captured the French-garrisoned city of San Sebastián under Brigadier-General Louis Emmanuel Rey after a siege that lasted from 7 July to 8 September 1813 and incurred heavy British losses. Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan

The city in turn was sacked and burnt to the ground by the Anglo-Portuguese.

The war was not over. Although Bonapartist Spain had effectively collapsed, most of France’s troops had escaped and fresh troops were soon gathering beyond the Pyrenees. By themselves, such forces were unlikely to score more than a few local victories, but French troop losses elsewhere in Europe could not be taken for granted. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Austria, Russia and Prussia might be beaten, but with the divisions between the allies there was no guarantee that one power would not make a separate peace. By giving Britain more credibility on the continent, Vitoria had helped a little, but the thought of Napoleon descending on the Pyrenees with the grande armée was not regarded with equanimity. Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan

Welcoming the news that Austria had entered the war and that the Allied armies had avoided a decisive defeat at Dresden in August 1813, British headquarters had misgiving about the eastern powers. Wellesley's brother-in-law Edward Pakenham wrote, "I should think that much must depend upon proceedings in the north: I begin to apprehend ... HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan

that Boney may avail himself of the jealousy of the Allies to the material injury of the cause."[174] But the defeat or defection of Austria, Russia and Prussia was not the only danger. It was also uncertain that Wellesley could continue to count on Spanish support.[175]

Moreover, things were going badly for the British Army itself. HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan

The summer of 1813 in the Basque provinces and Navarre was a wet one, and with the army drenched by incessant rain, the decision to strip the men of their greatcoats was looking unwise. Sickness was widespread—at one point a third of Wellesley's British troops were hors de combat—and fears about the army's discipline and general reliability grew. Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan

By 9 July, Wellesley reported that 12,500 men were absent without leave, whilst plundering was rife. Major General Sir Frederick Robinson wrote, "We paint the conduct of the French in this country in very ... harsh colours, but be assured we injure the people much more than they do ... Wherever we move devastation marks our steps."[176] HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan

With the army established on the borders of France, desertion had become a problem. The Chasseurs Britanniques—recruited mainly from French deserters—lost 150 men in a single night. Wellesley wrote, "The desertion is terrible, and is unaccountable among the British troops. I am not astonished that the foreigners should go ... but, HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan

unless they entice away the British soldiers, there is no accounting for their going away in such numbers as they do."[177]

The Allies chased the retreating French, reaching the Pyrenees in early July. Marshal Soult began a counter-offensive and defeated the Allies at the Battle of Maya and the Battle of Roncesvalles. HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan

Pushing on into Spain, by 27 July the Roncesvalles wing of Soult's army was within ten miles of Pamplona but found its way blocked by a substantial allied force posted on a high ridge in between the villages of Sorauren and Zabaldica.[178] Soult was repulsed by the Allies at theBattle of Sorauren, lost momentum, and was defeated by the Spanish Army of Galicia under General Manuel Freire at the Battle of San Marcial on 31 August 1813. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan

On 7 October, after Wellesley received news of the reopening of hostilities in Germany, the Allies crossed into France and forded the Bidasoa river. On 11 December, Napoleon, beleaguered and desperate, agreed to a separate peace with Spain under the Treaty of Valençay, under which he would release and recognize Ferdinand in exchange for a complete cessation of hostilities. Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan

But the Spanish had no intention of trusting Napoleon and the fighting continued. Soult was not finished. On 13 December he switched his troops to the right bank of the Nive and launched them against Sir Rowland Hill's forces, and a furious battle followed. The Allies were in danger; rain in the Pyrenees had sent floodwater down the Nive and had swept away their pontoon bridges, Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan

while the French made considerable progress. According to Bell, "Every point was attacked to weaken our force and keep us separate, their guns keeping up a terrific fire, knocking the dust out of Saint Pierre ... ploughing up the side of the hill, thinning our ranks, and playing Old Harry, having no regard for life or limb ... ‘Dead or alive,’ said our chief, ‘we must hold our ground.’[179]HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Over 11,000 men were killed or injured at the Battle of the Nive. The French losses outnumbered those of the Allies, and on the evening of 10 December, some 1,400 troops from three German battalions deserted in response to a secret message from the Duke of Nassau—one of the many German rulers who had switched sides following the Battle of Leipzig—ordering them to switch to the Allies. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

In addition, Soult and Suchet lost the rest of their German units—another 3,000 men—as it was felt that they must be disbanded.

The Adour’s defenders were depleted, but all incapable of further offensive action. Twice their disposable strength had fallen on a single wing of the Allied army, and twice it had been repelled. HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan

Soult could now only defend the line of the Adour. As shown by the battles at Orthez, on 27 February 1814, and Toulouse, on 10 April 1814, although the armée d’Espagne was not broken, all chance of carrying the fight beyond the Pyrenees had gone.

In France, after a considerable time of inactivity spent in winter quarters, British, Portuguese and Spanish soldiers continued to fight the enemy, Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan

but the history of how the allies besieged Bayonne, liberated Bourdeaux, and fought Soult’s army at Toulouse is one that belongs as much to the tale of the Peninsular War as to that of the great invasion of France that produced Napoleon’s abdication on 6 April 1814. Nor does much interest attach to such military events as took place in the Peninsula, DELL R859C CPU Fan

for these boiled down to little more than a series of ineffectual blockades that are remarkable for the evidence they provide of the condition of the Spanish army and the erstwhile guerrillas’ lack of interest in prosecuting the war. The French garrisons that remained had since been besieged by Spanish forces.[181] Toshiba Satellite A105-S2101 CPU Fan

The significance of the Peninsular War was of far greater significance in the history of Spain and Portugal than it was in the history of the Napoleonic Wars. On the contrary to the classic tradition, to quote Napoleon himself, ‘It was [the Spanish war] that overthrew me. All my disasters can be traced back to this fatal knot’.[182] SONY Vaio VGN-FW140E CPU Fan

By intervening in Spain and Portugal, Napoleon involved himself in a struggle that would have been difficult to win at the best of times: so intense was the national spirit of these two countries, the French armies were confronted by a veritable people’s war.[183] The Grande Armée that campaigned in Russia in 1812 was not inadequate of troops. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

Rather, what was lacking was the ability to make use of troops, the communications, transport and supply arrangements of the army all proving desperately short for the needs even of the numbers that Napoleon did take with him.[184] Two years later, heartened by French difficulties in Spain, both Russia and Prussia considered going to war against Napoleon; SONY Vaio VPC-EB4S1E/WI CPU Fan

in Prussia leaders of the reform movement such as August von Gneisenau added to the pressure by painting pictures of people’s war a la español.[185] Once he had been beaten in Germany in 1813, Napoleon's only hope of survival—other than accepting the compromise peace that at this point was on offer—was to mobilise France for total war in the hope that resistance might be prolonged long enough for the divisions between the Allies to undermine its commitment to their common cause.[ HP Pavilion dv9580ed CPU Fan

King Joseph had been welcomed by Spanish afrancesados (Francophiles), who believed that collaboration with France would bring modernisation and liberty; an example was the abolition of the Spanish Inquisition. Priests and patriots stirred up agitation, which became widespread after the French army's first examples of repression (such as that in Madrid in 1808) were presented as fact to unite and enrage the people. Toshiba Satellite L305D-S5934 CPU Fan

The remaining afrancesados were exiled to France following the departure of French troops.

After the Peninsular War, the pro-independence traditionalists and liberals clashed in the Carlist Wars, as King Ferdinand VII, ("the Desired One"; later "the Traitor King"), revoked all the changes made by the independent Cortes in Cádiz. SONY Vaio VGN-CR31S/P CPU Fan

He restored absolute monarchy, prosecuted and put to death everyone suspected of liberalism, and altered the laws of royal succession in favour of his daughter Isabella II, starting a century of civil wars against the supporters of the former legal heir to the throne. The liberal Cortes had approved the first Spanish Constitution on 19 March 1812, which King Ferdinand later nullified.HP Pavilion dv5-1210et CPU Fan

In Spanish America, Spanish and Criollo officials formed Juntas that swore allegiance to King Ferdinand. This experience in self-government led the later Libertadores (Liberators) to promote the indepen

dence of Spain’s American colonies.

The whole country had been pillaged, and society subjected to destabilising change, even anarchy.[187] SONY Vaio VGN-FW465J/B CPU Fan

The Peninsular War gave birth to the violence and popular antagonism that, along with military intervention in politics, were to be nineteenth-century Spain's most pronounced characteristics. Portugal's position was more favorable than Spain's. Revolt had not spread to Brazil, there was no colonial struggle and there had been no attempt at political revolution.[188] HP Envy 15 CPU Fan

Exposing the limitations of eighteenth-century enlightened absolutism, the war dealt a blow to both the Church and the nobility. The Church had suffered great losses—one third of the clergy may have died in the struggle—and it had also been stripped of much of its property, and desamortización, hostility to the tithes and the demands of the French and the Patriots for funds had left it without resources.[189] HP Pavilion dv7-1190er CPU Fan

The Peninsular War signified Portugal's traumatic entry into the modern age. The Governors of Portugal nominated by the absent king had scant influence because of the successive French invasions and British occupation. The Portuguese Court's transfer to Rio de Janeiro initiated Brazil's state-building that produced its independence in 1822. Toshiba Satellite A105-S4074 CPU Fan

The Portuguese Navy's skillful evacuation of more than 15,000 people from the court, administration, and army was a bonus for Brazil and a blessing in disguise for Portugal, as it liberated the energies of the country.  IBM MCF-208AM05-1 CPU Fan,IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

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