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Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 54 independent member states. All members exceptMozambique and Rwanda were part of the British Empire, out of which the Commonwealth developed. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard The member states cooperate within a framework of common values and goals, as outlined in the Singapore Declaration. These include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism and world peace.[1] The Commonwealth is not a political union, but an intergovernmental organisation in which countries with diverse social, political and economic backgrounds are regarded as equal in status. Alongside shared values, Commonwealth nations share strong trade links; trade with another Commonwealth member has been shown to be a third to a half more than with a non-member.[2]SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard Activities of the Commonwealth are carried out through the permanent Commonwealth Secretariat, headed by thesecretary-general, and biennial meetings of Commonwealth Heads of Government. The symbol of their free association is the Head of the Commonwealth, currently held by Queen Elizabeth II. Elizabeth II is also monarch, separately and independently, of 16 Commonwealth members, which are known as the "Commonwealth realms".DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard The Commonwealth is a forum for a number of non-governmental organisations, collectively known as theCommonwealth Family, which are fostered through the intergovernmental Commonwealth Foundation. The Commonwealth Games, the Commonwealth's most visible activity,[3] are a product of one of these organisations. These organisations strengthen the shared culture of the Commonwealth, which extends through common sports, literary heritage, and political and legal practices.[4] Reflecting this, diplomatic missions between Commonwealth countries are designated as high commissions rather than embassies. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard There is growing sentiment, such as in the United Kingdom, that stronger relations with the Commonwealth is a more viable alternative to the European Union in the wake of the European sovereign debt crisis and generaleuroscepticism.[citation needed]SONY VAIO VGN-CS13M/W Laptop Keyboard In 1884, while visiting Australia, Lord Rosebery described the changing British Empire, as some of its colonies became more independent, as a "Commonwealth of Nations".[5] Conferences of British and colonial prime ministers occurred periodically from the first one in 1887, leading to the creation of the Imperial Conferences in 1911.[6] The Commonwealth developed from the Imperial Conferences. A specific proposal was presented by Jan Christiaan Smuts in 1917 when he coined the term "the British Commonwealth of Nations" and envisioned the "future constitutional relations and readjustments in essence" at the all-important Versailles Conference of 1919 by delegates from the dominions as well as Britain.[7][8] The term first received imperial statutory recognition in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921.[citation needed]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard In the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference, Britain and its dominions agreed they were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations". These aspects to the relationship were formalised by the Statute of Westminster in 1931. The statute applied to Canada without the need for ratification, butAustralia, New Zealand, and Newfoundland had to ratify the statute for it to take effect. Newfoundland never did, as on 16 February 1934, with the consent of its parliament, the Government of Newfoundland voluntarily ended, and governance reverted to direct control from London. Newfoundland later joined Canada as its tenth province in 1949.[9] Australia and New Zealand ratified the Statute in 1942 and 1947 respectively.[10][11]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard After World War II ended, the British Empire was gradually dismantled to the 14 British overseas territories still held by the United Kingdom. In April 1949, following the London Declaration, the word "British" was dropped from the title of the Commonwealth to reflect its changing nature.[12] Burma (also known asMyanmar, 1948) and Aden (1967) are the only states that were British colonies at the time of the war not to have joined the Commonwealth upon independence. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Former British protectorates and mandates that did not become members of the Commonwealth are Egypt (independent in 1922), Iraq (1932), Transjordan (1946),British Palestine (part of which became the state of Israel in 1948), Sudan (1956), British Somaliland (which united with the former Italian Somaliland in 1960 to form Somalia), Kuwait (1961), Bahrain (1971), Oman (1971), Qatar (1971), and the United Arab Emirates (1971). FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The issue of countries with constitutional structures not based on a shared Crown but that wanted to remain members of the Commonwealth came to a head in 1948 with passage of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, in which Ireland renounced the sovereignty of the Crown[13] and thus left the Commonwealth (however, the Statute of Westminster 1931 was never ratified by Ireland, and the Commonwealth considers that the Republic of Ireland was never a member of it). ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard The Ireland Act 1949 passed by the Parliament of Westminster offered citizens of the Republic of Ireland a status similar to that of citizens of the Commonwealth in UK law. The issue was resolved in April 1949 at a Commonwealth prime ministers' meeting in London. Under the London Declaration, India agreed that, when it became a republic in January 1950, it would accept the British Sovereign as a "symbol of the free association of its independent member nations and as such the Head of the Commonwealth". ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard [14] The other Commonwealth countries recognised India's continuing membership of the association. At Pakistan's insistence, India was not regarded as an exceptional case and it was assumed that other states would be accorded the same treatment as India. APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard The London Declaration is often seen as marking the beginning of the modern Commonwealth. Following India's precedent, other nations became republics, orconstitutional monarchies with their own monarchs, while some countries retained the same monarch as the United Kingdom, but their monarchies developed differently and soon became fully independent of the British monarchy. The monarch of each Commonwealth realm, whilst the same person, is regarded as a separatelegal personality for each realm. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard  The Commonwealth's objectives were first outlined in the 1971 Singapore Declaration, which committed the Commonwealth to the institution of world peace; promotion of representative democracy and individual liberty; the pursuit of equality and opposition to racism; the fight against poverty, ignorance, and disease; and free trade.[1] To these were added opposition to discrimination on the basis of gender by the Lusaka Declaration of 1979,[16] and environmental sustainability by the Langkawi Declaration of 1989.[17] These objectives were reinforced by the Harare Declaration in 1991. HP Envy 15-1050nr Laptop Keyboard The Commonwealth's current highest-priority aims are on the promotion of democracy and development, as outlined in the 2003 Aso Rock Declaration,[18] which built on those in Singapore and Harare and clarified their terms of reference, stating, "We are committed to democracy, good governance, human rights, gender equality, and a more equitable sharing of the benefits of globalisation."[19] The Commonwealth website lists its areas of work as: Democracy, Economics, Education, Gender, Governance, Human Rights, Law, Small States, Sport, Sustainability, and Youth.[20]DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard The Commonwealth has long been distinctive as an international forum where developed economies (such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Singapore, andNew Zealand) and many of the world's poorer countries seek to reach agreement by consensus. This aim has sometimes been difficult to achieve, as when disagreements over Rhodesia in the late 1960s and 1970s and over apartheid in South Africa in the 1980s led to a cooling of relations between the United Kingdom and African members. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Through a separate voluntary fund, Commonwealth governments support the Commonwealth Youth Programme, a division of the Secretariat with offices in Gulu(Uganda), Lusaka (Zambia), Chandigarh (India), Georgetown (Guyana) and Honiara (Solomon Islands). HP 550 Laptop Keyboard As the Commonwealth grew, Britain and the pre-1945 dominions became informally known as the "Old Commonwealth", and planners in the interwar period, like Lord Davies, who had also taken "a prominent part in building up the League of Nations Union" in the United Kingdom, in 1932 founded the New Commonwealth Movement, of which Winston Churchill was the president.[citation needed] The New Commonwealth was a society aimed at creation of an international air force to be the arm of the League of Nations, to allow nations to disarm and safeguard the peace. Some of these ideas were reflected in the United Nations Charter, drafted inDumbarton Oaks (21 August to 7 October 1944) and San Francisco (25 April to 26 June 1945).[citation needed]SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard The term "New Commonwealth" has also sometimes been used in the United Kingdom (especially in the 1960s and 1970s) to refer to recently decolonised countries, which are predominantly non-white and developing. It was often used in debates about immigration from these countries.[15]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Under that formula of the London Declaration, Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the Commonwealth, a title that is currently individually shared with that of Commonwealth realms.[21] However, when the monarch dies the successor to the crown does not automatically become Head of the Commonwealth.[22] The position is symbolic, representing the free association of independent members.[21] Sixteen members of the Commonwealth, known as Commonwealth realms, recognise the Queen as their head of state.[citation needed] The majority of members (33) are republics, and five have monarchs of different royal houses. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The Commonwealth Secretariat, established in 1965, is the main intergovernmental agency of the Commonwealth, facilitating consultation and cooperation among member governments and countries. It is responsible to member governments collectively. The Commonwealth of Nations is represented in the United Nations General Assembly by the Secretariat, as an observer. SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W Laptop Keyboard The Secretariat organises Commonwealth summits, meetings of ministers, consultative meetings and technical discussions; it assists policy development and provides policy advice, and facilitates multilateral communication among the member governments. It also provides technical assistance to help governments in the social and economic development of their countries and in support of the Commonwealth's fundamental political values. SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard The Secretariat is headed by the Commonwealth secretary-general who is elected by Commonwealth heads of government for no more than two four-year terms. The secretary-general and two deputy secretaries-general direct the divisions of the Secretariat. The present secretary-general is Kamalesh Sharma, from India, who took office on 1 April 2008, succeeding Don McKinnon of New Zealand (2000–2008), and was re-elected in 2011 to his second term in 2012. The first secretary-general wasArnold Smith of Canada (1965–75), followed by Sir Shridath Ramphal of Guyana (1975–90) and Emeka Anyaoku of Nigeria (1990–99). ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The main decision-making forum of the organisation is the biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), where Commonwealth Heads of Government, including (amongst others) Prime Ministers and Presidents, assemble for several days to discuss matters of mutual interest. CHOGM is the successor to the Meetings of Commonwealth Prime Ministers and earlier Imperial Conferencesand Colonial Conferences dating back to 1887. There are also regular meetings of finance ministers, law ministers, health ministers, etc. Members in Arrears, as Special Members before them, are not invited to send representatives to either ministerial meetings or CHOGMs.[21]  DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard The head of government hosting the Head of Government Meeting is called the Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Office, and retains the position until the following CHOGM.[23] After the most recent CHOGM, in Perth in October 2011, Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard became Chairperson-in-Office. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard The criteria for membership of the Commonwealth of Nations have developed over time from a series of separate documents. The Statute of Westminster 1931, as a fundamental founding document of the organisation, laid out that membership required dominionhood. The 1949 London Declaration ended this, allowing republican and indigenous monarchic members on the condition that they recognised the British monarch as the "Head of the Commonwealth".[24] In the wake of the wave ofdecolonisation in the 1960s, these constitutional principles were augmented by political, economic, and social principles. The first of these was set out in 1961, HP Pavilion dv4-1242tx Laptop Keyboard when it was decided that respect for racial equality would be a requirement for membership, leading directly to the withdrawal of South Africa's re-application (which they were required to make under the formula of the London Declaration upon becoming a republic). The 14 points of the 1971 Singapore Declaration dedicated all members to the principles of world peace, liberty, human rights, equality, and free trade.[1] FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard These criteria were unenforceable for two decades,[25] until, in 1991, the Harare Declaration was issued, dedicating the leaders to applying the Singapore principles to the completion of decolonisation, the end of the Cold War, and the end of apartheid in South Africa.[26] The mechanisms by which these principles would be applied were created, and the manner clarified, by the 1995 Millbrook Commonwealth Action Programme, which created the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG), ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard which has the power to rule on whether members meet the requirements for membership under the Harare Declaration.[27] Also in 1995, an Inter-Governmental Group was created to finalise and codify the full requirements for membership. Upon reporting in 1997, as adopted under the Edinburgh Declaration, the Inter-Governmental Group ruled that any future members would have to have a direct constitutional link with an existing member.[28]SONY VAIO VGN-N31M laptop keyboard In addition to this new rule, the former rules were consolidated into a single document. These requirements are that members must accept and comply with theHarare principles, be fully sovereign states, recognise the monarch of the Commonwealth realms as the Head of the Commonwealth, accept the English language as the means of Commonwealth communication, and respect the wishes of the general population with regard to Commonwealth membership.[28] These requirements had undergone review, and a report on potential amendments was presented by the Committee on Commonwealth Membership at the 2007 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting.[29] New members were not admitted at this meeting, though applications for admission were considered at the 2009 CHOGM.[30]TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3004 laptop keyboard New members must "as a general rule" have a direct constitutional link to an existing member. In most cases, this is due to being a former colony of the United Kingdom, but some have links to other countries, either exclusively or more directly (e.g. Samoa to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea to Australia, and Namibia to South Africa). The first member to be admitted without having any constitutional link to the British Empire or a Commonwealth member was Mozambique, a formerPortuguese colony, in 1995 following its first democratic elections and South Africa's re-admission in 1994. FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 laptop keyboard Mozambique's controversial entry led to theEdinburgh Declaration and the current membership guidelines.[31] In 2009, Rwanda became the second Commonwealth member admitted not to have any such constitutional links. It was a Belgian trust territory that had been a German colony until World War I.[32] Consideration for its admission was considered an "exceptional circumstance" by the Commonwealth Secretariat.[31]SONY 1-480-240-22 laptop keyboard The Commonwealth comprises 54 countries (including one currently suspended member), across all six inhabited continents. The members have a combined population of 2.1 billion people, almost a third of the world population, of which 1.17 billion live in India and 94% live in Asia and Africa combined.[33] After India, the next-largest Commonwealth countries by population arePakistan (176 million), Bangladesh (156 million), Nigeria (154 million), the United Kingdom (61 million) and South Africa(49 million). Tuvalu is the smallest member, with about 10,000 people.[34]SONY VAIO VGN-CS13M/W laptop keyboard The land area of the Commonwealth nations is about 31,500,000 km2 (12,200,000 sq mi), or about 21% of the total world land area. The three largest Commonwealth nations by area are Canada at 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi), Australia at 7,617,930 km2 (2,941,300 sq mi), and India at 3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi).[35] The Commonwealth members have a combined gross domestic product of over $10 trillion, 65% of which is accounted for by the four largest economies: the United Kingdom ($2.2 trillion), India ($1.7 trillion), Canada ($1.5 trillion) and Australia ($1.4 trillion).[36]ACER TravelMate 2480 laptop keyboard The status of "Member in Arrears" is used to denote those that are in arrears in paying subscription dues. The status was originally known as "special membership", but was renamed on the Committee on Commonwealth Membership's recommendation.[37]There are currently no Members in Arrears. The most recent Member in Arrears, Nauru, returned to full membership in June 2011.[38] Nauru has alternated between special and full membership since joining the Commonwealth, depending on its financial situation.[39]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard South Sudan has applied to join the Commonwealth.[40] Andrew Roberts, the British author of A History of the English-Speaking Peoples since 1900, has written: "We should think carefully about what the Commonwealth means before we allow just anyone to join. It should mean a connection with the British Crown however historical, and an appreciation of the political culture of the English-speaking peoples. And that seems to be lacking in every country [that would like to join] apart from Israel."[41] In 2006, Commonwealth Secretary-General Don McKinnon said: "Many people have assumed an interest from Israel, but there has been no formal approach."[41]FUJITSU Siemens M1010 Laptop Keyboard Other eligible applicants could be any of the remaining inhabited British overseas territories, Crown dependencies,Australian external territories and Associated States of New Zealand if they become fully independent.[42] Many such jurisdictions are already directly represented within the Commonwealth, particularly through the Commonwealth Family.[43]HP Pavilion dm3-1020CA Laptop Keyboard At the time of the Suez Crisis in 1956, in the face of colonial unrest and international tensions, French Prime Minister Guy Mollet proposed to British Prime Minister Anthony Eden that their two countries be joined in a "union". When that proposal was turned down, Mollet suggested that France be allowed to join the Commonwealth, with "a common citizenship arrangement on the Irish basis."[44][45]HP 550 Laptop Keyboard In 1957, after both proposals had been rejected, France signed the Treaty of Rome with West Germany and the other founding nations of the Common Market, later to become the European Union, which the United Kingdom joined in 1973. Malta and Cyprus, also Commonwealth members, joined in 2004. SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard In recent years, the Commonwealth has suspended several members "from the Councils of the Commonwealth" for "serious or persistent violations" of the Harare Declaration, particularly in abrogating their responsibility to have democratic government.[46] This is done by the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG), which meets regularly to address potential breaches of the Harare Declaration. Suspended members are not represented at meetings of Commonwealth leaders and ministers, although they remain members of the organisation. Currently, there is one suspended member, Fiji.[47]DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard Nigeria was suspended between 11 November 1995 and 29 May 1999,[48] following its execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa on the eve of the 1995 CHOGM.[49] Pakistan was the second country to be suspended, on 18 October 1999, following the military coup by Pervez Musharraf.[50] The Commonwealth's longest suspension came to an end on 22 May 2004, when Pakistan's suspension was lifted following the restoration of the country's constitution.[51] Pakistan was suspended for a second time, far more briefly, for six months from 22 November 2007, when Musharraf called a state of emergency.[52] Zimbabwe was suspended in 2002 over concerns with the electoral and land reform policies of Robert Mugabe's ZANU-PF government,[53] before it withdrew from the organisation in 2003.[54]HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard Fiji, which was not a member of the Commonwealth between 1987 and 1997 as a result of two coups d'état, has been suspended twice, with the first imposed from 6 June 2000[55] to 20 December 2001 after another coup.[53] Fiji has been suspended again since 8 December 2006, following the most recent coup. At first, the suspension applied only to membership on the Councils of the Commonwealth.[56][57] After failing to meet a Commonwealth deadline for setting a date for national elections by 2010, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard Fiji was "fully suspended" on 1 September 2009.[56][57] The Secretary-General of the Commonwealth, Kamalesh Sharma, confirmed that full suspension meant that Fiji would be excluded from Commonwealth meetings, sporting events and the technical assistance programme (with an exception for assistance in re-establishing democracy). Sharma also stated that Fiji would remain a member of the Commonwealth during its suspension, but would be excluded from emblematic representation by the secretariat.[57]HP Pavilion dv6-2020ev Laptop Keyboard As membership is purely voluntary, member governments can choose at any time to leave the Commonwealth. Pakistan left on 30 January 1972 in protest at the Commonwealth's recognition of breakaway Bangladesh, but rejoined on 2 August 1989. Zimbabwe's membership was suspended in 2002 on the grounds of alleged human rights violations and deliberate misgovernment, and Zimbabwe's government terminated its membership in 2003.[58]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Although heads of government have the power to suspend member states from active participation, the Commonwealth has no provision for the expulsion of members. Until 2007, Commonwealth realms that became republics automatically ceased to be members, until (like India in 1950) they obtained the permission of other members to remain in the organisation. This policy has been changed, so if any current Commonwealth realms were to become republics, they would not have to go through this process.[59] Ireland left the Commonwealth when it declared itself a republic, on 18 April 1949, after enacting the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W Laptop Keyboard South Africa was prevented from continuing as a member after it became a republic in 1961, due to hostility from many members, particularly those in Africa and Asia as well as Canada, to its policy of apartheid. The South African government withdrew its application to remain in the organisation as a republic when it became clear at the 1961 Meeting of Commonwealth Prime Ministers that any such application would be rejected. South Africa was re-admitted to the Commonwealth in 1994, following the end of apartheid earlier that year. HP Mini 110-1119NR laptop keyboard The declaration of a republic in Fiji in 1987, after military coups designed to deny Indo-Fijians political power, was not accompanied by an application to remain. Commonwealth membership was held to have lapsed until 1997, after discriminatory provisions in the republican constitution were repealed and reapplication for membership made.[57][60]Packard Bell Easynote LM85 laptop keyboard The Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong in 1997 ended the colony's ties to the Commonwealth through the United Kingdom. The government of Hong Kong, as aspecial administrative region of China, did not pursue membership. Hong Kong SAR has nevertheless continued to participate in some of the organisations of the Commonwealth family, such as the Commonwealth Lawyers Association, the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association, the Association of Commonwealth Universities and the Commonwealth Association of Legislative Counsel.[61][62] FUJITSU 71-31779-00 laptop keyboard Commonwealth countries share many links outside government, with over a hundred Commonwealth-wide non-governmental organisations, notably for sport, culture, education, law and charity. The Association of Commonwealth Universities is an important vehicle for academic links, particularly through scholarships, principally the Commonwealth Scholarship, for students to study in universities in other Commonwealth countries. There are also many non-official associations that bring together individuals who work within the spheres of law and government, such as the Commonwealth Lawyers Association and the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. HP Pavilion dv6-2120ej laptop keyboard The Commonwealth Foundation is an intergovernmental organisation, resourced by and reporting to Commonwealth governments, and guided by Commonwealth values and priorities. Its mandate is to strengthen civil society in the achievement of Commonwealth priorities: democracy and good governance, respect for human rights and gender equality, poverty eradication and sustainable, people-centred and sustainable development, and to promote arts and culture.  HP Envy 15-1050nr laptop keyboard The Foundation was established by the Heads of Government in 1965. Admittance is open to all members of the Commonwealth and in December 2008 stood at 46 out of the 54 member countries. Associate Membership, which is open to associated states or overseas territories of member governments, has been granted to Gibraltar. 2005 saw celebrations for the Foundation's 40th Anniversary. The Foundation is headquartered in Marlborough House, Pall Mall, London. Regular liaison and cooperation between the Secretariat and the Foundation is in place. HP Pavilion dv3-2120ea laptop keyboard The Foundation continues to serve the broad purposes for which it was established as written in the Memorandum of Understanding.[63] The Commonwealth Games, a multi-sport event, is held every four years; the 2010 Commonwealth Games were held in New Delhi, India in 2010, and the next in Glasgow, Scotland in 2014. As well as the usual athletic disciplines, as at the Summer Olympic Games, the games include sports particularly popular in the Commonwealth, such as bowls, netball, and rugby sevens. Started in 1930 as the Empire Games, the games were founded on the Olympic model of amateurism, but were deliberately designed to be, as they are still renowned for being "the Friendly Games",[3] with the goal of promoting relations between Commonwealth countries and celebrating their shared sporting and cultural heritage.[64]ACER KB.T3007.001 laptop keyboard The Games are the Commonwealth's most visible activity,[3] and interest in the operation of the Commonwealth increases greatly when the Games are held.[65] There is controversy over whether the Games – and sport generally – should be involved in the Commonwealth's wider political concerns.[64] The 1977 Gleneagles Agreement was signed to commit Commonwealth countries to combat apartheid through discouraging sporting contact with South Africa (which was not then a member), whilst the 1986 Games were boycotted by most African, Asian, and Caribbean countries for the failure of other countries to enforce the Gleneagles Agreement.[66]COMPAQ Presario CQ50-139NR laptop keyboard The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is responsible for maintaining the war graves of 1.7 million service personnel that died in the First and Second World Wars fighting for Commonwealth member states. Founded in 1917, the Commission has constructed 2,500 war cemeteries, and maintains individual graves at another 20,000 sites around the world.[67] The vast majority of the latter are civilian cemeteries in Great Britain. In 1998, the CWGC made the records of its buried online to facilitate easier searching.[68]HP Pavilion DV6-1319tx laptop keyboard Commonwealth war cemeteries often feature similar horticulture and architecture, with larger cemeteries being home to aCross of Sacrifice and Stone of Remembrance. The CWGC is notable for marking the graves identically, regardless of the rank, country of origin, race, or religion of the buried.[68] It is funded by voluntary agreement by six Commonwealth members, in proportion to the nationality of the casualties in the graves maintained,[67] with three-quarters of the funding coming from Britain.[68]SONY KFRMBA152A Laptop Keyboard The Commonwealth Business Council (CBC) was formed at 1997 CHOGM. The aim was to utilise the global network of the Commonwealth more effectively for the promotion of global trade and investment for shared prosperity. SONY Vaio PCG-K315Z Laptop Keyboard The CBC acts as a bridge for co-operation between business and government, concentrating efforts on these specific areas enhancing trade, facilitating ICT for Development, mobilising investment, promoting corporate citizenship, and public private partnerships. The CBC has a dedicated team, CBC Technologies, based in London and is focused on the international technology and global services industry throughout the Commonwealth. HP Pavilion dv3-2130ez Laptop Keyboard Mostly due to their history of British rule, many Commonwealth nations possess traditions and customs that are elements of a shared Commonwealth culture. Examples include common sports such as cricket and rugby, driving on the left, the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy, common law, widespread use of the English language, designation of English as an official language, military and naval ranks, and the use of British rather than American spelling conventions (see English in the Commonwealth of Nations). None of these is universal among, nor exclusive to, the Commonwealth, but are more commonly found within its members than elsewhere. HP 516884-001 Laptop Keyboard Due to the legacy of British colonial rule, many Commonwealth nations play similar sports that are considered quintessentially "British" in character, includingcricket, rugby, and netball.[4] This has led to the development of friendly national rivalries between the main sporting nations that have often defined their relations with each another. Indeed, said rivalries preserved close ties by providing a constant in international relationships, even as the Empire transformed into the Commonwealth.[69] Externally, playing these sports is seen to be a sign of sharing a certain Commonwealth culture; the adoption of cricket at schools in Rwanda is seen as symbolic of the country's move towards Commonwealth membership.[70][71]TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard Besides the Commonwealth Games, other sporting competitions are organised on a Commonwealth basis, through championship tournaments such as the Commonwealth Judo Championships, Commonwealth Rowing Championships, Commonwealth Sailing Championships, Commonwealth Shooting Championships and Commonwealth Pool Lifesaving Championships. The Commonwealth Boxing Council has long maintained Commonwealth titles for the best boxers in the Commonwealth. TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard The shared history of British presence has produced a substantial body of writing in many languages, known as Commonwealth literature.[72][73] There is an Association for Commonwealth Literature and Language Studies, with nine chapters worldwide and an international conference is held every three years. HP Mini 1001TU Laptop Keyboard In 1987, the Commonwealth Foundation established the annual Commonwealth Writers' Prize "to encourage and reward the upsurge of new Commonwealth fiction and ensure that works of merit reach a wider audience outside their country of origin". Prizes are awarded for the best book and best first book in the Commonwealth, as well as regional prizes for the best book and best first book from each of four regions. Although not officially affiliated with the Commonwealth, the prestigious Man Booker Prize is awarded annually to an author from a Commonwealth country or the two former members, Ireland and Zimbabwe. This honour is one of the highest in literature.[74]ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard Due to their shared constitutional histories, most countries in the Commonwealth have similar legal and political systems. The Commonwealth requires its members to be functioning democracies that respect human rights and the rule of law. Half of Commonwealth countries have the Westminster system of parliamentarydemocracy. The Commonwealth Parliamentary Association facilitates cooperation between legislatures across the Commonwealth, and the Commonwealth Local Government Forum promotes good governance amongst local government officials. HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx Laptop Keyboard Most Commonwealth members use common law, modelled on English law. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the supreme court of 14 Commonwealth members. The Commonwealth has adopted a number of symbols that represent the association of its members. Elizabeth II holds the position of Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the Commonwealth's free association, dating back to the London Declaration, issued in 28 April 1949. The English language is recognised as a symbol of the members' heritage; as well as being considered a symbol of the Commonwealth, recognition of it as "the means of Commonwealth communication" is a prerequisite for Commonwealth membership. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard The flag of the Commonwealth consists of the symbol of the Commonwealth Secretariat, a gold globe surrounded by emanating "rays", on a dark blue field; it was designed for the second CHOGM in 1973, and officially adopted on 26 March 1976. 1976 also saw the organisation agree to a common date on which to commemorateCommonwealth Day, the second Monday in March, having developed separately on different dates from Empire Day celebrations. HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard In recognition of their shared heritage and culture, Commonwealth countries are not considered to be "foreign" to each other.[75][76][77] When engaging bilaterally with one another, Commonwealth governments exchange High Commissioners instead of ambassadors. Between two Commonwealth realms, they represent theHead of Government rather than the Head of State. Outside of bilateralism, however, some Commonwealth states do consider other members to be foreign for certain purposes. For example, the High Court of Australia ruled, in Sue v Hill, that the United Kingdom is a foreign power for the purposes of Section 44 of theConstitution of Australia. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5097 Laptop Keyboard In addition, some members treat resident citizens of other Commonwealth countries preferentially to citizens of non-Commonwealth countries. Britain and several others, mostly in the Caribbean, grant the right to vote to Commonwealth citizens who reside in those countries. Some states, such as Canada and New Zealand, have abolished such preferences. In non-Commonwealth countries in which their own country is not represented, Commonwealth citizens may seek consular assistanceat the British embassy. Compaq Presario CQ62-215DX laptop keyboard In recent years, the Commonwealth has been accused of not being vocal enough on its core values. Allegations of a leaked memo from the Secretary General instructing staff not to speak out on human rights were published in October 2010.[78]TOSHIBA V000120280 laptop keyboard The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2011 considered a report by an Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group panel which asserted that the organisation had lost its relevance and was decaying due the lack of a mechanism to censure member countries when they violated human rights or democratic norms.[79] The panel made 106 "urgent" recommendations including the adoption of a Charter of the Commonwealth, the creation of a new commissioner on the rule of law, SONY 147859811 laptop keyboard democracy and human rights to track persistent human rights abuses and allegations of political repression by Commonwealth member states, recommendations for the repeal oflaws against homosexuality in 41 Commonwealth states and a ban on "forced marriage."[80][81] The failure to release the report, or accept its recommendations for reforms in the area of human rights, democracy and the rule of law, was decried as a "disgrace" by former British Foreign Secretary Sir Malcolm Rifkind, Packard Bell NEW95 laptop keyboard a member of the EPG, who told a press conference: "The Commonwealth faces a very significant problem. It's not a problem of hostility or antagonism, it's more of a problem of indifference. Its purpose is being questioned, its relevance is being questioned and part of that is because its commitment to enforce the values for which it stands is becoming ambiguous in the eyes of many member states. The Commonwealth is not a private club of the governments or the secretariat. It belongs to the people of the Commonwealth." SONY VAIO VGN-FS215S laptop keyboard In the end, two-thirds of the EPG's 106 urgently recommended reforms were referred to study groups, an act described by one EPG member as having them "kicked into the long grass". There was no agreement to create the recommended position of human rights commissioner, instead a ministerial management group was empowered with enforcement: the group includes alleged human rights offenders. It was agreed to develop a charter of values for the Commonwealth without any decision on how compliance with its principles would be enforced.[79]HP Pavilion dv3-2130ez laptop keyboardmulti-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports between organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance was the modern Olympic Games. TOSHIBA Satellite L675-S7048 laptop keyboard Many regional multi-sport events have since been founded and modeled after the Olympics. Most have the same basic structure. Games are held over the course of several days in and around a "host city," which changes for each competition. Countries send national teams to each competition, consisting of individual athletes and teams that compete in a wide variety of sports. Athletes or teams are awarded gold, silver or bronze medals for first, second and third place respectively. The games are generally held every four years, though some are annual competitions. SONY VAIO VGN-FS940 laptop keyboard West Asian Games (also known as WAG & formerly known as West Asian Games Federation (WAGF)) are a bi-annual multi-sport event held among the athletes from West Asia.At present, WAG are joined by thirteen members namely Bahrain, Iran,Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. SONY VAIO VGN-N11S laptop keyboard The West Asian Games were first organised in Tehran, Iran and were considered the first of their kind. The success of the Games led to the creation of the West Asian Games Federation (WAGF) and the intention of hosting the Games every 4 years. The West Asian Games is the newest of 5 Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the Central Asian Games, the East Asian Games, the South Asian Games, and the Southeast Asian Games (or SEA Games).[1]SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W laptop keyboard The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where English is an official language or language of government. In 2012, there were 88 states in total (60 sovereign states and 28 non-sovereign states). In many countries English is the dominant language, but does not have official status. In Australia, English is spoken by the vast majority of the population and is the only language used in government institutions, but Australia does not have an official language. The case is the same in the United Kingdom and theUnited States, though many states and regions within the U.S. do have English as an official language. English is the dominant language of New Zealand and an official language of Canada (along with French),[1] Lenovo 45N2106 laptop keyboard India (along with Hindi and several other languages), Ireland (along with Irish), and the Philippines (along with Tagalog).[2] English is the sole official language of the Commonwealth of Nations and the Commonwealth Games. English is one of the official languages ofthe United Nations, the European Union and the International Olympic Committee. HP Pavilion DV7t-3000 laptop keyboard Many of these countries are current or former colonies or dependencies of the United Kingdom (see also British Empire), or of the United States, itself a former colony of the UK. Notable exceptions include Rwanda, which was a former Belgian colony and Eritrea, which was an Italian colony where the British Empire spanned its control only in World War II and shortly after( 1941-1952). TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3041 laptop keyboard India's linguistic picture is complex. According to the Constitution of India, "Hindi in the Devanagari script" is the official language of the union;[3] and English the 'subsidiary official language';[4] however, English is mandated for the authoritative texts of all federal laws and Supreme Court decisions and (along with Hindi) is one of the two languages of the Indian Parliament. English is used almost exclusively for higher education, business and science. Courses in majority of the schools are taught exclusively in English. English is extensively used for administrative purposes in India. India is the second-largest English-speaking country in the world by number of speakers, after the United States. As such, many consider English to be the de facto official language of India.[citation needed] See Official languages of India. ASUS F3Sa laptop keyboard The linguistic makeup of Pakistan is similarly complex. While the national language is Urdu, English is an official language and used in business, government and law.[5] English is a compulsory language in schools. All school courses are taught in English.[citation needed] Pakistan is the 9th largest English-speakingcountry in the world by population.[6]SAMSUNG R18 laptop keyboard Statistics on second language speakers are inevitably imprecise; partly because there is no widely agreed definition of second language speakers – there is no differentiation between countries where English is the lingua franca and those where it is not. Moreover, some numbers have been calculated by Wikipedia editors from data in other sources, so these figures are imprecise and should be treated with great caution. SONY VAIO VGN-N325QE/W laptop keyboard HP HDX18-1114TX Laptop Keyboard The degree of caution needed can be put into perspective by noting that the English-language newspaper with the highest daily circulation is The Times of India (3.24 million) even though India only has a quarter of a million people who use English as a mother tongue. Common law, also known as case law or precedent, is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals, as opposed to statutesadopted through the legislative process or regulations issued by the executive branch[1]. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard A "common law system" is a legal system that gives great precedential weight to common law,[2] on the principle that it is unfair to treat similar facts differently on different occasions.[3] The body of precedent is called "common law" and it binds future decisions. In cases where the parties disagree on what the law is, a common law court looks to past precedential decisions of relevant courts. If a similar dispute has been resolved in the past, the court is boundto follow the reasoning used in the prior decision (this principle is known as stare decisis). If, however, the court finds that the current dispute is fundamentally distinct from all previous cases (called a "matter of first impression"), judges have the authority and duty to make law by creating precedent.[4]Thereafter, the new decision becomes precedent, and will bind future courts. TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard In practice, common law systems are considerably more complicated than the simplified system described above. The decisions of a court are binding only in a particular jurisdiction, and even within a given jurisdiction, some courts have more power than others. For example, in most jurisdictions, decisions byappellate courts are binding on lower courts in the same jurisdiction and on future decisions of the same appellate court, but decisions of lower courts are only non-binding persuasive authority. Interactions between common law, constitutional law, statutory law and regulatory law also give rise to considerable complexity. However, stare decisis, the principle that similar cases should be decided according to consistent principled rules so that they will reach similar results, lies at the heart of all common law systems. HP Pavilion dv6-3121nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan One third of the world's population (approximately 2.3 billion people) live in common law jurisdictions or in systems mixed with civil law. Particularly common law is in England where it originated in the Middle Ages,[5] and in countries that trace their legal heritage to England as former colonies of the British Empire, including India,[6] the United States, Pakistan,[7] Nigeria, Bangladesh, Canada (with the exception of Québec where a mix of civil law (on the provincial level) and common law (mostly on the federal level) is used), Malaysia, Ghana, Australia,[8] Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Singapore, Burma,[9] Ireland, New Zealand,Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Cyprus, Barbados,[10] South Africa, Zimbabwe, Cameroon, Namibia, Botswana, Guyana and Israel. ACER Extensa 5235 laptop keyboard Connotation 1 distinguishes the authority that promulgated a law. For example, most areas of law in most Anglo-American jurisdictions include "statutory law" enacted by a legislature, "regulatory law" promulgated by executive branch agencies pursuant to delegation of rule-making authority from the legislature, and common law or "case law", i.e., decisions issued by courts (or quasi-judicial tribunals within agencies).[11][12] This first connotation can be further differentiated into (a) pure common law arising from the traditional and inherent authority of courts to define what the law is, Acer eMachines G730Z laptop keyboard even in absence of an underlying statute, e.g., most criminal law and procedural law before the 20th century, and even today, most of contract law and the law of torts, and (b) court decisions that interpret and decide the fine boundaries and distinctions in law promulgated by other bodies. This body of common law, sometimes called "interstitial common law," includes judicial interpretations of the Constitution, of statutes, and of regulations, and examples of application of law to facts.[13]ACER Aspire 3003LMi laptop keyboard Common law legal systems as opposed to civil law legal systems Connotation 2 differentiates "common law" jurisdictions and legal systems from "civil law" or "code" jurisdictions.[13] Common law systems place great weight on court decisions, which are considered "law" with the same force of law as statutes—for nearly a millennium, common law courts have had the authority to make law where no legislative statute exists, and statutes mean what courts interpret them to mean. By contrast, in civil law jurisdictions (the legal tradition that prevails, ACER Aspire 7340G laptop keyboard or is combined with common law, in Europe and most non-Islamic, non-common law countries), courts lack authority to act where there is no statute, an

d judicial precedent is given less interpretive weight (which means that a judge deciding a given case has more freedom to interpret the text of a statute independently, and less predictably), and scholarly literature is given more. For example, the Napoleonic code expressly forbade French judges to pronounce general principles of law.[14]HP Mini 210 laptop keyboard As a rule of thumb, common law systems trace their history to England, while civil law systems trace their history to Roman law and the Napoleonic Code. The contrast between common law and civil law systems is elaborated in "Contrasts between common law and civil law systems" and "Alternatives to common law systems", below. HP Mini 210-2140la laptop keyboard In addition, there are several historical uses of the term that provide some background as to its meaning. In one archaic usage, "common law" is used to refer to certain customs in England dating to before the Norman conquest and before there was any consistent law to be applied.[18][19] This definition is found or alluded to in some internet dictionaries,[20] but this definition is unhelpful, because it is both underinclusive and overinclusive.[21] The English Court of Common Pleas dealt with lawsuits in which the Monarch had no interest, i.e., between commoners. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R52 1870 Laptop Keyboard Additionally, from at least the 11th century and continuing for several centuries after that, there were several different circuits in the royal court system, served by itinerant judges who would travel from town to town dispensing the King's justice. The term "common law" was used to describe the law held in common between the circuits and the different stops in each circuit. The more widely a particular law was recognized, the more weight it held, whereas purely local customs were generally subordinate to law recognized in a plurality of jurisdictions. Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard These definitions are archaic, their relevance having dissipated with the development of the English legal system over the centuries, but they do explain the origin of the term as used today. Justice Holmes cautioned that “the proper derivation of general principals in both common and constitutional law ... arise gradually, in the emergence of a consensus from a multitude of particularized prior decisions.”[23] Justice Cardozo noted the “common law does not work from pre-established truths of universal and inflexible validity to conclusions derived from them deductively,” but “[i]ts method is inductive, and it draws its generalizations from particulars.”[24]Compaq Presario CQ62-a11SO laptop keyboard The common law is more malleable than statutory law. First, common law courts are not absolutely bound by precedent, but can (when extraordinarily good reason is shown) reinterpret and revise the law, without legislative intervention, to adapt to new trends in political, legal and social philosophy. Second, the common law evolves through a series of gradual steps, that gradually works out all the details, so that over a decade or more, the law can change substantially but without a sharp break, thereby reducing disruptive effects.[25] In contrast to common law incrementalism, the legislative process is very difficult to get started, as legislatures tend to delay action until a situation is totally intolerable.[citation needed] For these reasons, legislative changes tend to be large, jarring and disruptive (sometimes positively, sometimes negatively, and sometimes with unintended consequences). Compaq Presario CQ62 laptop keyboard One example of the gradual change that typifies the common law is the gradual change in liability for negligence. For example, the traditional common law rule through most of the 19th century was that a plaintiff could not recover for a defendant's negligent production or distribution of a harmful instrumentality unless the two were in privity of contract. Thus, only the immediate purchaser could recover for a product defect, and if a part was built up out of parts from parts manufacturers, the ultimate buyer could not recover for injury caused by a defect in the part. In an 1842 English case, TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 laptop keyboard Winterbottom v. Wright,[26] the postal service had contracted with Wright to maintain its coaches. Winterbottom was a driver for the post. When the coach failed and injured Winterbottom, he sued Wright. The Winterbottom court recognized that there would be "absurd and outrageous consequences" if an injured person could sue any person peripherally involved, and knew it had to draw a line somewhere, a limit on the causal connection between the negligent conduct and the injury. The court looked to the contractual relationships, and held that liability would only flow as far as the person in immediate contract ("privity") with the negligent party. SONY VAIO VGN-N21M/W laptop keyboard A first exception to this rule arose in an 1852 case by New York's highest court, Thomas v. Winchester,[27] which held that mislabeling a poison as an innocuous herb, and then selling the mislabeled poison through a dealer who would be expected to resell it, put "human life in imminent danger." Thomas used this as a reason to create an exception to the "privity" rule. In, 1909, New York held in Statler v. Ray Mfg. Co.[28] that a coffee urn manufacturer was liable to a person injured when the urn exploded, because the urn "was of such a character inherently that, when applied to the purposes for which it was designed, it was liable to become a source of great danger to many people if not carefully and properly constructed." SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B laptop keyboard Yet the privity rule survived. In Cadillac Motor Car Co. v. Johnson,[29] (decided in 1915 by the federal appeals court for New York and several neighboring states), the court held that a car owner could not recover for injuries from a defective wheel, when the automobile owner had a contract only with the automobile dealer and not with the manufacturer, even though there was "no question that the wheel was made of dead and ‘dozy‘ wood, quite insufficient for its purposes." ASUS F3Ja laptop keyboard The Cadillac court was willing to acknowledge that the case law supported exceptions for "an article dangerous in its nature or likely to become so in the course of the ordinary usage to be contemplated by the vendor." However, held the Cadillac court, "one who manufactures articles dangerous only if defectively made, or installed, e.g., tables, chairs, pictures or mirrors hung on the walls, carriages, automobiles, and so on, is not liable to third parties for injuries caused by them, except in case of willful injury or fraud," SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z laptop keyboard Finally, in the famous case of MacPherson v. Buick Motor Co.,[30] in 1916, Judge Benjamin Cardozo for New York's highest court pulled a broader principle out of these predecessor cases. The facts were almost identical to Cadillac a year earlier: a wheel from a wheel manufacturer was sold to Buick, to a dealer, to MacPherson, and the wheel failed, injuring MacPherson. Judge Cardozo held: TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5107 laptop keyboard It may be that Statler v. Ray Mfg. Co. have extended the rule of Thomas v. Winchester. If so, this court is committed to the extension. Th argues that things imminently dangerous to life are poisons, explosives, deadly weapons—things whose normal function it is to injure or destroy. But whatever the rule in Thomas v. Winchester may once have been, it has no longer that restricted meaning. A scaffold (Devlin v. Smith, supra) is not inherently a destructive instrument. It becomes destructive only if imperfectly constructed. A large coffee urn (Statler v. Ray Mfg. Co., supra) may have within itself, if negligently made, the potency of danger, SONY VAIO VGN-CS220J/T laptop keyboard yet no one thinks of it as an implement whose normal function is destruction. What is true of the coffee urn is equally true of bottles of aerated water (Torgeson v. Schultz, 192 N. Y. 156). We have mentioned only cases in this court. But the rule has received a like extension in our courts of intermediate appeal. In Burke v. Ireland (26 App. Div. 487), in an opinion by CULLEN, J., it was applied to a builder who constructed a defective building; in Kahner v. Otis Elevator Co. (96 App. Div. 169) ACER Aspire 3003LMi laptop keyboard to the manufacturer of an elevator; in Davies v. Pelham Hod Elevating Co. (65 Hun, 573; affirmed in this court without opinion, 146 N. Y. 363) to a contractor who furnished a defective rope with knowledge of the purpose for which the rope was to be used. We are not required at this time either to approve or to disapprove the application of the rule that was made in these cases. It is enough that they help to characterize the trend of judicial thought. HP Mini 210-2170nr laptop keyboard We hold, then, that the principle of Thomas v. Winchester is not limited to poisons, explosives, and things of like nature, to things which in their normal operation are implements of destruction. If the nature of a thing is such that it is reasonably certain to place life and limb in peril when negligently made, it is then a thing of danger. Its nature gives warning of the consequences to be expected. If to the element of danger there is added knowledge that the thing will be used by persons other than the purchaser, and used without new tests then, irrespective of contract, the manufacturer of this thing of danger is under a duty to make it carefully. ... There must be knowledge of a danger, not merely possible, but probable. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard The former Soviet Bloc and other Socialist countries used a Socialist law system. Lord Chief Justice Edward Coke, a 17th-century English jurist and Member of Parliament, wrote several legal texts that formed the basis for the modern common law, with lawyers in both England and America learning their law from his Institutes and Reports until the end of the 18th century. His works are still cited by common law courts around the world.  HP 640436-001 laptop keyboard The next definitive historical treatise on the common law is Commentaries on the Laws of England, written by Sir William Blackstoneand first published in 1765–1769. Since 1979, a facsimile edition of that first edition has been available in four paper-bound volumes. Today it has been superseded in the English part of the United Kingdom by Halsbury's Laws of England that covers both common and statutory English law. SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard While he was still on the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, and before being named to the U.S. Supreme Court, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. published a short volume called The Common Law, which remains a classic in the field. Unlike Blackstone and the Restatements, Holmes' book only briefly discusses what the law is; rather, Holmes describes the common law process. Law professorJohn Chipman Gray's The Nature and Sources of the Law, an examination and survey of the common law, is also still commonly read inU.S. law schools. IBM Thinkpad X61S Laptop Keyboard In the United States, Restatements of various subject matter areas (Contracts, Torts, Judgments, and so on.), edited by the American Law Institute, collect the common law for the area. The ALI Restatements are often cited by American courts and lawyers for propositions of uncodified common law, and are considered highly persuasive authority, just below binding precedential decisions. TheCorpus Juris Secundum is an encyclopedia whose main content is a compendium of the common law and its variations throughout the various state jurisdictions. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Scots common law covers matters including murder and theft, and has sources in custom, in legal writings and previous court decisions. The legal writings used are called Institutional Texts and come mostly from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Examples include Craig, Jus Feudale (1655) and Stair, The Institutions of the Law of Scotland (1681).、IBM Thinkpad X61S Laptop Keyboard DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard HP 550 Laptop Keyboard  HP Pavilion DV6-1210sf Laptop Keyboard HP Pavilion dv4-1241tx Laptop Keyboard

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