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30 août 2012 4 30 /08 /août /2012 12:00

Commedia dell'arte

The War of the League of Augsburg lasted for nine years from 1688 to 1697. It had two immediate causes which pertained to French influence in the Rhineland. First, in 1685, the Elector Palatine died. All that remained of his immediate family was Louis's sister-in-law, Elizabeth Charlotte. Although ostensibly preventing her succession to the Palatinate, HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard German law was notoriously obscure and arguments could be made in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte. In pressing her claims, Louis hoped for at least a division of the family's personal property to which the princess did have a right.[38]  HP 516884-001 Laptop Keyboard Additionally, in 1688, Max Henry, Archbishop of Cologne died. The Archbishopric had traditionally been held by the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria. However, the Bavarian claimant was at that time not more than 17 years old and not even ordained. Louis sought to install in the meantime his owncandidate to ensure the fidelity of this key Rhenish state.[39]SONY VAIO VGN-FS115Z Laptop Keyboard  ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Louis's actions during the early 1680s and his subsequent behaviour regarding the succession crises bred growing concern about France. This led to the formation of the 1686 League of Augsburg by the Emperor, Spain, Sweden, Saxony, and Bavaria. The stated intention was to return France to at least the borders agreed to in the Treaty of Nijmegen.[40] TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard For his part, increased isolation and the Emperor's refusal to convert Ratisbon into a permanent treaty amplified Louis's fears that the Emperor would turn on France and attack the Reunions after settling his affairs in the Balkans.[41] HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard Another event which Louis found threatening was the Glorious Revolution. Although James II was Catholic, his two Anglican daughters ensured the English people a Protestant succession. However, when James II's son, James Stuart, was born, he took precedence in the succession over his elder sisters. HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard This seemed to herald an era of Catholic monarchs. Protestants lords took up arms and called on the Dutch William III of Orange, grandson of Charles I, to come to their aid. He sailed for England with troops despite Louis's warning that France would regard it as a casus belli. Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even amongst his closest, HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard James II fled England. Parliament declared the throne vacate. It was taken up by James's daughter Mary II and his son-in-law and nephew William III (now also of England). Vehemently anti-French, William III pushed his new kingdoms into war, thus transforming the League of Augsburg into the Grand Alliance. In 1688, however, this was as yet unsettled. Expecting the expedition to absorb William III and his allies,  SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard Louis dispatched troops to the Rhineland after his ultimatum to the German princes requiring confirmation of Ratison and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises lapsed. This military manoeuvre was also intended to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the pre-emptive devastation of much of southwestern Germany (the "Devastation of the Palatinate").[42]SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard French armies were generally victorious throughout the war because of Imperial commitments in the Balkans, French logistical superiority, and the quality of French generals such as Condé's famous pupil, HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Luxembourg. His triumphs at Fleurus, Steenkerque and Neerwinden preserved northern France from invasion and earned him the nickname le tapissier de Notre-Dame for the numerous captured enemy standards he sent to decorate the Cathedral.[43]HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard Although the attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies. Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons and of the reputedly impregnable fortress of Namur. Luxembourg gave France the defensive line of the Sambre by capturing Charleroi. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard France also overran most of theDuchy of Savoy after the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde. While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at Beachy Head and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue, theBattle of Torroella exposed Catalonia to French invasion, culminating in the capture ofBarcelona. Although the Dutch captured Pondicherry, a French raid on the Spanish treasure port of Cartagena (in present-day Colombia) yielded a fortune of 10 000 000 livres. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard Peace was broached by Sweden in 1690. And, by 1692, both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks began, but to no avail.[44] Louis tried to break up the alliance against him by dealing with individual opponents TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard , but this did not achieve its aim till 1696 when the Savoyards agreed to the Treaty of Turin and switched sides. Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rushed to the peace table, and negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick.[45]TOSHIBA Satellite L40-18Z Laptop Keyboard Treaty of Ryswick The Treaty of Ryswick in 1697 ended the War of the League of Augsbury and disbanded the Grand Alliance. By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power. HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border to this day. Moreover, France was returned Pondicherry and Acadia, and Louis's de facto possession of Saint-Domingue was recognised as lawful. However, he had to returnCatalonia and most of the Reunions. DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard French military superiority and gains might have allowed him to press for more advantageous terms. Thus, his generosity to Spain has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced Charles II to name Louis's grandson, Philippe, duc d'Anjou, as heir.[46] In exchange for financial compensation, SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Laptop Keyboard France renounced its interests in the Electorate of Cologne and the Palatinate. Lorraine was returned to its duke, albeit with a right of way to the French military. William and Mary were recognised as joint sovereigns of the British Isles, and Louis withdrew support for James II. Lastly, the Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands which acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression. HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard Though the final peace may appear a diplomatic defeat for Louis, he in fact fulfilled many of the aims laid down in his 1688 ultimatum.[47] In any case, to him, peace in 1697 was victory. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had lurked on the minds of European leaders for well over forty years. Charles II ruled a vast, much-prized empire, comprising Spain, Naples, Sicily, Milan, the Spanish Netherlands and numerous colonies. But the ever-sickly man could produce no children and consequently, had no direct heirs. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard The main claimants to the throne of Spain were French and Austrian and closely linked to Charles II. The French claim was derived from Anne of Austria (Philip III of Spain's eldest daughter) and Marie-Thérèse (Philip IV's eldest daughter). Based on the laws of primogeniture, France had the better claim as it originated from eldest daughters in each generation. However, HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard the princesses’ renunciations to the throne complicated matters; nevertheless, Marie-Thérèse's renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain's breach of the marriage agreement. In contrast, no renunciation tainted the claims of Charles, Archduke of Austria. However, he was only descended from Philip III's youngest daughter, Maria Anna, and so, had an inferior claim if judged solely on traditional rules. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The English and Dutch feared that a French or Austrian-born Spanish king would threaten the balance of power and thus preferred the Bavarian Joseph Ferdinand. He was Leopold I's grandson through his first wife Margaret Theresa of Spain (Philip IV's younger daughter). Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In an attempt to avoid war, Louis signed the First Partition Treaty of 1698 with William III. This divided Spain's Italian territories between le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke, awarding the rest of the empire to Joseph Ferdinand. William III consented to the Dauphin's new territories becoming part of France when the latter succeeded to his father's throne.[49] ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard The signatories, however, omitted to consult the ruler of these lands, and Charles II was passionately against his empire's dismemberment. In 1699, he reiterated his 1693 will which named Joseph Ferdinand as his sole successor.[50]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard Six months later, Joseph Ferdinand died. Therefore, in 1700, Louis and William III again concluded a Partition Treaty. This allocated Spain, the Low Countries and colonies to the Archduke. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The Dauphin would receive all Spain's Italian territories.[51] Charles II acknowledged that his empire could only remain undivided by bequeathing it entirely to a Frenchman or an Austrian. Under pressure from his German wife, Maria Anna of Neuburg, Charles II then named the Archduke Charles as sole heir. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard

Acceptance of the will and consequences

Even before war was officially declared, hostilities had commenced with Imperial aggression in Italy. When finally declared, the War of the Spanish Successionwould last almost till Louis's death, and proved costly for him and France. HP G62-b25SA Laptop Keyboard It began with French successes, however, the joint talents of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy checked these victories and broke the myth of French invincibility. The duo allowed the Palatinate and Austria to occupy Bavaria after their victory at Blenheim. Maximilian II Emanuel had to flee to the Spanish Netherlands. This victory also won the support of Portugal and Savoy.  HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Later, the Battle of Ramillies delivered the Low Countries up to the Allies, and theBattle of Turin forced Louis to evacuate Italy, leaving it open to Allied forces. Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy met again at the Battle of Oudenarde which allowed them to commence an invasion of France. HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France. In particular, two massive famines struck France between 1693 and 1710, killing over two million people. In both cases, the impact of harvest failure was exacerbated by wartime demands on the food supply.[57] In his desperation, Louis XIV even ordered a disastrous invasion of Guernsey in the autumn of 1704 with the aim of raiding their successful harvest.  ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard By the winter of 1708–1709, Louis became willing to accept peace at nearly any cost. He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke, and also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all he had worked for over sixty years of his reign. However,  HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard he could not speak for his grandson and could not promise that Philip V would accept these terms. Accordingly, the Allies demanded that Louis should single-handedly attack his own grandson to force these terms on him. This, Louis could not do, and the work continued.[58]Compaq Presario CQ42-219TU Laptop Keyboard In the end, however, despite renewed tensions at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears. French society would sufficiently change by the time of his descendant, Louis XVI, to welcome toleration in the form of the 1787 Edict of Versailles, also known as the Edict of Tolerance. This restored to non-Catholics their civil rights and the freedom to openly worship.[37]SONY V-0709BIAS1-US Laptop Keyboard On his deathbed in 1700, Charles II unexpectedly changed his will. Past French military superiority, the pro-French faction and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact. He thus offered the Dauphin's second son, Philip, Duke of Anjou, the entire empire, provided it remained undivided.  ACER Aspire 5735 Laptop Keyboard Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union.[51] If Anjou refused, the throne would be offered to his younger brother, Charles de France, after which, to the Archduke Charles, and lastly, to the distantly related House of Savoy.[52]DELL Inspiron N4110 Laptop Keyboard Louis was confronted with a difficult choice. He could agree to the partition and hopefully avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate much of Europe. Initially, Louis may have inclined towards abiding by the partition treaties. However, the Dauphin's insistence persuaded Louis otherwise.[53] Moreover, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, SAMSUNG NP-N150-KA03 Laptop Keyboard marquis de Torcy pointed out that war with the Emperor would almost certainly ensue even if Louis only accepted part of the Spanish inheritance. He emphasized William III's reluctance to assist France in war because he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty".[50] If war was bound to happen, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us Laptop Keyboard it might be preferable to be in control of the disputed lands. Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. Philippe, duc d'Anjou, thus became Philip V, king of Spain. DELL Inspiron M5030 Laptop Keyboard Most European rulers accepted Philip as King of Spain, though some only reluctantly. Depending on one's views of the war as inevitable or not, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly.[54] He confirmed that Philip V retained his French rights despite his new Spanish position. Admittedly, he may only have been hypothesising a theoretical eventuality and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union. SONY VAIO VGN-CR14GN Laptop Keyboard But his actions were certainly not read as being innocent. Moreover, Louis also sent troops to the Spanish Netherlands, evicting Dutch garrisons and securing Dutch recognition of Philip V. In 1701, he transferred the asiento to France, alienating English traders. As tensions mounted, Louis decided to acknowledge James Stuart, James II's son, as king on the latter's death, DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard infuriating William III. These actions enraged Britain and the United Provinces.[55] Consequently, with the Emperor and the petty German states, they formed another Grand Alliance, declaring war on France in 1702. French diplomacy, however, secured Bavaria, Portugal and Savoy as Franco-Spanish allies.[56] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Commencement of fighting

The War had shown that, just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance, so the Allies could not maintain the Archduke in Spain. They were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at Almansa, Villaviciosa and Brihuega. Moreover, French forces remained obdurate despite their defeats. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at Malplaquet with 21,000 casualties, double that of the French.[59] Eventually, France recovered its military pride with the decisive victory at Denain. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard Furthermore, the position in Austria had changed. In 1705, Leopold I died. His elder son and successor, Joseph I, followed him in 1711. The Archduke Charles subsequently inherited his brother's Austrian lands. If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as that of Charles V. To the Maritime Powers, this was as undesirable as the feared Franco-Spanish union.[60]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Accordingly, Anglo-French talks began, culminating in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 between France, Spain, Britain, and the Dutch. In 1714, after losing Landau and Freiburg, the Emperor and Empire also made peace with France in the Treaty of Rastattand that of Baden.  HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard By the general settlement, Philip V retained Spain and the colonies, Austria received the Low Countries and divided Spanish Italy with Savoy, and Britain kept Gibraltar and Minorca. Louis agreed to withdraw his support for James Stuart, and cededNewfoundland, Rupert's Land, and Acadia in the Americas to Britain. Admittedly, ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Britain gained the most from the Treaty, but the final terms were very much more favourable to France than those of 1709 and 1710. France retained Île-Saint-Jean and Île Royale, and notwithstanding Allied intransigence, was returned most of the captured Continental lands, largely preserving its antebellum frontiers. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-260ES Laptop Keyboard Louis even acquired additional territory, such as the Principality of Orange, and the Ubaye Valley, which covered transalpine passes into Italy. Moreover, thanks to Louis, his allies, the Electors of Bavaria and of Cologne, were rehabilitated to their pre-war status and returned their lands.[61]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard "Louis XIV (1638-1715): The Sun King had many ailments during his lifetime consistent with diabetes: suppuratingperiostitis (1678), dental abscesses (1696), recurring boils, fainting spells, gout, dizziness, hot flushes, andheadaches (cephalalgias). From 1647 to 1711, the three successive archiatres (chief doctors to the king) recorded, DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard  in detail, all the health problems of the sovereign in the Journal de Santé du Roi (Journal of the King’s Health), which makes it possible to follow the sovereign’s state of health on a day to day basis. Antoine Vallot (1594-1671), Antoine Daquin (~1620-1699), and Guy Crescent Fagon (1638-1718) kept this journal. On 18 November 1686,  HP G61-321NR Laptop Keyboard Louis XIV underwent a successful anal fistula operation, performed by the surgeon Charles Felix de Tassy (1635-1703), who prepared a curved scalpel especially for the occasion. In spite of the success of the operation, the wound took more than two months to heal, and the surgeon needed to drain it three times."[62]SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard After a reign of 72 years, Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September 1715, four days before his 77th birthday. Reciting the psalm Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina (O Lord, make haste to help me), Louis "yielded up his soul without any effort, like a candle going out".[63] His body lies in Saint-Denis Basilica, outside Paris. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard The Dauphin had predeceased Louis in 1711, leaving three children: Louis, Duke of Burgundy; Philip V of Spain; and Charles, Duke of Berry. The eldest, Burgundy, followed in 1712, and was himself soon followed by his elder son, Louis, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Duke of Brittany. Thus, on Louis XIV's deathbed, his heir was his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis, Duke of Anjou, Burgundy's youngest son, and Dauphin after the deaths in short succession of his grandfather, father and elder brother. HP AEAT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard Louis foresaw a minority and sought to restrict the power of his nephew, Philippe d'Orléans, who as closest surviving legitimate relative in France would become the prospective Louis XV's regent. Accordingly, he created a regency council as Louis XIII did in anticipation of his own minority with some power vested in his illegitimate son, Louis Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine.[64]TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S5805 Laptop Keyboard Orléans, however, had Louis's will annulled by the Parlement de Paris after his death and made himself sole regent. He stripped Maine and his brother, Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, comte de Toulouse, of the rank of "prince of the blood", which Louis had given them, and significantly reduced Maine's power and privileges.[65]SONY VAIO VGN-AR170P Laptop Keyboard

Legacy

According to Philippe de Dangeau's Journal, Louis on his deathbed advised his heir: "Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity. Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects".[66]DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard Some historians point out that exaggerating one's sins was a customary demonstration of piety in those days. Accordingly, in assessing him, they do not place much emphasis on Louis's deathbed declarations. Rather, they focus on his success in placing a French prince on the Spanish throne. This, they contend, ended the threat of an aggressive Spain which historically interfered in domestic French politics. HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard These historians also emphasise the effect of Louis's wars in expanding France and creating more defensible frontiers, preserving France from invasion until the Revolution.[66] Arguably, Louis also indirectly applied himself to "the alleviation of the burdens of [his] subjects". For example, Louis patronised the arts, IBM 39T0581 Laptop Keyboard encouraged industry, fostered trade and commerce, and sponsored the founding of an overseas empire. Moreover, the significant reduction in civil wars and aristocratic rebellions are seen by these historians as the result of Louis's consolidation of royal authority over feudal elites.[67] In their opinion, ACER Aspire 5739G Laptop Keyboard his early reforms centralised France and marked the birth of the modern State. They regard the political and military victories as well as numerous cultural achievements as the means by which Louis helped raise France to Europe's pre-eminent position.[68] Such was the case that France served as an example of political organisation for much of Europe during the Enlightenment. ACER Aspire 5742Z Laptop Keyboard Europe came to admire France for its successes, power and sophistication. And European began to emulate French manners, values, goods and way-of-life. French even became the lingua franca of the European elite.  DELL Studio 1558 Laptop Keyboard Louis's detractors have argued that his considerable foreign, military and domestic expenditure impoverished and bankrupted France. However, his supporters distinguish the State, which was impoverished, from France, which was not. As evidence in support, they cite the literature of the time, such as the social commentary, Lettres Persanes by Montesquieu.[69] Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard Alternatively, Louis's critics attribute the social upheaval culminating in the Revolution to his failure to reform French institutions while the monarchy was still secure. But, other scholars opine that there was little reason to reform institutions which largely worked well under him. They also maintain that events occurring almost eighty years after his death were not reasonably foreseeable to Louis and that in any case his successors had sufficient time to initiate reforms of their own.[70]SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E Laptop Keyboard Louis has often been criticised for his vanity. Saint-Simon, who claimed that Louis slighted him, criticised him thus: "There was nothing he liked so much as flattery, or, to put it more plainly, adulation; the coarser and clumsier it was, the more he relished it". For his part, Voltaire saw Louis's vanity as the cause for his bellicosity: Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard "It is certain that he passionately wanted glory, rather than the conquests themselves. In the acquisition of Alsace and half of Flanders, and of all of Franche-Comté, what he really liked was the name he made for himself."[71]SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard But, Louis has also received praise. The anti-Bourbon Napoleon described him not only as "a great king", but also as "the only King of France worthy of the name".[72] Leibniz, the German Protestant philosopher, commended him as "one of the greatest kings that ever was".[73] And Lord Acton admired him as "by far the ablest man who was born in modern times on the steps of a throne".[74] Finally, Voltaire also dubbed his reign "an eternally memorable age", calling it "le Grand Siècle" (the "Great Century").FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Few rulers in world history have commemorated themselves in as grand a manner as Louis.[75] Louis used the arts and court ritual to demonstrate, augment and maintain his control over France. With his support, Colbert established from the beginning of Louis's personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for creating and perpetuating the royal image. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard The King was thus portrayed largely in majesty or at war, notably against Spain. This portrayal of the monarch was to be found in numerous media of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, music, and the almanacs which diffused royal propaganda to the population at large. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

Evolution of royal portraiture

Over his lifetime, Louis commissioned numerous works of art to portray himself, amongst which are over 300 formal portraits. The earliest portrayals of Louis already followed the pictorial conventions of the day in depicting the child king as the majestically royal incarnation of France. This idealisation of the monarch continued in later works. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard These avoided depicting any trace of smallpox, which Louis suffered in 1647. Moreover, by the 1660s, Louis began to be shown as a Roman emperor, Apollo, orAlexander, as may be seen in many of Le Brun's works such as sculpture, paintings and the decor in major monuments.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The depiction of the King in this manner focused on the allegorical or the mythological, instead of attempting to produce true likenesses. As Louis aged, so too did his likenesses in portraits. However, the conflict between representing him realistically and representing him in the manner required by royal propaganda continued and was demonstrated in Rigaud's Portrait of Louis XIV of 1701 where a 63 year-old Louis appears to stand on a set of unnaturally young legs.[76]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard Indeed, Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture in Louis's reign. Although Rigaud made a credible likeness of Louis, the portrait was neither meant as an exercise in realism nor to explore Louis's personal character. Certainly, Rigaud was concerned with detail and depicted the King's costume with great precision, down to his shoe buckle.[77] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard However, Rigaud's intention was to glorify the monarchy. Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre, was originally meant as a gift to Louis's grandson, Philip V of Spain. However, Louis was so pleased with the work that he kept the original and commissioned a copy to be sent to his grandson. That became the first of many copies, both in full and half-length formats,  HP QT6D Laptop Keyboard to be made by Rigaud, often with the help of his assistants. The portrait also became a model for French royal and imperial portraiture down to the time ofCharles X, over a century later. In his work, Rigaud proclaims Louis's exalted royal status through his elegant stance and haughty expression, the royal regalia and throne, rich ceremonial fleur-de-lys robes, SONY 148701322 Laptop Keyboard as well as the upright column in the background, which, together with the draperies, serves to frame this image of majesty. In addition to these portraits, Louis also commissioned at least twenty statues of himself in the 1680s to stand in Paris and in provincial towns as physical manifestations of himself to his people. SONY VAIO VGN-CS16G/Q Laptop Keyboard He also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaign to document his military triumphs. To remind the people of these triumphs, Louis erected in Paris and the provinces permanent triumphal arches for the first time since the decline of the Roman Empire. Louis's reign also marked the birth and infancy of the art of medallions. HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard Sixteenth century rulers had often issued medals to commemorate the major events of their reigns. Louis, however, struck more than 300, celebrating the story of the King in bronze to be enshrined in thousands of households. He also used tapestries as a main medium of exalting the monarchy. Tapestries were either allegorical, Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard depicting the elements or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events. They were amongst the most significant means of royal propaganda prior to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors (French: la Galerie des Glaces) at Versailles.[78] SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01  Keyboard

At Versailles

It was at his great palace, with its gardens, architecture, interior design and works of art, that Louis sought to visually represent the absolute power of the monarchy. The Hall of Mirrors became the setting for court events and became the most prestigious part of the vast complex. Under the King's close supervision, Le Brun finalised the decoration of the Hall of Mirrors, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305  Keyboard HP Envy 15  Keyboard which retraced the important accomplishments of Louis's reign, such as his accession or the War of Devolution. Decorative arches emphasise the significant events during the Dutch War. These decorations were intended to depict Louis's grandeur and understandably omit any mention of French COMPAQ 367777-001  Keyboard Louis loved ballet and frequently danced in court ballets during the early half of his reign. In general, Louis was an eager dancer, performing 80 roles in 40 major ballets. This approaches the career of a professional ballet dancer.[79] TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5132 Laptop Keyboard His choices were strategic and varied. He danced four parts in three of Molière's comédies-ballets—plays accompanied by music and dance. Louis played an Egyptian in Le Mariage forcé in 1664, a Moorish gentleman in Le Sicilien in 1667, and both Neptune and Apollo in Les Amants magnifiques in 1670. SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard Thus, he sometimes danced leading roles which were suitably royal or godlike (such as Neptune, Apollo or the Sun).[79] At other times, he would adopt mundane roles before appearing at the end in the lead role. It is considered that, at all times, he provided his roles with sufficient majesty and drew the limelight with his flair for dancing.[79]ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard The sheer number of performances and diversity of roles may serve to indicate a deeper understanding and interest in the art form. Ballet may thus not have merely been a tool for manipulation in his propaganda machinery. Perhaps, Louis was indeed passionate about the art and its progress. Regardless, it is clear Louis combined business with art in a mutually beneficial way. Through his work, Louis developed the original concept of balletic grandeur we see today.  HP COMPAQ NX6120 Laptop Keyboard It bears mention that performances at court and in Paris differed substantially. Performances at court were often accompanied by suitably majestic music, especially for those ballets danced by the King. Moreover, Compaq Presario CQ56-105TU Laptop Keyboard the lyrics usually conveyed royal power and benevolence as the patron of the arts. On the other hand, parts played by the King no longer stood out from those of other performers when performed in Paris. In fact, the plays which most overtly promoted Louis's royal image were not performed at all outside of court. This testifies to Molière's readiness to adapt his plays according to the venue and the audience.[79]TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Laptop Keyboard Besides the official depiction and image of Louis, his subjects also followed a non-official discourse, consisting mainly of clandestine publications, popular songs, and rumors. This provided an alternative interpretation of the King and his government. They often focussed on the miseries arising from poor government, but also carried the hope for a better future in the event the King escaped the malignant influence of his ministers and mistresses and took the government into his own hands. On the other hand, COMPAQ Presario CQ60-307EA Laptop Keyboard petitions addressed either directly to Louis or to his ministers exploited the traditional imagery and language of monarchy. These varying interpretations of Louis abounded in self-contradictions that reflected the people's amalgamation of their everyday experiences with the idea of monarchy.[80]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

Piety and religion

Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Gallican Church, Louis made his devotions daily regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly.[81] Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles. Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of daily Mass, annual celebrations, such as those of Holy Week, and special ceremonies.[82] Louis established the Paris Foreign Missions Society, but his informal alliance with the Ottoman Empire was criticised for undermining Christendom.[83]HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard There is no proof that he ever said "L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the state"). Although historians agree that broad decision-making was restricted to Louis and a small circle of advisers, a careful analysis of how the French monarchy functioned in Louis's day will demonstrate numerous qualifications to the conception of Absolutism as one-dimensional autocratic tyranny. HP G72-b15SA Laptop Keyboard In any case, legal documents clearly distinguished between the monarch as a person and his kingdom.[84][85] In support of this latter interpretation of facts, Louis is recorded by numerous eyewitnesses as having said on his deathbed: "Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours." ("I depart, but the State shall always remain.")[86]ASUS X53S  Keyboard Louis's formal style was "Louis XIV, par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre", or "Louis XIV, by the Grace of God, King of France and of Navarre". His arms were Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) impaling Gules on a chain in cross saltire and orle Or an emerald Proper (for Navarre). ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard On 5 April 1693, Louis also founded the Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis (French: Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis), a military Order of Chivalry.[87][88]SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU  Keyboard He named it after Louis IX and intended it as a reward for outstanding officers. It is notable as the first decoration that could be granted to non-nobles and is roughly the forerunner of the Légion d'honneur, with which it shares the red ribbon (though the Légion d'honneur is awarded to military personnel and civilians alike).  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard Writers have debated Louis's reasons for the Edict of Fontainebleau. He may have been seeking to placate the Pope, with whom relations were tense and whose aid was necessary to determine the succession crisis in Cologne. TOSHIBA Satellite A305  Keyboard Or he may have acted to upstage Leopold I and regain international prestige after the latter defeated the Turks without Louis's help. Or he may simply have desired to end the remaining divisions in French society dating to the Wars to Religion by fulfilling his coronation oath to eradicate heresy.[33][34]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01  Keyboard All the same, some have condemned the Edict as gravely harmful to France.[35] In support, they cite the approximately 200,000 Huguenots (roughly one-fourth of the Protestant population, or 1% of the French population) who defied royal decrees and fled France for various Protestant states, taking their skills with them. On the other hand, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series  Keyboard there are others who see this as an exaggeration. They argued that, notwithstanding the departure of many, most of France's preeminent Protestant businessmen and industrialists converted and remained.[36] What is certain is that reaction to the Edict was mixed. Even while French Catholic leaders exulted, the Pope, SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M  Keyboard still arguing with Louis over Gallicanism, criticised the use of violence. Protestants across Europe were horrified at the treatment of their coreligionists, but most Catholics in France applauded the move. Nonetheless, what is sure is that Louis's public image in most of Europe, especially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow. HP 599572-001  Keyboard Commedia dell'Arte (Italian pronunciation: [komˈmɛːdja delˈlarte]) is a form of theater characterized by masked "types" which began in Italy in the 16th century and was responsible for the advent of the actress andimprovised performances based on sketches or scenarios. The closest translation of the name is "comedy of craft"; SONY VAIO VGN-FW160D  Keyboard it is shortened from commedia dell'arte all'improvviso, or "comedy of the craft of improvisation". Here, arte does not refer to "art" as we currently consider the word, but rather to that which is made byartigiani (artisans).[citation needed] In fact, the term arte was coined much later, for in the early period the term used in contemporary accounts is commedia all'improviso. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M  Keyboard This was to distinguish the form from commedia erudita or learned comedy that was written by academics and performed by amateurs. Commedia dell'arte, conversely, was performed by professional actors (comici) who perfected a specific role or mask. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series  Keyboard Italian theater historians, such as Roberto Tessari, Ferdinando Taviani, and Luciano Pinto believe commedia developed as a response to the political and economic crisis of the 16th century and, as a consequence, became the first entirely professional form of theater.  SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series  Keyboard The performers played on outside, temporary stages, and relied on various props (robbe) in place of extensive scenery. The better troupes were patronized by nobility, and during carnival period might be funded by the various towns or cities, in which they played. Extra funds were received by donations (essentially passing the hat) so anyone could view the performance free of charge. Compaq Presario CQ62-112TU  Keyboard Key to the success of the commedia was the ability of the performers to travel to achieve fame and financial success. The most successful troupes performed before kings and nobility allowing individual actors, such as Isabella Andreini andDionisio Martinelli, to become well-known.- ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard The characters of the commedia usually represent fixed social types, stock characters, such as foolish old men, devious servants, or military officers full of false bravado. Characters such as Pantalone, the miserly Venetian merchant; Dottore Gratiano, the pedant from Bologna; or Arlecchino, the mischievous servant from Bergamo, began as satires on Italian "types" and became the archetypes of many of the favorite characters of 17th– and 18th–century European theatre. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Keyboard The commedia's genesis may be related to carnival in Venice, where by 1570 the author/actor Andrea Calmo had created the character, Il Magnifico, the precursor to the vecchio (old man) Pantalone. In the Flaminio Scalascenari for example, Il Magnifico persists and is interchangeable with Pantalone, into the seventeenth century. DELL Latitude D620 Keyboard While Calmo's characters (that also included the Spanish Capitano and a dottore type) were unmasked, there is no certainty at what point the characters donned the mask. However, the connection to carnival (the period between Epiphany and Ash Wednesday) would suggest that masking was a convention of carnival and was applied at some point. DELL Latitude D830  Keyboard The tradition in Northern Italy is centered in Mantua, Florence, and Venice, where the major companies came under the aegis of the various dukes. Concomitantly, a Neapolitan tradition emerged in the south and featured the prominent stage figure, Pulcinella. Pulcinella has been long associated with Naples, and derived into various types elsewhere—the most famous as the puppet character, Punch (the eponymous Punch and Judy shows) in England. TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard Although Commedia dell'arte flourished in Italy during the Mannerist period, there has been a longstanding tradition of trying to establish historical antecedents in antiquity. While we can detect formal similarities between the CdA and earlier theatrical traditions, there is no way to establish certainty of origin.[1HP 597635-001  Keyboard ] Some date the origins to the period of the Roman Republic (Plautine types) or the Empire (Atellan Farces). The Atellan Farces of the Roman Empire featured crude "types" wearing masks with grossly exaggerated features. More recent accounts establish links to the medieval jongleurs, and prototypes from medieval moralities, such as Hellequin (as the source of Harlequin, for example).[2]TOSHIBA Satellite A300  Keyboard The first recorded commedia dell'arte performances come from Rome as early as 1551.[3] Commedia dell'arte was performed outdoors in temporary venues by professional actors who were costumed and masked, as opposed to commedia erudita, which were written comedies, presented indoors by untrained and unmasked actors.[4] This view may be somewhat romanticized since records describe the Gelosi performing Tasso's Aminta, DELL OPYTVX  Keyboard for example, and much was done at court rather than in the street. By the mid-16th century, specific troupes of commedia performers began to coalesce, and by 1568 the Gelosi became a distinct company. In keeping with the tradition of the Italian Academies, I Gelosi adapted as their impress (or coat of arms) the two headed roman god Janus. Janus symbolized both the comings and goings of this traveling troupe, DELL Studio 1457  Keyboard and the dual nature of the actor who impersonates the "other." The Gelosi performed in Northern Italy and France where they received protection and patronage from the King of France. Despite fluctuations the Gelosi maintained stability for performances with the "usual ten": "two vecchi (old men), four innamorati (two male and two female lovers), HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx  Keyboard two zanni, a captain and a servetta(serving maid)".[5] It should be noted that commedia often performed inside in court theatres or halls, and also as some fixed theatres such as Teatro Baldrucca in Florence. Flaminio Scala, who had been a minor performer in the Gelosi published the scenarios of the commedia dell'arte around the turn of the century, SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S  Keyboard really in an effort to legitimize the form—and ensure its legacy. These scenari are highly structured and built around the symmetry of the various types in duet: two zannivecchiinamorate and inamorati, etc. HP 441426-001  Keyboard Commedia dell'arte is notable in that female roles were played by women, documented as early as the 1560s, In the 1570s, English theatre critics generally denigrated the troupes with their female actors (some decades later, Ben Jonson referred to one female performer of the commedia as a "tumbling whore").SONY VAIO VGN-N11M  Keyboard By the end of the 1570s Italian prelates attempted to ban female performers, however, by the end of the century, actresses were standard on the Italian stage.[6] The Italian scholar Ferdinando Taviani has collated a number of church documents opposing the advent of the actress as a kind of courtesan, whose scanty attire, HP 441316-001  Keyboard and promiscuous lifestyle corrupted young men, or at least infused them with carnal desires. Taviani's term negativa poetica describes this and other practices offensive to the church, while giving us an idea of the phenomenon of the commedia dell'arte performance. SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Keyboard By the early 17th century, the "zanni" comedies were moving from pure improvisational street performances to specified and clearly delineated acts and characters. Three books written during the 17th century — Cecchini's Fruti della moderne commedia (1628); Niccolò Barbieri's La supplica (1634); and Perrucci'sDell'arte rapresentativa (1699) — "SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Keyboard made firm recommendations concerning performing practice." Katritzky argues, that as a result, commedia was reduced to formulaic and stylized acting; as far as possible from the purity of the improvisational genesis a century earlier.[7] In France, during the reign of Louis XIV, the Comédie-Italienne created a repertoire and delineated new masks and characters, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Keyboard while deleting some of the Italian precursors, such as Pantalone. French playwrights, particularly Molière, gleaned from the plots and masks in creating an indigenous treatment. Indeed, Molière shared the stage with the Comédie-Italienne at Petit-Bourbon, and some of his forms, e.g. the tirade, are derivative from the commedia (tirata). TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Keyboard Commedia dell'arte moved outside the city limits to the théâtre de la foire, or fair theatres, in the early 17th century as it evolved toward a more pantomimed style. With the dispatch of the Italian comedians from France in 1697, DELL Latitude C510 Keyboard the form transmogrified in the 18th century as genres like comédie larmoyante gained in attraction in France, particularly through the plays of Marivaux. Marivaux softened the commedia considerably by bringing in true emotion to the stage. Harlequin achieved more prominence during this period. HP G72-b01SA  Keyboard It is possible that this kind of improvised acting was passed down the Italian generations until the 17th century, when it was revived as a professional theatrical technique. However, as currently used the term "Commedia dell'arte" was coined in the mid-18th century.[8].co.uk/hp-g61-keyboard.html">HP G61 Keyboard Curiously, commedia dell'arte was equally if not more popular in France, where it continued its popularity throughout the 17th century (until 1697), and it was in France, where commedia developed its established repertoire. Commedia evolved into various configurations across Europe, and each country accultrated the form to its liking. For example, Thinkpad T420 Keyboard pantomime which flourished in the 18th century, owes its genesis to the character types of the commedia, particularlyHarlequin. The Punch and Judy puppet shows, popular to this day in England, owe their basis to the Pulcinella mask that emerged in Neapolitan versions of the form. In Italy, commedia masks and plots found their way into the opera buffa, and the plots of Rossini, Verdi, and Puccini. SONY VAIO VGN-NR32S/S Keyboard During the Napoleonic occupation of Italy, commedia dell'arte was outlawed.[citation needed][by whom?][why?]Compagnie, or companies, were troupes of actors, each of whom had a specific function or role. These compagnie traveled throughout Europe from the early period, beginning with the Soldati, then, the Ganassa, who traveled to Spain—never to be heard from again—and the famous troupes of the Golden Age (1580–1605):  HP Pavilion DV6-1020ei Keyboard GelosiConfidentiAccessi. These names which signified daring and enterprise were appropriated from the names of the academies—in a sense, to lend legitimacy. However, each troupe had its impresse (like a coat of arms) which symbolized its nature. The Gelosi for example, used the two-headed face of the roman god,  HP G62-b25ER Keyboard Janus—to signify its comings and goings and relationship to the season of carnival—which took place in January. Janus also signified the duality of the actor, who is playing a character or mask, while still remaining oneself. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard Magistrates and clergy were not always receptive to the traveling compagnie (companies), particularly during periods of plague, and because of their itinerant nature. The term vagabondi was used in reference to the comici, and remains a derogatory term to this day (vagabond). A troupe often consisted of ten performers of familiar masked and unmasked types, and included women.[5]HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Keyboard Characters Castagno posits that the aesthetic of exaggeration, distortion, anti-humanism (as in the masked types), and excessive borrowing as opposed to originality was typical of all the arts in the late cinquecento.[9]  HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard Theatre historian Martin Green points to the extravagance of emotion during the period of Commedia's emergence as the reason for representational moods, or characters, that define the art. In Commedia each character embodies a mood: mockery, sadness, gaiety, confusion, and so forth.[10] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard According to 18th century London theatre critic Barretti, commedia dell'arte incorporates specific roles and characters that were "originally intended as a kind of characteristic representative of some particular Italian district or town."[8] The character's persona included the specific dialect of the region or town represented. Additionally, each character has a singular costume and mask that is representative of the character's role.[8]ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard Commedia dell'arte has three main stock roles: servant, master, and innamorati (lovers),[11] and the characters themselves are often referred to as "masks", which according to John Rudlin, cannot be separated from the character. In other words the characteristics of the character and the characteristics of the mask are the same.[12]HP Pavilion dv6-3130tx Keyboard The servants or the clowns are referred to as the Zanni and include characters such as Arlecchino, Brighella and Pedrolino.[13] Some of the better known commedia dell'arte characters are Arlecchino (also known as Harlequin), Pierrot and Pierrette, Pantalone, Il Dottore, Brighella, Il Capitano, Colombina, the Innamorati, Pedrolino, Pulcinella, Sandrone, Scaramuccia (also known as Scaramouche), il Somardino,La Signora, and Tartaglia. SONY 147977821  Keyboard In the 17th century as commedia became popular in France, the characters of Pierrot, Columbine and Harlequin were refined and became essentially Parisian, according to Green.[14]HP Mini 110-1006tu Keyboard Conventional plot lines were written on themes of adultery, jealousy, love and old age. Many of the basic plot elements can be traced back to the Roman comedies of Plautus and Terence, some of which were themselves translations of lost Greek comedies of the 4th century BC. However, it is more probable that the comici used contemporary novella, or, HP Probook 4520S Keyboard traditional sources as well, and drew from current events and local news of the day. Not all scenari were comic, there were some mixed forms and even tragedies. Shakespeare's "The Tempest" is drawn from a popular scenario in the Scala collection, his Polonius ("Hamlet") is drawn from Pantalone, and his clowns bear homage to the zanni. SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W Keyboard Comici performed written comedies at court. Song and dance were widely used, and a number of innamorata were skilled madrigalists, a song form that uses chromatics and close harmonies. SONY VAIO VGN-FS690 Keyboard Audiences came to see the performers, with plot lines becoming secondary to the performance. Among the great innamorate, Isabella Andreini, was perhaps the most widely known and a medallion dedicated to her reads: "eternal fame." Tristano Martinelli achieved international fame as the first of the great Arlecchinos, HP Mini 210-2006sa Keyboard and was honored by the Medici and the Queen of France. Performers made use of well-rehearsed jokes and stock physical gags, known as lazzi and concetti, as well as on-the-spot improvised and interpolated episodes and routines, called burle (singular burla, Italian for joke), usually involving a practical joke. HP Pavilion dv6000 Keyboard Since the productions were improvised, dialogue and action could easily be changed to satirize local scandals, current events, or regional tastes, while still using old jokes and punch lines. Characters were identified by costumes, masks, and props, such as a type of baton known as a slapstick. These characters included the forebears of the modern clown, namely Harlequin (arlecchino) and Zanni. SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Keyboard The classic, traditional plot is that the innamorati are in love and wish to be married, but one elder (vecchio) or several elders (vecchi) are preventing this from happening, leading the lovers to ask one or more zanni (eccentric servants) for help. Typically the story ends happily, with the marriage of the innamoratiand forgiveness for any wrongdoings. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Keyboard There are countless variations on this story, as well as many that diverge wholly from the structure, such as a well-known story about Arlecchino becoming mysteriously pregnant, or the Punch and Judy scenario.  TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5241 Keyboard While generally personally unscripted, the performances often were based on scenarios that gave some semblance of plot to the largely improvised format. The Flaminio Scala scenarios, published in the early 17th century, are the most widely known collection and representative of its most esteemed compagnia, I Gelosi. HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa  Keyboard

Influence in Visual Art

The iconography of the commedia dell'arte represents an entire field of study that has been examined by commedia scholars such as Erenstein, Castagno, Katritzky, Molinari, and others. In the early period, representative works by painters atFontainebleau were notable for their erotic depictions of the thinly veiled innamorata,  DELL Vostro PP37L  Keyboard or the bare-breasted courtesan/actress. The Flemish influence is widely documented as commedia figures entered the world of the vanitas genre, depicting the dangers of lust, drinking, and the hedonistic lifestyle. Castagno describes the Flemish pittore vago (wandering painters) who assimilated themselves within Italian workshops and even assumed Italian surnames: HP G61-110SA  Keyboard One of the most influential painters, Lodewyk Toeput, for example, became Ludovico Pozzoserrato and was a celebrated painter in the Veneto region of Italy. The pittore vago can be attributed with establishing commedia dell'arte as a genre of painting that would persist for centuries. SONY NSK-S8101  Keyboard While the iconography gives evidence of the performance style (See Fossard collection), it is important to note that many of the images and engravings were not depictions from real life, but concocted in the studio. The Callot etchings of the Balli di Sfessania (1611) are most widely considered "capricci" rather than actual depictions of a commedia dance form, or typical masks.  HP G61  Keyboard While these are often reproduced in large formats, it is important to note that the actual prints measured about 2x3 inches. In the 18th century, Watteau's painting of commedia figures intermingling with the aristocracy were often set in sumptuous garden or pastoral settings and were representative of that genre. DELL Alienware M11x  Keyboard Picasso's painting The Three Musicians painted in 1921 is a colorful representation of commedia-inspired characters.[15] Picasso also designed the original costumes for Stravinsky's Pulcinella (1920), a ballet depicting commedia characters and situations. Commedia iconography is evident in porcelain figurines many selling for thousands of dollars at auction. TOSHIBA NB200-10J  Keyboard Influence in Performance Art The expressive theatre influenced Molière's comedy and subsequently ballet d'action, thus lending a fresh range of expression and choreographic means. An example of a commedia dell'arte character in literature is the Pied Piper of Hamelin who is dressed as Harlequin. HP 519265-001  Keyboard Music and dance were central to commedia dell'arte performance. Brighella was often depicted with a guitar, and many images of the commedia feature singing innamorata or dancing figures, particularly innamorate. In fact, it was considered part of the innamorati function to be able to sing and have the popular repertoire under their belt. HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard Accounts of the early commedia, as far back as Calmo in the 1570s and the buffoni of Venice, note the ability of comici to singmadrigali precisely and beautifully. The danzatrice probably accompanied the troupes, and may have been in addition to the general cast of characters. For examples of strange instruments of various grotesque formations see articles by Tom Heck, who has documented this area. ASUS F82Q  Keyboard The works of a number of playwrights have featured characters influenced by the Commedia dell'arte and sometimes directly drawn from it. Prominent examples include The Tempest written by William Shakespeare, Servant of Two Masters (1743) by Carlo Goldoni, Les Fourberies de Scapin by Molière, and the Figaro plays ofPierre Beaumarchais. Influences appear in the lodgers in Steven Berkoff's adaptation of Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis. TOSHIBA P205-S7469  Keyboard Through their association with spoken theatre and playwrights Commedia figures have provided opera with many of its stock characters. Mozart's Don Giovanni sets a puppet show story and comic servants like Leporello and Figaro have commedia precedents. Soubrette characters like Susanna in Le nozze di Figaro, Zerlina inDon Giovanni and Despina in Cosi fan tutte recall Columbina and related characters. TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901  Keyboard The comic operas of Gaetano Donizetti, such as Elisir d'amore, draw readily upon commedia stock types. Leoncavallo's tragic melodrama Pagliacci depicts a commedia dell'arte company in which the performers find their life situations reflecting events they depict on stage. HP Mini 110-3135dx  Keyboard In 1681, Louis dramatically increased his persecution of Protestants. The principle of cuius regio, euis religio generally had also meant that subjects who refused to convert could emigrate, but Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted that all Protestants must be converted. Secondly, following René de Marillac's and Louvois's proposal, TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard he began quartering dragoons in Protestant homes. Although this was within his legal rights, the dragonnades inflicted severe financial strain on Protestants and atrocious abuse. Between 300,000 and 400,000 Huguenots converted, as this entailed financial rewards and exemption from thedragonnades.[31]SONY VAIO PCG-792L  Keyboard On 15 October 1685, Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau, citing the redundancy of privileges for Protestants given their scarcity after the extensive conversions. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M  Keyboard The Edict of Fontainebleau revoked that of Nantes, and repealed all the privileges that arose therefrom.[3] By his edict, therefore, Louis no longer suffered Protestant groups, APPLE Macbook 13 Inch  Keyboard HP Pavilion G7-1150US  Keyboard pastors or churches to exist in France. No further churches were to be constructed, and those already existing were to be demolished. Pastors could choose either exile or a secular life. And those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now forcibly baptised into the established Church.[32]ACER Aspire 5810T  Keyboard TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002M  Keyboard DELL Inspiron N4050  Keyboard

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