Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
17 juin 2011 5 17 /06 /juin /2011 08:38

California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and thethird-largest by land area (after Alaska and Texas). It is home to the nation's second- and sixth-largest census statistical areas (Los Angeles Metropolitan Area and San Francisco Bay Area),HP 586006-321 Battery

and eight of the nation's 50 most populous cities (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Fresno, Sacramento, Long Beach and Oakland). The capital city is Sacramento.

California's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west, to the Sierra Nevada mountains in the east—from the Redwood–Douglas-firforests of the northwest, to the Mojave Desert areas in the southeast.HP 586006-361 Battery

The center of the state is dominated by Central Valley, a major agricultural area. California contains both the highest and lowest points in the contiguous United States (Mount Whitney and Death Valley), and has the third-longest coastline of all states (after Alaska and Florida). HP 586028-341 Battery

Earthquakes are a common occurrence due to the state's location along the Pacific Ring of Fire: about 37,000 are recorded annually.

The name California once referred to a large area of North America claimed by Spain that included much of modern-day Southwestern United Statesand the Baja California peninsula.HP h588178-141 Battery

Beginning in the late 18th century, the area known as Alta California, comprising the California territory north of the Baja Peninsula, was colonized by the Spanish Empire as part of New Spain. In 1821, Alta California became a part of Mexico following its successful war for independence.HP 593553-001 Battery

Shortly after the beginning of the Mexican-American War in 1846, a group of American settlers in Sonoma declared an independent California Republic in Alta California. Though its existence was short-lived, its flag became the precursor for California's current state flag. HP 593554-001 Battery

American victory in the war led to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in which Mexico ceded Alta California to the United States. Western areas of Alta California became the state of California, which was admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850.HP HSTNN-CB0W Battery

The California Gold Rush beginning in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic change, with large scale immigration from the U.S. and abroad and an accompanying economic boom. Key developments in the early 20th century included the emergence of Los Angeles as the center of the Americanentertainment industry, and the growth of a large, state-wide tourism sector.HP HSTNN-CB0X Battery

The late 20th century saw the development of the technology andinformation sectors, punctuated by the growth of Silicon Valley. In addition to California's prosperous agricultural industry, other important contributors to its economy include aerospace, education, and manufacturing. HP HSTNN-I79C Battery

If California were a country, it would be the eighth-largest economy in the world and the 35th most populous nation.

Etymology

The word California originally referred to the entire region composed of what is today the U.S. state of California, plus all or parts of Nevada, Utah,Arizona, and Wyoming, and the Baja California peninsula of Mexico.HP HSTNN-I81C Battery

The name California is most commonly believed to have derived from a fictional paradise peopled by Black Amazons and ruled by Queen Calafia. The story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 workThe Exploits of Esplandian, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo.HP HSTNN-IB0N Battery

The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a remote land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts, and rich in gold.

Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California, very close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise,HP HSTNN-IB0X Battery

which was inhabited by black women without a single man among them, and they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with strong passionate hearts and great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the bold and craggy rocks. HP HSTNN-LB0W Battery

The name California is the fifth-oldest surviving European place-name in the U.S. and was applied to what is now the southern tip of Baja California peninsula as the island of California by a Spanish expedition led by Diego de Becerra and Fortún Ximénez, who landed there in 1533 at the behest of Hernán Cortés.HP HSTNN-OB0X Battery

Geography

California adjoins the Pacific Ocean to the west, Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California to the south. HP HSTNN-OB0Y Battery

With an area of 160,000 square miles (414,000 km2), it is the third-largest state in the United States in size, after Alaska and Texas. If it were a country, California would be the 59th-largest in the world in area.

In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley, bounded by the coastal mountain ranges in the west, HP HSTNN-Q61C Battery

the Sierra Nevada to the east, theCascade Range in the north and the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. The Central Valley is California's agricultural heartland and grows approximately one-third of the nation's food.

Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the northern portion,HP HSTNN-Q62C Battery

the Sacramento Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River, while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River; both areas derive their names from the rivers that transit them. With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained sufficiently deep that several inland cities are seaports.HP HSTNN-YB0X Battery

The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta serves as a critical water supply hub for the state. Water is routed through an extensive network of canals and pumps out of the delta, that traverse nearly the length of the state, including the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project. HP NBP6A174B1 Battery

Water from the Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population, and provides water to farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. The Channel Islands are located off the southern coast.

The Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy range") includes the highest peak in the contiguous forty-eight states, HP HSTNN-YB0X Battery

Mount Whitney, at 14,505 ft (4,421 m). The range embraces Yosemite Valley, famous for its glacially carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms on Earth, and the deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume.HP NBP6A174 Battery

To the east of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley and Mono Lake, an essential migratory bird habitat. In the western part of the state is Clear Lake, the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. Though Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the California/Nevada border. HP NBP6A174B1 Battery

The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States.

About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests, and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state.HP NBP6A175 Battery

California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; one Bristlecone pine has an age of 4,700 years.

In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. HP NBP6A175B1 Battery

The south-central desert is called the Mojave; to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest, hottest point in North America, Badwater Basin. The horizontal distance from the lowest point of Death Valley to the peak of Mount Whitney is less than 90 miles (140 km). HP WD548AA Battery

Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer. The southeastern border of California with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River, from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water.HP WD549AA Battery

Along the California coast are several major metropolitan areas, including Greater Los Angeles Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, and the San Diego metropolitan area.

As part of the Ring of Fire, California is subject to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires,landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes. It sees numerous earthquakes due to several faults, in particular the San Andreas Fault.HP Envy 17 Notebook PC Battery

Climate

California's climate varies from Mediterranean to subarctic.

Much of the state has a Mediterranean climate, with cool, rainy winters and dry summers. The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Further inland, one encounters colder winters and hotter summers.HP Envy 17T Battery

Northern parts of the state average higher annual rainfall than the south. California's mountain ranges influence the climate as well: some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes. Northwestern California has a temperate climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast. HP HSTNN-Q61C Battery

The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have a mountain climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer.

The east side of California's mountains produce a rain shadow, creating expansive deserts. HP GSTNN-Q62C Battery

The higher elevation deserts of eastern California see hot summers and cold winters, while the low deserts east of the southern California mountains experience hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters. Death Valley, a desert with large expanses below sea level, is considered the hottest location in North America;HP HSTNN-IB1E Battery

the highest temperature in the Western Hemisphere, 134 °F(57 °C), was recorded there on July 10, 1913.

Ecology

California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities. California is part of theNearctic ecozone and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions.HP HSTNN-IB0X Battery

California's large number of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina Ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundus). Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple,HP HSTNN-OB0X Battery

species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac (Ceanothus). Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization,logging, overgrazing, and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat.HP HSTNN-YB0X Battery

Flora and fauna

California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: the largest trees, the tallest trees, and the oldest trees. California's native grasses are perennial plants. After European contact, these were generally replaced by invasive species of European annual grasses; and, in modern times, California's hills turn a characteristic golden-brown in summer.HP 586006-361 Battery

Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran (desert); upper Sonoran (foothill regions and some coastal lands), transition (coastal areas and moist northeastern counties); and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations. HP NBP6A174 Battery

Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde. The Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters. Fremont cottonwood and valley oak thrive in the Central Valley. HP NBP6A174B1 Battery

The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants. Nemophila, mint, phacelia, viola, and theCalifornia poppy (Eschscholtzia californica)- the state flower- also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.HP 588178-141 Battery

The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the "big tree" or giant sequoia (Sequoia gigantea), among the oldest living things on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years). Tanbark oak, California laurel, Sugar Pine, madrona, broad-leaved maple, and Douglas-fir also grow here.HP Pavilion dv5 Adapter

Forest floors are covered with swordfern, alumnroot, barrenwort, and trillium, and there are tickets of huckleberry, azalea, elder, and wild currant. Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip, and tiger and leopard lilies.

The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey Pine, red fir, and Lodgepole Pine to thrive. Sony NP-F330 Battery

Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here. Right below the timeberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. At about 10,500 ft (3,200 m), begins the Arctic zone, Asus Eee PC 904HA Adapter

a treeless region whose flora include a number of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose, yellow columbine, alpine buttercup, and alpine shooting star.

Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus, acacia, pepper tree, geranium, and Scotch broom.Nikon D80  Battery

The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Solano Grass, San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh bird's beak, McDonald's rock-cress, and Santa Barbara Island Liveforever. As of December 1997, eight-five plant species were listed as threatened or endangered.Sony PCGA-AC19V9 Adapter

In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit, kangaroo rat, squirrel, and opossum. Common birds include the owl, roadrunner, Cactus Wren, and various species of hawk. The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper, desert tortoise, and horned toad. Dell T555C battery

The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope, brown-footed woodrat, and Ring-tailed Cat. Birds unique to this zone are the California thrasher, bush tit, and California Condor.

In the transition zone, there are Colombian Black-tailed Deer, black bears, gray foxes, cougars, bobcats, and Roosevelt elk. HP Pavilion DV6-3013SL battery

Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are common too. Birds such as the kingfisher, chickadee, towhee, and hummingbird thrive here as well. HP Pavilion DV7-2085EL battery

The Canadian zone mammals include the Mountain Weasel, Snowshoe Hare, Sierra chickadee, and several species of chipmunks. Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay, Sierra hermit thrush,water ouzel, and Townsend solitaire. As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer. HP Pavilion DV9700 battery

While the Sierra rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as the hummingbird and Clark's Nutcracker. Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra coney, White-tailed Jackrabbit, and the Bighorn Sheep. HP Mini 702EA battery

As of April 2003, the Bighorn Sheep was listed as endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer, coyote, mountain lion, Northern Flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow.

Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline.HP Pavilion DV7-1120EO battery

Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow, golden, and Tahoe. Migratory species of salmon are common as well. Deep-sea life forms include sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of whale. Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species. HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

As of April 2003, 118 California animals were on the federal endangered list; 181 plants were listed as endangered or threatened. Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox, Point Arena mountain beaver, Pacific pocket mouse, Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse,HP Pavilion DV6-1030US battery

Morro Bay kangaroo rat (and five other species of kangaroo rat), Amargosa vole, California Least Tern, California Condor,Loggerhead Shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco garter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish. HP Compaq 490306-001 battery

Eleven butterflies are also endangered and two that are threatened are on the federal list. Among threatened animals are the coastal California Gnatcatcher, Paiute cutthroat trout, southern sea otter, and Northern Spotted Owl. California has a total of 290,821 acres (1,176.91 km2) of National Wildlife Refuges.HP Pavilion DV5-1211EM battery

As of September 2010, 123 California animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the federal list provided by the US Fish & Wildlife Service. Also, as of the same year, 178 species of California plants were listed either as endangered or threatened on this federal list.HP EliteBook 2530P battery

Rivers

The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are looked after by the California Coastal Commission

The two most prominent rivers within California are the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River, which drain the Central Valley and the west slope of the Sierra Nevada and flow to the Pacific Oceanthrough San Francisco Bay.HP Pavilion DV4385EA battery

Several major tributaries feed into the Sacramento and the San Joaquin, including the Pit River, the Tuolumne River, and the Feather River.

The Owens River takes runoff from the southeastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada and flows into Owens Lake. Compaq PP2100 battery

The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively. The Mojave River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert, and the Santa Ana River drains much of the Transverse Ranges as it bisects Southern California.HP Compaq KU532AA battery

Some other important rivers are the Klamath River and the Trinity River in the far north coast, and the Colorado River on the southeast border with Arizona.

History

Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America; HP Pavilion DV6-1270EQ battery

The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans. Large, settled populations lived on the coast and hunted sea mammals, fished for salmon and gathered shellfish; groups in the interior hunted terrestrial game, and gathered nuts, acorns and berries. HP Pavilion DV4385EA battery

California groups also were diverse in their political organization with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash, Pomo and Salinan. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups.HP Compaq Business  NC4400 battery

The first European to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was the Portuguese Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542, sailing for the Spanish Empire. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed an undefined portion of the California coast in 1579. HP Pavilion ZD8227 battery

Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila Galleons on their return trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565. Sebastián Vizcaíno explored and mapped the coast of California in 1602 for New Spain.

Spanish missionaries began setting up 21 California Missions along the coast of what became known as Alta California HP Pavilion DV5-1211EM battery

(Upper California), together with small towns and presidios. In 1821 the Mexican War of Independence gave Mexico (including California) independence from Spain; for the next 25 years, Alta California remained a remote northern province of the nation of Mexico. Nikon D200 Battery

Cattle ranches, or ranchos, emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California. After Mexican independence from Spain, the chain of missions became the property of the Mexican government and were secularized by 1832. The ranchos developed under ownership byCalifornios (Spanish-speaking Californians) Acer PA-1650-02 Adapter

who had received land grants, and traded cowhides and tallow with Boston merchants.

Beginning in the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the U.S. and Canada began to arrive in Northern California, harbingers of the great changes that would later sweep the Mexican territory.Sony CYBER-SHOT DSC-T10  Battery

These new arrivals used the Siskiyou Trail, California Trail, Oregon Trail and Old Spanish Trail to cross the rugged mountains and harsh deserts surrounding California. In this period, Imperial Russia explored the California coast and established a trading post at Fort Ross.HP Compaq Business 6715b Battery

“[We] overthrow a Government which has seized upon the property of the Missions for its individual aggrandizement; which has ruined and shamefully oppressed the laboring people of California.”

he Republic's first and only president was William B. Ide, who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. Kodak KLIC-7004 Battery

His term lasted 22 days and concluded when California was occupied by U.S. forces during the Mexican-American War.

The California Republic was short lived. The same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican-American War (1846–1848). Acer Aspire 5920G Adapter

When Commodore John D. Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into Monterey Bay and began the military occupation of California by the United States. Northern California capitulated in less than a month to the U.S. forces. After a series of defensive battles in Southern California, including The Siege of Los Angeles, Canon Digital IXUS 90 IS Battery

the Battle of Dominguez Rancho, the Battle of San Pasqual, the Battle of Rio San Gabriel and the Battle of La Mesa, the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed by the Californios on January 13, 1847, securing American control in California. Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the war, the region was divided between Mexico and the U.S.; HP 2133 Mini-Note PC Adapter

the western territory of Alta California, was to become the U.S. state of California, and Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Utah became U.S. Territories, while the lower region of California, the Baja Peninsula, remained in the possession of Mexico.

In 1848 the non-native population of California was estimated to be no more than 15,000.Toshiba PA3536U-1BRS Battery

But after gold was discovered, the population burgeoned with U.S. citizens, Europeans and other immigrants during the great California Gold Rush. By 1854 over 300,000 settlers had come.On September 9, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850, California was admitted to the United States undivided as a free state, denying the expansion of slavery to the Pacific Coast.HP Compaq Business NX6110 Battery

The seat of government for California under Spanish and later Mexican rule was located at Monterey from 1777 until 1835, when Mexican authorities abandoned California, leaving their missions and military forts behind. In 1849 the Constitutional Convention was first held there. HP Pavilion DV9000 Adapter

Among the duties was the task of determining the location for the new state capital. The first legislative sessions were held in San Jose (1850–1851). Subsequent locations includedVallejo (1852–1853), and nearby Benicia (1853–1854); these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well.Dell Studio 1537 battery

The capital has been located inSacramento since 1854 with only a short break in 1861 when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco due to flooding in Sacramento.

Travel between California and the central and eastern parts of the U.S. was time consuming and dangerous.HP PPP009H Adapter

A more direct connection came in 1869 with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad through Donner Pass in the Sierra Nevada mountains. After this rail link was established, hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens came west, where new Californians were discovering that land in the state, Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

if irrigated during the dry summer months, was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown (including oranges in Southern California), and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere.Dell PA-12 Adapter

Migration to California accelerated during the early-20th century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route 66. In the period from 1900 to 1965, the population grew from fewer than one million to become the most populous state in the Union. Sony Cyber-shot DSC-T7/B  Battery

In order to meet the population's needs, major engineering feats like the California and Los Angeles Aqueducts; the Oroville and Shasta Dams; and the Bay and Golden Gate Bridges were built across the state. The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 to develop a highly efficient system of public education.Dell LATITUDE M65 Battery

Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system inHollywood in the 1920s. A couple of decades later, Stanford University and its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman began encouraging faculty and graduates to stay in HP Compaq 6720s Adapter

California instead of leaving the state, and develop a high-tech region in the area now known as Silicon Valley.As a result of these efforts, California is currently regarded as a world center of the entertainment and music industries, of technology and engineering businesses, and as the U.S. center of agricultural production.Acer AS07B41 Battery

Population

California's population was counted by the US Census Bureau at 37,253,956 for the 2010 census, making it the most populous state. Between 2000 and 2009, there was a natural increase of 3,090,016 (5,058,440 births minus 2,179,958 deaths).Dell Vostro 1310 Battery

During this time period,international migration produced a net increase of 1,816,633 people while domestic migration produced a net decrease of 1,509,708, resulting in a net in-migration of 306,925 people. The State of California's own statistics show a population of 38,292,687 for January 1, 2009.HP Compaq Business 6910p Battery

California is the second-most-populous sub-national entity of the Western Hemisphere, exceeded only by the State of São Paulo,Brazil. California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world. Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous U.S. county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 U.S. states.Panasonic LUMIX DMC-TZ4S Battery

In addition, California is home to eight of the 50 most populous cities in the United States: Los Angeles (2nd), San Diego (8th), San Jose (10th), San Francisco (13th), Fresno (34th), Sacramento (35th), Long Beach (36th), and Oakland (47th). The center of population of California is located in the town of Buttonwillow, Kern County.Sony NP-FH100 Battery

In 2010, illegal aliens constituted an estimated 7.3 percent of the population, the third highest percentage of any state in the country, totaling nearly 2.6 million.More than half originate from Mexico.

Starting in the year 2010, for the first time since the California Gold Rush, California-born residents make up the majority of the state's population.Toshiba Equium M50-192 Battery

With regard to demographics, California has the largest population of White Americans in the U.S., an estimated 22,189,514 residents, although most demographic surveys do not measure actual genetic ancestry. The state has the fifth-largest population of African Americans in the U.S., an estimated 2,250,630 residents. Apple MacBook Pro Battery

California's Asian American population is estimated at 4.4 million, approximately one-third of the nation's 13.1 million Asian Americans. California's Native American population of 285,162 is the most of any state.Apple PowerBook G4 Battery

According to estimates from 2008, California has the largest minority population in the United States by numbers, making up 57% of the state population. In 2000,Hispanics comprised 32% of the population; that number grew to 37% in 2008. Non-Hispanic whites decreased from 80% of the state's population in 1970 to 42% in 2008.Acer BATBL50L6 Battery

Approximately 27% of California’s students in the 2009–10 school year identified themselves as white, and almost 50.4% of the state's students identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino.  While the population of minorities accounts for 102 million of 301 million U.S. residents, 20% of the national total live in California. Canon EOS 450D Battery

Armed forces

In California, as of 2002, the US Department of Defense had

  • 123,948 active-duty military personnel
  • 58,076 DOD civilian personnel

In California, as of 2000 there were 2,569,340 veterans of US military service: 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034 in the Korean War, 754,682 during the Vietnam War, and 278,003 during 1990–2000 (including the Persian Gulf War). Dell Inspiron 1525 Adapter

California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard, the naval and state military reserve (militia), and the California Cadet Corps.

Languages

As of 2005, 57.6% of California residents age five and older spoke English as a first language at home, while 28.2% spoke Spanish.Compaq Presario 2100 Adapter

In addition to English and Spanish, 2.0% spoke Filipino, 1.6% spokeChinese (which included Cantonese [0.6%] and Mandarin [0.4%]), 1.4% spoke Vietnamese, and 1.1% spoke Korean as their mother tongue. In total, 42.4% of the population spoke languages other than English.Acer Aspire 1362 Battery

California was historically one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, and is home to more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in 6 language families. About half of the indigenous languages are no longer spoken, and all of California's living indigenous languages are endangered. Toshiba Equium M50-192 Battery

There are some efforts toward language revitalization, such as for the Karuk language.

The official language of California has been English since the passage of Proposition 63 in 1986. However, many state, city, and local government agencies still continue to print official public documents in numerous languages.Dell XPS M1330 Battery

For example, the California Department of Motor Vehicles offers the written exam for the standard C Class driver's license in 31 languages along with English, and the audio exam in 11 languages.Acer Travelmate 2200 Adapter

Culture

The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but also, historically, many Hispanic influences. As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America.HP Compaq 6735b Adapter

California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th Century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains.Dell Vostro 1000 Battery

In the 1960s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers.

In terms of socio-cultural mores and national politics, Californians are perceived as more liberal than other Americans, especially those who live in the inland states. HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter

In some ways, California is the quintessential Blue State-- accepting of alternative lifestyles, not uniformly religious, and preoccupied with environmental issues.

The gold rush of the 1850s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts.Asus f82 battery

Religion

The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in 2008 were the Catholic Church with 31 percent; Evangelical Protestants with 18 percent; and Mainline Protestants with 14 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population.Dell XPS M1330 Battery

The first priests to come to California were Roman Catholic missionaries from Spain. Roman Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast, as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco. California continues to have a large Roman Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders. HP Compaq Business 6910p Battery

California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco, the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States.

A Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the US:Compaq PRESARIO R3000 Battery

62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of the belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so. The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important," compared to 56 percent nationally. HP Compaq Business NX6110 Battery

Economy

As of 2007, the gross state product (GSP) is about $1.812 trillion, the largest in the United States. California is responsible for 13 percent of the United States gross domestic product (GDP). As of 2006, California's GDP is larger than all but eight countries in the world (all but eleven countries by Purchasing Power Parity).Dell Latitude D610 Adapter

In terms of jobs, the five largest sectors in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. In terms of output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; Asus Eee PC 701 Adapter

education and health services; government; and manufacturing.

California currently has the 5th highest unemployment rate in the nation at 12.5% as of January 2010 and had continued to rise, up significantly from 5.9% in 2007.HP Compaq Business NX6325 Battery

California's economy is very dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for approximately one-quarter of the state’s economy. In 2008, California exported $144 billion worth of goods, up from $134 billion in 2007 and $127 billion in 2006.Dell Studio XPS 16 battery

Computers and electronic products are California's top export, accounting for 42 percent of all the state's exports in 2008.

Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974 to nearly $31 billion in 2004.Acer Aspire 5520 Battery

This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period, and water supply suffering from chronic instability. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production.Acer TravelMate 5720 Adapter

In 2008, California's 81,500 farms and ranches generated $36.2 billion products revenue.

Per capita GDP in 2007 was $38,956, ranking eleventh in the nation.Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession.HP Compaq 6735s Adapter

The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. Recently, theSan Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the U.S., on par with the region ofAppalachia.Dell XPS M1330 Battery

Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the U.S. The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust.HP Compaq nc6230 Adapter

In 2010, there were more than 663,000 millionaires in the state, more than any other state in the nation.

State finances

California levies a 9.3 percent maximum variable rate income tax, with six tax brackets, collecting about $40 billion per year (representing approximately 51% of General Fund revenue and 40% of tax revenue overall in FY2007).Dell T117C battery

California has a state sales tax of 8.25%, which can total up to 10.75% with local sales tax included. All real property is taxable annually, the tax based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or completion of new construction. Property tax increases are capped at 2% per year (see Proposition 13).Asus x5dij-sx039c battery

However, California is facing a $26.3 billion budget deficit for the 2009–2010 budget year. While the legislative bodies appeared to address the problem in 2008 with the three-month delayed passage of a budget they in fact only postponed the deficit to 2009 and due to the late 2008 decline in the economy and the credit crisis the problem became urgent in November 2008.Dell Inspiron 1464 battery

One potential problem is that a substantial portion of the state's income comes from income taxes on a small proportion of wealthy citizens. For example, it is estimated that in 2004 the richest 3% of state taxpayers (those with tax returns showing over 200K USD yearly income) paid approximately 60% of state income taxes.HP Compaq 6720s Adapter

The taxable income of this population is highly dependent upon capital gains, which has been severely impacted by the stock market declines of this period. The governor has proposed a combination of extensive program cuts and tax increases to address this problem,Dell Latitude D630 Adapter

but owing to longstanding problems in the legislature these proposals are likely to be difficult to pass as legislation.

State spending increased from $56 billion in 1998 to $131 billion in 2008, and the state was facing a budget deficit of $40 billion in 2008.HP Pavilion dm4 battery

California is facing another budget gap for 2010, with $72 billion in debt.

In 2009 the California economic crisis became severe as the state faced insolvency. In June 2009 Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger said "Our wallet is empty, our bank is closed and our credit is dried up." He called for massive budget cuts of $24 billion, about 1?4 of the state's budget.Sony NP-FS11 Battery

Energy

Because it is the most populous U.S. state, California is one of the country's largest users of energy. However because of its mild weather and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any U.S. state.Dell Inspiron 1520 Adapter

Due to the high electricity demand, California imports more electricity than any other state, primarily hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest (via Path 15 and Path 66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the desert Southwest via Path 46.Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS Battery

As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has the some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by 2020. Currently, several solar power plants such as the Solar Energy Generating Systems facility are located in the Mojave Desert. Acer Aspire 5920G Adapter

/www.battery-pack.co.uk/charger/acer-aspire-5920g-ac-adapter.html">California's wind farms includeAltamont Pass, San Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi Pass. And a number of dams across the state also provide hydro-electric power.

The state’s crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field. Acer Aspire 5920 Battery

Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of State electricity generation.

California is also home to two major nuclear power plants: Diablo Canyon and San Onofre. However, voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late 1970s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal.IBM Thinkpad T40 Adapter

In addition, several cities such as Oakland, Berkeley and Davis have declared themselves as nuclear-free zones.

Transportation

California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of freeways, expressways, and highways.Nikon COOLPIX 4300 Battery

California is known for its car culture, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation, nicknamed "Caltrans". Apple MB771 battery

The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States. The Reason Foundation's 19th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems ranked California's highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska second, and Rhode Island first.Sony DSC-P5 Battery

One of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate Bridge was completed in 1937. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. It is simultaneously designated as U.S. Dell Inspiron 6400 Adapter

Route 101, which is part of the El Camino Real (Spanish for Royal Road or King's Highway), and State Route 1, also known as the Pacific Coast Highway. Another of the seven bridges in the San Francisco Bay Area is the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge (often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge"), completed in 1936. Toshiba PA3534U-1BRS Battery

This bridge transports approximately 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks, with its two sections meeting at Yerba Buena Island.

Los Angeles International Airport and San Francisco International Airport are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic.Sony NP-FP50 Battery

There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state.

California also has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and  HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter

responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. The Port of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, handles trade from the Pacific Rim and delivers most of the ocean containers passing through Northern California to the entire USA.Dell Latitude D820 Adapter

The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in terms of employment with over 10,000 employees, and perhaps the most legendary, especially because they have been featured in their own sitcom, CHiPs. They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state maintained highways and on state property.Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS Battery

The California Department of Motor Vehicles is by far the largest in North America. By the end of 2009, the California DMV had 26,555,006 driver's licenses and ID cards on file. In 2010, there were 1.17 million new vehicle registrations in force.

Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery

Intercity rail travel is provided by Amtrak California, which manages the three busiest intercity rail lines in the U.S. outside the Northeast Corridor, all of which are funded by Caltrans. This service is becoming increasingly popular over flying and ridership is continuing to set records, especially on the LAX-SFO route.Dell Latitude D830 Battery

Integrated subway and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles (Metro Rail) and San Francisco (MUNI Metro). Light rail systems are also found in San Jose (VTA), San Diego (San Diego Trolley), Sacramento (RT Light Rail), and Northern San Diego County (Sprinter). Dell Inspiron E1505 Adapter

Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area (ACE, BART, Caltrain), Greater Los Angeles (Metrolink), and San Diego County (Coaster).

The California High-Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive 700 mile (1127 km) rail system.Asus Eee PC 1201PN battery

Construction was approved by the voters during the November 2008 general election, a $9.95 billion state bond will go toward its construction. Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own bus lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided byGreyhound and Amtrak Thruway Coach.Asus Eee PC 701 Adapter

In March 2011, California ranked as a top BEST state in the American State Litter Scorecard for overall effectiveness and quality of its public space cleanliness—-primarily roadway litter—from state and related debris removal efforts.Dell XPS M1330 Battery

State government

California is governed as a republic, with three branches of government — the executive branch consisting of the Governor and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate; fujifilm np95 battery

and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. The state also allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall, and ratification. California allows each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independents vote. The state's capital is Sacramento.Asus Eee PC 900 Adapter

The Governor of California and the other state constitutional officers serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. The California State Legislatureconsists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly. Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Sony VAIO PCG-713 Battery

Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms.

California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish civil law, such as community property.Dell Latitude D830 Adapter

Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the state has the largest "Death Row" population in the country (though Texas is far more active in carrying out executions). California's "Death Row" is in San Quentin State Prison situated north of San Francisco in Marin County. Dell Studio XPS 1640 battery

Executions in California are currently on hold indefinitely as human rights issues are addressed. California's prison populationgrew from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007.

California's judiciary is the largest in the United States (with a total of 1,600 judges, while the federal system has only about 840).Panasonic LUMIX DMC-TZ4S  Battery

It is supervised by the seven Justices of the Supreme Court of California. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the Governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years.

Politics

California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter.HP Compaq Business NX6320 Battery

It was the second state to recall their state governor, the second state to legalize abortion, and the only state to ban marriage for gay couples twice by voters (including Proposition 8 in 2008). Voters also passed Proposition 71 in 2004 to fund stem cell research, and Proposition 14 in 2010 to completely change the state's primary electionprocess. Canon POWERSHOT G2 Battery

California has also experienced disputes over water rights; and a tax revolt, culminating with the passage ofProposition 13 in 1978, limiting state property taxes.

What has been consistent in the last few decades is that California politics has trended towards the Democratic Partyand away from the Republican Party. Dell Latitude E6500 battery

Once very conservative, having elected Republicans, California is now a reliableliberal, Democratic state. Since 1990, California has generally elected Democratic candidates to federal, state and local offices, including current Governor Jerry Brown; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, Dell LATITUDE D630 Battery

though many of its Republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered "Moderate Republicans" and more centrist than the national party.

The Democrats also hold a majority in both houses of the state legislature. There are currently 52 Democrats and 27 Republicans in the Assembly; and 25 Democrats and 15 Republicans in the Senate.Asus R33030 Adapter

The trend towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections; the Democratic Party candidate has won California's electoral votes in the last five elections. Additionally, both the state's current Democratic U.S. Senators,Dianne Feinstein, a native and former mayor of San Francisco, and Barbara Boxer, Dell Mini 1011 battery

a former congresswoman from Marin County, have held onto their seats since they were first elected in 1992.

In the U.S. House, the Democrats have held a 34–19 edge since the seating of the 110th United States Congress in 2007. As the result ofgerrymandering, the districts in California are usually dominated by one or the other party with very few districts that could be considered competitive.toshiba pa3332u-1brs battery

In general, Democratic strength is centered in coastal regions of Los Angeles County and the San Francisco Bay Area. Republican strength is still greatest in eastern parts of the state. Orange Countyalso remains mostly Republican. One study ranked Berkeley, Oakland, Inglewood and San Francisco in the top 10 most liberal American cities; HP Compaq 6710b Adapter

and Bakersfield and Orange in the top 10 most conservative cities.

Cities, towns and counties

The state's local government is divided into 58 counties and 481 incorporated cities and towns; of which 459 are cities and 22 are towns. Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name)". HP Compaq nx6325 Adapter

Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, 1850. [San Jose, San Diego and Benicia tied for California's second incorporated city, each receiving incorporation on March 27, 1850.[ Eastvale became the state's most recent and 481st incorporated municipality on October 1, 2010. Acer Aspire 5720 Adapter

The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas. Sixty-eight percent of California's population lives in its three largest metropolitan areas, Greater Los Angeles Area, theSan Francisco Bay Area, and the Riverside-San Bernardino Area.Toshiba Equium A110-252 Battery

Although smaller, the other two large population centers are the San Diego and Greater Sacramento metro areas.

The state recognizes two kinds of cities: charter and general law. General law cities owe their existence to state law and are consequentially governed by it; charter cities are governed by their own city charters. Acer Aspire 5052ANWXMi Battery

Cities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter cities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities.

Education

Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. Dell Mini 1011v battery

California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K-12 and community colleges that grows with the economy and student enrollment figures.HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter

California had over 6.2 million school students in the 2005–06 school year. Funding and staffing levels in California schools lag behind other states. In expenditure per pupil, California ranked 29th (of the 50 states and the District of Columbia) in 2005–06. In teaching staff expenditure per pupil, California ranked 49th of 51. Dell Vostro 1510 Battery

In overall teacher-pupil ratio, California was also 49th, with 21 students per teacher. Only Arizona and Utah were lower.

California's public postsecondary education offers a unique three tiered system:

  • The research university system in the state is the University of California (UC), a public university system. There are ten general UC campuses, and a number of specialized campuses in the UC system. Toshiba PA3534U-1BRS Battery
  • The California State University (CSU) system has almost 450,000 students, making it the largest university system in the United States. It is intended to accept the top one-third of high school students. The 23 CSU schools are primarily intended for undergraduate education.Asus M50 battery
  • The California Community Colleges System provides lower division coursework as well as basic skills and workforce training. It is the largest network of higher education in the US, composed of 110 colleges serving a student population of over 2.9 million.Asus Eee PC 901 Battery

California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University, the University of Southern California, the California Institute of Technology, and the Claremont Colleges. California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions.Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery

Sports

California hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics at Squaw Valley Ski Resort, the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, as well as the 1994 FIFA World Cup.

California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state. HP Compaq Business NC6220 Battery

The San Francisco Bay Area has seven major league teams spread in three cities, San Francisco, Oakland and San Jose. While the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises, it is also the largest metropolitan area not to have a team from the National Football League. Sony VGP-BPS9 battery

San Diego has two major league teams, and Sacramento has one.

Home to some of the most prominent universities in the United States, California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, among others.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

California has also long been a hub for motorsports and auto racing. The city of Long Beach holds an event every year in the month of April, which is host toIndyCar Series racing through the streets of downtown. Long Beach has hosted Formula One events there in the past, and also currently hosts an event on the American Le Mans Series schedule. HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter

Auto Club Speedway is a speedway in Fontana, and currently hosts one to two NASCAR Sprint Cup Series races a year, and used to host CART Indycar races. Infineon Raceway in Sonoma is a multi-purpose facility, featuring a road course and a drag strip. HP Compaq 2510p Adapter

The road course is home to a NASCAR event, an IndyCar event, and used to host an International Motor Sports Association sports car event. The drag strip hosts a yearlyNHRA event. Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca is a roadcourse that currently hosts an ALMS event, and formerly hosted CART events. Dell Studio PP39L battery

The Auto Club Raceway at Pomona has hosted NHRA drag racing for over 50 years.

California's economy is the eighth largest economy in the world[1], if the states of the U.S. were compared with other countries.Nikon COOLPIX 5700  Battery

As of 2008, the gross state product (GSP) is about $1.85 trillion, which is 13% of the United States gross domestic product (GDP). The state's GDP growth rate slowed to 0.4% in 2008 after having grown 3.1% in 2006 and 1.8% in 2007. As of 2011 California places second (after New York State and ahead of third place Texas) with 53 Fortune 500 company headquarters.Dell Studio XPS 16 battery

History

California, as a microcosm of the nation, experienced waves of internal and international migration. The state was also a leader in high school movement and mass college education. California is fortunate to have a diverse economic base including agriculture, resources, World War II industry, and knowledge work such as the film and computer industries.HP Compaq nx7400 Adapter

However, California was also unique in some ways. The early settlers on the frontier of this land encountered uncertainty over property rights, namely gold and water. The search for gold in California led to the California gold rush starting in the late 1840s.HP Pavilion DV6500 Adapter

Sectors

In 2002, the U.S government began to use the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) system of classifying economic activities, to better reflect today's economy.Dell T117C battery

International trade and tourism

California has historically derived significant revenue from international P.I.E. and tourism. However, the state's share of America's merchandise export trade has been steadily shrinking since 2000, from 15.4% to 11.1% in 2008.Acer PA-1650-02 Adapter

The exports of goods made in California totaled $134 billion in 2007. $48 billion of that total was computers and electronics, followed by transportation, non-electrical machinery, agriculture, and chemicals. California trade and exports translate into high-paying jobs for over one million Californians.Acer Aspire 5920G Adapter

According to the US Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), in 2005, foreign-controlled companies employed 542,600 California workers, the most of any state. Major sources of foreign investment in California in 2005 were Japan, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, France, and Germany. Asus S1 Adapter

Foreign investment in California was responsible for 4.2 percent of the state's total private-industry employment in 2005. Total direct travel spending in California reached $96.7 billion in 2008, a 0.8% increase over the preceding year.[9] Los Angeles County receives the most tourism in the state. HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery

Agriculture (including fruit, vegetables, dairy, and wine production) is a major California industry. In fact, California is the world's fifth largest supplier of food and agriculture commodities.Agriculture accounts for just slightly over 2% of California's $1.85 trillion gross state product.Ibm Thinkpad T30 Battery

Airborne exports of perishable fruits and vegetables amounted to approximately $685 million in 2007. By way of comparison, California exported more agricultural products by air that year than 23 other states did by all modes of transport.Dell Studio PP39L battery

According to the California Department of Food and Agriculture, "California agriculture is nearly a $36.6 billion dollar industry that generates $100 billion in related economic activity." The state’s agricultural sales first exceeded $30 billion in 2004,making it more than twice the size of any other state's agriculture industry.HP Pavilion dv5 Adapter

California is the leading dairy state. Milk is California's number one farm commodity. California's dairy industry generated $47 billion "in economic activity" in 2004 and employed over 400,000 people."

Oil and electricity

Oil drilling has played a significant role in the development of the state. There have been major strikes in the Bakersfield, Long Beach, Los Angeles areas and off the California coast.HP Compaq Business NC6400 Battery

Personal income

Per capita income was $38,956 as of 2006, ranking 11th in the nation, but varies widely by geographic region and profession. Some coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the U.S., notably La Jolla in San Diego, HP Compaq 490306-001 battery

Beverly Hills, in Los Angeles County, Newport Beach in Orange County in Southern California, San Francisco and Marin County. The most expensive and largest housing markets in the U.S. are in the state of California, so there are a number of communities where average housing prices hover between US$1–2 million. Compaq Presario CQ35-100 battery

Generally, the Central Valley in northern California is the least expensive area, as is the Inland Empire in Southern California, though prices in these regions are still much more expensive than most other areas of the country, to the point that there are also communities in these areas where housing prices average around the $1 million mark.HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51 battery

The agricultural central counties have some of the highest poverty rates in the state. The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara andSan Mateo counties, are currently emerging from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust, which caused the loss of over 250,000 jobs in Northern California alone. HP Pavilion ZE4500 battery

As of spring 2005, data from UCLA Anderson indicates that economic growth has resumed in California, although still slightly below the national annualized forecast of 3.9%.

Tax burden

In 2006 California's overall state-level tax burden of $10.66 per $100 of personal income was slightly above the $10.43 average for the United States.HP G62-100EB battery

In 2008, when measured as a percentage of GDP, California had the 6th highest tax burden of the fifty states and has contributed on average well over 3.65 billion dollars per year for the last twenty years into the federal treasury than it has received in Federal services in return.HP Pavilion DV6-1211AX battery

Housing

The international boom in housing prices has been most pronounced in California, with the median property price in the state rising to about the half-million dollar mark in April 2005. Orange County,Ventura County and the San Francisco Bay Area have the highest median prices, each approaching $650,000.HP Pavilion DV6-1220SO battery

The least expensive region is the Central Valley, with a median price of $290,000.

Various real estate markets in California experienced sharp increases in value in the early 2000s, followed by declines in 2007 and 2008, as a housing bubble burst.HP EliteBook 6930P battery

However, beginning in 2007 with the Credit Crunch in the banking system, thousands of homes have been foreclosed statewide, thereby leading to plummeting home prices.

Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of State electricity generation. HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery

California is one of the largest hydroelectric power producers in the United States, and with adequate rainfall, hydroelectric power typically accounts for close to one-fifth of State electricity generation. Due to strict emission laws, only a few small coal-fired power plants operate in California.Compaq Presario CQ71 battery

California leads the nation in electricity generation from non-hydroelectric renewable energy sources, including geothermal power, wind power, and solar power. California has the some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by 2020.HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery

Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) is the name given to nine solar power plants in the Mojave Desert which were built in the 1980s. These plants have a combined capacity of 354 megawatts (MW) making them the largest solar power installation in the world.HP G6000 battery

Nevada Solar One is a new solar thermal plant with a 64-MW generating capacity, located near Boulder City, NV.There are also plans to build other large solar plants in the Mojave Desert. The Mojave Solar Park will deliver 553 MW of solar thermal power when fully operational in 2011.HP HDX X18-1005EA battery

A facility known as “The Geysers,” located in the Mayacamas Mountains north of San Francisco, is the largest group of geothermal power plants in the world, with more than 750 megawatts of installed capacity. The Alta-Oak Creek Mojave wind project is an approved 800 MW HP Pavilion DV6-3013SL battery

wind farm proposal which would include up to 320 wind turbines in the mountains between Tehachapi and Mojave. Kern County is reviewing a number of other proposed wind projects that would generate a combined 4,600 megawatts of clean energy if approved.HP Compaq HSTNN-IB62 battery

Due to high electricity demand, California imports more electricity than any other state, primarily hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest (via Path 15 and Path 66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the desert Southwest via Path 46.HP Pavilion DV6100 battery

Although California's population increased by 13% during the 1990s, the state did not build any new major power plants during that time, although existing in-state power plants were expanded and power output was increased nearly 30% from 1990 to 2001.HP EliteBook 2730P battery

California is known for its car culture, and its residents typically take to the roads for their commutes, errands, and vacations, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. California has some of the worst roads in the United States.HP Pavilion DV9000 battery

California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of freeways, expressways, and highways, all maintained by Caltrans and patrolled by the California Highway Patrol, except for the numbered expressways in Santa Clara County which were built and maintained by the county itself. HP Pavilion DV7 battery

The main north-south arteries are U.S. Route 101, which runs close to the coast from the state's border with Oregon, across the Golden Gate Bridge, to downtown Los Angeles, and Interstate 5, which runs inland from the Oregon to Mexico borders, bisecting the entire state. HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery

In addition, a major north-south artery is State Highway 99, which runs from near Red Bluff to near Bakersfield; Highway 99 is largely parallel to Interstate 5, and connects the Central Valley cities not connected by Interstate 5. Almost all California highways are non-toll roads; however, there are a few toll roads, and most major bridges have toll plazas.HP Compaq Business 6735S battery

Perhaps it is a testament to California's sheer size that although it has one of the most extensive freeway systems in the United States, it contains many of the largest cities in the United States not served by an Interstate Highway, including the two largest, Fresno (pop. 471,479) and Bakersfield (pop. 247,057).HP 540 battery

These cities, along with Modesto and Visalia, are passed by as Interstate 5 veers west to avoid the congestion of the populated eastern side of the Central Valley as it connects Sacramento and Los Angeles.

The state's most famous highway bridge is the Golden Gate Bridge, though there are major bridges elsewhere at Sacramento, Los Angeles, and San Diego.HP Compaq Business NW9440 battery

In March 2011, California ranked as second best state in the American State Litter Scorecard (after Washington State), for overall effectiveness and quality of its public space cleanliness from state and related litter/debris removal efforts.HP Compaq Business  TC4400 battery

Air travel

Los Angeles International Airport and San Francisco International Airport are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state's 58 counties.HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

Seaports and harbors

California also has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. HP HSTNN-LB31 battery

The Port of Oakland handles most of the ocean containers passing through Northern California. The Port of Redwood City is a world-ranked port and the only deepwater port in South San Francisco Bay.HP Pavilion DV5-1211EM  battery

Rail and bus travel

Intercity rail travel is provided by Amtrak California, which manages the three busiest intercity rail lines in the US outside the Northeast Corridor. Integrated subway and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles (Metro Rail) and San Francisco (BART and MUNI Metro). HP Pavilion DV3-4000  battery

Light rail systems are also found in San Jose (VTA), San Diego (San Diego Trolley), Sacramento (RT Light Rail), and Northern San Diego County (Sprinter). Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area (Caltrain, ACE), Greater Los Angeles (Metrolink), and San Diego County (Coaster). HP Pavilion TX1000 battery

Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own bus lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound and Amtrak Thruway Coach.

Future issues

The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks. HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA  battery

A regularly recurring issue in California politics is whether the state should continue to aggressively expand its freeway network or concentrate on improving mass transit networks in urban areas.

The California High Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive 700 mile (1127 km) rail system.HP 448007-001 battery

Voters approved Proposition 1A in November 2008, approving a $9 billion state bond. The system would provide a TGV-style high-speed link between the state's four major metropolitan areas, and would allow travel between Los Angeles' Union Station and the San Francisco Transbay Terminal in two and a half hours.HP Compaq Business  6530B  battery

The main state research university is the University of California (UC). The University of California has ten major campuses. Each major UC campus is headed by a chancellor that is appointed by theRegents of the University of California. HP Pavilion DV5-1211EM  battery

The ten major campuses of the University of California are located in Berkeley, Los Angeles, San Diego, Davis, Santa Cruz, Santa Barbara, Irvine, Riverside, Merced and San Francisco. The University of California, San Francisco, teaches only graduate health-sciences students.HP Pavilion DV5-1015EA  battery

The UC Hastings College of the Law, also in San Francisco, is affiliated with UC, but is not administered by the UC Regents. The UC system is intended to accept students from the top 12.5% of college-bound students, and provide most graduate studies and research.HP Pavilion DV6-1230SB battery

The University of California also administers one national laboratory directly for the United States Department of Energy: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The university indirectly manages Los Alamos National Laboratory through Los Alamos National Security, LLC and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.HP Pavilion ZD8181EA  battery

The California State University (CSU) system is the third-largest university system in the United States.  It is intended to accept the top one-third (1/3) of high school students. The universities within CSU are primarily intended for undergraduate education, although many of the larger campuses, such as Cal Poly, HP Pavilion DV9500  battery

Long Beach State, Cal State Fullerton, Fresno State, San Francisco State, San Diego State, and San José State (the oldest public university in California), are becoming more research oriented, especially in applied sciences. A marked change and a shift from the California Master Plan for HP Pavilion DV4-1125BR  battery

Higher Education began in 2007 as the CSU now grants doctoral level degrees (Ed.D.) in education. Kevin Starr (State Librarian emeritus) and others have argued that this small change is the beginning of a larger reorganization of higher education in California.HP Pavilion DV5-1111EA Battery

The California Community Colleges system provides lower division "General Education" courses, whose credit units are transferable to the CSU and UC systems, as well as vocational education, remedial education, and continuing education programs. It awards certificates and associate degrees. HP Pavilion DV6-1234TX battery

It is composed of 112 colleges organized into 72 districts, serving a student population of over 2.9 million.

Notable private universities and colleges include Stanford University, Touro University, the University of Southern California (USC), the University of San Francisco (USF), Santa Clara University,Pepperdine University, St. HP Pavilion DV3-2008TX  battery

Mary's College, the University of the Pacific, Thomas Aquinas College, the Claremont Colleges, Occidental College, Westmont College, and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) (which administers the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA).

California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions. HP Pavilion DV8  battery

This leads to many unique entertainment and educational opportunities for residents. For example, Southern California, with one of the highest densities of post-secondary institutions in the world, has a very large base of classically-trained vocalists that compete in large choir festivals. HP Pavilion DV6-1215SA  battery

In the Bay Area and near Los Angeles, there are numerous art and film schools, including the California College of the Arts and the CalArts Institute.HP Compaq 490306-001  battery,HP Pavilion DM4 Battery

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys - dans Laptop Battery
commenter cet article

commentaires

Buy Articles 20/06/2011 00:30


I find this information very useful and it has considerably saved my time.thanks.


Buy Articles 20/06/2011 00:28


I find this information very useful and it has considerably saved my time.thanks.