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3 août 2013 6 03 /08 /août /2013 06:37

Chad

Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west.
<p align="left">Chad is divided into multiple regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanese savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-pavilion-g6-1223tx-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">is the largest wetland in Chad and the second largest in Africa. Chad's highest peak is the Emi Koussi in the Sahara, and N'Djamena, (formerlyFort-Lamy), the capital, is the largest city. Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. Arabicand French are the official languages. Islam and Christianity are the most widely practiced religions. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/sony-vaio-vgn-fs315m-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium BC, a series of states and empires rose and fell in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-satellite-c650-182-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership ofFrançois Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lastingcivil war in 1965. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/asus-f3m-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">ASUS F3M Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">In 1978, the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby. Since 2003, the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/lenovo-63y0047-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Chad remains plagued by political violence and recurrent attempted coups d'état (see Battle of N'Djamena (2006) andBattle of N'Djamena (2008)). Chad is one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world; <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-3107ax-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> HP Pavilion dv6-3107ax Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">most inhabitants live in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers. Since 2003, crude oil has become the country's primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry. Chad is considered a failed state by the Fund for Peace. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/sony-vaio-vgn-c2s-series-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">In the 7th millennium BC, ecological conditions in the northern half of Chadian territory favored human settlement, and the region experienced a strong population increase. Some of the most important African archaeological sites are found in Chad, mainly in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region; some date to earlier than 2000 BC.[3][4] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-488590-001-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP 488590-001 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">For more than 2000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary people. The region became a crossroads of civilizations. The earliest of these were the legendary Sao, known from artifacts and oral histories. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-p000482730-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA P000482730 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The Sao fell to the Kanem Empire,[5][6] the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD. The power of Kanem and its successors was based on control of the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region.[4] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/sony-147977821-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">These states, at least tacitly Muslim, never extended their control to the southern grasslands except to raid for slaves.[7] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-tecra-m9-s5514-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA Tecra M9-S5514 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
In Kanem, about a third of the population were slaves.[8]
<p align="left">French colonial expansion led to the creation of the Territoire Militaire des Pays et Protectorats du Tchad in 1900. By 1920, France had secured full control of the colony and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa.[10] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/gateway-nv-54-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">French rule in Chad was characterised by an absence of policies to unify the territory and sluggish modernisation. The French primarily viewed the colony as an unimportant source of untrained labour and raw cotton; <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/fujitsu-lifebook-p1510-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">France introduced large-scale cotton production in 1929. The colonial administration in Chad was critically understaffed and had to rely on the dregs of the French civil service. Only the south was governed effectively; French presence in the north and east was nominal. The educational system suffered from this neglect.[4][11] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/fujitsu-lifebook-p1610-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">After World War II, France granted Chad the status of overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to the French National Assembly and a Chadian assembly. The largest political party was the Chadian Progressive Party (PPT), based in the southern half of the colony. Chad was granted independence on August 11, 1960 with the PPT's leader, François Tombalbaye, as its first president.[4][12][13] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/dell-precision-m4500-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Two years later, Tombalbaye banned opposition parties and established a one-party system. Tombalbaye's autocratic rule and insensitive mismanagement exacerbated interethnic tensions. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/sony-vaio-vgn-n325qe-cc1-w-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> SONY VAIO VGN-N325QE/W Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">In 1965 Muslims began a civil war. Tombalbaye was overthrown and killedin 1975,[14] but the insurgency continued. In 1979 the rebel factions conquered the capital, and all central authority in the country collapsed. Armed factions, many from the north's rebellion, contended for power.[15][16] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-satellite-a205-s4618-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S4618 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The disintegration of Chad caused the collapse of France's position in the country. Libya moved to fill the power vacuum and becameinvolved in Chad's civil war.[17] Libya's adventure ended in disaster in 1987; the French-supported president, Hissène Habré, evoked a united response from Chadians of a kind never seen before[18] and forced the Libyan army off Chadian soil.[19] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/dell-vostro-1014-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Habré consolidated his dictatorship through a power system that relied on corruption and violence; an estimated 40,000 people were killed under his rule.[20][21] The president favoured his own Daza ethnic group and discriminated against his former allies, theZaghawa. His general, Idriss Déby, overthrew him in 1990.[22] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/lenovo-3000-n200-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
Attempts to prosecute Habré led to his placement under house arrest in Senegal in 2005; in 2013, Habré was formally charged with war crimes committed during his rule.[23]
<p align="left">Déby attempted to reconcile the rebel groups and reintroduced multiparty politics. Chadians approved a new constitution byreferendum, and in 1996,  <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-pavilion-zv6223ea-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP Pavilion zv6223ea Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Déby easily won a competitive presidential election. He won a second term five years later.[24] Oilexploitation began in Chad in 2003, bringing with it hopes that Chad would at last have some chances of peace and prosperity. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/lenovo-thinkpad-t520-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Instead, internal dissent worsened, and a new civil war broke out. Déby unilaterally modified the constitution to remove the two-term limit on the presidency; this caused an uproar among the civil society and opposition parties.[25] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/acer-aspire-4736z-laptop-keyboard.html">ACER Aspire 4736Z laptop keyboard</a></p>
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<p align="left">In 2006 Déby won a third mandate in elections that the opposition boycotted. Ethnic violence in eastern Chad has increased; the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has warned that a genocide like that inDarfur may yet occur in Chad.[26] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-2150es-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-2150es laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">In 2006 and in 2008 rebel forces have attempted to take the capital by force, but have on both occasions failed.[27] An agreement for the restoration of harmony between Chad and Sudan, signed January 15, 2010, marked the end of a five-year war.[28] The fix in relations led to the Chadian rebels from Sudan returning home, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-3107ax-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-3107ax laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">the opening of the border between the two countries after seven years of closure, and the deployment of a joint force to secure the border. In May 2013, security forces in Chad foiled a coup against the President Idriss Deby that had been in preparation for several months.[29] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-fs415e-laptop-keyboard.html"> SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">At 1,284,000 square kilometres (496,000 sq mi), Chad is the world's 21st-largest country. It is slightly smaller than Peru and slightly larger than South Africa.[30][31] Chad is in north central Africa, lying between latitudes 7° and 24°N, and 13° and 24°E. Chad is bounded to the north by Libya, to the east by Sudan, to the west by Niger, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv7-3165dx-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion DV7-3165dx laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Nigeria and Cameroon, and to the south by the Central African Republic. The country's capital is 1,060 kilometres (660 mi) from the nearest seaport Douala, Cameroon.[32][33] Due to this distance from the sea and the country's largely desert climate, Chad is sometimes referred to as the "Dead Heart of Africa".[34][35] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-nw25gf-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VAIO VGN-NW25GF laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The dominant physical structure is a wide basin bounded to the north, east and south by mountain ranges such as the Ennedi Plateau in the north-east. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the remains of an immense lake that occupied 330,000 square kilometres (130,000 sq mi) of the Chad Basin 7,000 years ago. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/compaq-presario-cq71-317ea-laptop-keyboard.html">Compaq Presario CQ71-317EA laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left"> [32] Although in the 21st century it covers only 17,806 square kilometres (6,875 sq mi), and its surface area is subject to heavy seasonal fluctuations,[36] the lake is Africa's second largest wetland.[37] The Emi Koussi, a dormant volcano in the Tibesti Mountains that reaches 3,414 metres (11,201 ft) above sea level, is the highest point in Chad and the Sahara. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-2129ev-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-2129ev laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The region's tall grasses and extensive marshes make it favourable for birds, reptiles, and large mammals. Chad's major rivers—the Chari, Logone and their tributaries—flow through the southern savannas from the southeast into Lake Chad.[32][38] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/fujitsu-lifebook-p1610-laptop-keyboard.html">FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 laptop keyboard</a></p>
The Agriculture in Chad includes the raising of peanuts, wheat, rice, livestock, and corn.
<p align="left">Chad has been divided since February 2008 into 22 regions.[39][40] The subdivision of Chad in regions came about in 2003 as part of the decentralisation process, when the government abolished the previous 14 prefectures. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-fs640-cc1-w-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VAIO VGN-FS640/W laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Each region is headed by a presidentially appointed governor. Prefects administer the 61 departments within the regions.[40] The departments are divided into 200 sub-prefectures, which are in turn composed of 446 cantons.[41][42] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/packard-bell-new90-laptop-keyboard.html"> Packard Bell NEW90 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The cantons are scheduled to be replaced by communautés rurales, but the legal and regulatory framework has not yet been completed.[43] The constitution provides for decentralised government to compel local populations to play an active role in their own development.[44] To this end, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-405963-001-laptop-keyboard.html"> HP 405963-001 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">  the constitution declares that each administrative subdivisions be governed by elected local assemblies,[45] but no local elections have taken place,[46] and communal elections scheduled for 2005 have been repeatedly postponed.[47] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-fs620-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VAIO VGN-FS620 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Chad's population is unevenly distributed. Density is 0.1 /km2 (0.26 /sq mi) in the Saharan Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region but 52.4 /km2 (136 /sq mi) in the Logone Occidental Region. In the capital, it is even higher.[33] About half of the nation's population lives in the southern fifth of its territory, making this the most densely populated region.[50] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv3-2155mx-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv3-2155mx laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Urban life is virtually restricted to the capital, whose population is mostly engaged in commerce. The other major towns are Sarh,Moundou, Abéché and Doba, which are less urbanised but are growing rapidly and joining the capital as decisive factors in economic growth.[32] Since 2003, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-pk130bh2a00-laptop-keyboard.html">TOSHIBA PK130BH2A00 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">230,000 Sudanese refugees have fled to eastern Chad from war-ridden Darfur. With the 172,600 Chadians displaced by the civil war in the east, this has generated increased tensions among the region's communities.[51][52] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-cr123e-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VAIO VGN-CR123E laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Polygamy is common, with 39% of women living in such unions. This is sanctioned by law, which automatically permits polygamy unless spouses specify that this is unacceptable upon marriage.[53] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/lenovo-thinkpad-t510-4339-laptop-keyboard.html">Lenovo ThinkPad T510-4339 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Although violence against women is prohibited, domestic violence is common. Female genital mutilation is also prohibited, but the practice is widespread and deeply rooted in tradition; 45% of Chadian women undergo the procedure, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-2130ca-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-2130ca laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">with the highest rates among Arabs, Hadjarai, and Ouaddaians (90% or more). Lower percentages were reported among the Sara (38%) and the Toubou (2%). Women lack equal opportunities in education and training, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/packard-bell-easynote-tk85-laptop-keyboard.html">Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">making it difficult for them to compete for the relatively few formal-sector jobs. Although property and inheritance laws based on the French code do not discriminate against women, local leaders adjudicate most inheritance cases in favour of men, according to traditional practice.[47] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/dell-inspiron-1750-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Chad has more than 200 distinct ethnic groups,[54] which create diverse social structures. The colonial administration and independent governments have attempted to impose a national society, but for most Chadians the local or regional society remains the most important influence outside the immediate family. Nevertheless, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-pavilion-dv6z-artist-edition-2-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Chad's peoples may be classified according to the geographical region in which they live. In the south live sedentary people such as the Sara, the nation's main ethnic group, whose essential social unit is the lineage. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-g42-364la-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">In the Sahel sedentary peoples live side-by-side with nomadic ones, such as the Arabs, the country's second major ethnic group. The north is inhabited by nomads, mostly Toubous.[4][32] The nation's official business languages are French and Arabic, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/dell-vostro-pp37l-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">but over 100 languages and dialects are spoken. Due to the important role played by itinerant Arab traders and settled merchants in local communities, Chadian Arabic has become a lingua franca.[4] atheist.[33] None of these religious traditions are monolithic. Animism includes a variety of ancestor and place-oriented religions whose expression is highly specific. Islam is expressed in diverse ways. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/sony-vaio-vgn-c2s-series-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Christianity arrived in Chad with the French and American missionaries; as with Chadian Islam, it syncretisesaspects of pre-Christian religious beliefs.[4] Muslims are largely concentrated in northern and eastern Chad, and animists and Christians live primarily in southern Chad and Guéra.[32] The constitution provides for a secular state and guarantees religious freedom; different religious communities generally co-exist without problems.[55] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-pavilion-dv7-1000-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The vast majority of Muslims in the country are adherents of a moderate branch of mystical Islam (Sufism) known locally as Tijaniyah, which incorporates some local African religious elements. A small minority of the country's Muslims hold more fundamentalist practices, which, in some cases, may be associated with Saudi-oriented Salafi-movement. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-g42-364la-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Roman Catholics represent the largest Christian denomination in the country. Most Protestants, including the Nigeria-based "Winners Chapel," are affiliated with various evangelical Christian groups. Members of the Bahá'í andJehovah's Witnesses religious communities also are present in the country. Both faiths were introduced after independence in 1960 and therefore are considered to be "new" religions in the country. <a href="http://all-keyboard.com/toshiba-9j.n7482.901-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Chad is home to foreign missionaries representing both Christian and Islamic groups. Itinerant Muslim preachers primarily from Sudan, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan, also visit. Saudi Arabian funding generally supports social and educational projects and extensive mosque construction.[56] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-satellite-u305-s2804-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Chad's constitution provides for a strong executive branch headed by a president who dominates the political system. The president has the power to appoint theprime minister and the cabinet, and exercises considerable influence over appointments of judges, generals, provincial officials and heads of Chad's para-statal firms. In cases of grave and immediate threat, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-597635-001-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">the president, in consultation with the National Assembly, may declare a state of emergency. The president isdirectly elected by popular vote for a five-year term; in 2005 constitutional term limits were removed.[57] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/compaq-presario-cq57-series-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">This removal allows a president to remain in power beyond the previous two-term limit.[57] Most of Déby's key advisers are members of the Zaghawa ethnic group, although southern and opposition personalities are represented in government.[54][58] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/acer-travelmate-6252-laptop-keyboard.html">ACER TravelMate 6252 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Chad is listed as a failed state by the Fund for Peace (FFP). In 2007 Chad had the seventh highest score on the failed state index. Since then the trend has been upwards each year. Chad had the fourth highest score (behind Sudan) on the Failed State Index of 2012.[59] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vgn-fe11m-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Corruption is rife at all levels; Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index for 2005 named Chad (tied with Bangladesh) as the most corrupt country in the world.[60] Chad's ranking on the index has improved only marginally in recent years. Since its first inclusion on the index in 2004, Chad's best score has been 2/10 for 2011.[61] Critics of President Déby have accused him of cronyism and tribalism.[62] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-satellite-l750-st4nx1-laptop-keyboard.html">TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4NX1 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Chad's legal system is based on French civil law and Chadian customary law where the latter does not interfere with public order or constitutional guarantees of equality. Despite the constitution's guarantee of judicial independence, the president names most key judicial officials. The legal system's highest jurisdictions<a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/asus-x53s-laptop-keyboard.html">ASUS X53S laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Council, have become fully operational since 2000. The Supreme Court is made up of a chief justice, named by the president, and 15 councillors, appointed for life by the president and the National Assembly. The Constitutional Court is headed by nine judges elected to nine-year terms. It has the power to review legislation, treaties and international agreements prior to their adoption.[54][58] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/acer-emachines-e640-laptop-keyboard.html">Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The National Assembly makes legislation. The body consists of 155 members elected for four-year terms who meet three times per year. The Assembly holds regular sessions twice a year, starting in March and October, and can hold special sessions when called by the prime minister. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-satellite-l655-s5107-laptop-keyboard.html">TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5107 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Deputies elect a National Assembly president every two years. The president must sign or reject newly passed laws within 15 days. The National Assembly must approve the prime minister's plan of government and may force the prime minister to resign through a majority vote of no confidence. However<a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6z-artist-edition-2-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">if the National Assembly rejects the executive branch's programme twice in one year, the president may disband the Assembly and call for new legislative elections. In practice, the president exercises considerable influence over the National Assembly through his party, thePatriotic Salvation Movement (MPS), which holds a large majority.[54] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-n250e-cc1-b-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Until the legalisation of opposition parties in 1992, Déby's MPS was the sole legal party in Chad.[54] Since, 78 registered political parties have become active.[47] In 2005, opposition parties and human rights organisations supported the boycott of the constitutional referendum that allowed Déby to stand for re-election for a third term[63] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv7-3067nr-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion DV7-3067nr laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">amid reports of widespread irregularities in voter registration and government censorship of independent media outlets during the campaign.[64]Correspondents judged the 2006 presidential elections a mere formality, as the opposition deemed the polls a farce and boycotted them.[65] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-pcg-k315s-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Déby faces armed opposition from groups who are deeply divided by leadership clashes but united in their intention to overthrow him.[66] These forces stormed the capital on April 13, 2006, but were ultimately repelled. Chad's greatest foreign influence is France, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-satellite-l755-s5216-laptop-keyboard.html">TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5216 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">which maintains 1,000 soldiers in the country. Déby relies on the French to help repel the rebels, and France gives the Chadian army logistical and intelligence support for fear of a complete collapse of regional stability.[67] Nevertheless, Franco-Chadian relations were soured by the granting of oil drilling rights to the American Exxon company in 1999.[68] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6z-artist-edition-2-laptop-keyboard.html"> HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The United Nations' Human Development Index ranks Chad as the seventh poorest country in the world, with 80% of the population living below the poverty line. The GDP (Purchasing power parity) per capita was estimated as US$1,600 in 2008.[73] Chad is part of the Bank of Central African States, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-3142se-laptop-keyboard.html"> HP Pavilion dv6-3142se laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC) and theOrganization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).[74] Its currency is theCFA franc. In the 1960s, the Mining industry of Chad produced sodium carbonate, or natron. There have also been reports of gold-bearing quartz in the Biltine Prefecture. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-satellite-p300-st3712-laptop-keyboard.html">TOSHIBA Satellite P300-ST3712 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">However, years of civil war have scared away foreign investors; those who left Chad between 1979 and 1982 have only recently begun to regain confidence in the country's future. In 2000 major direct foreign investment in the oil sector began, boosting the country's economic prospects.[30][54] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-g42-265la-laptop-keyboard.html">HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Over 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood.[30] The crops grown and the locations of herds are determined by the local climate. In the southernmost 10 percent of the territory lies the nation's most fertile cropland, with rich yields of sorghum and millet. In the Sahel only the hardier varieties of millet grow, and these with much lower yields than in the south. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-646568-001-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">On the other hand, the Sahel is ideal pastureland for large herds of commercial cattle and for goats, sheep, donkeys and horses. The Sahara's scattered oases support only some dates and legumes.[4] Chad's cities face serious difficulties of municipal infrastructure; only 48% of urban residents have access to potable water and only 2% to basic sanitation.[32][75] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/acer-aspire-one-d150-1920-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Before the development of oil industry, cotton dominated industry and the labour market and accounted for approximately 80% of export earnings.[76] Cotton remains a primary export, although exact figures are not available. Rehabilitation ofCotontchad, a major cotton company that suffered from a decline in world cotton prices, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-aeut5u00010-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
has been financed by France, the Netherlands, the European Union, and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The parastatal is now expected to be privatised.[54]
<p align="left">According to the United Nations, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/acer-aspire-one-d150-1920-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Chad has been affected by a humanitarian crisis since at least 2001. As of 2008, the country of Chad hosts over 280,000 refugees from the Sudan's Darfur region, over 55,000 from the Central African Republic, as well as over 170,000 internally displaced persons.[77]  <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-aeut5u00010-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">In February 2008 in the aftermath of the battle of N'Djamena, UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs John Holmes expressed "extreme concern" that the crisis would have a negative effect on the ability of humanitarians to deliver life-saving assistance to half a million beneficiaries, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/apple-a1278-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">most of whom – according to him – heavily rely on humanitarian aid for their survival.[78] UN spokesperson Maurizio Giuliano stated to The Washington Post: "If we do not manage to provide aid at sufficient levels, the humanitarian crisis might become a humanitarian catastrophe".[79] In addition, organizations such as Save the Children have suspended activities due to killings of aid workers.[80] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/acer-9j.n0f82.a1d-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Chad's energy sector has suffered from years of mismanagement by the parastatal Chad Water and Electric Society (STEE), which provides power for 15% of the capital's citizens and covers only 1.5% of the national population.[84] Most Chadians burn biomass fuels such as wood and animal manure for power.[85] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-g72-b66us-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">ExxonMobil leads a consortium of Chevron and Petronas that has invested $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves estimated at one billion barrels in southern Chad. Oil production began in 2003 with the completion of a pipeline (financed in part by the World Bank) that links the southern oilfields to terminals on the Atlantic coast of Cameroon<a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/acer-9j.n0f82.a1d-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">As a condition of its assistance, the World Bank insisted that 80% of oil revenues be spent on development projects. In January 2006 the World Bank suspended its loan programme when the Chadian government passed laws reducing this amount.[46][54] On July 14, 2006, the World Bank and Chad signed a memorandum of understanding under which the Government of Chad commits 70% of its spending to priority poverty reduction programmes.[86] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-g72-b66us-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The telecommunication system is basic and expensive, with fixed telephone services provided by the state telephone company SotelTchad. Only 14,000 fixed telephone lines serve all of Chad, one of the lowest telephone density rates in the world. The country's television audience is limited to N'Djamena. The only television station is the state-owned TeleTchad. Radio has a far greater reach, with 13 private radio stations.[87] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-mini-110-3180sv-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP Mini 110-3180sv Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Newspapers are limited in quantity and distribution, and circulation figures are small due to transportation costs, low literacy rates, and poverty.[85][88][89] While the constitution defends liberty of expression, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/lenovo-3000-n200-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">the government has regularly restricted this right, and at the end of 2006 began to enact a system of prior censorship on the media.[90] Gateway Communications, a pan-African wholesale connectivity and telecommunications provider also has a presence in Chad.[91] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/dell-vostro-3450-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">N’Djamena was founded as Fort-Lamy by French commander Émile Gentil on May 29, 1900, and named after Amédée-François Lamy, an army officer who had been killed in the Battle of Kousséri a few days earlier.[2] It was a major trading city and became the capital of the region and nation.[citation needed] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/dell-vostro-3550-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">During the Second World War, the French relied heavily upon the city's airport to move troops and supplies.[3] On 21 January 1942, a lone German He 111 of the Sonderkommando Blaich successfully bombed the airfield at Fort Lamy, destroying oil supplies and ten aircraft.[4] Fort Lamy received its first bank branch in 1950, when the Bank of West Africa (BAO) opened a branch there.[citation needed] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-2125ef-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-2125ef laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">On April 6, 1973, the President François Tombalbaye[2] changed its name to N’Djamena (taken from the Arab name of a nearby village, Niǧāmīnā, meaning “place of rest”) as part of his authenticité program of Africanization. The city was occupied by Libya during the 1980–81 Libyian intervention as part of the Chadian–Libyan conflict,[5] and the associated Transitional Government of National Unity.[citation needed] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-2110ev-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-2110ev laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The city was partly destroyed during the Chadian Civil War, in 1979 and again in 1980. In these years, almost all of the population fled the town, searching for refuge on the opposite bank of the Chari River in Cameroon, next to the city of Kousseri. The residents did not return until 1981–82, after the end of the clashes. Until 1984, facilities and services were subject to strict rationing, and schools remained closed.[6] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-n31z-cc1-w-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The period of turmoil in the city was started by the abortive coup attempted by the northerner Prime MinisterHissène Habré against the southerner Pres Félix Malloum: while Malloum and the national army loyal to him were defeated, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/lenovo-ideapad-s10-20015-laptop-keyboard.html">LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">the intervention in the battle of other northern factions rival to that of Habré complicated the situation. A temporary truce was reached in 1979 through international mediation, establishing the warlordGoukouni Oueddei as head of a government of national unity with his rival Habré as Defense Minister. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-mini-110-3180sv-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The intense rivalry between Goukouni and Habré caused the eruption of new clashes in the city in 1980; N’Djamena found itself divided into sectors controlled by the various warlords. The tug-of-war reached a conclusion after many months only when Goukouni asked for the intervention of the Libyans, whose tanks overwhelmed Habré’s defenses in the capital.[7] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/lenovo-thinkpad-edge-e125-laptop-keyboard.html">Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E125 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Following differences between Goukouni and Muammar Gaddafi and international disapproval of Libyan intervention, the Libyan troops left the capital and Chad in 1981. This opened the door to Habré, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-3230us-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">who marched on N’Djamena, occupying the city with little resistance in 1982 and installing himself as the new president.[8] He was eventually dislodged in a similar fashion in 1990 by a former general of his, Idriss Déby, as of 2012 the head of state of Chad.[citation needed] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/acer-k052030a1-laptop-keyboard.html">ACER K052030A1 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The city had only 9,976 inhabitants in 1937, but a decade later, in 1947, the population had almost doubled to 18,435. In 1968, after independence, the population reached 126,483. In 1993, it surpassed half a million with 529,555. A good deal of this growth has been due to refugees fleeing into N’Djamena for security, although many people fled N’Djamena also, depending on the political situation.[3] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/dell-inspiron-6400-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">On April 13, 2006, a rebel United Front for Democratic Change attack on the city was defeated[9] in the Battle of N’Djamena. The city was once again attacked on February 2, 2008, by UFDD and RFC rebels.[10] (See Battle of N'Djamena (2008)) <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-nsk-taj01-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">N’Djamena has a semi-arid climate with a short wet season and a lengthy dry season. Despite the fact that the city receives on average approximately 750 mm (30 in) of rain annually, due to the area’s very high evapotranspiration, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/acer-aspire-7741g-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">N'Djamena still falls into the semi-arid climate category. The wet season lasts from June to September, with the heaviest precipitation occurring in August. The dry season essentially covers the remaining eight months. Based on annual temperatures, N'Djamena is one of the hottest major cities on the planet. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/acer-aspire-7741g-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">In only one month of the year (August) do average monthly high temperatures fail to cross the 32 °C (90 °F) mark. The city's highest temperatures are usually seen between March and June, just before the onset of the heavier rains. However, outside of the warmest months of the year, nights in N'Djamena are generally tolerable. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/sony-kfrmba152b-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">N’Djamena has a semi-arid climate with a short wet season and a lengthy dry season. Despite the fact that the city receives on average approximately 750 mm (30 in) of rain annually, due to the area’s very high evapotranspiration, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-3001so-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">N'Djamena still falls into the semi-arid climate category. The wet season lasts from June to September, with the heaviest precipitation occurring in August. The dry season essentially covers the remaining eight months. Based on annual temperatures, N'Djamena is one of the hottest major cities on the planet. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-hdx18-1100-cto-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">In only one month of the year (August) do average monthly high temperatures fail to cross the 32 °C (90 °F) mark. The city's highest temperatures are usually seen between March and June, just before the onset of the heavier rains. However, outside of the warmest months of the year, nights in N'Djamena are generally tolerable. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-satellite-c655-s9521d-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformers reinterpreted Anselm's satisfaction theory of salvation within a legal paradigm. In the legal system, offences required punishment, and no satisfaction could be given to avert this need. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-g42-380la-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">They proposed a theory known as penal substitution, in which Christ takes the penalty of people's sin as their substitute, thus saving people from God's wrath against sin. Penal substitution thus presents Jesus saving people from the divine punishment of their past wrongdoings. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/gateway-nv-53-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">However, this salvation is not presented as automatic. Rather, a person must have faith in order to receive this free gift of salvation. In the penal substitution view, salvation is not dependent upon human effort or deeds. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-satellite-c655-s5141-laptop-keyboard.html">TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5141 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The penal substitution paradigm of salvation is widely held among Protestants, who often consider it central to Christianity. However, it has also been widely critiqued.[16][17][18][19] Advocates of the New Perspective on Paul also argue that many New Testament books by Paul the Apostle used to support the theory of penal substitution should be interpreted differently. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-2160ep-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-2160ep laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">A crucial difference between the Catholic and Protestant understanding of salvation is that, unlike Protestantism, Catholicism believes that, after the Fall, humanity did not become totally corrupt but was “wounded by sin” (rather than destroyed) and “stands in need of salvation from God. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/packard-bell-pew91-laptop-keyboard.html">Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Divine help comes in Christ through the law that guides and the grace that sustains”.[20] That divine help, that grace, is a favour, a free and undeserved gift from God which helps us to respond to his invitation to enter relationship.[21] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-2159tx-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Catholics profess belief that Christ alone is the Saviour of the human race. Christ is God incarnate, bringing about redemption from sin, for "…all salvation comes through Christ."[22] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-cr13-cc1-b-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B laptop keyboard</a></p>
"…she (the Church) proclaims, and ever must proclaim Christ 'the way, the truth, and the life' (John 14:6), in whom men may find the fullness of religious life, in whom God has reconciled all things to Himself."[23] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/dell-0m711p-laptop-keyboard.html">DELL 0M711P laptop keyboard</a>
<p align="left">In Catholicism justification is granted by God from baptism firstly,[24] instead of plainly by faith, and from the sacrament of reconciliation after if a mortal sin is committed.[25] A mortal sin makes justification lost even if faith is still present. The Catholic Church declared in the ecumenical Council of Trent that, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-148701322-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY 148701322 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">"If anyone says that the sinner is justified by faith alone,[114] meaning that nothing else is required to cooperate in order to obtain the grace of justification, and that it is not in any way necessary that he be prepared and disposed by the action of his own will, let him be anathema." in canon 9 of session VI.[26]  <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/packard-bell-easynote-tk85-laptop-keyboard.html">Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">It also said in the VII session in canon IV, "If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law are not necessary unto salvation,

but superfluous; and that, without them, or without the desire thereof, men obtain of God, through faith alone, the grace of justification;-though all (the sacraments) are not indeed necessary for every individual; let him be anathema (excommunicated)."[27] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-3001so-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">In Catholicism, Christ provides the Church with "'the fullness of the means of salvation' which he has willed: correct and complete confession of faith, full sacramental life, and ordained ministry in apostolic succession."[28] This does not mean that only Christians can enter heaven, for "Jesus, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-hdx18-1100-cto-laptop-keyboard.html">HP HDX18-1100 CTO laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">the Son of God, freely suffered death for us in complete and free submission to the will of God, his Father. By his death he has conquered death, and so opened the possibility of salvation to all men."[29] As Pope John Paul II stated in his encyclical Redemptoris Missio, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-n21e-cc1-w-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">"The universality of salvation means that it is granted not only to those who explicitly believe in Christ and have entered the Church. Since salvation is offered to all, it must be made concretely available to all. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv5-1118tx-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv5-1118tx laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">But it is clear that today, as in the past, many people do not have an opportunity to come to know or accept the Gospel revelation or to enter the Church. The social and cultural conditions in which they live do not permit this, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-aeut5u00010-laptop-keyboard.html">HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">and frequently they have been brought up in other religious traditions. For such people salvation in Christ is accessible by virtue of a grace which, while having a mysterious relationship to the Church, does not make them formally part of the Church but enlightens them in a way which is accommodated to their spiritual and material situation. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-mini-110-3504tu-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard</a></p>
This grace comes from Christ; it is the result of his Sacrifice and is communicated by the Holy Spirit. It enables each person to attain salvation through his or her free cooperation."[30]
<p align="left">This encyclical echoes what the Church solemnly declared in the documents of the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965) and is thus binding on all Catholics. Concerning Jews and Muslims, the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen Gentium, states: <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vgn-fe21h-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">"In the first place we must recall the people to whom the testament and the promises were given and from whom Christ was born according to the flesh; the Jews On account of their fathers this people remains most dear to God, for God does not repent of the gifts He makes nor of the calls He issues. But the plan of salvation also includes those who acknowledge the Creator. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-g72-b60sf-laptop-keyboard.html"> HP G72-b60SF laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">In the first place amongst these there are the Muslims, who, professing to hold the faith of Abraham, along with us adore the one and merciful God, who on the last day will judge humanity" [31] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-mini-110-3180sv-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard</a></p>
Paragraph 16 of Lumen Gentium takes a step further and declares:
<p align="left">"Nor is God far distant from those who in shadows and images seek the unknown God, for it is He who gives to all men life and breath and all things, and as Saviour wills that all men be saved. Those also can attain to salvation who through no fault of their own do not know the Gospel of Christ or His Church, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/lenovo-45n2240-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">yet sincerely seek God and moved by grace strive by their deeds to do His will as it is known to them through the dictates of conscience. Nor does Divine Providence deny the helps necessary for salvation to those who, without blame on their part, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/sony-vgn-fe550g-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">have not yet arrived at an explicit knowledge of God and with His grace strive to live a good life. Whatever good or truth is found amongst them is looked upon by the Church as a preparation for the Gospel"[31] <a href="http://2fwww.all-keyboard.com/lenovo-ideapad-y710-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">Lenovo IdeaPad Y710 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Thus, the Catholic Church teaches that, although Christ is the Saviour of humanity, it is not necessary to know of him, or have a relationship with him, to be saved. This is because the Church teaches that the salvation of humanity takes place because of Christ's death and resurrection, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/dell-latitude-d830-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">and that this salvation applies to all people whether or not they are aware of this act. This does not mean that the Church teaches that all religions are equal, but rather that everyone does not have the same access to Christ and his teachings, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-satellite-u305-s2812-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left"><a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/gateway-m-6319-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">GATEWAY M-6319 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
or may have had the Gospel presented in such a manner as to have turned them away (e.g. by missionaries who were poor examples of the Christian life).
<p align="left">In its Declaration on Religious Freedom, Dignitatis humanae, the Second Vatican Council also stated: <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-634139-001-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">"This Vatican Council declares that the human person has a right to religious freedom. This freedom means that all men are to be immune from coercion on the part of individuals or of social groups and of any human power, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-satellite-l655-s5083-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">in such wise that no one is to be forced to act in a manner contrary to his own beliefs, whether privately or publicly, whether alone or in association with others, within due limits. The council further declares that the right to religious freedom has its foundation in the very dignity of the human person as this dignity is known through the revealed word of God and by reason itself. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/acer-aspire-5742-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
This right of the human person to religious freedom is to be recognized in the constitutional law whereby society is governed and thus it is to become a civil right"[32]
<p align="left">Shortly after 1100, Anselm, appointed as archbishop of Canterbury, wrote a classic treatise about atonement. In it he puts forward the "satisfaction theory" <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-pavilion-dv7-1000-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">of the atonement in salvation. Man's offense of rebellion against God is one that demands a payment or satisfaction. Fallen man is incapable of making adequate satisfaction. Nevertheless, such is God's love that God will not simply abandon us (at least not all of us) to the consequences of our sins. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-satellite-a300-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Anselm wrote, "This debt was so great that, while none but man must solve the debt, none but God was able to do it; so that he who does it must be both God and man." The suffering of Christ, the God-man who is God's only son, pays off what human beings owe to God's honor, and we are thereby reconciled to God. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-satellite-a110-series-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">So God took human nature upon himself so that a perfect man might make perfect satisfaction and so restore the human race. His foundational work is seen later in Calvinism and Arminianism.[33] <a href="http://2fwww.all-keyboard.com/sony-vgn-fe670g-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">SONY VGN-FE670G Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Eastern Christianity was much less influenced by Augustine. It asks different questions, and it generally views salvation less in legalistic terms (e.g. grace and punishment), more in medical terms (sickness, healing etc.). It views salvation more along the lines of theosis, a seeking to become holy or draw closer to God, a traditional concept of Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Christians. It also stresses teaching about forgiveness. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-compaq-nx6310-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church, known also as The Catechism of St. Philaret [34] includes the questions and answers: "155. To save men from what did (the Son of God) come upon earth? From sin, the curse, and death." <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/dell-inspiron-1464-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">"208. How does the death of Jesus Christ upon the cross deliver us from sin, the curse, and death? That we may the more readily believe this mystery, the Word of God teaches us of it, so much as we may be able to receive, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-pcg-k315s-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">by the comparison of Jesus Christ with Adam. Adam is by nature the head of all humanity, which is one with him by natural descent from him. Jesus Christ, in whom the Godhead is united with manhood, graciously made himself the new almighty Head of men, whom he unites to himself through faith. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-3050tx-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-3050tx laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Therefore as in Adam we had fallen under sin, the curse, and death, so we are delivered from sin, the curse, and death in Jesus Christ. His voluntary suffering and death on the cross for us, being of infinite value and merit, as the death of one sinless, God and man in one person, is both a perfect satisfaction to the justice of God, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vgn-fe48e-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">which had condemned us for sin to death, and a fund of infinite merit, which has obtained him the right, without prejudice to justice, to give us sinners pardon of our sins, and grace to have victory over sin and death. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/lenovo-thinkpad-t520-laptop-keyboard.html"> Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Orthodox theology teaches prevenient grace, meaning that God makes the first movement toward man, and that salvation is impossible from our own will alone. However, man is endowed with free will, and an individual can either accept or reject the grace of God. Thus an individual must cooperate with God's grace to be saved, though he can claim no credit of his own, as any progress he makes is possible only by the grace of God. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/compaq-presario-cq71-403sa-laptop-keyboard.html">Compaq Presario CQ71-403SA laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Besides, the Orthodox Church supposes that the person has salvation not only by his good deeds, but also by his patient suffering of various griefs, illnesses, misfortunes, failures (Luke 16:19-31, Mark 8:31-38, Romans 6:3-11, Hebrews 12:1-3, Galatians 6:14).[35] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-2150us-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-2150us laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The Protestant Christian perspective on salvation is that no one can merit the grace of God by performing rituals, good works, asceticism or meditation, because grace is the result of God's initiative without any regard whatsoever to the one initiating the works. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-satellite-l655-s5083-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Broadly speaking, Protestants hold to the five solas of the Reformation which declare that salvation is by faith alone in Christ alone through grace alone for the Glory of God alone as told in Scripture alone. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-satellite-l655-s5083-laptop-keyboard.html">TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Some Protestants understand this to mean that God saves solely by grace and that works follow as a necessary consequence of saving grace (see Lordship salvation). Others rigidly believe that salvation is accomplished by faith alone without any reference to works whatsoever, including the works that may follow salvation (see Free Grace theology). <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-satellite-l655-s5160-laptop-keyboard.html">TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Still others believe that salvation is by faith alone but that salvation can be forfeited if it is not accompanied by continued faith and the works that naturally follow from it. Most Protestants believe that salvation is achieved through God's grace alone, and once salvation is secured in the person, good works will be a result of this, allowing good works to often operate as a signifier for salvation. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/packard-bell-easynote-tk85-laptop-keyboard.html">Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Karl Barth notes a range of alternative themes: forensic (we are guilty of a crime, and Christ takes the punishment), financial (we are indebted to God, and Christ pays our debt) and cultic (Christ makes a sacrifice on our behalf). <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/lenovo-3000-g430-4152-laptop-keyboard.html">Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">For various cultural reasons, the oldest themes (honor and sacrifice) prove to have more depth than the more modern ones (payment of a debt, punishment for a crime). But in all these alternatives, the understanding of atonement has the same structure. Human beings owe something to God that we cannot pay. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/acer-emachines-e640-laptop-keyboard.html">Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Christ pays it on our behalf. Thus God remains both perfectly just (insisting on a penalty) and perfectly loving (paying the penalty himself). A great many Christians would define such a substitutionary view of the atonement as simply part of what orthodox Christians believe.[33] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-mini-110-3504tu-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">According to Christian theologian Frank Stagg, salvation is rooted in the grace of God. "For bankrupt sinners with no ground of their own upon which to stand, with nothing of their own upon which to stand, with nothing of their own to hold up to God for [one's] reward, it is their only hope, but it is their sufficient hope."[36]:80<a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/lenovo-thinkpad-t520-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The general Christian belief that salvation means returning to the presence of God and Jesus is similar to the way the word is used in the Book of Mormon, wherein the prophet Amulek teaches that through the "great and last sacrifice" of the Son of God, "he shall bring salvation to all those who shall believe on his name; ... <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/sony-vgn-fe11h-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">to bring about the bowels of mercy, which overpowereth justice, and bringeth about means unto men that they may have faith unto repentance. And thus mercy can satisfy the demands of justice, and encircles them in the arms of safety, while he that exercises no faith unto repentance is exposed to the whole law of the demands of justice".[68] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/compaq-presario-c700-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">There are two kinds of salvation, conditional and unconditional. Unconditional salvation is similar to what is believed by other Christians in that the atonement of Jesus Christ redeems all mankind from the chains of death and they are resurrected to their perfect frames. They will also be redeemed from the powers of Satan, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-satellite-l200-laptop-keyboard.html">TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">except those sons of perdition of vile wickedness and those who have been enemies to God, in which they will be returned to their master. All others will receive a degree of glory set apart for their just metes. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-nsk-tk001-laptop-keyboard.html">TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Conditional salvation of the righteous comes by grace coupled with strict obedience to Gospel principles in which those who have upheld the highest standards and committed to the covenants and ordinances of God will inherit the highest heaven. Full salvation is attained by virtue of knowledge, truth, righteousness, and following true principles. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-mini-1010la-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Mini 1010LA laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Of the many gospels written in antiquity, only four gospels came to be accepted as part of the New Testament, or canonical. An insistence upon there being a canon of four gospels, and no others, was a central theme of Irenaeus of Lyons, c. 185. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-satellite-l505-s5993-laptop-keyboard.html">TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5993 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">In his central work, Adversus Haereses Irenaeus denounced various early Christian groups that used only one gospel, such as Marcionism which used onlyMarcion's version of Luke, or the Ebionites which seem to have used an Aramaic version of Matthew as well as groups that embraced the texts of newer writings,  <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-cs160j-cc1-w-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VAIO VGN-CS160J/W laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">such as the Valentinians (A.H. 1.11). Irenaeus declared that the four he espoused were the four "Pillars of the Church": "it is not possible that there can be either more or fewer than four" he stated, presenting as logic the analogy of the four corners of the earth and the four winds (3.11.8). <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-fw139e-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY Vaio VGN-FW139E laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">His image, taken from Ezekiel 1, or Revelation 4:6–10, of God's throne borne by four creatures with four faces—"the four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and the four had the face of an ox on the left side; <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-fz52b-laptop-keyboard.html"> SONY VAIO VGN-FZ52B laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">they four also had the face of an eagle"—equivalent to the "four-formed" gospel, is the origin of the conventional symbols of the Evangelists: lion, bull, eagle, man. Irenaeus was ultimately successful in declaring that the four gospels collectively, and exclusively these four, contained the truth. He also supported reading each gospel in light of the others. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/acer-aspire-3022wlmi-laptop-keyboard.html">ACER Aspire 3022WLMi laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">By the turn of the 5th century, the Catholic Church in the west, under Pope Innocent I, recognized a biblical canon including the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, which had been previously established at a number of regional Synods, namely the Council of Rome (382), the Synod of Hippo (393), and two Synods of Carthage (397 and 419).[22] This canon, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/toshiba-satellite-l750-st5n02-laptop-keyboard.html">TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST5N02 laptop keyboard</a></p>
which corresponds to the modern Catholic canon, was used in the Vulgate, an early 5th-century translation of the Bible made by Jerome[23] under the commission of Pope Damasus I in 382.
<p align="left">The majority view today is that Mark is the first gospel, with Matthew and Luke borrowing passages both from that gospel and from at least one other common source, lost to history, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-pavilion-dv6-1160ed-laptop-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion DV6-1160ed laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">termed by scholars 'Q' (from German: Quelle, meaning "source"). This view is known as the "two-source hypothesis".[26] The two-gospel hypothesis, in contrast, says that Matthew was written first (by Matthew the Apostle), and then Luke the Evangelist wrote his gospel (using Matthew as his main source) before Mark the Evangelist wrote his gospel (using Peter's testimony). John was written last and shares little with the synoptic gospels. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-fs195vp-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VAIO VGN-FS195VP laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The gospels were apparently composed in stages. Mark's traditional ending (Mark 16:9–20, see Mark 16) was most likely composed early in the 2nd century and appended to Mark in the middle of that century.[27] The birth and infancy narratives apparently developed late in the tradition. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/ibm-thinkpad-t42-laptop-keyboard.html">IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard</a> [28]</p>
The consensus among biblical scholars is that all four canonical gos
<p align="left">One of the most important concerns in accurately accounting for an oral Jesus tradition is the model of transmission used. Form criticism (Formgeschichte) was developed primarily by the German scholars Karl Ludwig Schmidt, Martin Dibelius, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/dell-inspiron-n4050-laptop-keyboard.html">DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">and Rudolf Bultmann.[44][45][46] The oral model developed by the form critics drew heavily on contemporary theory of folkloric transmission of oral material, and partly as a result of this form criticism posited that the Jesus traditionwas transmitted informally, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/gateway-mt3707-laptop-keyboard.html">GATEWAY MT3707 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">  added to freely, and was uncontrolled.[47] However, "Today it is no exaggeration to claim that a whole spectrum of main assumptions underlying Bultmann's Synoptic Tradition must be considered suspect."[48] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-pavilion-dv5-1211tx-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP Pavilion dv5-1211tx Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">A number of other models have been proposed which posit greater control over the tradition, to varying degrees. For example, largely in response to form critical scholarship, Birger Gerhardsson examined oral transmission in early rabbinic circles, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-nsk-tk001-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">and proposed that a more controlled and formal model of orality would more accurately reflect the transmission of the Jesus tradition in early Christian circles, and therefore that the oral traditions present in the gospels have been fairly reliably and faithfully transmitted.[49] <a href="http://2fwww.all-keyboard.com/sony-vaio-vpcf12-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">However, other scholars contend that early rabbinic transmissions were not all that concerned with historicity and were not "controlled" until 70 CE.[50] Kenneth E. Bailey (Asia Journal of Theology 5, 1991),  <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-mini-1010la-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP Mini 1010LA Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">after spending a great deal of time in remote and illiterate villages in the Middle East, used his experience with orality in such places to formulate a similar model of controlled transmission within the early Christian communities, but posited an informal mechanism of control.[47] <a href="http://2fwww.all-keyboard.com/sony-vaio-vpcf12-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Controlled models of the Jesus tradition, and with them an evaluation of the gospels as possessing greater historical reliability, have been accepted by some scholars in recent years.[51][52][53] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-pavilion-g6-1c58dx-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">However Thomas R. Yoder Neufeld (2007) adds that the early followers of Jesus were not interested in simply preserving the past but were also interested in fitting the narratives to suit urgent information, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/acer-aspire-3022wlmi-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">ACER Aspire 3022WLMi Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">audience interest and creativity in communication and believed that they were in direct communication with Jesus though the Holy Spirit, thus making it still difficult for historians to assess the historical reliability of the oral tradition.[54] <a href="http://all-keyboard.com/hp-640436-001-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
With regards to Kenneth E. Bailey's studies, Maurice Casey (2010) writes that they cannot be applied to 1st century Jews as they were about a different culture at a different time.[55]
<p align="left">The historicity of the gospels refers to the reliability and historic character of the four New Testament gospels as historical documents. Historians subject the gospels to critical analysis, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-pavilion-dv7-1000-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">attempting to differentiate authentic, reliable information from what they judge to be inventions, exaggerations, and alterations. However, all four of the Gospels meet the five criteria for historical reliability.[21] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-satellite-l750-st4n02-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Some biblical scholars consider the synoptic gospels to contain much reliable historical information about the historical Jesus as a Galilean teacher [56][57]and of the religious movement he founded, but not everything contained in the gospels is considered to be historically reliable.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-satellite-a110-series-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The baptism of Jesus, his preaching, and the crucifixion of Jesus are deemed to be historically authentic.[citation needed] Elements whose historical authenticity is disputed include the two accounts of the nativity of Jesus, <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/hp-compaq-nx6320-laptop-keyboard.html">HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">as well as certain details about the crucifixion and the resurrection.[58][59][60][61][62][63] The fourth gospel, John, includes a number of historically reliable details, but it differs greatly from the first three gospels, and historians largely discount it. The canonical gospels, overall, are considered to have more historically authentic content than the various non-canonical gospels.[citation needed] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/acer-aspire-5738zg-laptop-keyboard.html">ACER Aspire 5738ZG laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Some Christian scholars maintain that the gospels are inerrant descriptions of the life of Jesus.[64] On the other extreme, some scholars have concluded that the gospels provide no historical information about Jesus' life since the first gospel account (Mark) may have appeared as much as forty years after Jesus' death.[65] <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/acer-aspire-4810t-8480-laptop-keyboard.html">ACER Aspire 4810T-8480 laptop keyboard</a></p>
All four gospels portray Jesus as leading a group of disciples, performing miracles, preaching in Jerusalem, being crucified, and rising from the dead.
<p align="left">The synoptic gospels represent Jesus as an exorcist and healer who preached in parables about the coming Kingdom of God. <a href="http://www.keyboards-shop.com/asus-f3sr-laptop-keyboard.html">ASUS F3Sr laptop keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">He preached first in Galilee and later in Jerusalem, where he cleansed the temple. He states that he offers no sign as proof (Mark) or only the sign of Jonah (Matthew and Luke).[67] In Mark, apparently written with a Roman audience in mind, Jesus is a heroic man of action, given to powerful emotions, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/lenovo-thinkpad-t520-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">including agony.[36] In Matthew, apparently written for a Jewish audience, Jesus is repeatedly called out as the fulfillment of Hebrew prophecy.[36] In Luke, apparently written for gentiles, Jesus is especially concerned with the poor.[36] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-pavilion-dv7-3186cl-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">Luke emphasizes the importance of prayer and the action of the Holy Spirit in Jesus' life and in the Christian community.[68] Jesus appears as a stoic supernatural being, unmoved even by his own crucifixion.[66] Like Matthew, Luke insists that salvation offered by Christ is for all, and not the Jews only.[68][69] <a href="http://all-keyboard.com/ibm-thinkpad-t60-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">IBM Thinkpad T60 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The Gospel of John represents Jesus as an incarnation of the eternal Word (Logos), who spoke no parables, talked extensively about himself, and did not explicitly refer to a Second Coming.[36] Jesus preaches in Jerusalem, launching his ministry with the cleansing of the temple. He performs several miracles as signs, most of them not found in the synoptics. <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-pavilion-dv9243ea-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">The Gospel of John ends:(21:25) "And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written. Amen." <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/hp-605344-001-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">One important aspect of the study of the gospels is the genre under which they fall. Genre "is a key convention guiding both the composition and the interpretation of writings.[70] " Whether the gospel authors set out to write novels, <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/acer-travelmate-6292-laptop-keyboard-ic.html"> ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">myths, histories, or biographies has a tremendous impact on how they ought to be interpreted. If, for example, Rudolf Bultmann was correct, and the gospel authors had no interest in history or in a historical Jesus,[46] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/acer-aezg5r00010-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">ACER AEZG5R00010 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
<p align="left">then the gospels must be read and interpreted in this light. However, some recent studies suggest that the genre of the gospels ought to be situated within the realm of ancient biography.[71][72][73][74][75] Although not without critics,[76] the position that the gospels are a type of ancient biography is the consensus among scholars today.[77] <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/dell-vostro-1014-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
as "loan translation" is of "Lehnübersetzung".[2]
<p align="left">Proving that a word is a calque sometimes requires more documentation than does an untranslated loanword, since in some cases a similar phrase might have arisen in both languages independently. <a href="http://www.laptopkeyboard-shop.com/acer-travelmate-3232wxmi-keyboard.html"> ACER TravelMate 3232WXMi Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
This is less likely to be the case when the grammar of the proposed calque is quite different from that of the language proposed to be borrowing, or the calque contains less obvious imagery.
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<p align="left">While calquing includes (semantic) translation, it does not consist of phonetic matching (i.e. retaining the approximate sound of the borrowed word through matching it with a similar-sounding pre-existent word or morpheme in the target language). <a href="http://www.all-keyboard.com/compaq-presario-cq42-228la-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard</a></p>
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