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24 juin 2012 7 24 /06 /juin /2012 05:10

Charles Dickens

Charles John Huffam Dickens ( /ˈtʃɑrlz ˈdɪkɪnz/; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic who is generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period and the creator of some of the world's most memorable fictional characters.[1]HP Pavilion dv5z-1200 CTO Keyboard

During his lifetime Dickens's works enjoyed unprecedented popularity and fame, and by the twentieth century his literary genius was fully recognized by critics and scholars. His novels and short stories continue to enjoy an enduring popularity among the general reading public.[2][3] HP Pavilion DV6-1000 Keyboard

Born in Portsmouth, England, Dickens left school to work in a factory after his father was thrown into debtors' prison. Though he had little formal education, his early impoverishment drove him to succeed. He edited a weekly journal for 20 years, HP Pavilion DV6-1000 cto Keyboard

wrote 15 novels and hundreds of short stories and non-fiction articles, lectured and performed extensively, was an indefatigable letter writer, and campaigned vigorously for children's rights, education, and other social reforms. HP Pavilion DV6-1000eg Keyboard

Dickens rocketed to fame with the 1836 serial publication of The Pickwick Papers. Within a few years he had become an international literary celebrity, celebrated for his humour, satire, and keen observation of character and society. His novels, most published in monthly or weekly instalments, HP Pavilion DV6-1000et Keyboard

pioneered the serial publication of narrative fiction, which became the dominant Victorian mode for novel publication.[4][5] The instalment format allowed Dickens to evaluate his audience's reaction, and he often modified his plot and character development based on such feedback.[5]HP Pavilion DV6-1001tx Keyboard

For example, when his wife's chiropodist expressed distress at the way Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield seemed to reflect her disabilities, Dickens went on to improve the character with positive lineaments.[6] Fagin in Oliver Twist apparently mirrors the famous fence, Ikey Solomon;[7]HP Pavilion DV6-1001xx Keyboard

His caricature of Leigh Hunt in the figure of Mr Skimpole in Bleak House was likewise toned down on advice from some of his friends, as they read episodes.[8] In the same novel, both Lawrence Boythorne and Mooney the beadle are drawn from real life – Boythorne from Walter Savage Landor and Mooney from 'Looney', HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx Keyboard

a beadle at Salisbury Square.[9] His plots were carefully constructed, and Dickens often wove in elements from topical events into his narratives.[10] Masses of the illiterate poor chipped in ha'pennies to have each new monthly episode read to them, opening up and inspiring a new class of readers.[11] HP Pavilion DV6-1003tx Keyboard

Dickens was regarded as the 'literary colossus' of his age.[12] His 1843 novella, A Christmas Carol, is one of the most influential works ever written, and it remains popular and continues to inspire adaptations in every artistic genre. His creative genius has been praised by fellow writers—from Leo Tolstoy to G. K. Chesterton and George Orwell—for itsrealism, HP Pavilion DV6-1004tx Keyboard

comedy, prose style, unique characterisations, and social criticism. On the other hand Oscar Wilde, Henry Jamesand Virginia Woolf complained of a lack of psychological depth, loose writing, and a vein of saccharine sentimentalism. HP Pavilion DV6-1005ea Keyboard

Charles Dickens was born on 7 February 1812, at Landport in Portsea, the second of eight children to John and Elizabeth Dickens. His father was a clerk in the Navy Pay Office and was temporarily on duty in the district. Very soon after his birth the family moved to Norfolk Street, HP Pavilion DV6-1005ez Keyboard

Bloomsbury, and then, when he was four, to Chatham, then in Kent, where he spent his formative years until the age of 11. His early years seem to have been idyllic, though he thought himself a "very small and not-over-particularly-taken-care-of boy".[13] HP Pavilion DV6-1005tx Keyboard

Charles spent time outdoors, but also read voraciously, especially the picaresque novels of Tobias Smollett and Henry Fielding. HP Pavilion DV6-1006tx Keyboard

He retained poignant memories of childhood, helped by a near-photographic memory of people and events, which he used in his writing.[14]His father's brief period as a clerk in the Navy Pay Office gave him a few years of private education, first at a dame-school, and then at a school run by William Giles, a dissenter, in Chatham.[15] HP Pavilion DV6-1007tx Keyboard

This period came to an abrupt end when, because of financial difficulties, the Dickens family moved from Kent to Camden Town in London in 1822. Prone to living beyond his means,[17] John Dickens was imprisoned in the Marshalsea debtors' prison in Southwark London in 1824. HP Pavilion DV6-1008tx Keyboard

Shortly afterwards, his wife and the youngest children joined him there, as was the practice at the time. Charles, then 12 years old, was boarded with Elizabeth Roylance, a family friend, in Camden Town.[18] Roylance was "a reduced [impoverished] old lady, long known to our family",HP Pavilion DV6-1009el Keyboard

whom Dickens later immortalised, "with a few alterations and embellishments", as "Mrs. Pipchin", in Dombey and Son. Later, he lived in a back-attic in the house of an agent for the Insolvent Court, Archibald Russell, "a fat, good-natured, kind old gentleman ... with a quiet old wife" and lame son, in Lant Street in The Borough.[19] They provided the inspiration for the Garlands in The Old Curiosity Shop.[20] HP Pavilion DV6-1009tx Keyboard

On Sundays—with his sister Frances, free from her studies at the Royal Academy of Music—he spent the day at the Marshalsea.[21]Dickens would later use the prison as a setting in Little Dorrit. To pay for his board and to help his family, Dickens was forced to leave school and work ten-hour days at Warren's Blacking Warehouse, HP Pavilion DV6-1010ea Keyboard

on Hungerford Stairs, near the present Charing Cross railway station, where he earned six shillings a week pasting labels on pots of boot blacking. The strenuous and often cruel working conditions made a lasting impression on Dickens and later influenced his fiction and essays, HP Pavilion DV6-1010ed Keyboard

becoming the foundation of his interest in the reform of socio-economic and labour conditions, the rigours of which he believed were unfairly borne by the poor. He later wrote that he wondered "how I could have been so easily cast away at such an age".[22] As he recalled to John Forster (from The Life of Charles Dickens): HP Pavilion DV6-1010ef Keyboard

The blacking-warehouse was the last house on the left-hand side of the way, at old Hungerford Stairs. It was a crazy, tumble-down old house, abutting of course on the river, and literally overrun with rats. Its wainscoted rooms, and its rotten floors and staircase, and the old grey rats swarming down in the cellars, HP Pavilion DV6-1010et Keyboard

and the sound of their squeaking and scuffling coming up the stairs at all times, and the dirt and decay of the place, rise up visibly before me, as if I were there again. The counting-house was on the first floor, looking over the coal-barges and the river. HP Pavilion DV6-1010tx Keyboard

There was a recess in it, in which I was to sit and work. My work was to cover the pots of paste-blacking; first with a piece of oil-paper, and then with a piece of blue paper; to tie them round with a string; and then to clip the paper close and neat, all round, until it looked as smart as a pot of ointment from an apothecary's shop. HP Pavilion DV6-1011tx Keyboard

When a certain number of grosses of pots had attained this pitch of perfection, I was to paste on each a printed label, and then go on again with more pots. HP Pavilion DV6-1012el Keyboard

Two or three other boys were kept at similar duty down-stairs on similar wages. One of them came up, in a ragged apron and a paper cap, on the first Monday morning, to show me the trick of using the string and tying the knot. His name was Bob Fagin; and I took the liberty of using his name, long afterwards, in Oliver Twist.[22] HP Pavilion DV6-1012tx Keyboard

After a few months in Marshalsea, John Dickens's paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Dickens, died and bequeathed him the sum of £450. On the expectation of this legacy, Dickens was granted release from prison. Under the Insolvent Debtors Act, Dickens arranged for payment of his creditors, and he and his family left Marshalsea,[23] for the home of Mrs. Roylance. HP Pavilion DV6-1013ea Keyboard

Although Dickens eventually attended the Wellington House Academy in North London, his mother Elizabeth Dickens did not immediately remove him from the boot-blacking factory. The incident may have done much to confirm Dickens's view that a father should rule the family, a mother find her proper sphere inside the home. HP Pavilion DV6-1013tx Keyboard

"I never afterwards forgot, I never shall forget, I never can forget, that my mother was warm for my being sent back". His mother's failure to request his return was a factor in his dissatisfied attitude towards women. HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Keyboard

" The Wellington House Academy was not a good school. "Much of the haphazard, desultory teaching, poor discipline punctuated by the headmaster's sadistic brutality, the seedy ushers and general run-down atmosphere, are embodied in Mr. Creakle's Establishment in David Copperfield."[26] HP Pavilion DV6-1014tx Keyboard

Dickens worked at the law office of Ellis and Blackmore, attorneys, of Holborn Court, Gray's Inn, as a junior clerk from May 1827 to November 1828. Then, having learned Gurney's system of shorthand in his spare time, he left to become a freelance reporter. HP Pavilion DV6-1016el Keyboard

A distant relative, Thomas Charlton, was a freelance reporter at Doctors' Commons, and Dickens was able to share his box there to report the legal proceedings for nearly four years.[27][28] This education was to inform works such as Nicholas Nickleby, HP Pavilion DV6-1016ez Keyboard

Dombey and Son, and especially Bleak House—whose vivid portrayal of the machinations and bureaucracy of the legal system did much to enlighten the general public and served as a vehicle for dissemination of Dickens's own views regarding, particularly, the heavy burden on the poor who were forced by circumstances to "go to law".HP Pavilion DV6-1018el Keyboard

In 1830, Dickens met his first love, Maria Beadnell, thought to have been the model for the character Dora in David Copperfield. Maria's parents disapproved of the courtship and ended the relationship by sending her to school in Paris.[29] HP Pavilion DV6-1020ec Keyboard

Journalism and early novels

In 1832, at age 20, Dickens was energetic, full of good humour, enjoyed mimicry and popular entertainment, lacked a clear sense of what he wanted to become, yet knew he wanted to be famous. He was drawn to the theatre and landed an acting audition at Covent Garden, HP Pavilion DV6-1020ed Keyboard

for which he prepared meticulously but which he missed because of a cold, ending his aspirations for a career on the stage. A year later he submitted his first story, "A Dinner at Poplar Walk" to the London periodical, Monthly Magazine.[30] He rented rooms at Furnival's Inn becoming a political journalist, HP Pavilion DV6-1020ef Keyboard

reporting on parliamentary debate and travelling across Britain to cover election campaigns for the Morning Chronicle. His journalism, in the form of sketches in periodicals, formed his first collection of piecesSketches by Boz—Boz being a family nickname he employed as a pseudonym for some years—published in 1836.[31][32][nb 1] He continued to contribute to and edit journals throughout his literary career.[30] HP Pavilion DV6-1020ei Keyboard

The success of these sketches led to a proposal from publishers Chapman and Hall for Dickens to supply text to match Robert Seymour's engraved illustrations in a monthly letterpress. Seymour committed suicide after the second instalment and Dickens, HP Pavilion DV6-1020ej Keyboard

who wanted to write a connected series or sketches, hired "Phiz" to provide the engravings (which were reduced from four to two per instalment) for the story. The resulting story was the The Pickwick Papers with the final instalment selling 40,000 copies.[30] HP Pavilion DV6-1020ek Keyboard

In November 1836 Dickens accepted the job of editor of Bentley's Miscellany, a position he held for three years, until he fell out with the owner.[33] In 1836 as he finished the last instalments of The Pickwick Papers he began writing the beginning instalments ofOliver Twist—writing as many as 90 pages a month—while continuing work on Bentley's, HP Pavilion DV6-1020el Keyboard

writing four plays, the production of which he oversaw. Oliver Twist, published in 1838, became one of Dicken's better known stories, with dialogue that transferred well to the stage (most likely because he was writing stage plays at the same time) and more importantly, it was the first Victorian with a child protagonist.[34] HP Pavilion DV6-1020eq Keyboard

On 2 April 1836, after a one year engagement during which he wrote The Pickwick Papers, he marriedCatherine Thomson Hogarth (1816–1879), the daughter of George Hogarth, editor of the Evening Chronicle.[35] After a brief honeymoon in Chalk, Kent, they returned to lodgings at Furnival's Inn.[36] HP Pavilion DV6-1020es Keyboard

The first of ten children, Charley, was born in January 1837, and a few months later the family set uphome in Bloomsbury at 48 Doughty Street, London, (on which Charles had a three-year lease at £80 a year) from 25 March 1837 until December 1839.[35][37]HP Pavilion DV6-1020et Keyboard

Dickens's younger brother Frederick and Catherine's 17-year-old sister Mary moved in with them. Dickens became very attached to Mary, and she died in his arms after a brief illness in 1837. Dickens idealised her and is thought to have drawn on memories of her for his later descriptions of Rose Maylie, Little Nell and Florence Dombey.[38]HP Pavilion DV6-1021el Keyboard

His grief was so great that he was unable to make the deadline for the June instalment of Pickwick Papers and had to cancel the Oliver Twistinstalment that month as well.[34] HP Pavilion DV6-1022el Keyboard

At the same time, his success as a novelist continued, Nicholas Nickleby (1838–39), The Old Curiosity Shop and, finally, Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of 'Eighty as part of the Master Humphrey's Clock series (1840–41)—all published in monthly instalments before being made into books.[39] HP Pavilion DV6-1023ef Keyboard

First visit to the United States

In 1842, Dickens and his wife made their first trip to the United States and Canada. At this time Georgina Hogarth, another sister of Catherine, joined the Dickens household, now living at Devonshire Terrace, Marylebone, to care for the young family they had left behind.[40] She remained with them as housekeeper, organiser, adviser and friend until Dickens's death in 1870.[41] HP Pavilion DV6-1023em Keyboard

He described his impressions in a travelogue, American Notes for General Circulation. Some of the episodes in Martin Chuzzlewit(1843–44) also drew on these first-hand experiences. Dickens includes in Notes a powerful condemnation of slavery, which he had attacked as early as The Pickwick Papers, HP Pavilion DV6-1025ef Keyboard

correlating the emancipation of the poor in England with the abolition of slavery abroad.[42] During his visit, Dickens spent a month in New York City, giving lectures and raising the question of international copyright laws and the pirating of his work in America.[43][44] HP Pavilion DV6-1025ei Keyboard

He persuaded twenty five writers, headed by Washington Irving to sign a petition for him to take to congress, but the press were generally hostile to this saying that he should be grateful for his popularity and that it was mercenary to complain about his work being pirated.[45] HP Pavilion DV6-1025em Keyboard

In the early 1840s Dickens showed an interest in Unitarian Christianity, although he never strayed from his attachment to popular lay Anglicanism.[46] Soon after his return to England, Dickens began work on the first of his Christmas stories, A Christmas Carol, written in 1843, HP Pavilion DV6-1025ez Keyboard

which was followed by The Chimes in 1844 and The Cricket on the Hearth in 1845. Of these A Christmas Carol was most popular and, tapping in to an old tradition, did much promote a renewed enthusiasm for the joys of Christmas in Britain and America.[47] HP Pavilion DV6-1027ef Keyboard

The seeds for the story were planted in Dickens's mind during a trip to Manchester to witness conditions of the manufacturing workers there. This, along with scenes he had recently witnessed at the Field Lane Ragged School, caused Dickens to resolve to "strike a sledge hammer blow" for the poor. HP Pavilion DV6-1027nr Keyboard

As the idea for the story took shape and the writing began in earnest, Dickens became engrossed in the book. He wrote that as the tale unfolded he "wept and laughed, and wept again" as he "walked about the black streets of London fifteen or twenty miles many a night when all sober folks had gone to bed."[48] HP Pavilion DV6-1028tx Keyboard

After living briefly in Italy (1844) Dickens travelled to Switzerland (1846); it was here he began work on Dombey and Son (1846–48). This and David Copperfield (1849–50) mark a significant artistic break in Dickens's career as his novels became more serious in theme and more carefully planned than his early works. HP Pavilion DV6-1030ca Keyboard

In May 1846 Angela Burdett Coutts, heir to the Coutts banking fortune, approached Dickens about setting up a home for the redemption of fallen women from the working class. Coutts envisioned a home that would replace the punitive regimes of existing institutions with a reformative environment conducive to education and proficiency in domestic household chores. HP Pavilion DV6-1030eb Keyboard

After initially resisting, Dickens eventually founded the home, named "Urania Cottage", in the Lime Grove section of Shepherds Bush, which he was to manage for ten years,[49] setting the house rules and reviewing the accounts and interviewing prospective residents.[50] HP Pavilion DV6-1030ec Keyboard

Emigration and marriage were central to Dickens's agenda for the women on leaving Urania Cottage, from which it is estimated that about 100 women graduated between 1847 and 1859.[51] HP Pavilion DV6-1030ed Keyboard

Middle years

In late November 1851, Dickens moved into Tavistock House where he wrote Bleak House (1852–53), Hard Times (1854) and Little Dorrit (1857).[52] It was here he indulged in the amateur theatricals which are described in Forster's "Life".[53] In 1856, HP Pavilion DV6-1030ef Keyboard

his income from writing allowed him to buy Gad's Hill Place in Higham, Kent. As a child, Dickens had walked past the house and dreamed of living in it. The area was also the scene of some of the events of Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1 and this literary connection pleased him.[54] HP Pavilion DV6-1030em Keyboard

In 1857, Dickens hired professional actresses for the play The Frozen Deep, which he and his protégé Wilkie Collins had written. Dickens fell deeply in love with one of the actresses, Ellen Ternan, which was to last the rest of his life.[55] Dickens was 45 and Ternan 18 when he made the decision, which went strongly against Victorian convention, to separate from his wife, Catherine, HP Pavilion DV6-1030eo Keyboard

in 1858—divorce was still unthinkable for someone as famous as he was. When Catherine left, never to see her husband again, she took with her one child, leaving the other children to be raised by her sister Georgina who chose to stay at Gad's Hill.[41] HP Pavilion DV6-1030eq Keyboard

During this period, whilst pondering about giving public readings for his own profit, Dickens was approached by Great Ormond Street Hospital to help it survive its first major financial crisis through a charitable appeal. HP Pavilion DV6-1030us Keyboard

His 'Drooping Buds’ essay inHousehold Words earlier in 3 April 1852 was considered by the hospital’s founders to have been the catalyst for the hospital’s success.[56] Dickens, whose philanthropy was well-known, was asked by his friend, the hospital's founder Charles West, to preside and he threw himself into the task, heart and soul.[57]HP Pavilion DV6-1038ca Keyboard

Dickens's public readings secured sufficient funds for an endowment to put the hospital on a sound financial footing — one of 9 February 1858 alone raised £3,000.[58][59][60] HP Pavilion DV6-1039el Keyboard

After separating from Catherine,[61] Dickens undertook a series of hugely popular and remunerative reading tours which, together with his journalism, were to absorb most of his creative energies for the next decade, in which he was to write only two more novels.[62]HP Pavilion DV6-1040eb Keyboard

His first reading tour, lasting from April 1858 to February 1859, consisted of 129 appearances in 49 different towns throughout England, Scotland and Ireland.[63] Dickens's continued fascination with the theatrical world was written into the theatre scenes in Nicholas Nickleby, but more importantly he found an outlet in public readings. HP Pavilion DV6-1040ed Keyboard

In 1866, he undertook a series of public readings in England and Scotland, with more the following year in England and Ireland.

Major works, A Tale of Two Cities (1859); and Great Expectations (1861) soon followed and were resounding successes. During this time he was also the publisher and editor of, and a major contributor to, the journals Household Words (1850–1859) and All the Year Round (1858–1870).[64] HP Pavilion DV6-1040ei Keyboard

In early September 1860, in a field behind Gad's Hill, Dickens made a great bonfire of almost his entire correspondence—only those letters on business matters were spared. Since Ellen Ternan also destroyed all of his letters to her,[65]HP Pavilion DV6-1040ej Keyboard

the extent of the affair between the two remains speculative.[66] In the 1930s, Thomas Wright recounted that Ternan had unburdened herself with a Canon Benham, and gave currency to rumours they had been lovers.[67] That the two had a son who died in infancy was alleged by Dickens's daughter, HP Pavilion DV6-1040ek Keyboard

Kate Perugini, whom Gladys Storey had interviewed before her death in 1929, and published her account in Dickens and Daughter,[68][69] although no contemporary evidence exists. On his death, Dickens settled an annuity on Ternan which made her a financially independent woman. HP Pavilion DV6-1040el Keyboard

Claire Tomalin's book, The Invisible Woman, argues that Ternan lived with Dickens secretly for the last 13 years of his life. The book was subsequently turned into a play, Little Nell, by Simon Gray.

In the same period, Dickens furthered his interest in the paranormal, becoming one of the early members of The Ghost Club.[70] HP Pavilion DV6-1040ev Keyboard

On 9 June 1865, while returning from Paris with Ternan, Dickens was involved in the Staplehurst rail crash. The first seven carriages of the train plunged off a cast iron bridge under repair. The only first-class carriage to remain on the track was the one in which Dickens was travelling. HP Pavilion DV6-1040ez Keyboard

Before rescuers arrived, Dickens tended and comforted the wounded and the dying with a flask of brandy and a hat refreshed with water and saved some lives. Before leaving, he remembered the unfinished manuscript for Our Mutual Friend, and he returned to his carriage to retrieve it.[71]HP Pavilion DV6-1042el Keyboard

Dickens later used this experience as material for his short ghost story, "The Signal-Man", in which the central character has a premonition of his own death in a rail crash. He also based the story on several previous rail accidents, such as the Clayton Tunnel rail crash of 1861. HP Pavilion DV6-1044el Keyboard

Dickens managed to avoid an appearance at the inquest to avoid disclosing that he had been travelling with Ternan and her mother, which would have caused a scandal. Although physically unharmed, Dickens never really recovered from the trauma of the Staplehurst crash, and his normally prolific writing shrank to completing Our Mutual Friend and starting the unfinishedThe Mystery of Edwin Drood. HP Pavilion DV6-1045ee Keyboard

Second visit to the United States

On 9 November 1867, Dickens sailed from Liverpool for his second American reading tour. Landing at Boston, he devoted the rest of the month to a round of dinners with such notables as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and his American publisher James Thomas Fields. HP Pavilion DV6-1045ei Keyboard

During his travels, he saw a significant change in the people and the circumstances of America. His final appearance was at a banquet the American Press held in his honour at Delmonico's on 18 April, when he promised never to denounce America again. HP Pavilion DV6-1045eo Keyboard

By the end of the tour, the author could hardly manage solid food, subsisting on champagne and eggs beaten in sherry. On 23 April, he boarded his ship to return to Britain, barely escaping a Federal Tax Lien against the proceeds of his lecture tour.[73] HP Pavilion DV6-1045ez Keyboard

Between 1868 and 1869, Dickens gave a series of "farewell readings" in England, Scotland, and Ireland, beginning on 6 October. He managed, of a contracted 100 readings, to deliver 75 in the provinces, with a further 12 in London.[72] HP Pavilion DV6-1050ef Keyboard

As he pressed on he was affected by giddiness and fits of paralysis and collapsed on 22 April 1869, at Preston in Lancashire, and on doctor's advice, the tour was cancelled.[74] After further provincial readings were cancelled, he began work on his final novel, The Mystery of Edwin Drood. HP G62-a30SP Keyboard

It was fashionable in the 1860s to 'do the slums' and, in company, Dickens visited opium dens in Shadwell, where he witnessed an elderly addict known as "Laskar Sal", who formed the model for the "Opium Sal" subsequently featured in his mystery novel, Edwin Drood.[75] HP G62-a30SS Keyboard

When he had regained sufficient strength, Dickens arranged, with medical approval, for a final series of readings at least partially to make up to his sponsors what they had lost due to his illness. There were to be 12 performances, running between 11 January and 15 March 1870, HP Pavilion DV6-1046el Keyboard

he last taking place at 8:00 pm at St. James's Hall in London. Although in grave health by this time, he read A Christmas Carol and The Trial from Pickwick. On 2 May, he made his last public appearance at a Royal Academy Banquet in the presence of the Prince and Princess of Wales, paying a special tribute on the death of his friend, illustrator Daniel Maclise.[76] HP G62-a30ST Keyboard

Death

On 8 June 1870, Dickens suffered another stroke at his home, after a full day's work on Edwin Drood. He never regained consciousness, and the next day, on 9 June, five years to the day after the Staplehurst rail crash, he died at Gad's Hill Place. Contrary to his wish to be buried at Rochester Cathedral "in an inexpensive, HP G62-a30SY Keyboard

unostentatious, and strictly private manner,"[79] he was laid to rest in the Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey. A printed epitaph circulated at the time of the funeral reads: "To the Memory of Charles Dickens (England's most popular author) who died at his residence, Higham, near Rochester, HP G62-a31EE Keyboard

Kent, 9 June 1870, aged 58 years. He was a sympathiser with the poor, the suffering, and the oppressed; and by his death, one of England's greatest writers is lost to the world."[80] His last words were: "On the ground", in response to his daughter Georgina's request that he lie down.[81][nb 3] HP G62-a31SO Keyboard

On Sunday, 19 June 1870, five days after Dickens was buried in the Abbey, Dean Arthur Penrhyn Stanley delivered a memorial elegy, lauding "the genial and loving humorist whom we now mourn", for showing by his own example "that even in dealing with the darkest scenes and the most degraded characters, HP G62-a32EE Keyboard

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genius could still be clean, and mirth could be innocent." Pointing to the fresh flowers that adorned the novelist's grave, Stanley assured those present that "the spot would thenceforth be a sacred one with both the New World and the Old, as that of the representative of literature, not of this island only, but of all who speak our English tongue."[82] HP G62-a32SO Keyboard

Literary style

Dickens loved the style of the 18th century picaresque novels which he found in abundance on his father's shelves. According to Ackroyd, other than these, perhaps the most important literary influence on him was derived from the fables of The Arabian Nights.[83] HP G62-a33EE Keyboard

His writing style is marked by a profuse linguistic creativity.[84] Satire, flourishing in his gift for caricature is his forte. An early reviewer compared him to Hogarth for his keen practical sense of the ludicrous side of life, though his acclaimed mastery of varieties of class idiom may in fact mirror the conventions of contemporary popular theatre.[85]HP G62-a33EO Keyboard

Dickens worked intensively on developing arresting names for his characters that would reverberate with associations for his readers, and assist the development of motifs in the storyline, giving what one critic calls an "allegorical impetus" to the novels' meanings.[84]

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To cite one of numerous examples, the name Mr. Murdstone in David Copperfield conjures up twin allusions to "murder" and stony coldness.[86] His literary style is also a mixture of fantasy and realism. His satires of British aristocratic snobbery—he calls one character the "Noble Refrigerator"—are often popular. Comparing orphans to stocks and shares, HP G62-a33SZ Keyboard

people to tug boats, or dinner-party guests to furniture are just some of Dickens's acclaimed flights of fancy.

The author worked closely with his illustrators, supplying them with a summary of the work at the outset and thus ensuring that his characters and settings were exactly how he envisioned them. He would brief the illustrator on plans for each month's instalment so that work could begin before he wrote them. HP G62-a34EE Keyboard

Marcus Stone, illustrator of Our Mutual Friend, recalled that the author was always "ready to describe down to the minutest details the personal characteristics, and ... life-history of the creations of his fancy."[87] HP G62-a34SE Keyboard

Characters

Dickens's biographer Claire Tomalin regards him as the greatest creator of character in English fiction after Shakespeare.[88]HP G62-a34SO Keyboard

Dickensian characters, especially so because of their typically whimsical names, are amongst the most memorable in English literature. The likes of Ebenezer Scrooge, Tiny Tim, Jacob Marley, Bob Cratchit, Oliver Twist, The Artful Dodger, Fagin, Bill Sikes, Pip, Miss Havisham, HP G62-a35EP Keyboard

Charles Darnay, David Copperfield, Mr. Micawber, Abel Magwitch, Daniel Quilp,Samuel Pickwick, Wackford Squeers, Uriah Heep are so well known as to be part and parcel of British culture, and in some cases have passed into ordinary language: a scrooge, for example, is a miser. HP G62-a35ER Keyboard

His characters were often so memorable that they took on a life of their own outside his books. Gamp became a slang expression for an umbrella from the character Mrs Gamp and Pickwickian, Pecksniffian, and Gradgrind all entered dictionaries due to Dickens's original portraits of such characters who werequixotic, HP G62-a35ET Keyboard

hypocritical, or vapidly factual. Many were drawn from real life: Mrs Nickleby is based on his mother, though she didn't recognize herself in the portrait,[89] just as Mr Micawber is constructed from aspects of his father's 'rhetorical exuberance':[90]HP G62-a35EW Keyboard

Harold Skimpole in Bleak House, is based on James Henry Leigh Hunt: his wife's dwarfish chiropodist recognized herself in Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield.[91][92] Perhaps Dickens's impressions on his meeting with Hans Christian Andersen informed the delineation of Uriah Heep.[93] HP G62-a35EZ Keyboard

Virginia Woolf maintained that "we remodel our psychological geography when we read Dickens" as he produces "characters who exist not in detail, not accurately or exactly, but abundantly in a cluster of wild yet extraordinarily revealing remarks."[94]

One "character" vividly drawn throughout his novels is London itself. From the coaching inns on the outskirts of the city to the lower reaches of the Thames, all aspects of the capital are described over the course of his body of work. HP G62-a35SO Keyboard

Autobiographical elements

Authors frequently draw their portraits of characters from people they have known in real life. David Copperfield is regarded as strongly autobiographical. The scenes in Bleak House of interminable court cases and legal arguments reflect Dickens's experiences as law clerk and court reporter, HP G62-a35SP Keyboard

and in particular his direct experience of the law's procedural delay during 1844 when he sued publishers in Chancery for breach of copyright.[95] Dickens's father was sent to prison for debt, and this became a common theme in many of his books, HP G62-a35SS Keyboard

with the detailed depiction of life in the Marshalsea prison in Little Dorritresulting from Dickens's own experiences of the institution.[96] Lucy Stroughill, a childhood sweetheart may have affected several of Dickens's portraits of girls such as Little Em'ly in David Copperfield and Lucie Manette in A Tale of Two Cities.[97][nb 4]HP G62-a36SL Keyboard

Dickens may have drawn on his childhood experiences, but he was also ashamed of them and would not reveal that this was where he gathered his realistic accounts of squalor. Very few knew the details of his early life until six years after his death when John Forster published a biography on which Dickens had collaborated. HP G62-a36SO Keyboard

Even figures based on real people can, at the same time, represent at the same time elements of the writer's own personality. Though Skimpole brutally sends up Leigh Hunt, some critics have detected in his portrait features of Dickens's own character, which he sought to exorcise by self-parody.[98] HP G62-a37SF Keyboard

Episodic writing

Most of Dickens's major novels were first written in monthly or weekly instalments in journals such as Master Humphrey's Clock and Household Words, later reprinted in book form. These instalments made the stories cheap, accessible and the series of regular cliff-hangers made each new episode widely anticipated. HP G62-a37SO Keyboard

When The Old Curiosity Shop was being serialized, American fans even waited at the docks in New York, shouting out to the crew of an incoming ship, "Is little Nell dead?"[99] Part of Dickens's great talent was to incorporate this episodic writing style but still end up with a coherent novel at the end. HP G62-a38EE Keyboard

Another important impact of Dickens's episodic writing style resulted from his exposure to the opinions of his readers and friends. His friend Forster had a significant hand, reviewing his drafts, that went beyond matters of punctation. He toned down melodramatic and sensationalist exaggerations, cut long passages, HP G62-a38EO Keyboard

(such as the episode of Quilp's drowning in The Old Curiosity Shop), and made suggestions about plot and character. It was he who suggested that Charley Bates should be redeemed in Oliver Twist. Dickens had not thought of killing Little Nell, and it was Forster who advised him to entertain this possibility as necessary to his conception of the heroine.[100] HP G62-a38SE Keyboard

Dickens's novels were, among other things, works of social commentary. He was a fierce critic of the poverty and social stratification of Victorian society. In a New York address, he expressed his belief that, "Virtue shows quite as well in rags and patches as she does in purple and fine linen".[101]HP G62-a39EE Keyboard

Dickens's second novel, Oliver Twist (1839), shocked readers with its images of poverty and crime: it destroyed middle class polemics about criminals, making any pretence to ignorance about what poverty entailed impossible.[102][103] HP G62-a39SE Keyboard

Dickens is often described as using 'idealised' characters and highly sentimental scenes to contrast with his caricatures and the ugly social truths he reveals. The story of Nell Trent in The Old Curiosity Shop (1841) was received as extraordinarily moving by contemporary readers but viewed as ludicrously sentimental byOscar Wilde. HP G62-a40EC Keyboard

"You would need to have a heart of stone", he declared in one of his famous witticisms, "not to laugh at the death of little Nell."[104]HP G62-a40EE Keyboard

G. K. Chesterton, stating that "It is not the death of little Nell, but the life of little Nell, that I object to", argued that the maudlin effect of his description of her life owed much to the gregarious nature of Dickens's grief, his 'despotic' use of people's feelings to move them to tears in works like this.[105] HP G62-a40EP Keyboard

In Oliver Twist Dickens provides readers with an idealised portrait of a boy so inherently and unrealistically 'good' that his values are never subverted by either brutal orphanages or coerced involvement in a gang of young pickpockets. While later novels also centre on idealised characters (Esther Summerson inBleak House and Amy Dorrit in Little Dorrit), HP G62-a40ER Keyboard

this idealism serves only to highlight Dickens's goal of poignant social commentary. Many of his novels are concerned with social realism, focusing on mechanisms of social control that direct people's lives (for instance, factory networks in Hard Times and hypocritical exclusionary class codes in Our Mutual Friend). HP G62-a40EV Keyboard

Dickens's fiction, reflecting what he believed to be true of his own life, scintillates with coincidences.[106] Oliver Twist turns out to be the lost nephew of the upper class family that randomly rescues him from the dangers of the pickpocket group. Such coincidences are a staple of 18th-century picaresque novels, such as Henry Fielding's Tom Jones that Dickens enjoyed reading as a youth.[107] HP G62-a40EW Keyboard

Reception

Dickens was the most popular novelist of his time,[108] and remains one of the best known and most read of English authors. His works have never gone out of print,[109] and have been adapted continuously for the screen since the invention of cinema,[110] HP G62-a40SA Keyboard

with at least 200 motion pictures and TV adaptations based on Dickens's works documented.[111] Many of his works were adapted for the stage during his own lifetime and as early as 1913, a silent film of The Pickwick Paperswas made. HP G62-a40SP Keyboard

Among fellow writers, Dickens has been both lionized and mocked. Leo Tolstoy, G. K. Chesterton and George Orwell praised his realism, comic voice, prose fluency, and genius for satiric caricature, as well as his passionate advocacy on behalf of children and the poor. HP G62-a41EE Keyboard

On the other hand, Oscar Wilde generally disparaged his depiction of character, while admiring his gift for caricature;[112] His late contemporary William Wordsworth, by then Poet laureate, thought him a "very talkative, vulgar young person", HP G62-a41SF Keyboard

adding he had not read a line of his work; Dickens in return thought Wordsworth "a dreadful Old Ass".[113] Henry James denied him a premier position, calling him, "the greatest of superficial novelists": Dickens failed to endow his characters with psychological depth and the novels, "loose baggy monsters"[114] HP G62-a42EE Keyboard

betrayed a "cavalier organisation".[115] Virginia Woolf had a love-hate relationship with his works, finding his novels "mesmerizing" while reproving him for his sentimentalism and a commonplace style.[116] HP G62-a43EE Keyboard

It is likely that A Christmas Carol stands as his best-known story, with frequent new adaptations. It is also the most-filmed of Dickens's stories, with many versions dating from the early years of cinema.[117] According to the historian Ronald Hutton, the current state of the observance of Christmas is largely the result of a mid-Victorian revival of the holiday spearheaded by A Christmas Carol. HP G62-a43SE Keyboard

Dickens catalysed the emerging Christmas as a family-centred festival of generosity, in contrast to the dwindling community-based and church-centred observations, as new middle-class expectations arose.[118] Its archetypal figures (Scrooge, Tiny Tim, the Christmas ghosts) entered into Western cultural consciousness. A prominent phrase from the tale, HP G62-a44EE Keyboard

'Merry Christmas', was popularised following the appearance of the story.[119] The term Scrooge became a synonym for miser, and his dismissive put-down exclamation 'Bah! Humbug!' likewise gained currency as an idiom.[120] Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray called the book "a national benefit, and to every man and woman who reads it a personal kindness".[117] HP G62-a44SA Keyboard

At a time when Britain was the major economic and political power of the world, Dickens highlighted the life of the forgotten poor and disadvantaged within society. HP G62-a44SE Keyboard

Through his journalism he campaigned on specific issues—such as sanitation and the workhouse—but his fiction probably demonstrated its greatest prowess in changing public opinion in regard to class inequalities. He often depicted the exploitation and oppression of the poor and condemned the public officials and institutions that not only allowed such abuses to exist, HP G62-a45EE Keyboard

but flourished as a result. His most strident indictment of this condition is in Hard Times (1854), Dickens's only novel-length treatment of the industrial working class. In this work, he uses both vitriol and satire to illustrate how this marginalised social stratum was termed "Hands" by the factory owners; HP G62-a45SA Keyboard

that is, not really "people" but rather only appendages of the machines that they operated. His writings inspired others, in particular journalists and political figures, to address such problems of class oppression. For example, the prison scenes in The Pickwick Papers are claimed to have been influential in having the Fleet Prison shut down. HP G62-a45SE Keyboard

Karl Marx asserted that Dickens ... "issued to the world more political and social truths than have been uttered by all the professional politicians, publicists and moralists put together".[121] George Bernard Shaw even remarked that Great Expectations was more seditious than Marx's own Das Kapital.[121]HP G62-a45SF Keyboard

The exceptional popularity of his novels, even those with socially oppositional themes (Bleak House, 1853; Little Dorrit, 1857; Our Mutual Friend, 1865) underscored not only his almost preternatural ability to create compelling storylines and unforgettable characters, HP G62-a45SS Keyboard

but also ensured that the Victorian public confronted issues of social justice that had commonly been ignored. It has been argued that his technique of flooding his narratives with an 'unruly superfluity of material' that, in the gradual dénouement, yields up an unsuspected order, influenced the organisation of Charles Darwin's The Origin of the Species.[122] HP G62-a46EE Keyboard

His fiction, with often vivid descriptions of life in 19th-century England, has inaccurately and anachronistically come to symbolise on a global level Victorian society (1837 – 1901) as uniformly "Dickensian", when in fact, his novels' time scope spanned from the 1770s to the 1860s. HP G62-a46SE Keyboard

In the decade following his death in 1870, a more intense degree of socially and philosophically pessimistic perspectives invested British fiction; such themes stood in marked contrast to the religious faith that ultimately held together even the bleakest of Dickens's novels. HP G62-a48SS Keyboard

Dickens clearly influenced later Victorian novelists such as Thomas Hardyand George Gissing; their works display a greater willingness to confront and challenge the Victorian institution of religion. They also portray characters caught up by social forces (primarily via lower-class conditions), but they usually steered them to tragic ends beyond their control. HP G62-a49SS Keyboard

Museums and festivals celebrating Dickens's life and works exist in many places with which Dickens was associated, such as the Charles Dickens Birthplace Museum in Portsmouth, the house in which he was born. The original manuscripts of many of his novels, as well as printers' proofs, HP G62-a50EC Keyboard

first editions, and illustrations from the collection of Dickens's friend John Forster are held at the Victoria and Albert Museum.[123] Dickens's will stipulated that no memorial be erected in his honour. The only life-size bronze statue of Dickens, cast in 1891 by Francis Edwin Elwell, can be found in Clark Park in the Spruce Hillneighbourhood of Philadelphia. HP G62-a50ER Keyboard

Dickens was commemorated on the Series E £10 note issued by the Bank of England that was in circulation in the UK between 1992 and 2003. His portrait appeared on the reverse of the note accompanied by a scene from The Pickwick Papers. A theme park, Dickens World, HP G62-a50ET Keyboard

standing in part on the site of the former naval dockyard where Dickens's father once worked in the Navy Pay Office, opened in Chatham in 2007, HP G62-a50SF Keyboard

and to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Dickens in 2012, the Museum of London will the UK's first major exhibition on the author in 40 years.[124]In the UK survey entitled The Big Read carried out by the BBC in 2003, five of Dickens's books were named in the Top 100.[125] HP G62-a50EV Keyboard

Criminal life

Ikey Solomon first had a shop in Brighton, but later opened what was ostensibly a jeweller's shop in Bell Lane, London, in the vicinity of Petticoat Lane.[4](This business has also been described as a pawn shop.) HP G62-a50SG Keyboard

Solomon used the shop to carry on business as a receiver of stolen goods, known as a fence, becoming one of the most active Londoners in the "trade". HP G62-a50SG Keyboard

On 17 April 1810 Solomon, along with a man named Joel Joseph, were caught stealing a pocket book (valued at 4 shillings) and £40 in bank notes from one Mr. Thomas Dodd outside Westminster Hall (the site of Parliament) where a large crowd had gathered for a public meeting. HP G62-a50SM Keyboard

Police chased the pair and caught them inside the Hall. Joseph attempted to get rid of the evidence by eating the bank notes, while Solomon tried to ditch the notebook. HP G62-a50SQ Keyboard

Both were arrested and tried at the Old Bailey during the June Sessions 1810 and found guilty of stealing, a felony.[5] SHP G62-a50SS Keyboard

olomon, just 23 at the time, was sentenced to penal transportation, to spend the rest of his days in Australia. However, for reasons that are no longer clear, he remained in England, imprisoned in the prison hulk "Zetland" for four years, before being released in error or escaping.[1] HP G62-a50ST Keyboard

Solomon returned to London in about 1818 and set up as a fence and pawn broker. He continued until being arrested again on 25 April 1827, when police charged Solomon with theft and receiving. The goods involved were 6 watches, 3½ yards of woollen cloth, HP G62-a52ES Keyboard

17 shawls, 12 pieces of Valentia cloth, lace, bobbinet, caps and other articles. Solomon was committed for trial and lodged in Newgate Prison.[1] HP G62-a52SG Keyboard

Solomon gained substantial notoriety with this arrest. Pamphlet publishers created three highly-exaggerated accounts of his criminal activity, which sold very well. HP G62-a52SR Keyboard

On a writ of habeas corpus, jailers took Solomon to the Court of King's Bench. The application failed and the guards led him to a hackney coach for the return to Newgate. Unknown to his captors, the coach was driven by Solomon's father-in-law. The turnkeys approved a detour through Petticoat Lane. At a prearranged place, some of Solomon's friends overpowered the guards and released Ikey.[1] HP G62-a53EE Keyboard

Solomon fled England, going first to Denmark and then to the United States,[1] arriving in New York in August 1827.[6]

Ikey's escape from custody was prominent news throughout England. Police quickly focused on Ikey's family. HP G62-a53SE Keyboard

Officers arrested Solomon's wife, Ann, and charged her with receiving stolen goods. She was found guilty and sentenced to penal transportation to Tasmania (then known as Van Diemen's Land). HP G62-a53SG Keyboard

The judge allowed Solomon's four youngest children (all under the age of ten) to accompany Ann on the transport ship. Their two oldest sons, John, 20, and Moses, 19, sailed to Sydney and then to Tasmania independently in order to be with their mother. HP G62-a54SG Keyboard

Ikey's father was also charged with theft, but the court allowed his sentence to be respited because of his age. (Henry claimed, "I am upwards of seventy years old". The Old Bailey records him as being 69). HP G62-a54SR Keyboard

Ann traveled in the ship Mermaid, arriving at Hobart Town Penal Colony in June 1828. Back in New York, Ikey Solomon learned from newspapers that his wife had been transported. He decided he would sail to Tasmania in order to be with her. Solomon first went to Rio de Janeiro, HP G62-a55ER Keyboard

then sailed in the Coronet to Hobart. He traveled under the name of Slowman, probably a mispronunciation of Soloman rather than an assumed name.

Hobart, Tasmania's capital, was the enforced home of many of Solomon's old criminal colleagues and customers. These individuals quickly recognised Ikey when he arrived on 6 October 1828. HP G62-a55SF Keyboard

Solomon's London escape had made him a notorious fugitive, but he had not broken any laws in Tasmania. As a result, Tasmanian Lieutenant-Governor Colonel George Arthur could not arrest Solomon without a warrant from London. On 17 October 1828 he wrote to the Colonial Office requesting one. HP G62-a55SG Keyboard

This warrant took 12 months to reach Tasmania. In the meantime, Solomon opened a tobacco shop/general store in Hobart's Elizabeth Street. He also began petitioning to have his wife assigned to his household. HP G62-a55ST Keyboard

Ann Solomon had initially been assigned as a servant to police officer Richard Newman, but quarrels broke out and she was sent to the Tasmania's Female House of Correction. HP G62-a56SG Keyboard

Ikey made a number of requests that Ann be assigned to him. Lieutenant-Governor Arthur finally agreed to the assignment after Ikey entered into a £1000 bond to guarantee that his wife would not escape from the colony, and a number of local publicans and merchants, including John Pascoe Fawkner, entered into sureties of £100 or £200 each. HP G62-a57SF Keyboard

Arrest and return to England

The warrants for Ikey Solomon's arrest finally arrived in November 1829 aboard the Lady of the Lake. Hobart authorities immediately arrested Solomon. HP G62-a57SG Keyboard

Solomon's counsel, however, had him brought before the court on a writ of habeas corpus. The judge approved Solomon's release because of a technical fault in the London warrants, but fixed bail at £2000, with four sureties of £500. HP G62-a58SF Keyboard

Solomon's friends found it difficult to raise so much money. Lieutenant-Governor Arthur finally issued a warrant in his own name against Solomon. Police arrested Ikey and placed him on board the ship Prince Regent to be sent back to England. HP G62-a58SG Keyboard

Sydney and Hobart newspapers denounced the governor's refusal to abide by the principles of habeas corpus. Thomas Capon, the chief constable, had to accompany Ikey on the voyage because the ship's master refused to guarantee Solomon's safe arrival. HP G62-a59EG Keyboard

Ikey's trial at the Old Bailey in June 1830 caused a sensation and was extensively reported in the newspapers and the pamphlets of the day. As there are strong similarities between his trial and Fagin's trial in Oliver Twist (Ch 52) it is highly likely that Dickens used it as the basis for Fagin's trial. HP G62-a60EC Keyboard

Solomon was tried at the Old Bailey on eight charges of receiving stolen goods, found guilty on two, and sentenced to transportation for fourteen years.[1][7][8][9][10] The Judge referred to Solomon as being "evil-disposed", another indication of the large notoriety he had garnered. HP G62-a60EM Keyboard

Solomon was sent back to Hobart in the William Glen Anderson, arriving in November 1831. He was sent to Richmond gaol, where in 1832 he became a "javelin man", or convict constable. In 1834 he was transferred to Port Arthur Convict Settlement. In 1835, authorities granted Solomon a ticket of leave on condition that he lived at least 20 miles (32 km) from Hobart.[1] HP G62-a60ER Keyboard

Family breakup

When Ikey was released from prison he took up residence at New Norfolk and tried to reunite with his family, although the two elder sons seem to have left Van Diemen's Land by that time. HP G62-a60ET Keyboard

Solomon had become estranged from his wife and children and there were violent quarrels. Most of the children took their mother's part. Some sources say that Ikey turned the children out of his house,[1] while others say that the children turned out their father. HP G62-a60EV Keyboard

Ann Solomon was returned to the Female House of Correction as a result of some of these altercations. Her daughter Ann had to write numerous petitions before her mother was released in September 1835. HP G62-a60SA Keyboard

Ikey and Ann lived apart for the remainder of their lives. The elder Ann Solomon was granted a ticket-of-leave in November 1835 and a conditional pardon in May 1840.

Ikey remained in New Norfolk till 1838. He was living at New Town in 1840 when he was granted a conditional pardon. He received his certificate of freedom in 1844.[1] HP G62-a60SP Keyboard

Solomon died on 3 September 1850, and was buried the next day in the Jewish cemetery in Harrington Street, Hobart. His estate was worth no more than £70. HP G62-a60SQ Keyboard

What remained of the little Jewish Cemetery in Harrington Street, (possibly the oldest Jewish Cemetery in Australia) was bulldozed in 2002. It had been officially closed in 1872 and, following the site becoming property of the state in 1945, what memorials remained were removed as an apartment complex was built on the site over the next decade.[11] HP G62-a61SG Keyboard

Solomon remains famous as the person upon whom Charles Dickens may have based the character of Fagin in the novel Oliver Twist. HP G62-a62SG Keyboard

Solomon's life has been the subject of several works, including:

Solomon was Jewish. His literary and historical treatment have been the focus of many debates. Some argue that many portrayals of Ikey Solomon have been anti-Semitic. Bryce Courtenay's Ikey character in The Potato Factory has recently been the subject of such debate.[2][6] The Fagin character, with its connection to Ikey, has caused similar debate. HP G62-a63SG Keyboard

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