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Columbia University Columbia University in the City of New York, commonly referred to as Columbia University, is an American privateIvy League research university located in New York City, New York, United States. Columbia is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York, the fifth oldest in the United States, and one of the country's nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution.[5] Today the university operates seven Columbia Global Centers overseas inAmman, Beijing, Istanbul, Paris, Mumbai, Santiago and Nairobi.[6]SONY Vaio PCG-K215M  Keyboard The university was founded in 1754 as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain. After the American Revolutionary War, King's College briefly became a state entity, and was renamed Columbia College in 1784. The University now operates under a 1787 charter that places the institution under a private board of trustees, and in 1896 it was further renamed Columbia University.[7] That same year, the university's campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its location in theMorningside Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, APPLE Macbook 13 Inch  Keyboard where it occupies more than six city blocks, or 32 acres (0.13 km2).[8] The university encompasses twenty schools and is affiliated with numerous institutions, including Teachers College, Barnard College, and the Union Theological Seminary, with joint undergraduate programs available through the Jewish Theological Seminary of America as well as the Juilliard School.[9]HP Pavilion G7-1150US  Keyboard Columbia annually administers the Pulitzer Prize and has been affiliated with more Nobel Prize laureates than any other academic institution in the world.[10][11] The university is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities, and was the first school in the United States to grant the M.D. degree.[7][12] Notable alumni of the university include nine Justices of the United States Supreme Court;[13] 20 living billionaires;[14] 25 Academy Awardwinners;[15] and 29 heads of state, including three United States Presidents.[16]ACER Aspire 5810T  Keyboard Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, when Colonel Lewis Morriswrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college;[17] however, not until the founding of Princeton University across the Hudson River in New Jersey did the City of New York seriously consider founding a college.[17]TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002M  Keyboard In 1746 an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college.[18]DELL Inspiron N4050  Keyboard Classes were initially held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson.[19] Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan.[20] The college was officially founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States.[7]HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa  Keyboard In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, Oxford, and an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the College was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.[21]  DELL Vostro PP37L  Keyboard TheAmerican Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, and was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departurein 1783. The college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and then British forces.[22][23]HP G61-110SA  Keyboard After the Revolution, the college turned to the State of New York in order to restore its vitality, promising to make whatever changes to the schools charter the state might demand.[24] The Legislature agreed to assist the college, and on May 1, 1784, it passed "an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called King's College."[25] SONY NSK-S8101  Keyboard The Act created a Board of Regents to oversee the resuscitation of King's College, and, in an effort to demonstrate its support for the new Republic, the Legislature stipulated that "the College within the City of New York heretofore called King's College be forever hereafter called and known by the name of Columbia College."[25]  HP G61  Keyboard The Regents finally became aware of the college's defective constitution in February 1787 and appointed a revision committee, which was headed by John Jay and Alexander Hamilton. In April of that same year, a new charter was adopted for the college, still in use today, granting power to a private board of 24 Trustees.[26]DELL Alienware M11x  Keyboard On the May 21, 1787, William Samuel Johnson, the son of Dr. Samuel Johnson, was unanimously elected President of Columbia College. Prior to serving at the university, Johnson had participated in the First Continental Congress and been chosen as a delegate to theConstitutional Convention.[27] TOSHIBA NB200-10J  Keyboard For a period in the 1790s, with New York City as the federal and state capital and the country under successive Federalist governments, a revived Columbia thrived under the auspices of Federalists such as Hamilton and Jay. Both President George Washington and Vice President John Adams attended the college's commencement on May 6, 1789, as a tribute of honor to the many alumni of the school that had been involved in the American Revolution.[28]HP 519265-001  Keyboard The college's enrollment, structure, and academics stagnated for the majority of the 19th century, with many of the college presidents doing little to change the way that the College functioned. In 1857, the College moved from Park Place to a primarilyGothic Revival campus on 49th Street and Madison Avenue, where it remained for the next fifty years. HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard During the last half of the 19th century, under the leadership of President F.A.P. Barnard, the institution rapidly assumed the shape of a modern university.[29] By this time, the College's investments in New York real estate became a primary source of steady income for the school, mainly owing to the city's rapidly expanding population.[30]ASUS F82Q  Keyboard In 1896, the trustees officially authorized the use of yet another new name, Columbia University, and today the institution is officially known as "Columbia University in the City of New York." At the same time, university presidentSeth Low moved the campus again, from 49th Street to its present location, a more spacious campus in the developing neighborhood of Morningside Heights.[31] Under the leadership of Low's successor, Nicholas Murray Butler, who served for over four decades, Columbia rapidly became the nation's major institution for research, setting the "multiversity" model that later universities would adopt.[7] HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard Research into the atom by faculty members John R. Dunning, I. I. Rabi, Enrico Fermi and Polykarp Kusch placed Columbia's Physics Department in the international spotlight in the 1940s after the first nuclear pile was built to start what became the Manhattan Project.[32] In 1947, to meet the needs of GIs returning from World War II, University Extension was reorganized as an undergraduate college and designated the Columbia University School of General Studies.[33]  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard During the 1960s Columbia experienced large-scale student activism, which reached a climax in the spring of 1968 when hundreds of students occupied various buildings on campus. The incident forced the resignation of Columbia's then President, Grayson Kirk and the establishment of the University Senate.[34][35] ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard Though several schools within the university had admitted women for years, Columbia College first admitted women in the fall of 1983, after a decade of failed negotiations with Barnard College, an all female institution affiliated with the university, to merge the two schools.[36] Barnard College still remains affiliated with Columbia, and all Barnard graduates are issued diplomas authorized by both Columbia University and Barnard College.[37]HP Pavilion dv6-3130tx Keyboard Morningside Heights The majority of Columbia's graduate and undergraduate studies are conducted in Morningside Heights on Seth Low's late-19th century vision of a university campus where all disciplines could be taught in one location. The campus was designed along Beaux-Arts principles by architects McKim, Mead, and White. Columbia's main campus occupies more than six city blocks, or 32 acres (13 ha), in Morningside Heights, New York City, SONY 147977821  Keyboard a neighborhood that contains a number of academic institutions. The university owns over 7,800 apartments in Morningside Heights, housing faculty, graduate students, and staff. Almost two dozen undergraduate dormitories (purpose-built or converted) are located on campus or in Morningside Heights.[8] Columbia University has an extensive underground tunnel system more than a century old, with the oldest portions predating the present campus. Some of these remain accessible to the public, while others have been cordoned off.[38][39]HP Mini 110-1006tu Keyboard The Nicholas Murray Butler Library, commonly known simply as Butler Library, is the largest single library in theColumbia University Library System, and is one of the largest buildings on the campus. Proposed as "South Hall" by the university's former President Nicholas Murray Butler as expansion plans for Low Memorial Library stalled, the new library was funded by Edward Harkness, benefactor of Yale's residential college system, and designed by his favorite architect,James Gamble Rogers. HP Probook 4520S Keyboard It was completed in 1934 and renamed for Butler in 1946. The library's design is neo-classical in style. Its facade features an arcade of columns in the Ionic order above which are inscribed the names of great writers, philosophers, and thinkers, most of whom are read by students engaged in the Core Curriculum of Columbia College.[41] As of 2009, Columbia's library system includes over 10.4 million volumes, making it the eighth largest library system and fifth largest collegiate library system in the United States.[42][43]SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W Keyboard Several buildings on the Morningside Heights campus are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Low Memorial Library, a National Historic Landmark and the centerpiece of the campus, is listed for its architectural significance.Philosophy Hall is listed as the site of the invention of FM radio. HP Mini 210-2006sa Keyboard Also listed is Pupin Hall, another National Historic Landmark, which houses the physics and astronomy departments. Here the first experiments on the fission of uranium were conducted by Enrico Fermi. The uranium atom was split there ten days after the world's first atom-splitting in Copenhagen, Denmark.[44][45][46]SONY VAIO VGN-FS690 Keyboard A statue by sculptor Daniel Chester French called Alma Mater is centered on the front steps of Low Memorial Library. McKim, Mead & White invited French to build the sculpture in order to harmonize with the larger composition of the court and library in the center of the campus. Draped in an academic gown, HP Pavilion dv6000 Keyboard the female figure of Alma Mater wears a crown of laurels and sits on a throne. The scroll-like arms of the throne end in lamps, representing sapientia and doctrina. A book signifying knowledge, balances on her lap, and an owl, the attribute of wisdom, is hidden in the folds of her gown. Her right hand holds a scepter composed of four sprays of wheat, terminating with a crown of King's College which refers to Columbia's origin as a Royalist institution in 1754. SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Keyboard A local actress named Mary Lawton was said to have posed for parts of the sculpture. The statue was dedicated on September 23, 1903, as a gift of Mr. & Mrs. Robert Goelet, and was originally covered in golden leaf. During the Columbia University protests of 1968 a bomb damaged the sculpture, but it has since been repaired.[47] SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Keyboard The small hidden owl on the sculpture is also the subject of many Columbia legends, the main legend being that the first student in the freshmen class to find the hidden owl on the statue will be valedictorian, and that any subsequent Columbia male who finds it will marry a Barnard student, given that Barnard is a women's college.[48][49] TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5241 Keyboard "The Steps", alternatively known as "Low Steps" or the "Urban Beach", are a popular meeting area for Columbia students. The term refers to the long series of granite steps leading from the lower part of campus (South Field) to its upper terrace. With a design inspired by the City Beautiful movement, SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Keyboard the steps of Low Library provides Columbia University and Barnard College students, faculty, and staff with a comfortable and spacious outdoor platform and space for informal gatherings, events, and ceremonies. McKim's classical facade epitomizes late 19th century new-classical designs, with its columns and portico marking the entrance to an important structure.[50] On warm days when the weather is favorable, the Low Steps often become a popular gathering place for students to sunbathe, eat lunch, or play frisbee.[51]SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Keyboard

Other campuses

In April 2007, the university purchased more than two-thirds of a 17 acres (6.9 ha) site for a new campus in Manhattanville, an industrial neighborhood to the north of the Morningside Heights campus. Stretching from 125th Street to 133rd Street, the new campus will house buildings for Columbia's schools of business and the arts and allow the construction of the Jerome L. Greene Center for Mind, Brain, and Behavior, where research will occur on neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.[52] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Keyboard The $7 billion expansion plan includes demolishing all buildings, except three that are historically significant, eliminating the existing light industry and storage warehouses, and relocating tenants in 132 apartments. Replacing these buildings will be 6,800,000 square feet (630,000 m2) of space for the university. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Keyboard Community activist groups in West Harlem fought the expansion for reasons ranging from property protection and fair exchange for land, to residents' rights.[53][54] Subsequent public hearings drew neighborhood opposition. Most recently, as of December 2008, the State of New York's Empire State Development Corporation approved use of eminent domain, DELL Latitude C510 Keyboard which, through declaration of Manhattanville's "blighted" status, gives governmental bodies the right to appropriate private property for public use.[55] On May 20, 2009, the New York State Public Authorities Control Board approved the Manhanttanville expansion plan.[56]HP G72-b01SA  Keyboard New York-Presbyterian Hospital is affiliated with the medical schools of both Columbia University and Cornell University. According to US News and World Reports "Americas Best Hospitals 2009", it is ranked sixth overall and third among university hospitals. Columbia Medical School has a strategic partnership with New York State Psychiatric Institute, and is affiliated with 19 other hospitals in the U.S. and four hospitals overseas. Health-related schools are located at theColumbia University Medical Center, a 20 acres (8.1 ha) HP G61 Keyboard campus located in the neighborhood of Washington Heights, fifty blocks uptown. Other teaching hospitals affiliated with Columbia through the New York-Presbyterian network include the Payne Whitney Clinic in Manhattan, and the Payne Whitney Westchester, a psychiatric institute located in White Plains, New York.[57] On the northern tip of Manhattan island (in the neighborhood of Inwood), Columbia owns 26-acre (11 ha) Baker Field, which includes the Lawrence A. Wien Stadium as well as facilities for field sports, Thinkpad T420 Keyboard outdoor track, and tennis. There is a third campus on the west bank of the Hudson River, the 157-acre (64 ha) Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades, New York. A fourth is the 60-acre (24 ha) Nevis Laboratories in Irvington, New York. A satellite site in Paris, France holds classes at Reid Hall.[7]SONY VAIO VGN-NR32S/S Keyboard In 2006, the university established the Office of Environmental Stewardship to initiate, coordinate and implement programs to reduce the university's environmental footprint. The U.S. Green Building Council selected the university's Manhattanville plan for the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)  HP Pavilion DV6-1020ei Keyboard Neighborhood Design pilot program. The plan commits to incorporating smart growth, new urbanism and "green" building design principles.[58] Columbia is one of the 2030 Challenge Partners, a group of nine universities in the city of New York that have pledged to reduce their greenhouse emissions by 30% within the next ten years. Columbia University adopts LEED standards for all new construction and major renovations.  HP G62-b25ER Keyboard The University requires a minimum of Silver, but through its design and review process seeks to achieve higher levels. This is especially challenging for lab and research buildings with their intensive energy use; however, the university also uses lab design guidelines that seek to maximize energy efficiency while protecting the safety of researchers.[59]SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard Every Thursday and Sunday of the month, Columbia hosts a greenmarket where local farmers can sell their produce to residents of the city. In addition, from April to November Hodgson's farm, a local New York gardening center, joins the market bringing a large selection of plants and blooming flowers. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Keyboard The market is one of the many operated at different points throughout the city by the non-profit group GrowNYC.[60] Dining services at Columbia spends 36 percent of its food budget on local products, in addition to serving sustainably harvested seafood and fair trade coffee on campus.[61] Columbia has been rated "B+" by the 2011 College Sustainability Report Card for its environmental and sustainability initiatives.[62]ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard Columbia University's acceptance rate for the class of 2016 (Columbia College and Engineering) is 7.4%,[63] making Columbia the fourth most selective college in the United States by admission rate behind Harvard, Stanford and Yale[64][65] The undergraduate yield rate for the class of 2015 is 60%.[66] According to the 2012 college selectivity ranking by U.S. News & World Report, which factors admission and yield rates among other criteria, TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Keyboard Columbia is tied with Yale, Caltech and MIT as the most selective colleges in the country.[67] Columbia sends approximately 90% of its undergraduates to graduate school in virtually every academic, professional and vocational field.[68] Columbia is a racially diverse school, with approximately 52% of all students identifying themselves as persons of color. Additionally, 50.3% of all undergraduates in the Class of 2013 receive financial aid. The average financial aid package for these students exceeds $30,000, with an average grant size of over $20,000.[69]DELL Latitude D620 Keyboard On April 11, 2007, Columbia University announced a $400m to $600m donation from media billionaire alumnus John Kluge to be used exclusively for undergraduate financial aid. The donation is among the largest single gifts to higher education. Its exact value will depend on the eventual value of Kluge's estate at the time of his death; DELL Latitude D830  Keyboard however, the generous donation has helped change financial aid policy at Columbia.[70] Annual gifts, fund-raising, and an increase in spending from the university's endowment have allowed Columbia to extend generous financial aid packages to qualifying students. As of 2008, undergraduates from families with incomes as high as $60,000TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard a year will have the projected cost of attending the university, including room, board, and academic fees, subsidized by the university. That same year, the university ended loans for incoming and current students who were on financial aid, replacing loans that were traditionally part of aid packages with grants from the university. However, this does not apply to international students, transfer students, visiting students, or students in the School of General Studies.[71]HP 597635-001  Keyboard In the fall of 2010, admission to Columbia's undergraduate colleges Columbia College and Columbia Engineering, formerly known as SEAS, began accepting the Common Application. The policy change made Columbia one of the last major academic institutions and the last Ivy League university to switch to the common application.[72]TOSHIBA Satellite A300  Keyboard Scholarships are also given to undergraduate students by the admissions committee. Designations include John W. Kluge Scholars, John Jay Scholars, C. Prescott Scholars, Global Scholars, Egleston Scholars, and Science Research Fellows. Named scholars are selected by the admission committee from first-year applicants. DELL OPYTVX  Keyboard According to Columbia, the first four designated scholars "distinguish themselves for their remarkable academic and personal achievements, dynamism, intellectual curiosity, the originality and independence of their thinking, and the diversity that stems from their different cultures and their varied educational experiences."[73]DELL Studio 1457  Keyboard Columbia University is an independent, privately supported, nonsectarian institution of higher education. Its official corporate name is "The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York." The university's first Charter was granted in 1754 by King George II; however, its modern Charter was first enacted in 1787 and last amended in 1810 by the New York State Legislature. The university is governed by 24 Trustees, customarily including the President, HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx  Keyboard who serves ex officio. The Trustees themselves are responsible for choosing their successors. Six of the 24 are nominated from a pool of candidates recommended by the Columbia Alumni Association. Another six are nominated by the Board in consultation with the Executive Committee of the University Senate. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S  Keyboard The remaining 12, including the President, are nominated by the Trustees themselves through their internal processes. The term of office for Trustees is six years. Generally, they serve for no more than two consecutive terms. The Trustees appoint the President and other senior administrative officers of the university, HP 441426-001  Keyboard and review and confirm faculty appointments as required. They determine the university's financial and investment policies, authorize the budget, supervise the endowment, direct the management of the university's real estate and other assets, and otherwise oversee the administration and management of the university.[75][76]SONY VAIO VGN-N11M  Keyboard The University Senate was established by the Trustees after a university-wide referendum in 1969. It succeeded to the powers of the University Council, which was created in 1890 as a body of faculty, deans, and other administrators to regulate inter-Faculty affairs and consider issues of university-wide concern. HP 441316-001  Keyboard The University Senate is a unicameral body consisting of 107 members drawn from all constituencies of the university. These include the president of the university, the Provost, the Deans of Columbia College and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, all who serve ex officio, and five additional representatives, appointed by the President, ASUS X53S  Keyboard from the university's administration. The President serves as the Senate's presiding officer. The Senate is charged with reviewing the educational policies, physical development, budget, and external relations of the university. It oversees the welfare and academic freedom of the faculty and the welfare of students.[77]ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard The President of Columbia University, who is selected by the Trustees in consultation with the Executive Committee of the University Senate and who serves at the Trustees' pleasure, is the chief executive officer of the university. Assisting the President in administering the University are the Provost, SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU  Keyboard the Senior Executive Vice President, the Executive Vice President for Health and Biomedical Sciences, several other vice presidents, the General Counsel, the Secretary of the University, and the deans of the Faculties, all of whom are appointed by the Trustees on the nomination of the President and serve at their pleasure.[75]  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard Lee C. Bollinger became the 19th President of Columbia University on June 1, 2002. A prominent advocate of affirmative action, he played a leading role in the twin Supreme Court cases—Grutter v Bollinger and Gratz v Bollinger—that upheld and clarified the importance of diversity as a compelling justification for affirmative action in higher education. A leading First Amendment scholar, he is widely published on freedom of speech and press, and currently[when?] serves on the faculty of Columbia Law School.[78]TOSHIBA Satellite A305  Keyboard Columbia has three official undergraduate colleges: Columbia College (CC), the liberal arts college offering the Bachelor of Arts degree, Columbia Engineering, formerly known as SEAS, is the engineering and applied science school offering the Bachelor of Science degree, and The School of General Studies (GS), SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01  Keyboard in which nontraditional students obtain a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science through either full-time or part-time study.[79] The university is affiliated withTeachers College, Barnard College, the Union Theological Seminary, and the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, all located nearby in Morningside Heights. Joint undergraduate programs are available through the Jewish Theological Seminary of America as well as through the Juilliard School.[9] Two affiliated institutions – Barnard College and Teachers College – are also Faculties of the university.[Compaq Presario CQ57 Series  Keyboard Columbia was the first North American site where the uranium atom was split. It was the birthplace of FM radio and thelaser.[88] The MPEG-2 algorithm of transmitting high quality audio and video over limited bandwidth was developed byDimitris Anastassiou, a Columbia professor of electrical engineering. Biologist Martin Chalfie was the first to introduce the use of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in labelling cells in intact organisms.[89] SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M  Keyboard Other inventions and products related to Columbia include Sequential Lateral Solidification (SLS) technology for making LCDs, System Management Arts (SMARTS),Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) (which is used for audio, video, chat, instant messaging and whiteboarding),pharmacopeia, Macromodel (software for computational chemistry), a new and better recipe for glass concrete, Blue LEDs, and Beamprop (used in photonics).[90]HP 599572-001  Keyboard Columbia scientists have been credited with about 175 new inventions in the health sciences each year.[90] More than 30 pharmaceutical products based on discoveries and inventions made at Columbia are on the market today. These include Remicade (for arthritis), Reopro (for blood clot complications), Xalatan (for glaucoma), SONY VAIO VGN-FW160D  Keyboard Benefix, Latanoprost (a glaucoma treatment), shoulder prosthesis, homocysteine (testing for cardiovascular disease), andZolinza (for cancer therapy).[91] Columbia Technology Ventures (formerly Science and Technology Ventures) currently[when?]manages some 600 patents and more than 250 active license agreements.[91] Patent-related deals earned Columbia more than $230 million in the 2006 fiscal year, according to the university.[92]SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M  Keyboard Columbia is ranked first (tied with MIT, Stanford University and Penn) in the first tier of the United States' top research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance, which takes into account total research, federal research, endowment assets, annual giving, National Academy members, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series  Keyboard faculty awards, doctorates granted, postdoctoral appointees, and undergraduate SAT/ACT range.[93] In 2011, Columbia is ranked #8 in ARWU,[94] #10 in QS,[95] and #12 byTimes Higher Education in the world.[87] Nationally, the university is ranked #4 by U.S. News & World Report,[83] #6 by HRLR,[96] SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series  Keyboard #7 by ARWU,[94] and #8 byForbes.[97] Columbia's colleges and schools are also ranked by several independent bodies. For 2011, the College & School of Engineering (undergraduate) is ranked #4 nationally by U.S. News & World Report.[98] the Graduate School of Arts #11,[99] the Columbia Business School #3 by The Wall Street Journal[100] theTeachers College #2 by U.S. News & World Report,[101] the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (graduate) #15,[Compaq Presario CQ62-112TU  Keyboard  SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01  Keyboard 102] the Columbia Law School#4,[103] the College of Physicians and Surgeons #10 for research and #62 for primary care,[104] the Mailman School of Public Health #5,[105] and the School of International and Public Affairs #29.[106][107] Additionally, Columbia's School of Social Work is ranked #4,[108] its Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation #4,[109] and its Graduate School of Journalism #1.[110][111]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305  Keyboard In the last 12 years (1996–2008), 18 Columbia affiliates have won Nobel Prizes, of whom nine are current[when?] faculty members while one is an adjunct senior research scientist (Daniel Tsui) and the other a Global Fellow (Kofi Annan).[112] Columbia faculty awarded the Nobel Prize include Richard Axel, Martin Chalfie,Eric Kandel, Tsung-Dao Lee, Robert Mundell, Orhan Pamuk, Edmund S. Phelps, Joseph Stiglitz, and Horst L. Stormer.[113]HP Envy 15  Keyboard Other awards and honors won by faculty include 30 MacArthur Foundation Award winners,[114] 4 National Medal of Science recipients,[114] 43 National Academy of Sciences Award winners,[114] 20 National Academy of Engineering Award winners,[115] 38 Institute of Medicine of the National Academies Award recipients[116] and 143 American Academy of Arts and SciencesAward winners.[114]COMPAQ 367777-001  Keyboard For the 2010 academic year, Columbia University's student population was 27,606, with 35% of the student population identifying themselves as a minority and 23% born outside of the United States. Columbia enrolled 7,934 students in undergraduate programs, 5,393 students in graduate programs, and 12,090 students in professional programs.[117][118]TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5132  Keyboard On-campus housing is guaranteed for all four years as an undergraduate. Columbia College and Columbia Engineering, formerly known as SEAS, share housing in the on-campus residence halls. First-year students usually live in one of the large residence halls situated around South Lawn: Hartley Hall, SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S  Keyboard Wallach Hall (originally Livingston Hall), John Jay Hall, Furnald Hall or Carman Hall. Upperclassmen participate in a room selection process, wherein students can pick to live in a mix of either corridor- or apartment-style housing with their friends. TheColumbia University School of General Studies and graduate schools have their own apartment-style housing in the surrounding neighborhood.[119]ACER Aspire 5810T  Keyboard Columbia University is home to many fraternities, sororities, and co-educational Greek organizations. Approximately 10–15% of undergraduate students are associated with Greek life.[120] There has been a Greek presence on campus since the establishment in 1836 of the Delta Chapter of Alpha Delta Phi.[121] The InterGreek Council is the self-governing student organization that provides guidelines and support to its member organizations within each of the three councils at Columbia,  HP COMPAQ NX6120  Keyboard the Interfraternity Council, Panhellenic Council, and Multicultural Greek Council. The three council presidents bring their affiliated chapters together once a month to meet as one Greek community. The InterGreek Council meetings provide opportunity for member organizations to learn from each other, work together and advocate for community needs.[122]Compaq Presario CQ56-105TU  Keyboard Columbia University is home to a rich diversity of undergraduate, graduate, and professional publications. The Columbia Daily Spectator is the nation's second-oldest student newspaper;[123] and The Blue and White,[124] a monthly literary magazine established in 1890, has recently begun to delve into campus life and local politics in print and on its daily blog, dubbed the Bwog. TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M  Keyboard COMPAQ Presario CQ60-307EA  Keyboard Political publications include The Current,[125] a journal of politics, culture and Jewish Affairs; the Columbia Political Review,[126] the multi-partisan political magazine of the Columbia Political Union; and AdHoc,[127] which denotes itself as the "progressive" campus magazine and deals largely with local political issues and arts events.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520  Keyboard Arts and literary publications include the Columbia Review,[128] the nation's oldest college literary magazine; Columbia, a nationally regarded literary journal; the Columbia Journal of Literary Criticism;[129] and The Mobius Strip,[130] an online arts and literary magazine. Inside New York[131] is an annual guidebook to New York City, written, edited, and published by Columbia undergraduates. Through a distribution agreement with Columbia University Press, the book is sold at major retailers and independent bookstores. Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER  Keyboard Columbia is home to numerous undergraduate academic publications. The Journal of Politics & Society,[132] is a journal of undergraduate research in the social sciences, published and distributed nationally by the Helvidius Group; Publius is an undergraduate journal of politics established in 2008 and published biannually;[133] the Columbia East Asia Review allows undergraduates throughout the world to publish original work on China, Japan, Korea, Tibet, HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa  Keyboard and Vietnam and is supported by the Weatherhead East Asian Institute;[134] and The Birch,[135] is an undergraduate journal of Eastern European and Eurasian culture that is the first national student-run journal of its kind; Columbia Political Review, the undergraduate magazine on politics operated by the Columbia Political Union; Columbia Economics Review, the undergraduate economic journal on research and policy supported by the Columbia Economics Department; and the Columbia Science Reviewis a science magazine that prints general interest articles, faculty profiles, and student research papers.[136]HP G72-b15SA  KeyboardThe Fed[137] a triweekly satire and investigative newspaper, and the Jester of Columbia,[138] the newly (and frequently) revived campus humor magazine both inject humor into local life. Other publications include The Columbian, the undergraduate colleges' annually published yearbook[139] the Gadfly, a biannual journal of popular philosophy produced by undergraduates;[140] and Rhapsody in Blue, an undergraduate urban studies magazine.[141] Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA  Keyboard Professional journals published by academic departments at Columbia University include Current Musicology[142] and The Journal of Philosophy.[143] During the spring semester, graduate students in the Journalism School publish The Bronx Beat, a bi-weekly newspaper covering the South Bronx. Teachers College publishes the Teachers College Record, a journal of research, analysis, and commentary in the field of education, published continuously since 1900.[144]SONY Vaio PCG-K315S  Keyboard Founded in 1961 under the auspices of Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism, Columbia Journalism Review (CJR) examines day-to-day press performance as well as the forces that affect that performance. The magazine is published six times a year, and offers a deliberative mix of reporting, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520  Keyboard analysis, criticism, and commentary. CJR.org, its Web site, delivers real-time criticism and reporting, giving CJR a vital presence in the ongoing conversation about the media. Both online and in print, Columbia Journalism Review is in conversation with a community of people who share a commitment to high journalistic standards in the U.S. and the world.[145]HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM  Keyboard


Columbia is home to two early pioneers in undergraduate campus radio broadcasting, WKCR-FM and CTV. WKCR, the student run radio station that broadcasts to the Tri-State area, claims to be the oldest FM radio station in the world, owing to the university's affiliation with Major Edwin Armstrong. The station went operational on July 18, 1939, from a 400-foot antenna tower in Alpine, New Jersey, broadcasting the very first FM transmission in the world. Initially, SONY Vaio PCG-K215S  Keyboard WKCR wasn't a radio station, but an organization concerned with the technology of radio communications. As membership grew, however, the nascent club turned its efforts to broadcasting. Armstrong helped the students in their early efforts, donating a microphone and turntables when they designed their first makeshift studio in a dorm room.[146] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S  Keyboard The station has its studios on the second floor of Alfred Lerner Hall on the Morningside campus with its main transmitter tower at 4 Times Square in Midtown Manhattan. Columbia Television (CTV) is the nation's second oldest Student television station and home of CTV News, a weekly live news program produced by undergraduate students.[147][148]ASUS X53S  Keyboard The Philolexian Society is a literary and debating club founded in 1802, making it the oldest student group at Columbia, as well as the third oldest collegiate literary society in the country.[149] The society annually administers the Joyce Kilmer Bad Poetry Contest.[150] The Columbia Parliamentary Debate Team competes in tournaments around the country as part of the American Parliamentary Debate Association, and hosts both high school and college tournaments on Columbia's campus, as well as public debates on issues affecting the university.[151] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520  Keyboard The Columbia International Relations Council and Association (CIRCA), oversees Columbia's Model United Nations activities. CIRCA hosts college and high school Model UN conferences, hosts speakers influential in international politics to speak on campus, ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard trains students from underprivileged schools in New York in Model UN and oversees a competitive team, which travels to colleges around the country and to an international conference every year.[152] The competitive team consistently wins best and outstanding delegation awards and is considered one of the top teams in the country.[153]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226  Keyboard The Columbia University Organization of Rising Entrepreneurs (CORE) was founded in 1999. The student-run group aims to foster entrepreneurship on campus. Each year CORE hosts dozens of events, including a business plan competition and a series of seminars. Notable seminar speakers include Mark Cuban, HP 640436-001  Keyboard  HP QT6D  Keyboard owner of the Dallas Mavericks and Chairman of HDNet, and Blake Ross, creator of Mozilla Firefox. As of 2006, CORE has awarded graduate and undergraduate students with over $100,000 in seed capital. Events are possible through the contributions of various private and corporate groups; previous sponsors includeDeloitte & Touche, Citigroup, and i-Compass.[154]SONY 148701322  Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-CS16G/Q  Keyboard CampusNetwork, an on-campus social networking site called Campus Network that preceded Facebook, was created and popularized by a Columbia engineering student Adam Goldberg in 2003. Mark Zuckerberg later asked Goldberg to join him in Palo Alto to work on Facebook, but Goldberg declined the offer.[155]HP G62-100SL  Keyboard The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science offers a minor in Technical Entrepreneurship through its Center for Technology, Innovation, and Community Engagement. SEAS' entrepreneurship activities focus on community building initiatives in New York and Worldwide, made possible through partners such as Microsoft Corporation.[156]Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER  Keyboard Columbia is a top supplier of young engineering entrepreneurs for New York City. Over the past 20 years, graduates of Columbia established over 100 technology companies.[157] Mayor Bloomberg has provided over $6.7 million into entrepreneurial programs that partner with Columbia and other universities in New York. Professor Chris Wiggins of Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science is working in conjunction with Professors Evan Korth of New York Universityand Hilary Mason, SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E  Keyboard chief scientist at bit.ly to facilitate the growth of student tech-startups in an effort to transform a traditionally financially-centered New York City into the next Silicon Valley. Their website hackny.org is a huge gathering ground of ideas and discussions for New York's young entrepreneurial community, the Silicon Alley.[158] SONY Vaio PCG-K86P  Keyboard On June 14, 2010, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg launched the NYC Media Lab to promote innovations within New York's media industry.[159] Situated in the Polytechnic Institute of New York University, the lab is a consortium of Columbia University, New York University, and New York City Economic Development Corporation acting to connect companies with universities in new technology research. HP Pavilion ze5375us  Keyboard The Lab is modeled after similar ones at MIT and Stanford. A $250,000 grant from the New York City Economic Development Corporation was used to establish the NYC Media Lab. Each year, the lab will host a range of roundtable discussions between the private sector and academic institutions. Lenovo 04W0872  Keyboard The lab will support research projects on topics of content format, next generation search technologies, computer animation for film and gaming, emerging marketing techniques, and new devices development. The lab will also create a media research and development database. Columbia University will coordinate the long-term direction of the media lab as well as the involvement of its faculty and those of other universities.[160]HP Mini 311-1035TU  Keyboard Technology and entrepreneurship A member institution of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (Division I-AA FCS), Columbia fields varsity teams in 29 sports and is a member of the Ivy League. The football Lions play home games at the 17,000-seat Lawrence A. Wien Stadium atBaker Field. One hundred blocks north of the main campus at Morningside Heights, the Baker Athletics Complex also includes facilities for baseball, softball, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, tennis, track and rowing. The basketball, fencing, swimming & diving, volleyball and wrestling programs are based at the Dodge Physical Fitness Center on the main campus.[161]HP 640436-001  Keyboard Columbia University athletics has had a long history, with many accomplishments in various athletic fields. In 1870, Columbia played against Rutgers University in the second football game in the history of the sport. Eight years later, Columbia crew won the famed Henley Royal Regatta in the first-ever defeat for an English crew rowing in English waters. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S  Keyboard In 1900, Olympian and Columbia College student Maxie Long set the first official world record in the 400 meters with a time of 47.8 seconds. In 1983, Columbia men's soccer went 18-0 and was ranked first in the nation, but losing to Indiana 1-0 in double overtime in the NCAA championship game; nevertheless, ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard the team went further toward the NCAA title than any Ivy League soccer team in history.[162] The football program unfortunately is best known for its record of futility set during the 1980s: between 1983 and 1988, the team lost 44 games in a row, which is still the record for the NCAA Football Championship Subdivision. The streak was broken on October 8, 1988, with a 16-13 victory over archrival Princeton. That was the Lions' first victory at Wien Stadium, which had been opened during the losing streak and was already four years old.[163]HP 634139-001  Keyboard Former students include Baseball Hall of Famers Lou Gehrig and Eddie Collins, football Hall of Famer Sid Luckman, Marcellus Wiley, and world champion women's weightlifter Karyn Marshall.[164][165] On May 17, 1939 fledgling NBC broadcasted a doubleheader between the Columbia Lions and the Princeton Tigers at Columbia's Baker Field, making it the first televised regular athletic event in history.[166][167]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305  Keyboard Established in 2003 by university president Lee C. Bollinger, the World Leaders Forum at Columbia University provides the opportunity for undergraduate and graduate students alike to listen to some of the most prominent world leaders in government, religion, industry, finance, and academia. The World Leaders Forum is a year-around event series that strives to provide a platform for uninhibited speech among nations and cultures, while educating students about the current problems as well as progress around the globe.[168]TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard All Columbia undergraduates and graduates as well as students of Barnard College and other Columbia affiliated schools can register to participate in the World Leaders Forum using their student IDs. Even for individuals who do not have the privilege to attend the event live, they can watch the forum via online videos on Columbia University's website.[169]HP G62-a60EV  Keyboard Past forum speakers include former President of the United States Bill Clinton, the Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Former President of Ghana John Agyekum Kufuor, President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai

, Prime Minister of RussiaVladimir Putin, President of the Republic of Mozambique Joaquim Alberto Chissano, SONY VAIO PCG-792L  Keyboard President of the Republic of Bolivia Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert, President of the Republic of Romania Ion Iliescu, President of the Republic of Latvia Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, the first female President of Finland Tarja Halonen, President Yudhoyono of Indonesia, President Pervez Musharraf of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan,  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E  Keyboard Iraq President Jalal Talabani, the 14th Dalai Lama, President of the Islamic Republic of Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, financier George Soros, Mayor of New York City Michael R. Bloomberg, President Václav Klaus of the Czech Republic, President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina, former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, and Al Gore.[170] HP G61-321NR  Keyboard The Columbia University Orchestra was founded by composer Edward MacDowell in 1896, and is the oldest continually operating university orchestra in the United States. Undergraduate student composers at Columbia may choose to become involved with Columbia New Music, which sponsors concerts of music written by undergraduate students from all of Columbia's schools.[171]SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E  Keyboard There are a number of performing arts groups at Columbia dedicated to producing student theater, including the Columbia Players, King's Crown Shakespeare Troupe (KCST), Columbia Musical Theater Society (CMTS), NOMADS (New and Original Material Authored and Directed by Students), LateNite Theatre, Columbia University Performing Arts League (CUPAL), Black Theatre Ensemble (BTE), sketch comedy group Chowdah, and improvisational troupes Alfred and Fruit Paunch.[172] The Columbia University Marching Band tells jokes during the campus tradition of Orgo Night.[173]HP 519265-001  Keyboard The Columbia Queer Alliance is the central Columbia student organization that represents the lesbian, gay, transgender, and questioning student population. It is the oldest gay student organization in the world, founded as the Student HomophileLeague in 1967 by students including lifelong activist Stephen Donaldson.[174][175] TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182  Keyboard Columbia University campus military groups include the U.S. Military Veterans of Columbia University and Advocates for Columbia ROTC. In the 2005–06 academic year, the Columbia Military Society, Columbia's student group for ROTC cadets and Marine officer candidates, was renamed the Hamilton Society for "students who aspire to serve their nation through the military in the tradition of Alexander Hamilton".[176]HP AEAT5U00010  Keyboard The university also houses an independent nonprofit organization, Community Impact, which strives to serve disadvantaged people in the Harlem, Washington Heights, and Morningside Heights communities. From its earliest inception as a single service initiative formed in 1981 by Columbia University undergraduates, TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S5805  Keyboard Community Impact has grown into Columbia University's largest student service organization. CI provides food, clothing, shelter, education, job training, and companionship for residents in its surrounding communities. CI consists of a dedicated corps of about 950 Columbia University student volunteers participating in 25 community service programs, which serve more than 8,000 people each year.[177]SONY VAIO VGN-AR170P  Keyboard Students initiated a major demonstration in 1968 over two main issues. The first was Columbia's proposed gymnasium in neighboring Morningside Park; this was seen by the protesters to be an act of aggression aimed at the black residents of neighboring Harlem. A second issue was the Columbia administration's failure to resign its institutional membership in the Pentagon's weapons research think-tankDELL Inspiron N4050  Keyboard HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa  Keyboard the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA). Students barricaded themselves inside Low Library, Hamilton Hall, and several other university buildings during the protests, and New York City police were called onto the campus to arrest or forcibly remove the students.[178][179]IBM 39T0581  Keyboard The protests achieved two of their stated goals. Columbia disaffiliated from the IDA and scrapped the plans for the controversial gym, building a subterranean physical fitness center under the north end of campus instead. The gym's plans were eventually used by Princeton University for the expansion of its athletic facilities. ACER Aspire 5739G  Keyboard At least 30 Columbia students were suspended by the administration as a result of the protests. Many of the Class of '68 walked out of their graduation and held a countercommencement on Low Plaza with a picnic following at Morningside Park, the place where the protests began.[180] ACER Aspire 5742Z  Keyboard The protests hurt Columbia financially as many potential students chose to attend other universities and some alumni refused to donate money to the school. Allan Bloom, a professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago, believed that the protest efforts at Columbia were responsible for pushing higher education further toward the liberal left. As a result of the protests, Bloom stated, "American universities were no longer places of intellectual and academic debate, but rather places of 'political correctness' and liberalism."[181] DELL Studio 1558  Keyboard

Protests against racism and apartheid

Further student protests, including hunger strike and more barricades of Hamilton Hall and the Business School[182] during the late 1970s and early 1980s, were aimed at convincing the university trustees to divest all of the university's investments in companies that were seen as active or tacit supporters of the apartheid regime in South Africa. A notable upsurge in the protests occurred in 1978, when following a celebration of the tenth anniversary of the student uprising in 1968,  Lenovo 45N2240  Keyboard students marched and rallied in protest of university investments in South Africa. The Committee Against Investment in South Africa (CAISA) and numerous student groups including the Socialist Action Committee, the Black Student Organization and the Gay Students group joined together and succeeded in pressing for the first partial divestment of a U.S. university. SAMSUNG NP-N150-KA03  Keyboard HP Pavilion dv6-2170us  Keyboard The initial (and partial) Columbia divestment,[183] focused largely on bonds and financial institutions directly involved with the South African regime.[184] It followed a year long campaign first initiated by students who had worked together to block the appointment of former United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger to an endowed chair at the university in 1977.[185]DELL Inspiron M5030  Keyboard Broadly backed by a diverse array of student groups and many notable faculty members the Committee Against Investment in South Africa held numerous teach-ins and demonstrations through the year focused on the trustees ties to the corporations doing business with South Africa. Trustee meetings were picketed and interrupted by demonstrations culminating in May 1978 in the takeover of the Graduate School of Business.[186][187]SONY VAIO VGN-CR14GN  Keyboard The School of International and Public Affairs traditionally extends invitations to many heads of state and heads of government who come to New York City for the opening of the fall session of the United Nations General Assembly. In 2007,Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was one of those invited to speak on campus. DELL Vostro 1015  Keyboard Ahmadinejad accepted his invitation and spoke on September 24, 2007, as part of Columbia University's World Leaders Forum.[188] The invitation proved to be highly controversial. Hundreds of demonstrators swarmed the campus on September 24 and the speech itself was televised worldwide. University President Lee C. Bollinger tried to assuage the controversy by letting Ahmadenijad speak, but with a negative introduction (given personally by Bollinger).  HP 519265-001  Keyboard This did not mollify those who were displeased with the fact that the Iranian leader had been invited onto the campus.[189] Columbia students, though, turned out en masse to listen to the speech on the South Lawn. An estimated 2,500 under graduates and graduates came out for the historic occasion. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa  Keyboard During his speech, Ahmadinejad criticized Israel's policies towards the Palestinians; called for research on the historical accuracy of the Holocaust; raised questions as to who initiated the 9/11 attacks; defended Iran's nuclear power program, criticizing the UN's policy of sanctions on his country; and attacked U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00  Keyboard In response to a question about Iran's treatment of women and homosexuals, he asserted that women are respected in Iran and that "In Iran, we don't have homosexuals like in your country... In Iran, we do not have this phenomenon. I don't know who told you this."[190] The latter statement drewlaughter from the audience. The Manhattan District Attorney's Office accused Columbia of accepting grant money from the Alavi Foundation to support faculty "sympathetic" to Iran's Islamic republic.[191]TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard Beginning in 1969, during the Vietnam War, the university did not allow the U.S. military to have Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) programs on campus,[192] though Columbia students could participate in ROTC programs at other colleges and universities.[193][194][195][196] At a forum at the university during the 2008 presidential election campaign, both John McCain and Barack Obama said that the university should consider reinstating ROTC on campus.[195][197][198] HP Pavilion DV6-6B00  Keyboard After the debate, the President of the University, Lee C. Bollinger, stated that he did not favor reinstating Columbia's ROTC program, because of the military's anti-gay policies. In November 2008, Columbia's undergraduate student body held a referendum on the question of whether or not to invite ROTC back to campus, ASUS X53S  Keyboard and the students who voted were almost evenly divided on the issue. ROTC lost the vote (which would not have been binding on the administration, and did not include graduate students, faculty, or alumni) by a fraction of a percentage point. In April 2010 during Admiral Mike Mullen's address at Columbia, PresidentLee C. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-260ES  Keyboard Bollinger stated that the ROTC would be readmitted to campus if the admiral's plans for revoking the don't ask, don't tell policy were successful. In February 2011 during one of three town-hall meetings on the ROTC ban, former Army staff sergeant Anthony Maschek, a purple heart recipient for injuries sustained during his service in Iraq, TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160  Keyboard was booed and hissed at by some students during his speech promoting the idea of allowing the ROTC on campus.[199] In April 2011 the Columbia University Senate voted to welcome the ROTC program back on campus.[200] Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus and Columbia University President Lee C. DELL Inspiron 1750  Keyboard Bollinger signed an agreement to reinstate Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) programs at Columbia for the first time in more than 40 years on May 26, 2011. The agreement was signed at a ceremony on board the USS Iwo Jima, docked in New York for the Navy's annual Fleet Week.[201] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa  Keyboard On the day before the Organic Chemistry exam—which is often on the first day of finals—at precisely the stroke of midnight, the Columbia University Marching Band occupies Butler Library to distract diligent students from studying. After a forty-five minutes or so of jokes and music, the procession then moves out to the lawn in front of Hartley, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226  Keyboard Wallach and John Jay residence halls to entertain the residents there. The Band then plays at various other locations around Morningside Heights, including the residential quadrangle of Barnard College, where students of the all-women's school, in mock-consternation, rain trash – including notes and course packets –HP G62-b25SA  Keyboard and water balloons upon them from their dormitories above. The Band tends to close their Orgo Night performances before Furnald Hall, known among students as the more studious and reportedly "anti-social" residence hall, where the underclassmen in the Band serenade the graduating seniors with an entertaining, though vulgar, mock-hymn to Columbia, composed of quips that poke fun at the various stereotypes about the Columbia student body.[202] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx  Keyboard Christmas Tree-Lighting and Yule Log ceremonies The campus Christmas Tree-Lighting Ceremony is a relatively new tradition at Columbia, inaugurated in 1998. It celebrates the illumination of the medium-sized trees lining College Walk in front of Kent and Hamilton Halls on the east end and Dodge and Journalism Halls on the west, just before finals week in early December. The lights remain on until February 28. Students meet at the sun-dial for free hot chocolate, performances by various a cappella groups, and speeches by the university president and a guest.[203]HP 636191-001  Keyboard Immediately following the College Walk festivities is one of Columbia's older holiday traditions, the lighting of the Yule Log. The Christmas ceremony dates to a period prior to the American Revolutionary War, but lapsed before being revived by University President Nicholas Murray Butler in the early 20th century.  ASUS X53S  Keyboard A troop of students dressed as Continental Army soldiers carry the eponymous log from the sun-dial to the lounge of John Jay Hall, where it is lit amid the singing of seasonal carols. The Christmas ceremony is accompanied by a reading of A Visit From St. Nicholas by Clement Clarke Moore and Yes, Virginia, There is a Santa Claus by Francis Pharcellus Church.[204] HP 636191-001  Keyboard Three United States Presidents, twenty-six foreign Heads of State, nine Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States (including three Chief Justices) and 43 Nobel Prize winners are alumni of Columbia.[206][207][208] Alumni also have received more than 35 National Book Awards and 115 Pulitzer Prizes.[209]Today,[when?] two United States Senators and 16 Chief Executives of Fortune 500 companies hold Columbia degrees, as do three of the 25 richest Americans and 20 living billionaires.[14][210] Attendees of King's College, Columbia's predecessor, included five Founding Fathers.[n 1]Compaq Presario CQ42-219TU  Keyboard Former U.S. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Delano Roosevelt attended the law school.[216] Other more recent political figures educated at Columbia include U.S President Barack Obama,[217] Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Ruth Bader Ginsburg,[218] former U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright,[219] former chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank Alan Greenspan,[220] U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, and U.S. Solicitor General Donald Verrilli Jr..[221] SONY V-0709BIAS1-US  Keyboard Dwight D. Eisenhower served as the thirteenth president of Columbia University from 1948 to 1953.[222] The university has also educated 26 foreign Heads of State, including President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili, President of East Timor Jose Ramos Horta, President of Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves and other historical figures such as Wellington Koo, Gaston Eyskens, and T. V. Soong.  ACER Aspire 5735  Keyboard B. R. Ambedkar was also an alumnus of Columbia. His bust is on display in the Lehman library.[248] Alumni of Columbia have occupied top positions in Wall Street and the rest of the business world. Notable members of the Astor family[249][250] attended Columbia, while some recent business graduates include investor Warren Buffett,[251] former CEO of PBS and NBC Larry Grossman,[252] and chairman of Wal-Mart S. Robson Walton.[253] CEO's of top Fortune 500 companies include James P. Gorman of Morgan Stanley,[254] Robert J. Stevens of Lockheed Martin,[255] Philippe Dauman ofViacom,[256] Ursula Burns of Xerox,[257] and Vikram Pandit of Citigroup.[258]DELL Inspiron N4110  Keyboard In science and technology, Columbia alumni include: founder of IBM Herman Hollerith;[259] inventor of FM radio Edwin Armstrong;[260] inventor of the nuclear submarine Hyman Rickover;[261] founder of Google China Kai-Fu Lee;[262] scientists Stephen Jay Gould,[263] Robert Millikan,[264] Helium–neon laser inventor Ali Javan and Michael Pupin;[265] chief-engineer of the New York City subway William Barclay Parsons;[266] philosophers Irwin Edman[267] and Robert Nozick;[268] and economist Milton Friedman[269]TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600  Keyboard Many Columbia alumni have gone on to renowned careers in the arts, such as the composers Richard Rodgers,[270] Oscar Hammerstein II,[271] Lorenz Hart,[272] andArt Garfunkel.[273] Four United States Poet Laureates received their degrees from Columbia. Columbia alumni have made an indelible mark in the field of American poetry and literature, with such people as Jack Kerouac, one of the pioneers of the Beat Generation,[274] TOSHIBA Satellite L40-18Z  Keyboard and Langston Hughes, a seminal figure in the Harlem Renaissance,[275] having both attended the university. Other notable writers who attended Columbia include authors Isaac Asimov,[276] J.D. Salinger,[277] Upton Sinclair,[278] and the journalist Hunter S. Thompson, who was primarily known for his works in the American magazine Rolling Stone.[279]HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa  Keyboard University alumni have also been very prominent in the film industry, with 25 different alumni winning a combined 30 Academy Awards, more than any other school in the world.[15][209] Some notable Columbia alumni that have gone on to work in film include directors Sidney Lumet (12 Angry Men)[280] and Kathryn Bigelow (The Hurt Locker),[281] screenwriters Howard Koch (Casablanca)[282] and Joseph L. Mankiewicz (All About Eve),[283] and actors James Cagney[284] and Ed Harris.[285]DELL Inspiron N4050  Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F  Keyboard HP G42-381TX  Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139  Keyboard

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