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Cliff Richard

ir Cliff Richard, OBE (born Harry Rodger Webb; 14 October 1940) is a British pop singer, musician, performer, actor, and philanthropist. With his backing group The Shadows, Richard, originally positioned as a rebellious rock and roll singer in the style of Little Richard[1] and Elvis Presley, HP Pavilion dm3-1019AX Keyboard

dominated the British popular music scene in the pre-Beatles period of the late 1950s and early 1960s. His 1958 hit single "Move It" is often described as Britain's first authentic rock and roll song, and John Lennon once claimed that "before Cliff and the Shadows, there had been nothing worth listening to in British music."[2][3]HP Pavilion dm3-1019TX Keyboard

A conversion to Christianity and subsequent softening of his music later led to a more middle of the road pop image, sometimes venturing into gospel music. HP Pavilion dm3-1020CA Keyboard

Over a 53-year career, Richard has become a fixture of the British entertainment world, amassing many gold and platinum discs and awards, including three Brit awards and two Ivor Novello awards. He has had more than 130 singles, albums and EPs make the UK Top 20, HP Pavilion dm3-1020EA Keyboard

more than any other artist[4] and holds the record (with Elvis Presley) as the only act to make the UK singles charts in all of its first six decades (1950s–2000s). He has achieved 14 UK No. 1 singles (or 18, depending on the counting methodology) and is the only singer to have had a No. HP Pavilion dm3-1020EG Keyboard

1 single in the UK in six consecutive decades: the 1950s through to the 2000s (discounting digital downloads and counting only CDs, he had a UK No. 1 single in the 2000s). Richard is the third biggest selling singles artist of all time in the UK, with total sales of over 21 million,[5] and has reportedly sold an estimated 250 million records worldwide.[6][7] HP Pavilion dm3-1021TX Keyboard

Richard has never achieved the same impact in the United States despite eight US Top 40 singles, including the million-selling "Devil Woman" and "We Don't Talk Anymore", the latter becoming the first to reach the Hot 100's top 40 in the 1980s by a singer who had been in the top 40 in the 1950s, HP Pavilion dm3-1022TX Keyboard

1960s, and 1970s. In Canada, Richard achieved moderate success in the 1980s with several albums reaching platinum status. He has remained a popular music, film, and television personality in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Northern Europe and Asia, and he retains a following in other countries. HP Pavilion dm3-1023TX Keyboard

1940–58: Childhood

Harry Rodger Webb was born on 14 October 1940 at the King George Hospital, Victoria Street, in Lucknow, India, to Rodger Oscar Webb, a manager for a catering contractor that serviced the Indian Railways, and his wife Dorothy Marie Dazely.[8] Richard was baptised Harry Rodger Webb on 2 November 1940 at St Thomas's Church, Dehradun, India.[citation HP Pavilion dm3-1024CA Keyboard

]The family lived in a modest home with other Anglo-Indians at Maqbara, near the main shopping centre of Hazratganj. The Anglo-Indians living at Maqbara were often employed as musicians; a band played at the Royal Cafe Restaurant, Lucknow, and another at the Mohmmad Bagh club, which was the officers' club serving the garrison at Lucknow.[9]HP Pavilion dm3-1027TX Keyboard

Dorothy's mother served as the dormitory matron at the La Martiniere Girls' School. Anglo-Indians did not enjoy any great social status in India and were looked down upon by the British.[9] Richard has three sisters.[10] In around 1945, his family moved to Howrah, near Calcutta, where he started his schooling in St. Thomas' Church School, Howrah, which still exists. HP Pavilion dm3-1028TX Keyboard

In 1948, following Indian independence the family embarked on a three week sea voyage to Tilbury, Essex, England aboard the SS Ranchi. The Webbs moved from comparative wealth in India, where they had servants and lived in a company-supplied flat at Howrah near Calcutta, HP Pavilion dm3-1030EG Keyboard

to a semi-detached house in Carshalton, Surrey (which was also the location of the school he attended, Stanley Park Juniors). In 1949 his father obtained employment in the credit control office ofThorn Electrical Industries and the family moved in with other relatives in Waltham Cross Hertfordshire, HP Pavilion dm3-1030EI Keyboard

where he attended Kings Road Junior Mixed Infants School until a three-bedroom council house in Cheshunt was allocated to them in 1950. Harry Webb then attended Cheshunt Secondary Modern School, later renamed Riversmead School (later rebuilt and renamed Bishopslea School) from 1952 to 1957. HP Pavilion dm3-1030SA Keyboard

As a member of the top stream he stayed on beyond the minimum leaving age to take GCE Ordinary Level examinations and gained a pass in English literature. He then started work as a filing clerk for a company called Atlas Lamps.[11] A development of flats, Cliff Richard Court, has been named after him in Cheshunt.[12] HP Pavilion dm3-1030US Keyboard

Harry Webb became interested in skiffle. His father bought him a guitar at 16 and he formed the Quintones vocal group in 1957.[citation needed] He then sang in the Dick Teague Skiffle Group.[citation needed] HP Pavilion dm3-1031TX Keyboard

1958–63: Success and stardom

Harry Webb became lead singer of a rock and roll group, The Drifters (not to be confused with the US group of the same name). 1950s entrepreneur Harry Greatorex wanted the up and coming Rock 'n' Roll singer to change from his real name of Harry Webb. HP Pavilion dm3-1032TX Keyboard

The name Cliff was adopted as it sounded like cliff face, which suggested "Rock." It was "Move It" writer Ian Samwell who suggested that the former Harry Webb be surnamed Richard as a tribute to Webb's musical hero Little Richard.[1][13] Before their first large-scale appearance, HP Pavilion dm3-1035DX Keyboard

at the Regal Ballroom in Ripley, Derbyshire in 1958, they adopted the name "Cliff Richard and the Drifters". The four members were Harry Webb (now going under the stage name "Cliff Richard"), Ian "Sammy" Samwell on guitar, Terry Smart on drums and Norman Mitham on guitar. None of the other three played with the later and better known Shadows, although Samwell wrote songs for Richard's later career. HP Pavilion dm3-1039WM Keyboard

For his debut session, Norrie Paramor provided Richard with "Schoolboy Crush", a cover of an American record by Bobby Helms. Richard was permitted to record one of his own songs for the B-side; this was "Move It", HP Pavilion dm3-1040EK Keyboard

written by the Drifters' Samwell on a number 715 Green Line bus on the way to Richard's house for a rehearsal. For the "Move It" session Paramor used the session guitarist Ernie Shears on lead guitar and Frank Clark on bass. HP Pavilion dm3-1040EV Keyboard

There are a number of stories about why the A-side was replaced by the intended B-side. One is that Norrie Paramor's young daughter raved about the B-side; another was that influential TV producer Jack Good, who used the act for his TV show Oh Boy!, wanted the only song on his show to be "Move It".[14] Richard was quoted as saying -HP Pavilion dm3-1040US Keyboard

The single went to No. 2 on the UK Singles Chart. Music critics Roy Carr and Tony Tyler wrote that it was the first genuine British rock classic, followed byJohnny Kidd and the Pirates' "Shakin' All Over". John Lennon was quoted as saying that "Move It" was the first English rock record. HP Pavilion dm3-1044NR Keyboard

In the early days, Richard was marketed as the British equivalent to Elvis Presley. Like previous British rockers such as Tommy Steele and Marty Wilde, Richard adopted Presley-like dress and hairstyle. In performance he struck a pose of rock attitude, HP Pavilion dm3-1047CL Keyboard

rarely smiling or looking at the audience or camera. His late 1958 and early 1959 follow-up singles, "High Class Baby" and "Livin' Lovin' Doll", were followed by "Mean Streak", which carried a rocker's sense of speed and passion, and Lionel Bart's "Living Doll". HP Pavilion dm3-1048LA Keyboard

It was on "Living Doll" that the Drifters began to back Richard on record. It was his fifth record,and became his first No. 1 single. By that time the group's lineup had changed with the arrival of Jet Harris, Tony Meehan, Hank Marvin, and Bruce Welch. The group was obliged to change its name to "The Shadows" HP Pavilion dm3-1050EE Keyboard

after legal complications with the US Drifters as "Living Doll" entered the American top 40, licensed by ABC-Paramount. "Living Doll" was used in Richard's debut film Serious Charge, but as a country standard, rather than a rock and roll standard. HP Pavilion dm3-1058NR Keyboard

The Shadows were not a typical backing group. They would become contractually separate from Richard, and the group received no royalties for records backing Richard. In 1959, The Shadows (then still the Drifters) landed an EMI recording contract of their own, for independent recordings. HP Pavilion dm3-1060EF Keyboard

That year, they released three singles, two of which featured double-sided vocals and one of which had instrumental A and B sides. In 1960, they recorded and released "Apache" this time using Richard as a session percussionist playing Chinese drums to open and close this single.[citation needed] HP Pavilion dm3-1070EA Keyboard

Reaching the top of the charts in more than one country, the single set The Shadows on a path of their own. They thereafter had several major hits, including five UK No. 1s. The band also continued to appear and record with Richard and wrote many of his hits. On more than one occasion, a Shadows' instrumental replaced a Richard song at the top of the British charts. HP Pavilion dm3-1070ES Keyboard

Richard's fifth single "Living Doll" triggered a softer, more relaxed, sound. Subsequent hits, the No. 1s "Travellin' Light" and "I Love You" and also "A Voice in the Wilderness" lifted from his film "Expresso Bongo"HP Pavilion dm3a Keyboard

and "Theme for a Dream" cemented Richard's status as a mainstream pop entertainer along with contemporaries such as Adam Faith and Billy Fury. Throughout the early sixties his hits were consistently in the top five. HP Pavilion dm3-1080EF Keyboard

In 1961, EMI records organised Richard's 21st birthday party at its London headquarters in Manchester Square led by his producer Norrie Paramor. Photographs of the celebrations were incorporated into Richard's next album "21 Today" in which Tony Meehan joined in despite, then, having very recently left the Shadows to be replaced by Brian Bennett. HP Pavilion dm3i Keyboard

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Typically, The Shadows closed the first half of the show with a 30-minute set of their own, then backed Richard on his show-closing 45-minute stint as exemplified by the retrospective CD album release of "Live at the ABC Kingston 1962". HP Pavilion dm3t-1000 Keyboard

Tony Meehan and Jet Harris left the group in 1961 and 1962 respectively and later had their own chart successes for Decca. The Shadows added bass players Brian Locking (1962–63) and then John Rostill (1963–1968) and took on Brian Bennett permanently on drums. HP Pavilion dm3z Keyboard

In the early days, particularly on EP and album releases, Richard sometimes recorded without The Shadows in order to cater to other styles with The Norrie Paramor Orchestra with Tony Meehan and then Brian Bennett as a session drummer. Even after the Beatles' rise he continued to achieve hits, HP Pavilion dm3z-1000 Keyboard

although more often with an orchestra rather than The Shadows: a revival of "It's All In The Game" and "Constantly". A session under the direction of Billy Sherrill in Nashvilleyielded two more top two hits: "The Minute You're Gone" and "Wind Me Up" in 1965. HP Pavilion DV1000 Keyboard

Richard, and in particular The Shadows, never achieved star status in the United States. In 1960 they toured the US and were well-received; however, lacklustre support and distribution from a revolving door of American record labels proved an obstacle to long-term success Stateside despite several chart records by Richard including the aforementioned HP Pavilion DV1100 Keyboard

"It's All In The Game" on Epic, via a renewed linking of the worldwide Columbia labels after Philips ended its distribution deal with CBS. To the Shadows' chagrin, Apache reached No. 1 in the US via a cover version by Danish guitarist Jorgen Ingmann which was virtually unchanged from their worldwide hit, HP Pavilion DV1200 Keyboard

save a sound effect Ingmann added evoking whooshing arrows in flight created by flicking his fingers on the fretboard. Richard and the band appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show, which was crucial for The Beatles, but these performances did not help them gain sustained success in North America. HP Pavilion DV1300 Keyboard

Richard and The Shadows appeared in six feature films all commercially successful,(although the films title was changed to suit various countries' markets), including a rather odd debut in the 1959 film Serious Charge but most notably in The Young Ones, (the title song being his biggest hit up to "Mistletoe and Wine"), HP Pavilion DV1400 Keyboard

Summer Holiday (which featured a slimmed-down Richard with visible dancing skills), Wonderful Life and Finders Keepers. These films created their owngenre known as the "Cliff Richard musical" and led to Richard being named the No. 1 cinema box office attraction in Britain for both 1962 and 1963 beating that of even James Bond. HP Pavilion DV1500 Keyboard

The irreverent 1980s TV sitcom The Young Ones took its name from Richard's 1962 film, and also made references to the singer. In 1966, Richard and the Shadows appeared as marionettes in the Gerry Anderson film Thunderbirds Are GO. In the summer of 1963 Cliff and the Shadows appeared for a season in Blackpool, where Richard had his portrait modelled by Victor Heyfron, M.A. HP Pavilion DV1600 Keyboard

1964–75: Changing circumstances

As with the other existing rock acts in Britain, Richard's career was affected by the sudden advent of The Beatles and the Mersey sound in 1963 and 1964. However, his popularity was established enough to allow him to weather the storm and continue to have hits in the charts throughout the 1960s, HP Pavilion dv2 Keyboard

albeit not at the level that he had enjoyed before. Nor did doors open to him in the US market; he was not considered part of the British Invasion, and despite four Hot 100 hits (including the top 25 "It's All In The Game") between August 1963 and August 1964, the US public had little awareness of him. HP Pavilion dv2-1000 Keyboard

However, he continued having international hits, including 1967's "The Day I Met Marie", which reached No. 10 in the UK Singles Chart and No. 5 in the Australian charts, and is considered a quintessential summer hit, due to its summery nature. HP Pavilion dv2-1000eo Keyboard

Although baptised as an Anglican, Richard did not appear to practise the faith in his early years. However, in 1964, he became an active Christian and this embrace of the faith has become an important aspect of his life. Standing up publicly as a Christian affected his career in several ways. HP Pavilion dv2-1000ep Keyboard

Initially, he believed that he should quit rock 'n roll, feeling he could no longer be the rocker who had been called a "crude exhibitionist" and "too sexy for TV" and a threat to parents' daughters. However, by the time Richard converted, his image had become tamer because of his film roles and well-spoken manners on radio and TV. HP Pavilion dv2-1001au Keyboard

Richard intended at first to "reform his ways" and become a teacher, but Christian friends advised him not to abandon his career just because he had become a Christian. Soon after, Richard re-emerged, performing with Christian groups and recording some Christian material. HP Pavilion dv2-1001ax Keyboard

He still recorded secular songs with the Shadows, but devoted a lot of his time to Christian work, including appearances with the Billy Graham crusades. As time progressed, Richard balanced his faith and work, enabling him to remain one of the most popular singers in Britain as well as one of its best-known Christians. HP Pavilion dv2-1001eg Keyboard

He was a leading figure in theNationwide Festival of Light during 1971, protesting against the commercial exploitation of sex and violence in Britain, and advocating the teaching of Christ as the key to recovering moral stability in the nation.[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv2-1001et Keyboard

Richard's first serious acting role took place in the 1967 film Two a Penny, released by Billy Graham's World Wide Pictures,[16] in which he played Jamie Hopkins, a young man who gets involved in drug dealing while questioning his life after his girlfriend changes her attitude. He released the live album "Cliff in Japan" in 1967. HP Pavilion dv2-1001xx Keyboard

In 1968, he sang the UK's entry in the Eurovision Song Contest: "Congratulations" by Bill Martin and Phil Coulter; it lost by just one point to Spain's "La La La". According to John Kennedy O'Connor's The Eurovision Song Contest—The Official History, HP Pavilion dv2-1002au Keyboard

this was the closest result yet in the contest and Richard locked himself in the toilet to avoid the nerves of the voting.[17] In May 2008 a Reuters news report claimed that voting in the competition had been fixed by the Spanish dictator leader, Francisco Franco, to ensure that the Spanish entry won, allowing them to host the contest the following year (1969). HP Pavilion dv2-1002ax Keyboard

In particular, it is claimed that Spanish TVE television executives offered to buy programmes in exchange for votes.[18][19] The story was widely covered and featured on UK Channel 4 News as a main story, with Jon Snow interviewing author and historian John Kennedy O'Connor about the matter.[20] HP Pavilion dv2-1002xx Keyboard

Eurovision later ended voting by national juries in a bid to eradicate such alleged scams. Nevertheless, "Congratulations" was a huge hit throughout Europe and yet another No. 1 in April 1968. HP Pavilion dv2-1003au Keyboard

After the Shadows split in 1968, Richard continued to record. He had already become accustomed to the Shadows' absence, and was able to record in a variety of settings. Although many of his earliest fans regretted that Richard had tried out songs which were not strictly in the rock 'n roll genre, HP Pavilion dv2-1003ax Keyboard

most had got used to his habit of recording rockier material with the Shadows, while producing more middle-of-the-road material at other times; this versatility extended Richard's career prospects. HP Pavilion dv2-1004au Keyboard

During the 1970s, Richard took part in several television shows and fronted his own show It's Cliff Richard! from 1970 - 1976. It starred Olivia Newton-John, Hank Marvin and Una Stubbs, and included A Song for Europe. These shows, for a time, branded Richard as a television personality more than a recording artist. HP Pavilion dv2-1004ax Keyboard

He began 1970 by appearing live on the BBC's review of the sixties music scene, Pop Go The Sixties, which was broadcast across Britain and Europe on 31 December 1969. He performed "Bachelor Boy" with The Shadows and "Congratulations" solo. HP Pavilion dv2-1005au Keyboard

In 1972, he made a short BBC television comedy film called The Case with appearances from comedians and his first ever duets with a woman, Olivia Newton-John. He went on to release a double live album "Cliff Live in Japan 1972" featuring Newton-John. HP Pavilion dv2-1005ax Keyboard

His final acting role on the silver screen was in 1973 when he starred in the film, Take Me High.

In 1973, he sang the British Eurovision entry "Power to All Our Friends"; the song finished third, close behind Luxembourg's "Tu Te Reconnaîtras" and Spain's "Eres Tú". HP Pavilion dv2-1005ee Keyboard

This time, Richard took Valium in order to overcome his nerves and his manager was almost unable to wake him for the performance.[21] Richard also hosted the BBC's qualifying heat for the Eurovision Song Contest, A Song for Europe, in 1970, 1971 and 1972 as part of his BBCTV variety series. He presented the Eurovision Song Contest Previews for the BBC in 1971 and 1972. HP Pavilion dv2-1005ei Keyboard

In 1975, he released the single "Honky Tonk Angel" produced by Hank Marvin and John Farrar, oblivious to its connotations or hidden meanings. As soon as Richard was notified that a honky-tonk angel was Southern US slang for a prostitute, Richard ordered EMI to withdraw it. He refused to promote it despite making a video for it. HP Pavilion dv2-1006au Keyboard

EMI agreed to his demand despite positive sales. About 1,000 copies are known to exist on vinyl. Subsequently, Richard was harassed by the British media about this single and in particular this apparent career 'anti-Christian' faux-pas. Thereafter, all of Richard's songs on any format were double checked by his management for any conflict with his faith. HP Pavilion dv2-1006ax Keyboard

1976–94: Comeback

In 1976, the decision was made to repackage Richard as a "rock" artist. That year he produced the landmark album I'm Nearly Famous, which included the successful but controversial guitar-driven track "Devil Woman" (Richard's first true hit in the United States) and the ballad "Miss You Nights". HP Pavilion dv2-1007au Keyboard

Richard's fans were excited about this revival of a performer who had been a part of British rock from its early days. Many music names such as Jimmy Page, Eric Clapton, andElton John were seen sporting I'm Nearly Famous badges, pleased that their boyhood idol was getting back into the heavier rock in which he had begun his career. HP Pavilion dv2-1007ax Keyboard

In the same year, Richard became the first occidental artist to tour the USSR at the height of the Cold War.[citation needed]

Notwithstanding this, Richard continued to release Gospel-tinged albums in parallel with his rock and pop albums, for example: Small Corners from 1978 contained the single "Yes He Lives".HP Pavilion dv2-1008au Keyboard

Despite his 1976 comeback, this single failed to chart in the United Kingdom. In 1980, the singer would legally change his name bydeed poll from Harry Webb to Cliff Richard.[22] On 31 December 1976, he performed his latest single "Hey, Mr. Dream Maker" on BBC1's A Jubilee Of Music, celebrating British pop music for Queen Elizabeth II's impending Silver Jubilee. HP Pavilion dv2-1008ax Keyboard

In 1979, Richard teamed up with the producer Bruce Welch for the pop hit single "We Don't Talk Anymore", written by Alan Tarney, which hit No. 1 in the UK and No. 7 in the US Bryan Ferry added hummed backing vocals to the song. HP Pavilion dv2-1009au Keyboard

The record gave Richard the distinction of becoming the first act to reach the Hot 100's top 40 in the 1980s who had also been there in each of the three previous decades. The song was quickly added onto the end of his latest album Rock 'n' Roll Juvenile. HP Pavilion dv2-1009ax Keyboard

It was his first time at the top of the UK singles chart in over ten years, and the song would become his biggest-selling single ever. The accompanying music video was the sixth to appear on American cable channel MTV when it debuted on 1 August 1981. In 1980, Richard received the O.B.E. from the Queen for services to music and charity.[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv2-1010au Keyboard

At long last he had some extended success in the United States following "Devil Woman". The follow-up "Dreamin'" peaked at No. 10. His 1980 duet "Suddenly" with Olivia Newton-John, from the film Xanadu, peaked at No. 20. Richard continued with a string of top ten albums, HP Pavilion dv2-1010ax Keyboard

including I'm No Hero, Wired for Sound, Now You See Me, Now You Don't, and, marking his 25th year in show business, Silver. The singles chart also saw his most consistent period of top twenty hits since the mid 1960s, with "A Little In Love", "Dreamin'",HP Pavilion dv2-1010ea Keyboard

and "Suddenly" on the Hot 100 at the same time at the end of 1980. His 1985 single "She's So Beautiful" reached No. 17 in the UK. 1987 saw Richard record his Always Guaranteed album, which became his best selling album of all new material. It contained the two top ten hit singles "My Pretty One" and "Some People".HP Pavilion dv2-1010ed Keyboard

Richard concluded his thirtieth year in music by reaching No. 1 on the British singles chart with "Mistletoe and Wine", while simultaneously holding the No. 1 positions on the album and video charts with the compilation Private Collection summing up his biggest hits from 1979-1988. "Mistletoe and Wine" was his biggest seller to that point. HP Pavilion dv2-1010el Keyboard

In 1986, Richard teamed up with The Young Ones to re-record his smash hit "Living Doll" for the charity Comic Relief. Along with the song, the recording contained comedy dialogue between Richard and The Young Ones. The release went to No. 1. HP Pavilion dv2-1010eo Keyboard

That same year he opened in the West End as a rock musician called upon to defend Earth in a trial set in the Andromeda Galaxy in the multi-media Dave Clark musical Time. Two Richard singles, HP Pavilion dv2-1010ep Keyboard

"She's So Beautiful" and "Born To Rock 'n Roll", were released respectively in 1985 and 1986 from the concept album recorded for Time. In 1989, Richard received the Brits highest award The Outstanding Achievement award.[23] HP Pavilion dv2-1010ez Keyboard

Further top ten albums included Stronger in 1989, which included the UK No. 2 hit "Best Of Me", and UK No. 3 "Just Don't Have The Heart" written and produced byMike Stock, Matt Aitken and Pete Waterman, and From a Distance in 1990. Later that year, Richard scored his second UK Christmas No. HP Pavilion dv2-1011au Keyboard

1 single with "Saviour's Day". Richard unsuccessfully bid for the Christmas No. 1 spot again with "We Should Be Together" and "Healing Love" in 1991 and 1993 respectively – the latter being taken from his No. 1 studio album Cliff Richard - The Album. The next few years saw Richard concentrate on bringing the musical Heathcliff to the stage. The production was a resounding success,[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv2-1011ax Keyboard

but the time it took seemed to take a toll on his reinvigorated chart status. Back in the UK during the next years and throughout the 1980s, Richard remained one of the best-known music artists in the country. In the space of a few years he worked with Elton John,Mark Knopfler, Julian Lennon, Freddie Mercury, Stevie Wonder, Phil Everly, HP Pavilion dv2-1012au Keyboard

Janet Jackson, Sheila Walsh, and Van Morrison. Richard also reunited with Olivia Newton-John. In 1989, he filled the Wembley Stadium for a few nights with a spectacular titled "The Event". Meanwhile, The Shadows later re-formed (and again split). HP Pavilion dv2-1012ax Keyboard

They recorded on their own, but also reunited with Richard in 1978, 1984, and 1989–90 for some concerts. On 14 June 2004 Richard joined the Shadows on-stage at the London Palladium. The Shadows had decided to re-form for one final tour of the UK, with this concert heralded as their final ever concert as "Cliff and the Shadows".HP Pavilion dv2-1013ax Keyboard

1995–2007: Knighthood

Richard was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II on 25 October 1995,[24] the first rock star to be so honoured (Bob Geldof had received his honorary knighthood a full nine years earlier, but not being either a British subject or British citizen, he is not permitted to use the title 'Sir'). HP Pavilion dv2-1014ax Keyboard

In 1996, he famously led the Wimbledon Centre Court crowd in singing during a rain delay when asked by Wimbledon officials to entertain the crowd. Richard was not aware this performance was being televised by the BBC and after singing six of his golden greats, TV presenter Des Lynam commented on this and added jokingly "we'll probably get one hell of a bill".[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv2-1015ax Keyboard

In 1998, Richard demonstrated that radio stations were refusing to play his music by releasing his latest single "Can't Keep This Feeling In" on a white label under the pseudonym of Blacknight. The single was well regarded and featured on playlists until the true artist was revealed.[27] HP Pavilion dv2-1015ee Keyboard

In 1999, controversy again arose regarding radio stations refusing to play his releases when EMI, Richard's label since 1958, refused to release his latest song, "The Millennium Prayer".[clarification needed] Richard took it to an independent label, Papillon, which released the charity recording (in aid of Children's Promise). HP Pavilion dv2-1015ei Keyboard

The single went on to top the UK chart for three weeks, becoming his fourteenth No.1 and the third-highest-selling single of his career. Richard's next album, in 2001, was a covers project, Wanted, followed by another top ten album, Cliff at Christmas. The holiday album contained both new and older recordings, including the single "Santa's List", which reached No. 5 in 2003. HP Pavilion dv2-1016ax Keyboard

For his seven day long 60th birthday party Richard in conjunction with OK magazine hired a cruise boat to Monte Carlo and sailed with his top 80 (out of a possible 500) specially invited guests, mostly from British showbiz, to France. Notable attendees were Olivia Newton-John, Shirley Bassey, Sue Barker, Gloria Hunniford, HP Pavilion dv2-1017ax Keyboard

Tim Rice, Mike Read, Bobby Davro (a Cliff Richard impersonator), Richard's three sisters, etc. Notable non-attendees were all the members of The Shadows, except Bruce Welch, all of whom would have been shortlisted on Richard's original list of 500 guests. HP Pavilion dv2-1018ax Keyboard

Richard decamped to Nashville, Tennessee for his next album project in 2004, employing a writers' conclave to give him the pick of all new songs for the albumSomething's Goin' On. Though the collection was critically well-received, it had disappointing sales. HP Pavilion dv2-1019ax Keyboard

Nevertheless it was yet another top ten album, and produced three top fifteen singles: "Something's Goin' On", "I Cannot Give You My Love", with Barry Gibb of the Bee Gees, and the lively "What Car". Richard did not hide his disappointment with the album's lacklustre sales, and it was speculated that it might have been his last ever album of original songs. HP Pavilion dv2-1020ax Keyboard

HP Pavilion dv2-1020ca Keyboard

Two's Company, an album of duets released in 2006, was another top 10 success and included newly recorded material with Brian May, Dionne Warwick, Anne Murray,Barry Gibb and Daniel O'Donnell, plus some previously recorded duets with artists such as Phil Everly, Elton John and Olivia Newton-John. HP Pavilion dv2-1020ed Keyboard

Two's Company was released to coincide with the UK leg of his latest world tour, "Here and Now", which included a number of lesser known but fan-favourite songs such as "My Kinda Life", "How Did She Get Here", "Hey Mr. Dream Maker", "For Life", HP Pavilion dv2-1020ef Keyboardic.html">

"A Matter Of Moments", "When The Girl In Your Arms", "Every Face Tells A Story", "Peace In Our Time" and the Christmas single "21st Century Christmas", which debuted at No. 2 on the UK singles chart. HP Pavilion dv2-1020el Keyboard

Another compilation album, Love... The Album was released on 12 November 2007. Like Two's Company before it, this album includes both previously released material and newly recorded songs, namely "Waiting For A Girl Like You", "HP Pavilion dv2-1020er Keyboard

When You Say Nothing At All", "All Out Of Love", "If You're Not the One" and "When I Need You" (the last was released as a single, reaching No. 38; the album peaked at No. 13). The concept of the project has divided fans who anticipate an album of new material. HP Pavilion dv2-1021ax Keyboard

2008, Richard's 50th year in music, saw the release of the 8 CD box set And They Said It Wouldn't Last (My 50 Years In Music).[28] In September, a single celebrating his 50 years in pop music, titled "Thank You for a Lifetime" was released. On 14 September 2008 it reached No. 3 on the UK music charts. HP Pavilion dv2-1022ax Keyboard

On 2 November 2008, British newspaper The Mail on Sunday gave away a free promotional CD entitled 50th Anniversary containing 12 tracks picked by Richard himself. On 11 November 2008, Richard's official website announced that 20 years after their latest concert together, HP Pavilion dv2-1023ax Keyboard

Cliff and The Shadows would reunite to celebrate their 50th anniversary in the music business. A month later they performed at the Royal Variety Performance. In 2009 Cliff and The Shadows brought their partnership to an end with the "Golden Anniversary concert tour of the UK".HP Pavilion dv2-1023ef Keyboard

A new album by Richard and the Shadows was released in September 2009. Titled Reunited, It was their first studio project in forty years. The 28 tracks recorded comprise 25 re-recordings of their earlier classics, with three "new" tracks, originally from that era (and earlier), the single "Singing the Blues", HP Pavilion dv2-1024ax Keyboard

along with Eddie Cochran's "C'mon Everybody" and the Frankie Ford hit "Sea Cruise". The tracks are to be spread across the single and its bonus tracks, a limited edition version of the album, as well as a standard CD release. The album charted at No. 6 in the UK charts in its opening week and peaked at No. 4. The reunion tour continued into Europe in 2010. HP Pavilion dv2-1024ca Keyboard

In June 2009, it was reported by Sound Kitchen Studios in Nashville that Richard was to return there shortly to record a new album of original recordings of jazz songs.[29] He was to record fourteen tracks in a week. HP Pavilion dv2-1025ax Keyboard

Richard performed "Congratulations" at the 70th birthday celebrations of Queen Margrethe II in Denmark on 13 April 2010.

On 14 October 2010, Richard celebrated his 70th birthday and to mark the occasion, he performed a series of six concerts at the Royal Albert Hall, London. HP Pavilion dv2-1025ee Keyboard

Over 30,000 tickets for the concerts went on sale on 7 March and sold out within a few hours.[citation needed] To accompany the concerts, a new album of cover versions of swing standards, Bold as Brass, was released on 11 October. HP Pavilion dv2-1025es Keyboard

After a quick week of promotion, Richard flew out to rehearse for the German Night Of The Proms concerts in Belgium at the end of October. He made a surprise appearance at theAntwerp, Belgium concert of the Night Of The Proms on Thursday, 28 October 2010 and sang "We Don't Talk Anymore" to a great reaction from the surprised 20,000 fans at Sportpaleis Antwerp. HP Pavilion dv2-1026ax Keyboard

In all, he toured 12 German cities in November and December 2010, during the Night Of The Proms concerts, as the headline act. The total of 18 concerts were attended by over 300,000 fans. Richard performed a selection of hits and tracks from the Bold As Brass album. HP Pavilion dv2-1027ax Keyboard

In Munich, Richard added his hand prints to the Munich Olympic Walk Of Stars during a break when the concerts were held there.

With the DVD release of Bold As Brass in November 2010, he achieved his third consecutive No. 1 music DVD in three years. It has so far achieved a total of eight weeks in the top 10 on the UK chart selling nearly 60,000 copies. It also charted in New Zealand, and Denmark in the top 10 and in Holland in the top 20—Selling a further 10,000 copies. HP Pavilion dv2-1027ca Keyboard

2011 saw Richard recording once again in the US for his Soulicious album, containing duets with American soul legends including Percy Sledge, Ashford and Simpson, Roberta Flack, Freda Payne, Peabo Bryson, Brenda Holloway and Candi Staton. HP Pavilion dv2-1028ax Keyboard

The album is produced by Lamont Dozier with David Gest as executive producer. Released in October 2011, the album was supported by a short UK arena tour and gave Richard his 41st top ten UK hit album.

He was among the performers at the Diamond Jubilee concert held outside Buckingham Palace on 4 June 2012. HP Pavilion dv2-1029ax Keyboard

Lack of commercial support

Richard openly complains about the lack of commercial support he receives from radio stations and record labels. He spoke about this on The Alan Titchmarsh Showon ITV in December 2007, pointing out that while new bands needed airplay for promotion and sales, HP Pavilion dv2-1030ax Keyboard

long-established artists like him also relied upon airplay for the same ends. He did note, however, that so-called eighties radio stations did play his records and that this went some way to help sales and maintain his media presence. In the recent BBC Radio 2 documentary "Cliff – Take Another Look",HP Pavilion dv2-1030ea Keyboard

he pointed out that many documentaries charting the history of British music (e.g. I'm in a Rock 'n' Roll Band!) fail to even mention him (or The Shadows).[30] HP Pavilion dv2-1030el Keyboard

In 2011, digital station Absolute Radio 60s, dedicated to playing popular music from the 1960s, announced they would not be playing any of Richard's records because they claimed they did not fit "the cool sound... we're trying to create". DJ Pete Mitchell claimed "Timeless acts of the decade that remain relevant today are The Beatles, HP Pavilion dv2-1030en Keyboard

The Stones, The Doors and The Who, not Sir Cliff." Richard responded to this by saying "They're lying to themselves, and more importantly they're lying to the public."[31] HP Pavilion dv2-1030eo Keyboard

Richard believes he is "the most radical rock star there has ever been".[30] Richard's premise is that his decision not to adopt the "sex, drugs and alcohol" image expected of rock stars, then and now, was the truly avant-garde choice. HP Pavilion dv2-1030us Keyboard

Richard holds many records for the number of concerts held at various venues around the world. In the UK he holds the record for most performances at the Royal Albert Hall, with over 80 performances at the venue with audiences reaching 450,000. HP Pavilion dv2-1031ax Keyboard

He also holds the record for most shows at Wembley Arena, where he has performed at least 66 concerts to audiences of nearly 800,000. In Birmingham, Richard has performed at least 56 shows at the NIA (totalling 620,000 attendees), in addition to over 20 shows at the NEC arena. HP Pavilion dv2-1032ax Keyboard

In Manchester Richard has performed at the MEN arena eight times with over 120,000 fans attending the shows. He appeared twice at Wembley Stadium in 1989 in celebration of his 30th year in music; over 144,000 fans attended the sold-out shows. HP Pavilion dv2-1033cl Keyboard

Richard has also performed hundreds of times in Australia and New Zealand in cities including Melbourne, Sydney and Auckland, audience members totalling hundreds of thousands. HP Pavilion dv2-1035ea Keyboard

In 2012, he performed at the Diamond Jubilee concert of HM Queen Elizabeth II outside of Buckingham Palace. He sang a medley of his hits from across the 60 years of the Queen's reign, including "Congratulations." HP Pavilion dv2-1040ef Keyboard

Richard's father, Rodger Webb, died in 1961, and his mother, Dorothy in 2007.[citation needed] Dorothy suffered from dementia and in a 2006 interview with theDaily Mail, he spoke about the difficulties he and his sisters had in dealing with their mother's condition.[32] On 18 October 2007 a statement on the star's website read, "We are sad to report that Cliff's mother, Dorothy, passed away early on 17 October; she was 87." HP Pavilion dv2-1040ew Keyboard

Richard is a lifelong bachelor.[33] In a letter written in October 1961 to "his first serious girlfriend",[34] Australian dancer Delia Wicks, and made public in April 2010 after her death from cancer, Richard writes, "Being a pop singer I have to give up one priceless thing – the right to any lasting relationship with any special girl."[34] HP Pavilion dv2-1043ca Keyboard

The pair had been dating for 18 months. In the letter he goes on to say, "I couldn't give up my career, besides the fact that my mother and sisters, since my father's death, rely on me completely. (...) I have showbiz in my blood now and I would be lost without it."[34] He has said that he once considered marriage to the dancer Jackie Irving and later to the former tennis player Sue Barker. HP Pavilion dv2-1044ca Keyboard

In 1971, Richard was one of approximately 30,000 people gathering at London's Trafalgar Square to protest against the Swedish sex education film Kärlekens Språk, which was showing at a nearby cinema.[35] HP Pavilion dv2-1050eg Keyboard

Although he has never married, Richard has rarely lived alone. For many years he shared his main home with his religious affairs/charity/media/promotion schedules manager, Bill Latham, and Latham's girlfriend. Currently a former Catholic priest, John McElynn, HP Pavilion dv2-1050en Keyboard

who is Richard's property manager "lives in" and looks after the properties whilst Richard is away. Richard describes McElynn as a close friend who has become like a companion[citation needed]. HP Pavilion dv2-1050es Keyboard

Richard declines discussion about any intimate relationships and when asked about suggestions that he may be homosexual has stated categorically that he is not. More recently he has said, "what business is it of anyone else's what any of us are as individuals? I don’t think my fans would care either way."[33] HP Pavilion dv2-1050ew Keyboard

Richard has called on the Church of England to affirm people's commitment in same-sex marriage.[33][36] In his autobiography he states that "many of my friends are gay – let's face it, homosexuality has been legal for more than thirty years. For me, the commitment is what counts – and I'll leave the judging to God."[37] HP Pavilion dv2-1070eg Keyboard

According to the Sunday Times Rich List 2010, Richard is worth £50 million. As well as owning various houses and apartments around the world, Richard has become joint owner of the Arora International Hotel in Manchester, which opened in June 2004. HP Pavilion dv2-1090eo Keyboard

He also owns a Quinta in the Algarve, Portugal, where he is involved in the production of wines at the Adega do Cantor ("Winery of the Singer"), a state-of-the-art winery in Guia, near Albufeira. In 2006 Richard received a Portuguese knighthood in which he was appointed Commander of the Order of Prince Henry (ComIH)[38][39], HP Pavilion dv2z Keyboard

this in recognition of his 40 years of personal and business involvement in that country. Richard finished No. 56 in the 2002 100 Greatest Britons list, sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the public. HP Pavilion dv3 Keyboard

His official 70th birthday party was held on 23 October 2010, with guests including Cilla Black, Elaine Paige and Daniel O'Donnell.

Rock and roll

Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s,[1][2] primarily from a combination of African American blues,country, jazz,[3] HP Pavilion dv3-1000 Keyboard

and gospel music.[4] Though elements of rock and roll can be heard in country records of the 1930s,[3] and in blues records from the 1920s,[5] rock and roll did not acquire its name until the 1950s.[6][7] HP Pavilion dv3-1001TX Keyboard

The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage. The American Heritage Dictionary[8]and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary[9] both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music. Encyclopædia Britannica, HP Pavilion dv3-1051xx Keyboard

on the other hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s and later developed "into the more encompassing international style known as rock music".[10] For the purpose of differentiation, this article uses the second definition. HP Pavilion dv3-1073cl Keyboard

In the earliest rock and roll styles of the late 1940s and early 1950s, either the piano or saxophone was often the lead instrument, but these were generally replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s.[11] The beat is essentially a blues rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, HP Pavilion dv3-1075ca Keyboard

the latter almost always provided by a snare drum.[12] Classic rock and roll is usually played with one or two electric guitars (one lead, one rhythm), a string bass or (after the mid-1950s) an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit.[11] HP Pavilion dv3-1075us Keyboard

Rock and roll began achieving wide popularity in the 1960s.[13] The massive popularity and eventual worldwide view of rock and roll gave it a widespread social impact. HP Pavilion dv3-2000 Keyboard

Bobby Gillespie writes that "When Chuck Berry sang 'Hail, hail, rock and roll, deliver me from the days of old', that's exactly what the music was doing. Chuck Berry started the global psychic jailbreak that is rock'n'roll."[14] HP Pavilion dv3-1077ca Keyboard

Far beyond simply a musical style, rock and roll, as seen in movies and on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. It went on to spawn various sub-genres, often without the initially characteristic backbeat, that are now more commonly called simply "rock music" or "rock".HP Pavilion dv3-2001tu Keyboard

The origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by commentators and historians of music.[15] There is general agreement that it arose in the Southern United States – a region which would produce most of the major early rock and roll acts – through the meeting of various influences that embodied a merging of the African musical tradition with European instrumentation.[16] HP Pavilion dv3-2001TX Keyboard

The migration of many former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers like Memphis and north to New York City, Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland and Buffalo meant that black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than ever before, HP Pavilion dv3-2001xx Keyboard

and as a result heard each other's music and even began to emulate each other's fashions.[17][18] Radio stations that made white and black forms of music available to both groups, the development and spread of the gramophone record, HP Pavilion dv3-2002tu Keyboard

and African American musical styles such as jazz and swing which were taken up by white musicians, aided this process of "cultural collision".[19] HP Pavilion dv3-2002tx Keyboard

The immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues, then called "race music", and country music of the 1940s and

blues, gospel, country, and folk.[15] Commentators differ in their views of which of these forms were most important and the degree to which the new music was a re-branding of African American rhythm and blues for a white market, or a new hybrid of black and white forms.[20][21][22] 1950s.[15] Particularly significant influences were jazz, HP Pavilion dv3-2003tu Keyboard

In the 1930s jazz, and particularly swing, both in urban based dance bands and blues-influenced country swing, was among the first music to present African American sounds for a predominantly white audience.[21][23] The 1940s saw the increased use of blaring horns (including saxophones), HP Pavilion dv3-2003tx Keyboard

shouted lyrics and boogie woogie beats in jazz based music. During and immediately after World War II, with shortages of fuel and limitations on audiences and available personnel, large jazz bands were less economical and tended to be replaced by smaller combos, using guitars, bass and drums.[15][24]HP Pavilion dv3-2004tu Keyboard

In the same period, particularly on the West Coast and in the Midwest, the development of jump blues, with its guitar riffs, prominent beats and shouted lyrics, prefigured many later developments.[15] In the documentary film Hail! Hail! Rock 'n' Roll, Bruce Springsteen demonstrates a compelling explanation of how Chuck Berry developed his brand of rock and roll, HP Pavilion dv3-2004tx Keyboard

by transposing the familiar two-note lead line of jump blues piano directly to the electric guitar, creating what is instantly recognizable as rock guitar. Similarly, country boogie and Chicago electric blues supplied many of the elements that would be seen as characteristic of rock and roll.[15] HP Pavilion dv3-2005ee Keyboard

Rock and roll arrived at a time of considerable technological change, soon after the development of the electric guitar,amplifier and microphone, and the 45 rpm record.[15] There were also changes in the record industry, with the rise of independent labels like Atlantic, HP Pavilion dv3-2005tu Keyboard

Sun and Chess servicing niche audiences and a similar rise of radio stations that played their music.[15] It was the realization that relatively affluent white teenagers were listening to this music that led to the development of what was to be defined as rock and roll as a distinct genre.[15] HP Pavilion dv3-2005tx Keyboard

The phrase "rocking and rolling" originally described the movement of a ship on the ocean, but was used by the early twentieth century, both to describe the spiritual fervor of black church rituals[25] and as a sexual analogy. Various gospel, blues and swing recordings used the phrase before it became used more frequently – but still intermittently – in the 1940s, HP Pavilion dv3-2006tu Keyboard

on recordings and in reviews of what became known as "rhythm and blues" music aimed at a black audience.[25] By 1942,Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker had begun using the term "rock and roll" in descriptions of upbeat recordings such as "Rock Me" by Sister Rosetta Tharpe.[26]HP Pavilion dv3-2006tx Keyboard

In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it.[27] HP Pavilion dv3-2007ee Keyboard

Because the development of rock and roll was an evolutionary process, no single record can be identified as unambiguously "the first" rock and roll record.[28] Contenders for the title of "first rock and roll record" include Goree Carter's "Rock Awhile" (1949);[29] Jimmy Preston's "Rock the Joint" (1949), HP Pavilion dv3-2007tu Keyboard

which was later covered by Bill Haley & His Comets in 1952;[30] and "Rocket 88" by Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats (actually an alias for Ike Turner and his band The Kings of Rhythm), recorded by Sam Phillips for Sun Records in March 1951.[31]HP Pavilion dv3-2007tx Keyboard

In terms of its wide cultural impact across society in the US and elsewhere, Bill Haley's "Rock Around the Clock", recorded in April 1954 but not a commercial success until the following year, is generally recognized as an important milestone, HP Pavilion dv3-2008tu Keyboard

discerned.[28][32][33] Other artists with early rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Fats Domino, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Gene Vincent.[31] Chuck Berry's 1955 classic "Maybellene" in particular features a distorted electric guitar solo with warm overtones created by his small valve amplifier.[34]HP Pavilion dv3-2008tx Keyboard

However, the use of distortion was predated by Guitar Slim,[35] Willie Johnson of Howlin' Wolf,[36] and Pat Hare; the latter two also made use of distorted power chords in the early 1950s.[32] In addition, Bo Diddley introduced a new beat and unique electric guitar style,[37] heavily influenced by African music and in turn influencing many later artists.[38][39][40] HP Pavilion dv3-2009tx Keyboard

Early rock and roll

"Rockabilly" usually (but not exclusively) refers to the type of rock and roll music which was played and recorded in the mid 1950s by white singers such as Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins and Jerry Lee Lewis, who drew mainly on the country roots of the music.[41]HP Pavilion dv3-2010el Keyboard

Many other popular rock and roll singers of the time, such as Fats Domino and Little Richard, came out of the black rhythm and bluestradition, making the music attractive to white audiences, and are not usually classed as "rockabilly".HP Pavilion dv3-2010et Keyboard

In July 1954, Elvis Presley recorded the regional hit "That's All Right (Mama)" at Sam Phillips' Sun Studio in Memphis.[42] Three months earlier, on April 12, 1954, Bill Haley & His Comets recorded "Rock Around the Clock". Although only a minor hit when first released, HP Pavilion dv3-2010tx Keyboard

when used in the opening sequence of the movie Blackboard Jungle, a year later, it really set the rock and roll boom in motion. The song became one of the biggest hits in history, and frenzied teens flocked to see Haley and the Comets perform it, causing riots in some cities. HP Pavilion dv3-2011tx Keyboard

"Rock Around the Clock" was a breakthrough for both the group and for all of rock and roll music. If everything that came before laid the groundwork, "Rock Around the Clock" introduced the music to a global audience.[43] HP Pavilion dv3-2012tx Keyboard

In 1956 the arrival of rockabilly was underlined by the success of songs like "Folsom Prison Blues" by Johnny Cash, "Blue Suede Shoes" by Perkins and "Heartbreak Hotel" by Presley.[41] For a few years it became the most commercially successful form of rock and roll. HP Pavilion dv3-2013tx Keyboard

Later rockabilly acts, particularly performing songwriters like Buddy Holly, would be a major influence on British Invasionacts and particularly on the song writing of The Beatles and through them on the nature of later rock music.[44] HP Pavilion dv3-2014tx Keyboard

Doo wop

Doo wop was one of the most popular forms of 1950s rock and roll, with an emphasis on multi-part vocal harmonies and meaningless backing lyrics (from which the genre later gained its name), which were usually supported with light instrumentation.[45] HP Pavilion dv3-2015ee Keyboard

Its origins were in African American vocal groups of the 1930s and 40s, like the Ink Spots and the Mills Brothers, who had enjoyed considerable commercial success with arrangements based on close harmonies.[46] They were followed by 1940s R&B vocal acts like The Orioles, HP Pavilion dv3-2015tx Keyboard

The Ravens and The Clovers, who injected a strong element of traditional gospel and, increasingly, the energy of jump blues.[46] By 1954, as rock and roll was beginning to emerge, a number of similar acts began to cross over from the R&B charts to mainstream success, often with added honking brass and saxophone, with The Crows, HP Pavilion dv3-2016tx Keyboard

The Penguins, The El Dorados and The Turbans all scoring major hits.[46] Despite the subsequent explosion in records from doo wop acts in the later 50s, many failed to chart or were one-hit wonders. Exceptions included The Platters, HP Pavilion dv3-2017ee Keyboard

with songs including "The Great Pretender" (1955) and The Coasters with humorous songs like "Yakety Yak" (1958), both of which ranked among the most successful rock and roll acts of the era.[46] Towards the end of the decade there were increasing numbers of white, particularly Italian American, singers taking up Doo Wop, HP Pavilion dv3-2017tx Keyboard

creating all-white groups like The Mystics and Dion and the Belmonts and racially integrated groups like The Dell Vikings and The Impalas.[46] Doo wop would be a major influence on vocal surf music, soul and early Merseybeat, including The Beatles.[46] HP Pavilion dv3-2018tx Keyboard

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