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Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens ( /ˈtʃɑrlz ˈdɪkɪnz/; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic who is generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period and the creator of some of the world's most memorable fictional characters.[1] During his lifetime Dickens's works enjoyed unprecedented popularity and fame, Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard and by the twentieth century his literary genius was fully recognized by critics and scholars. His novels and short stories continue to enjoy an enduring popularity among the general reading public.[2][3] HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Born in Portsmouth, England, Dickens left school to work in a factory after his father was thrown into debtors' prison. Though he had little formal education, his early impoverishment drove him to succeed. He edited a weekly journal for 20 years, wrote 15 novels and hundreds of short stories and non-fiction articles, lectured and performed extensively, was an indefatigable letter writer, and campaigned vigorously for children's rights, education, and other social reforms. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard Dickens rocketed to fame with the 1836 serial publication of The Pickwick Papers. Within a few years he had become an international literary celebrity, celebrated for his humour, satire, and keen observation of character and society. His novels, most published in monthly or weekly instalments, pioneered the serial publication of narrative fiction, FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard which became the dominant Victorian mode for novel publication.[4][5] The instalment format allowed Dickens to evaluate his audience's reaction, and he often modified his plot and character development based on such feedback.[5] For example, when his wife's chiropodist expressed distress at the way Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield seemed to reflect her disabilities, HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard Dickens went on to improve the character with positive lineaments.[6] Fagin in Oliver Twist apparently mirrors the famous fence, Ikey Solomon;[7] His caricature of Leigh Hunt in the figure of Mr Skimpole in Bleak House was likewise toned down on advice from some of his friends, as they read episodes.[8] ACER 9J.N9482.11B Laptop Keyboard In the same novel, both Lawrence Boythorne and Mooney the beadle are drawn from real life – Boythorne from Walter Savage Landor and Mooney from 'Looney', a beadle at Salisbury Square.[9]His plots were carefully constructed, and Dickens often wove in elements from topical events into his narratives.[10]Masses of the illiterate poor chipped in ha'pennies to have each new monthly episode read to them, opening up and inspiring a new class of readers.[11]FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard Dickens was regarded as the 'literary colossus' of his age.[12] His 1843 novella, A Christmas Carol, is one of the most influential works ever written, and it remains popular and continues to inspire adaptations in every artistic genre. His creative genius has been praised by fellow writers—from Leo Tolstoy to G. K. Chesterton and George Orwell—for itsrealism, comedy, prose style, unique characterisations, and social criticism. On the other hand Oscar Wilde, Henry Jamesand Virginia Woolf complained of a lack of psychological depth, loose writing, and a vein of saccharine sentimentalism. HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard Charles Dickens was born on 7 February 1812, at Landport in Portsea, the second of eight children to John and Elizabeth Dickens. His father was a clerk in the Navy Pay Office and was temporarily on duty in the district. Very soon after his birth the family moved to Norfolk Street, Bloomsbury, and then, when he was four, to Chatham, Kent, where he spent his formative years until the age of 11. His early years seem to have been idyllic, though he thought himself a "very small and not-over-particularly-taken-care-of boy".[13]HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard Charles spent time outdoors, but also read voraciously, especially the picaresque novels of Tobias Smollett and Henry Fielding. He retained poignant memories of childhood, helped by a near-photographic memory of people and events, which he used in his writing.[14]His father's brief period as a clerk in the Navy Pay Office gave him a few years of private education, first at a dame-school, and then at a school run by William Giles, a dissenter, in Chatham.[15]SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard This period came to an abrupt end when, because of financial difficulties, the Dickens family moved from Kent to Camden Town in London in 1822. Prone to living beyond his means,[17] John Dickens was imprisoned in the Marshalsea debtors' prison in Southwark London in 1824. Shortly afterwards, his wife and the youngest children joined him there, SAMSUNG X20 Laptop Keyboard as was the practice at the time. Charles, then 12 years old, was boarded with Elizabeth Roylance, a family friend, in Camden Town.[18] Roylance was "a reduced [impoverished] old lady, long known to our family", whom Dickens later immortalised, " HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard with a few alterations and embellishments", as "Mrs. Pipchin", in Dombey and Son. Later, he lived in a back-attic in the house of an agent for the Insolvent Court, Archibald Russell, "a fat, good-natured, kind old gentleman ... with a quiet old wife" and lame son, in Lant Street in The Borough.[19] They provided the inspiration for the Garlands in The Old Curiosity Shop.[20]ACER 9J.N9482.11B Laptop Keyboard On Sundays—with his sister Frances, free from her studies at the Royal Academy of Music—he spent the day at the Marshalsea.[21]Dickens would later use the prison as a setting in Little Dorrit. To pay for his board and to help his family, Dickens was forced to leave school and work ten-hour days at Warren's Blacking Warehouse, TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard on Hungerford Stairs, near the present Charing Cross railway station, where he earned six shillings a week pasting labels on pots of boot blacking. The strenuous and often cruel working conditions made a lasting impression on Dickens and later influenced his fiction and essays, becoming the foundation of his interest in the reform of socio-economic and labour conditions, the rigours of which he believed were unfairly borne by the poor. He later wrote that he wondered "how I could have been so easily cast away at such an age".[22] As he recalled to John Forster (from The Life of Charles Dickens): SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard The blacking-warehouse was the last house on the left-hand side of the way, at old Hungerford Stairs. It was a crazy, tumble-down old house, abutting of course on the river, and literally overrun with rats. Its wainscoted rooms, and its rotten floors and staircase, and the old grey rats swarming down in the cellars, and the sound of their squeaking and scuffling coming up the stairs at all times, SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard and the dirt and decay of the place, rise up visibly before me, as if I were there again. The counting-house was on the first floor, looking over the coal-barges and the river. There was a recess in it, in which I was to sit and work. My work was to cover the pots of paste-blacking; first with a piece of oil-paper, and then with a piece of blue paper; to tie them round with a string; HP 444635-B31 Laptop Keyboard and then to clip the paper close and neat, all round, until it looked as smart as a pot of ointment from an apothecary's shop. When a certain number of grosses of pots had attained this pitch of perfection, I was to paste on each a printed label, and then go on again with more pots. Two or three other boys were kept at similar duty down-stairs on similar wages. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP07 Laptop Keyboard One of them came up, in a ragged apron and a paper cap, on the first Monday morning, to show me the trick of using the string and tying the knot. His name was Bob Fagin; and I took the liberty of using his name, long afterwards, in Oliver Twist.[22]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard After a few months in Marshalsea, John Dickens's paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Dickens, died and bequeathed him the sum of £450. On the expectation of this legacy, Dickens was granted release from prison. Under the Insolvent Debtors Act, Dickens arranged for payment of his creditors, and he and his family left Marshalsea,[23] for the home of Mrs. Roylance. ACER Aspire 5710 Laptop Keyboard Although Dickens eventually attended the Wellington House Academy in North London, his mother Elizabeth Dickens did not immediately remove him from the boot-blacking factory. The incident may have done much to confirm Dickens's view that a father should rule the family, a mother find her proper sphere inside the home. "I never afterwards forgot, I never shall forget, I never can forget, that my mother was warm for my being sent back". His mother's failure to request his return was a factor in his dissatisfied attitude towards women.[24]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Righteous anger stemming from his own situation and the conditions under which working-class people lived became major themes of his works, and it was this unhappy period in his youth to which he alluded in his favourite, and most autobiographical, novel, David Copperfield:[25] "I had no advice, no counsel, no encouragement, no consolation, no assistance, no support, FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 Laptop Keyboard of any kind, from anyone, that I can call to mind, as I hope to go to heaven!" The Wellington House Academy was not a good school. "Much of the haphazard, desultory teaching, poor discipline punctuated by the headmaster's sadistic brutality, the seedy ushers and general run-down atmosphere, are embodied in Mr. Creakle's Establishment in David Copperfield."[26]HP Envy 15-1050nr Laptop Keyboard Dickens worked at the law office of Ellis and Blackmore, attorneys, of Holborn Court, Gray's Inn, as a junior clerk from May 1827 to November 1828. Then, having learned Gurney's system of shorthand in his spare time, he left to become a freelance reporter. A distant relative, Thomas Charlton, was a freelance reporter at Doctors' Commons, and Dickens was able to share his box there to report the legal proceedings for nearly four years.[27][28]  FUJITSU Lifebook P1620 Laptop Keyboard This education was to inform works such as Nicholas NicklebyDombey and Son, and especially Bleak House—whose vivid portrayal of the machinations and bureaucracy of the legal system did much to enlighten the general public and served as a vehicle for dissemination of Dickens's own views regarding, particularly, the heavy burden on the poor who were forced by circumstances to "go to law". HP G62-b18EO Laptop Keyboard HP 633183-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1830, Dickens met his first love, Maria Beadnell, thought to have been the model for the character Dora in David Copperfield. Maria's parents disapproved of the courtship and ended the relationship by sending her to school in Paris.[29]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard Journalism and early novels In 1832, at age 20, Dickens was energetic, full of good humour, enjoyed mimicry and popular entertainment, lacked a clear sense of what he wanted to become, yet knew he wanted to be famous. He was drawn to the theatre and landed an acting audition at Covent Garden, for which he prepared meticulously but which he missed because of a cold, ending his aspirations for a career on the stage.  HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard A year later he submitted his first story, "A Dinner at Poplar Walk" to the London periodical, Monthly Magazine.[30] He rented rooms at Furnival's Inn becoming a political journalist, reporting on parliamentary debate and travelling across Britain to cover election campaigns for the Morning Chronicle. His journalism, in the form of sketches in periodicals, formed his first collection of piecesSketches by Boz—Boz being a family nickname he employed as a pseudonym for some years—published in 1836.[31][32Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard ] Dickens apparently adopted it from the nickname Moses which he had given to his youngest brother Augustus Dickens, after a character in Oliver Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield. When pronounced by anyone with a headcold, 'Moses' became 'Boses', and was later shortened to Boz.[32][33] Dickens's own name was considered "queer" by a contemporary critic, who wrote in 1849: "Mr Dickens, as if in revenge for his own queer name, does bestow still queerer ones upon his fictitious creations." He continued to contribute to and edit journals throughout his literary career.[30]HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard The success of these sketches led to a proposal from publishers Chapman and Hall for Dickens to supply text to match Robert Seymour's engraved illustrations in a monthly letterpress. Seymour committed suicide after the second instalment and Dickens, who wanted to write a connected series or sketches, hired "Phiz" to provide the engravings (which were reduced from four to two per instalment) for the story. The resulting story was the The Pickwick Papers with the final instalment selling 40,000 copies.[30]SONY VAIO VGN-NR32M/S Laptop Keyboard In November 1836 Dickens accepted the job of editor of Bentley's Miscellany, a position he held for three years, until he fell out with the owner.[34] In 1836 as he finished the last instalments of The Pickwick Papers he began writing the beginning instalments ofOliver Twist—writing as many as 90 pages a month—while continuing work on Bentley's, SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard writing four plays, the production of which he oversaw. Oliver Twist, published in 1838, became one of Dickens's better known stories, with dialogue that transferred well to the stage (most likely because he was writing stage plays at the same time) and more importantly, it was the first Victorian novel with a child protagonist.[35]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard On 2 April 1836, after a one year engagement during which he wrote The Pickwick Papers, he marriedCatherine Thomson Hogarth (1816–1879), the daughter of George Hogarth, editor of the Evening Chronicle.[36] After a brief honeymoon in Chalk, Kent, they returned to lodgings at Furnival's Inn.[37]The first of ten children, Charley, was born in January 1837, SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard and a few months later the family set uphome in Bloomsbury at 48 Doughty Street, London, (on which Charles had a three-year lease at £80 a year) from 25 March 1837 until December 1839.[36][38] Dickens's younger brother Frederick and Catherine's 17-year-old sister Mary moved in with them. Dickens became very attached to Mary, SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard and she died in his arms after a brief illness in 1837. Dickens idealised her and is thought to have drawn on memories of her for his later descriptions of Rose Maylie, Little Nell and Florence Dombey.[39] His grief was so great that he was unable to make the deadline for the June instalment of Pickwick Papers and had to cancel the Oliver Twistinstalment that month as well.[35]ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard At the same time, his success as a novelist continued, Nicholas Nickleby (1838–39), The Old Curiosity Shop and, finally, Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of 'Eighty as part of the Master Humphrey's Clock series (1840–41)—all published in monthly instalments before being made into books.[40]HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard He described his impressions in a travelogue, American Notes for General Circulation. Some of the episodes in Martin Chuzzlewit(1843–44) also drew on these first-hand experiences. Dickens includes in Notes a powerful condemnation of slavery, which he had attacked as early as The Pickwick Papers, correlating the emancipation of the poor in England with the abolition of slavery abroad.[43] Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard During his visit, Dickens spent a month in New York City, giving lectures and raising the question of international copyright laws and the pirating of his work in America.[44][45] He persuaded twenty five writers, headed by Washington Irving to sign a petition for him to take to congress, but the press were generally hostile to this saying that he should be grateful for his popularity and that it was mercenary to complain about his work being pirated.[46]HP G62-b12SA Laptop Keyboard In the early 1840s Dickens showed an interest in Unitarian Christianity, although he never strayed from his attachment to popular lay Anglicanism.[47] Soon after his return to England, Dickens began work on the first of his Christmas stories, A Christmas Carol, written in 1843, which was followed by The Chimes in 1844 and The Cricket on the Hearth in 1845. Of these A Christmas Carol was most popular and, tapping in to an old tradition,  Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard did much promote a renewed enthusiasm for the joys of Christmas in Britain and America.[48] The seeds for the story were planted in Dickens's mind during a trip to Manchester to witness conditions of the manufacturing workers there. This, along with scenes he had recently witnessed at the Field Lane Ragged School, caused Dickens to resolve to "strike a sledge hammer blow" HP Pavilion dv4-1120us Laptop Keyboard for the poor. As the idea for the story took shape and the writing began in earnest, Dickens became engrossed in the book. He wrote that as the tale unfolded he "wept and laughed, and wept again" as he "walked about the black streets of London fifteen or twenty miles many a night when all sober folks had gone to bed."[49]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard After living briefly in Italy (1844) Dickens travelled to Switzerland (1846); it was here he began work on Dombey and Son (1846–48). This and David Copperfield (1849–50) mark a significant artistic break in Dickens's career as his novels became more serious in theme and more carefully planned than his early works. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard In May 1846 Angela Burdett Coutts, heir to the Coutts banking fortune, approached Dickens about setting up a home for the redemption of fallen women from the working class. Coutts envisioned a home that would replace the punitive regimes of existing institutions with a reformative environment conducive to education and proficiency in domestic household chores. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard After initially resisting, Dickens eventually founded the home, named "Urania Cottage", in the Lime Grove section of Shepherds Bush, which he was to manage for ten years,[50] setting the house rules and reviewing the accounts and interviewing prospective residents.[51]Emigration and marriage were central to Dickens's agenda for the women on leaving Urania Cottage, from which it is estimated that about 100 women graduated between 1847 and 1859.[52]DELL XPS M1530 Laptop Keyboard Middle years In late November 1851, Dickens moved into Tavistock House where he wrote Bleak House (1852–53), Hard Times (1854) and Little Dorrit (1857).[53] It was here he indulged in the amateur theatricals which are described in Forster's "Life".[54] In 1856, his income from writing allowed him to buy Gad's Hill Place in Higham, Kent. As a child, Dickens had walked past the house and dreamed of living in it. The area was also the scene of some of the events of Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1 and this literary connection pleased him.[55] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard In 1857, Dickens hired professional actresses for the play The Frozen Deep, which he and his protégé Wilkie Collins had written. Dickens fell deeply in love with one of the actresses, Ellen Ternan, which was to last the rest of his life.[56] Dickens was 45 and Ternan 18 when he made the decision, which went strongly against Victorian convention, to separate from his wife,  TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard Catherine, in 1858—divorce was still unthinkable for someone as famous as he was. When Catherine left, never to see her husband again, she took with her one child, leaving the other children to be raised by her sister Georgina who chose to stay at Gad's Hill.[42]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard During this period, whilst pondering about giving public readings for his own profit, Dickens was approached by Great Ormond Street Hospital to help it survive its first major financial crisis through a charitable appeal. His 'Drooping Buds' essay inHousehold Words earlier in 3 April 1852 was considered by the hospital's founders to have been the catalyst for the hospital's success.[57]SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard Dickens, whose philanthropy was well-known, was asked by his friend, the hospital's founder Charles West, to preside and he threw himself into the task, heart and soul.[58] Dickens's public readings secured sufficient funds for an endowment to put the hospital on a sound financial footing — one of 9 February 1858 alone raised £3,000.[59][60][61]SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard After separating from Catherine,[62] Dickens undertook a series of hugely popular and remunerative reading tours which, together with his journalism, were to absorb most of his creative energies for the next decade, in which he was to write only two more novels.[63] His first reading tour, lasting from April 1858 to February 1859, TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard consisted of 129 appearances in 49 different towns throughout England, Scotland and Ireland.[64] Dickens's continued fascination with the theatrical world was written into the theatre scenes in Nicholas Nickleby, but more importantly he found an outlet in public readings. In 1866, he undertook a series of public readings in England and Scotland, with more the following year in England and Ireland. SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop Keyboard Major works, A Tale of Two Cities (1859); and Great Expectations (1861) soon followed and were resounding successes. During this time he was also the publisher and editor of, and a major contributor to, the journals Household Words (1850–1859) and All the Year Round (1858–1870).[65]TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard In early September 1860, in a field behind Gad's Hill, Dickens made a great bonfire of almost his entire correspondence—only those letters on business matters were spared. Since Ellen Ternan also destroyed all of his letters to her,[66] the extent of the affair between the two remains speculative.[67] In the 1930s, Thomas Wright recounted that Ternan had unburdened herself with a Canon Benham,  SONY VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Laptop Keyboard and gave currency to rumours they had been lovers.[68] That the two had a son who died in infancy was alleged by Dickens's daughter, Kate Perugini, whom Gladys Storey had interviewed before her death in 1929, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard and published her account in Dickens and Daughter,[69][70] although no contemporary evidence exists. On his death, Dickens settled an annuity on Ternan which made her a financially independent woman. Claire Tomalin's book, The Invisible Woman, argues that Ternan lived with Dickens secretly for the last 13 years of his life. The book was subsequently turned into a play, Little Nell, by Simon Gray. HP Pavilion dv6-2010sa Laptop Keyboard In the same period, Dickens furthered his interest in the paranormal, becoming one of the early members of The Ghost Club.[71] On 9 June 1865, while returning from Paris with Ternan, Dickens was involved in the Staplehurst rail crash. The first seven carriages of the train plunged off a cast iron bridge under repair. The only first-class carriage to remain on the track was the one in which Dickens was travelling. Before rescuers arrived, Dickens tended and comforted the wounded and the dying with a flask of brandy and a hat refreshed with water and saved some lives.  ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard Before leaving, he remembered the unfinished manuscript for Our Mutual Friend, and he returned to his carriage to retrieve it.[72] Dickens later used this experience as material for his short ghost story, "The Signal-Man", in which the central character has a premonition of his own death in a rail crash. He also based the story on several previous rail accidents, such as the Clayton Tunnel rail crash of 1861. SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard Dickens managed to avoid an appearance at the inquest to avoid disclosing that he had been travelling with Ternan and her mother, which would have caused a scandal. Although physically unharmed, Dickens never really recovered from the trauma of the Staplehurst crash, and his normally prolific writing shrank to completing Our Mutual Friend and starting the unfinishedThe Mystery of Edwin Drood. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard Second visit to the United States On 9 November 1867, Dickens sailed from Liverpool for his second American reading tour. Landing at Boston, he devoted the rest of the month to a round of dinners with such notables as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and his American publisher James Thomas Fields. In early December, the readings began—he was to perform 76 readings, netting £19,000, from December 1867 to April 1868[73]TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard HP 550 Laptop Keyboard and Dickens spent the month shuttling between Boston and New York, where alone he gave 22 readings at Steinway Hall for this period. Although he had started to suffer from what he called the "true American catarrh", he kept to a schedule that would have challenged a much younger man, even managing to squeeze in some sleighing in Central Park. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard During his travels, he saw a significant change in the people and the circumstances of America. His final appearance was at a banquet the American Press held in his honour at Delmonico's on 18 April, when he promised never to denounce America again. By the end of the tour, the author could hardly manage solid food, subsisting on champagne and eggs beaten in sherry. On 23 April, he boarded his ship to return to Britain, barely escaping a Federal Tax Lien against the proceeds of his lecture tour.[74]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Farewell readings Between 1868 and 1869, Dickens gave a series of "farewell readings" in England, Scotland, and Ireland, beginning on 6 October. He managed, of a contracted 100 readings, to deliver 75 in the provinces, with a further 12 in London.[73] As he pressed on he was affected by giddiness and fits of paralysis and collapsed on 22 April 1869, SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard at Preston in Lancashire, and on doctor's advice, the tour was cancelled.[75] After further provincial readings were cancelled, he began work on his final novel, The Mystery of Edwin Drood. It was fashionable in the 1860s to 'do the slums' and, in company, Dickens visited opium dens in Shadwell, where he witnessed an elderly addict known as "Laskar Sal", who formed the model for the "Opium Sal" subsequently featured in his mystery novel, Edwin Drood.[76]SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard When he had regained sufficient strength, Dickens arranged, with medical approval, for a final series of readings at least partially to make up to his sponsors what they had lost due to his illness. There were to be 12 performances, running between 11 January and 15 March 1870, the last taking place at 8:00 pm at St. James's Hall in London. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard Although in grave health by this time, he read A Christmas Carol and The Trial from Pickwick. On 2 May, he made his last public appearance at a Royal Academy Banquet in the presence of the Prince and Princess of Wales, paying a special tribute on the death of his friend, illustrator Daniel Maclise.[77]HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard On 8 June 1870, Dickens suffered another stroke at his home, after a full day's work on Edwin Drood. He never regained consciousness, and the next day, on 9 June, five years to the day after the Staplehurst rail crash, he died at Gad's Hill Place. Contrary to his wish to be buried at Rochester Cathedral "in an inexpensive, unostentatious, and strictly private manner,"[79] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard he was laid to rest in the Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey. A printed epitaph circulated at the time of the funeral reads: "To the Memory of Charles Dickens (England's most popular author) who died at his residence, Higham, near Rochester, Kent, 9 June 1870, aged 58 years. He was a sympathiser with the poor, the suffering, and the oppressed; and by his death, one of England's greatest writers is lost to the world."[80] His last words were: "On the ground", in response to his daughter Georgina's request that he lie down.[81][nb 1]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard On Sunday, 19 June 1870, five days after Dickens was buried in the Abbey, Dean Arthur Penrhyn Stanley delivered a memorial elegy, lauding "the genial and loving humorist whom we now mourn", for showing by his own example "that even in dealing with the darkest scenes and the most degraded characters, genius could still be clean, and mirth could be innocent." IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Pointing to the fresh flowers that adorned the novelist's grave, Stanley assured those present that "the spot would thenceforth be a sacred one with both the New World and the Old, as that of the representative of literature, not of this island only, but of all who speak our English tongue."[82]HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Literary style Dickens loved the style of the 18th century picaresque novels which he found in abundance on his father's shelves. According to Ackroyd, other than these, perhaps the most important literary influence on him was derived from the fables of The Arabian Nights.[83]HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard His writing style is marked by a profuse linguistic creativity.[84] Satire, flourishing in his gift for caricature is his forte. An early reviewer compared him to Hogarth for his keen practical sense of the ludicrous side of life, though his acclaimed mastery of varieties of class idiom may in fact mirror the conventions of contemporary popular theatre.[85]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Dickens worked intensively on developing arresting names for his characters that would reverberate with associations for his readers, and assist the development of motifs in the storyline, giving what one critic calls an "allegorical impetus" to the novels' meanings.[84] To cite one of numerous examples, the name Mr. Murdstone in David Copperfield conjures up twin allusions to "murder" and stony coldness.[86]  HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard His literary style is also a mixture of fantasy and realism. His satires of British aristocratic snobbery—he calls one character the "Noble Refrigerator"—are often popular. Comparing orphans to stocks and shares, people to tug boats, or dinner-party guests to furniture are just some of Dickens's acclaimed flights of fancy. TOSHIBA Satellite L770D Series Laptop Keyboard The author worked closely with his illustrators, supplying them with a summary of the work at the outset and thus ensuring that his characters and settings were exactly how he envisioned them. He would brief the illustrator on plans for each month's instalment so that work could begin before he wrote them. Marcus Stone, illustrator of Our Mutual Friend, recalled that the author was always "ready to describe down to the minutest details the personal characteristics, and ... life-history of the creations of his fancy."[87]HP Pavilion DV6-1190ev Laptop Keyboard Characters Dickens's biographer Claire Tomalin regards him as the greatest creator of character in English fiction after Shakespeare.[88] Dickensian characters, especially so because of their typically whimsical names, are amongst the most memorable in English literature. The likes of Ebenezer Scrooge, Tiny Tim, Jacob Marley, Bob Cratchit, Oliver Twist, SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard The Artful Dodger, Fagin, Bill Sikes, Pip, Miss Havisham, Charles Darnay, David Copperfield, Mr. Micawber, Abel Magwitch, Daniel Quilp,Samuel Pickwick, Wackford Squeers, Uriah Heep are so well known as to be part and parcel of British culture, and in some cases have passed into ordinary language: a scrooge, for example, is a miser. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard His characters were often so memorable that they took on a life of their own outside his books. Gamp became a slang expression for an umbrella from the character Mrs Gamp and Pickwickian, Pecksniffian, and Gradgrind all entered dictionaries due to Dickens's original portraits of such characters who werequixotic, hypocritical, or vapidly factual. Many were drawn from real life: Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard Mrs Nickleby is based on his mother, though she didn't recognize herself in the portrait,[89] just as Mr Micawber is constructed from aspects of his father's 'rhetorical exuberance':[90] Harold Skimpole in Bleak House, is based on James Henry Leigh Hunt: his wife's dwarfish chiropodist recognized herself in Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield.[91][92] Perhaps Dickens's impressions on his meeting with Hans Christian Andersen informed the delineation of Uriah Heep.[93]SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard Virginia Woolf maintained that "we remodel our psychological geography when we read Dickens" as he produces "characters who exist not in detail, not accurately or exactly, but abundantly in a cluster of wild yet extraordinarily revealing remarks."[94]TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard One "character" vividly drawn throughout his novels is London itself. From the coaching inns on the outskirts of the city to the lower reaches of the Thames, all aspects of the capital are described over the course of his body of work. Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard Autobiographical elements Authors frequently draw their portraits of characters from people they have known in real life. David Copperfield is regarded as strongly autobiographical. The scenes in Bleak House of interminable court cases and legal arguments reflect Dickens's experiences as law clerk and court reporter, and in particular his direct experience of the law's procedural delay during 1844 when he sued publishers in Chancery for breach of copyright.[95] Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard Dickens's father was sent to prison for debt, and this became a common theme in many of his books, with the detailed depiction of life in the Marshalsea prison in Little Dorritresulting from Dickens's own experiences of the institution.[96] Lucy Stroughill, a childhood sweetheart may have affected several of Dickens's portraits of girls such as Little Em'ly in David Copperfield and Lucie Manette in A Tale of Two Cities.[97][nb 2] Dickens may have drawn on his childhood experiences, but he was also ashamed of them and would not reveal that this was where he gathered his realistic accounts of squalor.  HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Very few knew the details of his early life until six years after his death when John Forster published a biography on which Dickens had collaborated. Even figures based on real people can, at the same time, represent at the same time elements of the writer's own personality. Though Skimpole brutally sends up Leigh Hunt, some critics have detected in his portrait features of Dickens's own character, which he sought to exorcise by self-parody.[98]HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard Most of Dickens's major novels were first written in monthly or weekly instalments in journals such as Master Humphrey's Clock and Household Words, later reprinted in book form. These instalments made the stories cheap, accessible and the series of regular cliff-hangers made each new episode widely anticipated. When The Old Curiosity Shop was being serialized, American fans even waited at the docks in New York, shouting out to the crew of an incoming ship, "Is little Nell dead?"[99] Part of Dickens's great talent was to incorporate this episodic writing style but still end up with a coherent novel at the end.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard Another important impact of Dickens's episodic writing style resulted from his exposure to the opinions of his readers and friends. His friend Forster had a significant hand, reviewing his drafts, that went beyond matters of punctation. He toned down melodramatic and sensationalist exaggerations, cut long passages, (such as the episode of Quilp's drowning in The Old Curiosity Shop), ASUS X88S Laptop Keyboard and made suggestions about plot and character. It was he who suggested that Charley Bates should be redeemed in Oliver Twist. Dickens had not thought of killing Little Nell, and it was Forster who advised him to entertain this possibility as necessary to his conception of the heroine.[100]SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard Dickens's novels were, among other things, works of social commentary. He was a fierce critic of the poverty and social stratification of Victorian society. In a New York address, he expressed his belief that, "Virtue shows quite as well in rags and patches as she does in purple and fine linen".[101] Dickens's second novel, Oliver Twist (1839), shocked readers with its images of poverty and crime: it destroyed middle class polemics about criminals, making any pretence to ignorance about what poverty entailed impossible.[102][103]ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard Literary techniques Dickens is often described as using 'idealised' characters and highly sentimental scenes to contrast with his caricatures and the ugly social truths he reveals. The story of Nell Trent in The Old Curiosity Shop (1841) was received as extraordinarily moving by contemporary readers but viewed as ludicrously sentimental byOscar Wilde. "GATEWAY M-6750 Laptop Keyboard You would need to have a heart of stone", he declared in one of his famous witticisms, "not to laugh at the death of little Nell."[104] G. K. Chesterton, stating that "It is not the death of little Nell, but the life of little Nell, that I object to", argued that the maudlin effect of his description of her life owed much to the gregarious nature of Dickens's grief, his 'despotic' use of people's feelings to move them to tears in works like this.[105]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard In Oliver Twist Dickens provides readers with an idealised portrait of a boy so inherently and unrealistically 'good' that his values are never subverted by either brutal orphanages or coerced involvement in a gang of young pickpockets. While later novels also centre on idealised characters (Esther Summerson inBleak House and Amy Dorrit in Little Dorrit), this idealism serves only to highlight Dickens's goal of poignant social commentary. Many of his novels are concerned with social realism, TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard focusing on mechanisms of social control that direct people's lives (for instance, factory networks in Hard Times and hypocritical exclusionary class codes in Our Mutual Friend).[citation needed]  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Dickens's fiction, reflecting what he believed to be true of his own life, scintillates with coincidences.[106] Oliver Twist turns out to be the lost nephew of the upper-class family that randomly rescues him from the dangers of the pickpocket group. Such coincidences are a staple of 18th-century picaresque novels, such as Henry Fielding's Tom Jones that Dickens enjoyed reading as a youth.[107]HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Reception Dickens was the most popular novelist of his time,[108] and remains one of the best known and most read of English authors. His works have never gone out of print,[109] and have been adapted continuously for the screen since the invention of cinema,[110] with at least 200 motion pictures and TV adaptations based on Dickens's works documented.[111] Many of his works were adapted for the stage during his own lifetime and as early as 1913, a silent film of The Pickwick Paperswas made. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard Among fellow writers, Dickens has been both lionized and mocked. Leo Tolstoy, G. K. Chesterton and George Orwell praised his realism, comic voice, prose fluency, and genius for satiric caricature, as well as his passionate advocacy on behalf of children and the poor. On the other hand, Oscar Wilde generally disparaged his depiction of character, HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard while admiring his gift for caricature;[112] His late contemporary William Wordsworth, by then Poet laureate, thought him a "very talkative, vulgar young person", adding he had not read a line of his work; Dickens in return thought Wordsworth "a dreadful Old Ass".[113] Henry James denied him a premier position, calling him, "the greatest of superficial novelists": TOSHIBA A000014900 Laptop Keyboard Dickens failed to endow his characters with psychological depth and the novels, "loose baggy monsters"[114] betrayed a "cavalier organisation".[115] Virginia Woolf had a love-hate relationship with his works, finding his novels "mesmerizing" while reproving him for his sentimentalism and a commonplace style.[116]TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard It is likely that A Christmas Carol stands as his best-known story, with frequent new adaptations. It is also the most-filmed of Dickens's stories, with many versions dating from the early years of cinema.[117] According to the historian Ronald Hutton, the current state of the observance of Christmas is largely the result of a mid-Victorian revival of the holiday spearheaded by A Christmas Carol. Dickens catalysed the emerging Christmas as a family-centred festival of generosity, in contrast to the dwindling community-based and church-centred observations, HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard as new middle-class expectations arose.[118] Its archetypal figures (Scrooge, Tiny Tim, the Christmas ghosts) entered into Western cultural consciousness. A prominent phrase from the tale, 'Merry Christmas', HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard was popularised following the appearance of the story.[119] The term Scrooge became a synonym for miser, and his dismissive put-down exclamation 'Bah! Humbug!' likewise gained currency as an idiom.[120] Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray called the book "a national benefit, and to every man and woman who reads it a personal kindness".[117]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard At a time when Britain was the major economic and political power of the world, Dickens highlighted the life of the forgotten poor and disadvantaged within society. Through his journalism he campaigned on specific issues—such as sanitation and the workhouse—but his fiction probably demonstrated its greatest prowess in changing public opinion in regard to class inequalities. HP G42-466LA Laptop Keyboard He often depicted the exploitation and oppression of the poor and condemned the public officials and institutions that not only allowed such abuses to exist, but flourished as a result. His most strident indictment of this condition is in Hard Times (1854), Dickens's only novel-length treatment of the industrial working class. In this work, HP Envy 15-1050nr Laptop Keyboard he uses both vitriol and satire to illustrate how this marginalised social stratum was termed "Hands" by the factory owners; that is, not really "people" but rather only appendages of the machines that they operated. His writings inspired others, in particular journalists and political figures, to address such problems of class oppression. For example, the prison scenes in The Pickwick Papers are claimed to have been influential in having the Fleet Prison shut down. SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard Karl Marx asserted that Dickens ..."issued to the world more political and social truths than have been uttered by all the professional politicians, publicists and moralists put together".[121] George Bernard Shaweven remarked that Great Expectations was more seditious than Marx's own Das Kapital.[121] The exceptional popularity of his novels, HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard even those with socially oppositional themes (Bleak House, 1853; Little Dorrit, 1857; Our Mutual Friend, 1865) underscored not only his almost preternatural ability to create compelling storylines and unforgettable characters, but also ensured that the Victorian public confronted issues of social justice that had commonly been ignored. It has been argued that his technique of flooding his narratives with an 'unruly superfluity of material' that, in the gradual dénouement, yields up an unsuspected order, influenced the organisation of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species.[122]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard His fiction, with often vivid descriptions of life in 19th-century England, has inaccurately and anachronistically come to symbolise on a global level Victorian society (1837 – 1901) as uniformly "Dickensian", when in fact, his novels' time scope spanned from the 1770s to the 1860s. In the decade following his death in 1870, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard a more intense degree of socially and philosophically pessimistic perspectives invested British fiction; such themes stood in marked contrast to the religious faith that ultimately held together even the bleakest of Dickens's novels. Dickens clearly influenced later Victorian novelists such as Thomas Hardyand George Gissing; their works display a greater willingness to confront and challenge the Victorian institution of religion. They also portray characters caught up by social forces (primarily via lower-class conditions), but they usually steered them to tragic ends beyond their control. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard Influence and legacy Museums and festivals celebrating Dickens's life and works exist in many places with which Dickens was associated, such as the Charles Dickens Birthplace Museum in Portsmouth, the house in which he was born. The original manuscripts of many of his novels, as well as printers' proofs, first editions, and illustrations from the collection of Dickens's friend John Forster are held at the Victoria and Albert Museum.[123]  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Dickens's will stipulated that no memorial be erected in his honour. The only life-size bronze statue of Dickens, cast in 1891 by Francis Edwin Elwell, can be found in Clark Park in the Spruce Hillneighbourhood of Philadelphia. HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard Dickens was commemorated on the Series E £10 note issued by the Bank of England that was in circulation in the UK between 1992 and 2003. His portrait appeared on the reverse of the note accompanied by a scene from The Pickwick Papers. A theme park, Dickens World, standing in part on the site of the former naval dockyard where Dickens's father once worked in the Navy Pay Office, ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard opened in Chatham in 2007, and to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Dickens in 2012, theMuseum of London held the UK's first major exhibition on the author in 40 years.[124] In the UK survey entitled The Big Readcarried out by the BBC in 2003, five of Dickens's books were named in the Top 100.[125]DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard The British halfpenny coin was worth 1/480th of a pound sterling. At first in its

700 year history it was made from silver but as the value of silver increased, the coin was made from base metals. It was finally abandoned in 1969 as part of the process of decimalising the British currency. "Halfpenny", colloquially written ha'penny, was pronounced /ˈheɪpəni/hay-pə-nee;1½d was spoken as a penny ha'penny /əˈpɛniˈheɪpni/ or three ha'pence /θriːˈheɪpəns/.[1]SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard It was long considered that the first halfpenny coins were produced in the reign of King Edward I (1272–1307), with earlier requirements for small change being provided by "cut coinage"; that is, pennies cut into halves or quarters, usually along the cross which formed a prominent part of the reverse of the coin. However, in recent years metal detectorists have discovered a few halfpennies of Kings Henry I (1100–1135) and Henry III (1216–1272) – these are extremely rare and very little is known about them; ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard they have all been found in the London area, where they circulated alongside the more common cut coinage, and while it is possible that these coins were patterns or trials, it is clear that they did see circulation. No documentary evidence of these coins is known to exist, and it is possible that there are other coins or issues still to be discovered.  DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard A few Henry I silver halfpennies have been discovered recently. The issue is possibly a pattern or trial, but it is obvious that several specimens entered circulation. The obverse features an uncrowned front-facing bust of the king, with the inscription HENRIC REX – King Henry – while the reverse features a cross with the identification of the moneyer GODWIN A ON WI – Godwin of Winchester. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard Two issues, both struck at the London mint, have been discovered recently. Both are in the short-cross style of King Henry III, produced between 1216 and 1247, and are similar in design to the pennies, but only half the size. The obverse shows a crowned bust of the king holding a sceptre, with the inscription HENRICUS REX, while the reverse shows a small cross with four pellets in each quarter with the moneyer's inscription TERRI (or ELIS) ON LUND – Terry (or Elis) of London. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard

Edwardian and Henrician halfpennies

King Edward I (1272–1307) successfully introduced the halfpenny as part of his new coinage, which allowed trade to increase. As with all coins of this period, the denomination was not written on the coin, which was worth its weight in silver, thus a halfpenny was half the size and weight of a penny. All hammered coinage halfpennies tend to be difficult to identify because they are small, HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard often clipped, and in poor condition, and the legends on the coins are often incorrect because of the difficulty in making dies which were small enough for the denomination. The fact that Kings Edward II, III, and IV also issued halfpennies makes it difficult to distinguish between them – in general, Edward I's coins are slightly larger than his successors'. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard As with other denominations, by far the majority of coins were produced at the London mint, in the Tower of London, but five other mints were active in Edward I's reign. The legend on the reverse of the coin identifies the mint's name, and reads CIVITAS LONDON or LONDONIENSIS for London, VILLA BRISTOLLIE for Bristol, CIVITAS LINCOL for Lincoln, NOVI CASTRI for Newcastle upon Tyne, CIVITAS EBORACI for York, and VILLA BEREVVICI for Berwick-upon-Tweed. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard The king's name appears in the obverse inscription, usually EDW, EDWA, or EDWR R ANGL DNS HYB, or RICARD or HENRI respectively for the issues of Richard II (1377–1399) and Henry IV (1399–1413). SONY V-0709BIAS1-US Laptop Keyboard During the reign of Edward II (1307–1327), halfpennies were only produced at the mints in London and Berwick, probably because sufficient had been produced when his father introduced the new coinage. The principal difference between the coins of Edward II and his father is that the obverse inscription of the London-produced coins reads EDWARDUS REX A(NG), and EDWARDUS REX AN on the Berwick-produced coins.  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Laptop Keyboard Three mints were actively producing halfpennies in the reign of Edward III, 1327–1377, at London, Berwick, and Reading (VILLA RADINGY), although Berwick and Reading coins are very rare. The usual obverse inscription of this reign was EDWARDUS REX AN – Edward King of the English – or occasionally on earlier coinsEDWARDUS REX – King Edward –HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard or EDWARDUS ANGLIE D or EDWARDUS DEI GRA R – Edward by the grace of God King. At this time English coins were much envied in Europe for their weight and good metal content, with the result that English halfpennies were copied on the continent; they are similar in style to those of Edward III, but the obverse legend often reads EDWARDIENSIS. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard King Richard II (1377–1399) produced all his halfpennies at the London mint. The obverse legend reads RICHARD (or RICARD) REX ANGL – Richard King of England – around a front-facing bust of the king. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard The halfpennies of Henry IV (1399–1413) are difficult to identify, mainly because they have been heavily clipped or worn. The obverse legend reads HENRIC REX ANGL around a front-facing bust of the king, while the reverse legend reads CIVITAS LONDON. In 1412 the weight of the halfpenny was reduced from 4.5 grains (0.29 grams) to 3.75 grains (0.24 grams), although coins were produced from the same dies as before. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The halfpennies of Henry V (1413–1422) are a little easier to identify, but the basic design remained the same as before. In the first reign of Henry VI (1422–1461), halfpennies were commonly produced at London and Calais (VILLA CALIS), and less commonly at York. The designs are continuations of those of the earlier Henries, with the obverse legend HENRIC REX ANGL. FUJITSU Lifebook T4215 Laptop Keyboard  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard The halfpennies of the first reign of King Edward IV (1461–1470) are divided into the heavy coinage up to 1464, which was only minted in London, and the light coinage from 1464, produced at London, Bristol (now VILLA BRISTOW), Canterbury (CIVITAS CANTOR), York, and Norwich (CIVITAS NORWIC). The obverse inscription readsEDWARD DI GRA REX. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard During the short second reign of Henry VI (1470–1471), halfpennies were produced at London and Bristol. The obverse inscription was changed to read HENRIC DI GRA REX. Halfpennies of the second reign of Edward IV (1471–1483) are much like those of the first reign (only a few months earlier) but they were also produced at Durham (CIVITAS DERAM). TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard King Richard III's (1483–1485) short reign only produced halfpennies from the London mint. The obverse inscription reads RICARD DI GRA REX, which distinguishes the coins from those of Richard II. HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard Halfpennies in the reign of Henry VII (1485–1509) were produced mostly at London, but also at Canterbury and York. Henry's coins are fairly distinct from those of the earlier Henries, with the king's front-facing portrait being different in style, and the obverse legend reading HENRIC DEI GRA REX. HP 633736-001 Laptop Keyboard By the reign of King Henry VIII, the halfpenny was becoming a coin of lesser importance, and less effort was spent on producing good-quality impressions on the coin blanks, with the result that many of the inscriptions are difficult to read. The coins of his first and second coinage (1509–1526 and 1526–1544) look similar to those of his father, Henry VII, although the obverse inscriptions were changed between the two coinages, from HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGL to H DG ROSA SIE SPIA– Henry by the grace of God a rose without a thorn (Henricus Dei gratia rosa sine spina). TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard The third (1544–1547) and posthumous (1547–1551) coinage halfpennies have a more lifelike bust, but were produced in debased silver (only 1/3 silver and 2/3 copper) and therefore are usually in a very poor condition.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard In the short reign (1547–1553) of King Edward VI there were several issues of halfpennies. The first issue was produced between April 1547 and January 1549 at the Tower and Bristol mints; both mints' products are extremely rare and have the crowned bust of the king on the obverse, with the inscription EDG ROSA SIN SPIN(or EDG DG ROSA SIN SPIN on some Bristol coins) and a cross with CIVITAS LONDON or CIVITAS BRISTOLI on the reverse. Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard The final issue of halfpennies was produced at the Tower mint between 1550 and 1553 with the obverse legend being EDG ROSA SINE SPINA surrounding a rose in the centre of the coin, and the reverse showing CIVITAS LONDON around the royal shield over a cross. The quality of silver in this final issue of halfpennies was so poor that the coin was often used as a farthing. ACER Aspire 2920-3A2G12Mi Laptop Keyboard DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard No halfpennies were produced in the reigns of Mary, or of Philip and Mary, or for the first 20 years of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Halfpennies were produced in some quantity in Elizabeth I's fifth and sixth coinage issues (1582–1600 and 1601–1602). Because of their small size, they did not have the queen's effigy or any legends on them, but instead had a portcullis on the obverse and a cross on the reverse. Sixth-issue coins also had a mintmark on the obverse: "1" for 1601 and "2" for 1602. DELL Inspiron 1545 Laptop Keyboard When James I ascended the English throne in 1603, for the first couple of years halfpennies were produced in the same style as Elizabeth I's sixth issue, though with a thistle or lis mintmark. From 1604 onwards, there was a completely different style of coin with a rose on the obverse and a thistle on the reverse. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R50e-1848 Laptop Keyboard Surprisingly, considering the huge variety of coins of other denominations produced during his reign between 1625 and 1649, hardly any halfpennies were minted during the reign of Charles I. The most common issue was produced at the Tower mint and simply had a rose on both sides of the coin. The other issue was produced at the Aberystwyth mint, and had a rose on one side and plumes on the reverse. SONY 147859712 Laptop Keyboard The final silver halfpennies were produced under the auspices of the Commonwealth. Commonwealth halfpennies were extremely plain, having no inscription on either side, but a shield charged with a St George's cross on the obverse, and the Irish harp on the reverse. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard

Base-metal halfpennies

In the early years of the reign of King Charles II (1660–1685), there was a clear need for low-denomination coins to fund day-to-day purchases. The silver 1d and 2d coins issued in the first few years of the reign were being hoarded, and tradesmen in many parts of the country had taken to issuing private tokens in base metal; while this was an offence,  SAMSUNG NP-N150-KA03 Laptop Keyboard in practice penalties were minimal and the government appreciated the need for such coinage which was not available legally. A problem with the production of low-value coins is that if the face value is less than the cost of production (including the metal) then the exercise is done at a loss and the coins may be clipped or melted down for their metal content; if the face value is higher, counterfeit coins begin to appear. SAMSUNG NB30 Laptop Keyboard The Mint was not ready to produce copper coins until 1672; by that time Maundy-type small silver (1d–4d) coins were being produced and were circulating widely, so no copper pennies were produced, although a Royal Proclamation in August 1672 decreed that halfpennies and farthings would be issued, and that they would have a face value equal to the value of the metal less the cost of producing them.  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Laptop Keyboard The new coins were legal tender up to a total value of six pence, and depictedBritannia (modelled by the Duchess of Richmond) on the reverse. It was soon discovered that the Mint was incapable of producing the copper blanks needed for the new coins, and these eventually were imported from Sweden; to facilitate the process, the Customs Duty on the import of the metal was waived. SONY VAIO VGN-AR770 Laptop Keyboard Further delays ensued, caused not least by transportation problems, and the first halfpennies did not appear in circulation until after Christmas (the year did not end until 24 March in those days, so there were still three months before the start of 1673). TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard The ideal of striking coins with a value equal to their production costs was not long maintained, and the coins were given a face value slightly higher than their metal content, so inevitably counterfeits soon began to appear. It is interesting to note that Charles II's head faces left on the copper coinage, and right on the silver coinage. DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard Packard Bell EasyNote TJ61 Laptop Keyboard The copper halfpenny weighed between 10.0 and 12.0 grams and had a diameter of 28–31 millimetres. The inscription on the obverse, around the king's head, readsCAROLVS A CAROLO – Charles, son of Charles – while the reverse shows BRITAN NIA around the left facing seated Britannia, holding a spray and trident, with the date beneath Britannia. Coins were produced dated 1672, 1673, and 1675. ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard The halfpennies of King James II (1685–1688) were made of tin with a small square plug of copper in the centre. The corrosion properties of tin mean that very few coins survive in a good state of preservation, not helped by the electrochemical reaction between copper and tin. The objects of using tin were to produce coins at a profit while at the same time producing a coin which would be difficult to counterfeit, and at the same time to assist the ailing tin-mining industry. The coins weighed between 10.5 and 11.6 grams, with a diameter of 28–30 millimetres. Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard The obverse showed the right-facing effigy of the king with the inscription IACOBVS SECVNDVS – James the Second – while the reverse shows the same Britannia as before. Unusually, the date appears not on the reverse but on theedge of the coin, which has the inscription NVMMORVM FAMVLVS date – an ancillary coinage. The coins were produced in 1685, 1686, and 1687.  HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard In the joint reign of William III and Mary II (1688–1694), the production of bimetallic tin/copper halfpennies continued in 1689, 1690, 1691 and 1692. However the tin coinage was becoming increasingly unpopular because the public did not feel that there was any intrinsic value in the coins and also the corrosion problem had become apparent; even worse, lead counterfeits had started to appear.  Packard Bell Easynote TK37 Laptop Keyboard Just before the queen's death from smallpox in 1694 a copper halfpenny, weighing 9.1–11.7 grams with 28–31 millimetres diameter was reintroduced. The contract for the new coins stipulated that the copper used should be English and the blanks struck at the Mint. It is noticeable that Charles II's Swedish copper halfpennies have toned to a dark red colour, while the William and Mary halfpennies tone to black, presumably because of different impurities in the copper. DELL Vostro 3700 Laptop Keyboard The obverse inscription read GVLIELMVS ET MARIA, while the reverse reads BRITANNIA (with the date beneath Britannia in 1694). The 1689–1692 coins have the edge inscription NVMMORVM FAMVLVS with the date.  Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard For the widowed king William III, the production of halfpennies continued under the contract granted during the previous reign. However it soon became apparent that the manufacturers were in breach of contract – to save costs, not only were some of the blanks being cast rather than struck, but some of the coins were themselves being cast in one operation.  HP Pavilion dv6-2110ea Laptop Keyboard There were other ways in which the manufacturers were economising on expenses – cheap labour was being used, including foreigners some of whom could not spell or punctuate the words they were engraving on the dies. Towards the end of the reign both the workmanship and the design and production of the dies for the copper coinage had sunk to a nadir, Packard Bell EasyNote TJ67 Laptop Keyboard which is curious as simultaneously the mint was producing the highest quality work in the five and two guinea pieces which were being produced. By 1698 there was a glut of copper coinage and an Act was passed to stop the coining for one year; this seems to have had little effect and the proliferation continued. There were further Parliamentary attempts to control the glut of coinage later. SONY VAIO PCG-FR285M Laptop Keyboard The William III halfpenny appears with various distinct types of engraving of the king's head, Britannia, and the inscriptions, with the quality getting worse as the reign wore on. The coins were copper, weighing 8.9 to 11.5 grams, with a diameter of 28–29 millimetres. The king's effigy on the obverse faced right, with the inscription GVLIELMVS TERTIVS – William the Third. Britannia appears on the reverse with the inscription BRITANNIA and the date normally in the exergue beneath Britannia. Coins were produced each year between 1695 and 1701. HP G62-b39SE Laptop Keyboard Soon after the accession of King George I (1714–1727) the surplus of copper coins was used up, and in 1717 a new contract was signed and a Royal Warrant issued for the production of a new halfpenny. The halfpennies struck in 1717 and 1718 looked slightly odd as they were smaller, thicker and somewhat lighter than the previous issues, weighing 9.4–10.3 grams with a diameter of 25–27 millimetres, Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard but they were well-struck with high-relief features of the right-facing head of King George and the inscription GEORGIVS REX on the obverse, and Britannia with the inscription BRITANNIA and the date in the exergue beneath Britannia. The 1717–1718 issue is known as the dump halfpenny. For the 1719–1724 issue, the size of the coin was increased to 26–29 millimetres, though with the same weight of metal as before. Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard George II's (1727–1760) halfpennies were the most prolific issue yet, but to them must be added a huge range of counterfeits (and pieces similar to counterfeits but with markedly different legends from the real coins, so that the manufacturers could avoid accusations of counterfeiting). Many genuine coins were melted down and underweight fabrications produced from the molten metal. It is difficult for those of us who use a modern regulated currency to appreciate the extent to which counterfeiting had debased the currency – for long periods of time, counterfeits outnumbered genuine coins. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Halfpennies were produced in all years between 1729 and 1754, with the exception of 1741. They weighed 9.7–10.3 grams and had a diameter of 28–30 millimetres. The obverse showed the left-facing head of King George and the inscription GEORGIVS II REX on the obverse, and Britannia with the inscription BRITANNIA and the date in the exergue beneath Britannia.  HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard After the mint moved from the Tower of London to Tower Hill the production of gold and silver coins took precedence over copper. The production of copper coins did not resume until the reign of King George IV (1820–1830), when farthings were produced in 1821. The issue of new halfpennies did not happen until 14 November 1825 as a result of a disagreement between the egocentric designer Benedetto Pistrucci and the authorities, ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard which resulted in William Wyon being invited to design the coins instead. This delay may be regarded as a good thing, as Wyon's designs are generally considered among the most elegant British coins. The George IV halfpenny was produced between 1825 and 1827, weighed 9.1–9.5 grams, with a diameter of 28 millimetres.  HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard The obverse shows a left-facing laureated bust of King George IV with the inscription GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA date, while the reverse shows a right-facing seated helmeted Britannia with a shield and trident, with the inscription BRITANNIAR REX FID DEF. Wyon's preference was to put the date under the king's bust, and to put the rose, thistle, and shamrock in the exergue underneath Britannia where the date commonly appeared before. FUJITSU Lifebook P1620 Laptop Keyboard The halfpenny of William IV (1830–1837), produced in 1831, 1834, and 1837, continues the George IV design but with a right-facing bust of the new king, with the inscription GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA date, while the reverse is identical to the previous reigns'. HP AE0P7U00010 Laptop Keyboard DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard The halfpennies of Queen Victoria's long reign (1837–1901) can be basically divided into the copper issue of 1838–1860, where the coins were 9.1–9.5 grams in weight and 28 millimetres in diameter, and which were very similar to the halfpennies of her two predecessors (with the obvious Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard  IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard

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