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Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York State, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital is Hartford, and other major cities (by population) include Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut. Sony VAIO VPCCW1AHJ Battery The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.[16]Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E Battery The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/B Battery Despite Connecticut's relatively small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape; for example, in the northwestern Litchfield Hills, it features rolling mountains and horse farms, whereas in the southeastern New London County, it features beaches and maritime activities. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/L Battery Although Connecticut has a long maritime history, and a reputation based on that history, Connecticut has no direct access to the sea. The jurisdiction of New York actually extends east at Fishers Island, Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/P Battery where New York shares a sea border with Rhode Islanddividing Narragansett Bay. Although Connecticut has easy access to the Atlantic, between Long Island Sound and Block Island Sound, Connecticut has no direct ocean coast. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/R Battery Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns center around a "green", such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green (the largest in the state), and Wethersfield Green (the oldest in the state). Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/W Battery Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or "inne", severalcolonial houses, and so on, establishing a scenic historic appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/B Battery Connecticut consists of temperate broadleaf and mixed forests. Northeastern coastal forests of oaks, hickories, and maplecover much of the state.[17] In the northwest, these give way to New England-Acadian forests of the Taconic Mountains.[17]Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/L Battery The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the distinctive Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 mile (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/R Battery The actual origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which was finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick, (whose residents sought to leave Massachusetts), was split in half.[18][19]Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/W Battery The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich,Stamford, New Canaan, Darien and part of Norwalk. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, Sony VAIO VPCCW26EC Battery culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York.[20]Sony VAIO VPCCW26FX/B Battery Areas maintained by the National Park Service include: Appalachian National Scenic Trail; Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor; and Weir Farm National Historic Site.[21]Sony VAIO VPCCW28EC Battery The Scoville Memorial Libraries collection began in 1771, when Richard Smith, owner of a local blast furnace, used community contributions to buy 200 books in London. Patrons could borrow and return books on the third Monday of every third month. Fees were collected for damages, the most common being "greasing" by wax dripped from the candles by which the patrons read. Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/P Battery Climate Interior portions of Connecticut have a humid continental climate, while the Connecticut shoreline (the state's southern four counties) has a borderline humid subtropical climate (sometimes statistically meeting this climate's criteria, sometimes not) with seasonal extremes tempered by proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/R Battery The city of Bridgeport (on Long Island Sound), like most other areas in metropolitan New York, typically falls within the humid subtropical climate zone under the Koppen Climate Classification system. Hartford (35 miles inland) has a humid continental climate. Consistent with its coastal reputation, Connecticut is a moderately sunny state, averaging between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of sunshine annually.[22]Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/W Battery Winters are generally considered to be cold, with average temperatures ranging from 31 °F (−1 °C) in the maritime influenced southeast to 23 °F (−5 °C) in the northwest in January. The average yearly snowfall is about 25–100" (64–254 cm) across the state, with higher totals in the northwest. Sony VAIO VPCCW29FJ/W Battery Spring has variable temperatures with frequent rainfall. Summer is hot and humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 87 °F (31 °C) in Windsor Locks. Fall months are mild and bring colorful foliage across the state in October and November. Sony VAIO VPCCW2AFJ Battery During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year.[23]Sony VAIO VPCCW2AHJ Battery Connecticut's warmest temperature is 106 °F (41 °C) which occurred in Danbury on July 15, 1995; the coldest temperature is −32 °F (−36 °C) which occurred in Falls Village on February 16, 1943 and Coventry on January 22, 1961.[24]Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E Battery The name of the state is an Anglicized version of the Algonquian word "quinatucquet", meaning "upon the long river".[26] The Connecticut region was inhabited by the Mohegan tribe prior to European colonization. The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer Adriaen Block. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/B Battery After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (then known by the Dutch as Versche Rivier—" Fresh River") and built a fort at Dutch Point in what is present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" (Dutch: Huis van Hoop). Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/L Battery John Winthrop, then of Massachusetts, received permission to create a new colony at Old Saybrook at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635. This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/P Battery The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor, and then at Wethersfield the following year.[27] However, the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were Puritans from Massachusetts, led by Thomas Hooker. Hooker had been prominent in England and was a professor of theology at Cambridge. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/R Battery He was also an important political writer and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as Roger Williams created a new polity in Rhode Island, Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the Connecticut Colony at Hartford in 1636. This was the second of the three colonies. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/W Battery The third colony was founded in March 1638. New Haven Colony (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony) was established by John Davenport, Theophilus Eaton, and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own constitution, "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony", which was signed on June 4, 1639. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654. Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony was carried out with the sanction of the English Crown, and they were independent political entities. Sony VAIO VPCEA20 Battery They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united. Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford until after the American Revolution. Sony VAIO VPCEB10 Battery Its first constitution, the "Fundamental Orders", was adopted on January 14, 1639, while its current constitution, the third for Connecticut, was adopted in 1965. Connecticut is the fifth of the original 13 states. The original constitutions influenced the US Constitution as one of the leading authors was Roger Sherman of New Haven. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM Battery The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to the Hartford Treaty with the Dutch, signed on September 19, 1650, but never ratified by the British, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from Greenwich Bay for a distance of 20 miles[28][29] "provided the said line come not within 10 miles (16 km) [16 km] of Hudson River. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/BI Battery This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. No other limits were found. Conflict over uncertain colonial limits continued until the Duke of York capturedNew Netherland in 1664."[28][29] On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea", i.e. the Pacific Ocean.[30][31]Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/T Battery Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers, named Westmoreland County. This resulted in the briefPennamite Wars with Pennsylvania. Connecticut's lands also extended across northern Ohio, called the Western Reserve lands. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/WI Battery The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, creating the Connecticut Panhandle. The Western Reserve lands were relinquished to the federal government, which brought the state to its present boundaries other than minor adjustments with Massachusetts. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX Battery Demographics As of 2005, Connecticut has an estimated population of 3,510,297,[35] which is an increase of 11,331, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 104,695, or 3.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/T Battery Immigrationfrom outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.[35]Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/WI Battery 6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/BI Battery In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut was classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%. Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX Battery Most of western and southern Connecticut (particularly the Gold Coast) is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state. Eastern Connecticut is more culturally influenced by the greater New England area, including the cities of Boston and Providence. Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/BI Battery Race, ancestry, and language According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Connecticut had a population of 3,574,097. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 77.6% White (71.2% Non-Hispanic White Alone), 10.1% Black or African American, 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.8% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 5.6% from Some Other Race, and 2.6% from Two or More Races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 13.4% of the population. [37]Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/T Battery As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born, and 10% of the foreign-born in the state were illegal aliens (about 1.1% of the population). In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918. Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/WI Battery As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31% and Polish at 1.20%.[38]Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX Battery Connecticut has large Italian American, Irish American and English American populations, as well as German Americanand Portuguese American populations, second highest percentage of any state, behind Rhode Island (19.3%). Italian is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the Irish are the largest group in Tolland county, French Canadians the largest group in Windham county. Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BI Battery African Americans and Hispanics (mostly Puerto Ricans) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Like Ohio and New York, Connecticut is also known for its relatively largeHungarian American population, Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BIC Battery the majority of which live in and around Fairfield, Stamford, Naugatuck and Bridgeport. Connecticut also has a sizable Polish American population, with New Britaincontaining the largest Polish American population in the state. Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/T Battery More recent immigrant populations include those from India, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Mexico, Brazil, Guatemala, Panama, Jamaica, Haiti, Cape Verde and former Soviet countries. Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX Battery Religion Jewish congregations had 108,280 (3.2%) members in 2000;[41] The Jewish population is concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between Greenwich and New Haven, in Greater New Haven and in Greater Hartford, especially the suburb of West Hartford. Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/BI Battery According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the largest Christian denominations, by number of adherents, in 2000 were: the Catholic Church, with 1,372,562; the United Church of Christ, with 124,770; and the Episcopal Church, with 73,550.[41]Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/T Battery Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low. Connecticut is also home to New England's largest Protestant Church: The First Cathedral in Bloomfield, Connecticut located in Hartford County. Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/WI Battery Hartford is seat to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hartford, which is sovereign over the Diocese of Bridgeport and the Diocese of Norwich.} Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM Battery The total gross state product for 2006 was $204 billion. The per capita income for 2007 was $54,117, ranking first among the states.[42] There is, however, a great disparity in incomes throughout the state; Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/BI Battery although New Canaan has one of the highest per capita incomes in America, Hartford is one of the ten cities with the lowest per capita incomes in America. As with Bridgeport, New Haven and other cities in the state, Hartford is surrounded by wealthier suburbs. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/T Battery New Canaan is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. Darien, Greenwich, Weston, Westportand Wilton also have per capita incomes over $65,000. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/WI Battery Hartford is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 in 2000.[43] There are other lower-income and blue-collar towns, mostly parts of towns, in the eastern part of the State. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX Battery Taxation Prior to 1991, Connecticut had an investment-only income tax system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at 13%, the highest rate in the U.S., with no deductions allowed for costs of producing the investment income, such as interest on borrowing. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/BI Battery In 1991, under Governor Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., an Independent, the system was changed to one in which the taxes on employment income and investment income were equalized at a maximum rate of 4%. Since then, Greenwich, Connecticut, has become the headquarters for a large number of America's largest hedge funds. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/T Battery As of 2009, the income tax rates on Connecticut individuals are divided into three tax brackets of 3%, 5% and 6.5%.[44] Allwages of Connecticut residents are subject to the state's income tax, even if earned outside the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/WI Battery Since New York and Massachusetts have higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in those states have no Connecticut income tax withheld. Connecticut permits a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions, but since residents who work in other states are still subject to Connecticut income taxation, they may owe taxes if the jurisdictional credit does not fully offset the Connecticut tax amount. Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX Battery Connecticut levies a 6.35% state sales tax on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods.[45] Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by statute. A provision excluding clothing under $50 from sales tax was repealed as of July 1, 2011.[45]Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/B Battery There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. During the summer, there is one week during which sales tax on certain items and quantities of clothing is not imposed in order to assist those with children returning to school.[citation needed]Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/G Battery All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of fair market value. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.[44]Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/L Battery Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal property tax. According to the Tax Foundation, the 2010 Census data shows Connecticut residents paying the 2nd highest average property taxes in the nation with only New Jersey ahead of them.[46]Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/P Battery The agricultural produce of the state includes nursery stock; eggs; clams and lobster (shellfish); dairy products; cattle; and tobacco. Its industrial output includes transportation equipment, especially helicopters, aircraft parts, Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/W Battery and nuclear submarines; heavy industrial machinery and electrical equipment; military weaponry; fabricated metal products; chemical and pharmaceuticalproducts; and scientific instruments. Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX Battery Due to the prominence of the aircraft industry in the state, Connecticut has an official state aircraft, the F4U Corsair, and an official Connecticut Aviation Pioneer, Igor Sikorsky. The state officially recognizes aircraft designer Gustav Whitehead as "Father of Connecticut Aviation" for his research into powered flight in Bridgeport, Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/B Battery Connecticut in 1901, two years before the Wright brothersat Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.[50] Governor John Dempsey also declared August 15 to be "Gustave Whitehead Day".[51]Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/G Battery A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue.[52]Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/L Battery As of November 2010, the state's unemployment rate is 9%.[53Roads The Interstate highways in the state are I-95 (the Connecticut Turnpike) running southwest to northeast along the coast, I-84running southwest to northeast in the center of the state, I-91 running north to south in the center of the state, and I-395 running north to south near the eastern border of the state. Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/P Battery The other major highways in Connecticut are the Merritt Parkway and Wilbur Cross Parkway, which together form State Route 15, running from the Hutchinson River Parkway in New York State parallel to I-95 before turning north of New Haven and running parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in Berlin, Connecticut. Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/W Battery Route 15 and I-95 were originally toll roads; they relied on a system of toll plazas at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.[54] Other major arteries in the state include U.S. Sony VAIO VPCEB190X Battery Route 7 in the west running parallel to the NY border,State Route 8 farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and running north-south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with U.S. 7, and State Route 9 in the east. See List of State Routes in Connecticut for an overview of the state's highway system. Sony VAIO VPCEB19FX Battery Between New Haven and the New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy rush hour delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and ride-sharing.[55]Sony VAIO VPCEB19GX Battery Connecticut also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycling ownership and use in the United States. New Haven's cycling community, organized in a local advocacy group called ElmCityCycling, is particularly active. Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX Battery According to the U.S. Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast. Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX/B Battery Rail Southwestern Connecticut is served by MTA's Metro-North Railroad New Haven Line, providing commuter service to New York City and New Haven, with branches servicing New Canaan, Danbury, and Waterbury. Connecticut lies along Amtrak's Northeast Corridor which features frequent Northeast Regional and Acela Express service. Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX Battery Towns between New Haven and New London are also served by the Shore Line East commuter line. Operation of commuter trains from New Haven to Springfield on Amtrak's New Haven-Springfield Line is under consideration.[56][57] Amtrak also operates a shuttle service between New Haven and Springfield, Massachusetts, servicing Hartford and other towns on the corridor. Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX/BI Battery Statewide bus service is supplied by Connecticut Transit, owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation, with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a BRT busway from New Britain to Hartford began in August 2009.[58][59]Sony VAIO VPCEB1BGX Battery Connecticut is known as the "Constitution State". While the origin on this title is uncertain, the nickname is assumed to refer to the Fundamental Orders of 1638–39. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal government written by a representative body in Connecticut. Sony VAIO VPCEB1BGX/BI Battery The government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of Connecticut Constitutional History. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King Charles II of England through the Connecticut Charter of 1662. Sony VAIO VPCEB1CGX Battery Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A constitution similar to the modern U.S. Constitution was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. Sony VAIO VPCEB1CGX/BI Battery The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications. Another possible source of the nickname "constitution state" comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, Sony VAIO VPCEB1DGX Battery during which Roger Sherman andOliver Ellsworth helped to orchestrate what became known as the Connecticut Compromise, or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution. Sony VAIO VPCEB1DGX/BI Battery Executive The governor heads the executive branch. Dan Malloy is the current Governor and Nancy Wyman it is the Lieutenant Governor, both are Democrats. Malloy, the former mayor of Stamford, won the2010 general election for Governor, and was sworn in on January 5, 2011. Sony VAIO VPCEB1EGX Battery From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. Connecticut was the first state in the United States to elect a woman as governor without electing her husband first, Ella Grasso in 1974. Sony VAIO VPCEB1EGX/BI Battery There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Education, Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Information Technology, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX Battery Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Safety, Public Utility Control, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, Transportation, and Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.[61]Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX/BI Battery In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four year terms.[60]Sony VAIO VPCEB1GGX Battery The legislature is the General Assembly. The General Assembly is a bicameral body consisting of an upper body, the State Senate(36 senators); and a lower body, the House of Representatives(151 representatives).[60] Bills must pass each house in order to become law. Sony VAIO VPCEB1GGX/BI Battery The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Senators and representatives, all of whom must be at least 18 years of age, are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. Sony VAIO VPCEB1HGX/BI Battery The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the President pro temporepresides. The Speaker of the House presides over the House; Chris Donovan is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX Battery Connecticut's U.S. senators are Richard Blumenthal (Democrat) and Joseph I. Lieberman (Connecticut for Lieberman, Independent Democrat) who is part of the Democratic Caucus. Connecticut currently has five representatives in the U.S. House, all of whom are Democrats. Connecticut and Vermont remain the only two states with Independent Senators. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/B Battery The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/G Battery with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. The current Chief Justice is Chase T. Rogers. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/L Battery In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.[62] The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/P Battery Local government Connecticut has 169 towns, which serve as the fundamental local political subdivision of the state; the entire state is divided into towns.[60] Connecticut shares a local form of government with the rest of New England called the New England town. There are also 21 cities,[60] most of which are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/W Battery There are two exceptions: City of Groton, which is a subsection of the Town of Groton and the City of Winsted in the Town of Winchester. There are also nine incorporated boroughs which may provide additional services to a section of town.[60][63] One, Naugatuck, is a consolidated town and borough. Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX Battery Unlike most other states, Connecticut does not have county government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of sheriffs elected in each county.[64] In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the state marshal system, Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX/B Battery which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts which largely follow the old county lines.[65] The eight counties are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as weather reports, and census reporting. Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX/W Battery The state is divided into 15 planning regions defined by the state Office of Planning and Management.[66] The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX Battery The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."[66]Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX/BI Battery Politics Currently, Connecticut leans strongly towards the Democratic Party. However, Connecticut has a high percentage of voters who are not registered with a major party. As of 2004, 33.7% of registered voters were registered Democratic, 22.0% were registered Republican, and 44.0% were unaffiliated with any party, with 0.2% registered with a minor party.[68]Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX/WI Battery Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party. The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural Litchfield County and adjoining towns in the west of Hartford County, the industrial towns of the Naugatuck River Valley, and some of the affluent Fairfield Countytowns near the New York border. Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX Battery The suburban towns of New Canaan and Darien in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state. Westport, a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally-Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX/BI Battery The historically Republican-leaning wealthy town of Wilton voted in the majority for Barack Obama in the 2008 Presidential Election. Norwalk and Stamford, two larger, affluent communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor John G. Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX Battery Rowland and former Congressman Chris Shays, however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential election years, with Shays being defeated by Democrat Jim Himes in the 2008 election. Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/B Battery Waterbury has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates in both parties. In Danbury unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including Meriden, New Britain, Norwichand Middletown favor Democratic candidates. Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/L Battery In July, 2009 the Connecticut legislature overrode a veto by Governor M. Jodi Rell to pass SustiNet, the first significant public-option health care reform legislation in the nation.[69]Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/P Battery As of 2011, Democrats controlled all five federal congressional seats. The remaining Republican, Chris Shays, lost his seat to Democrat Jim Himes in the Congressional Election in 2008. Joseph Lieberman and Richard Blumenthal are Connecticut's U.S. senators. Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/W Battery The junior Blumenthal is a Democrat while the senior Lieberman serves as an Independent Democrat caucusing with Senate Democrats after his victory on the Connecticut for Liebermanballot line in the 2006 general election. Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX Battery Lieberman's predecessor, Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President Richard Nixon duringWatergate and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating A Connecticut Party as his election vehicle. Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX/B Battery Before Weicker, the last Republican to represent Connecticut in the Senate was Prescott Bush, the father of former President George H.W. Bush and the grandfather of former President George W. Bush. He served from 1953–1963. Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX Battery Connecticut is the home of Yale University, established in 1701, one of the most academically renowned and selective universities in the United States.[71] Yale is one of the largest employers in the state, and its research activity has recently spun off dozens of growing biotechnology companies.[72][73]Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX/BI Battery In addition, Connecticut hosts many other academic institutions, including Trinity College (1823), Wesleyan University(1832), University of Hartford (1877), Post University (1890), Connecticut College(1911), Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX Battery United States Coast Guard Academy(1915) and Quinnipiac University (1929). The University of Connecticut (1881) has been the highest ranked public university in New England from 1998 to 2010, according to U.S. News and World Report.[74]Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX/BI Battery Connecticut was home to the nation's first law school, Litchfield Law School, which operated from 1773 to 1833 in Litchfield. Hartford Public High School (1638) is the third-oldest secondary school in the nation after the Collegiate School(1628) in Manhattan and the Boston Latin School (1635). The state also has many noted private day schools, and its boarding schools draw students from around the world. Sony VAIO VPCEB20 Battery Sports Connecticut has been the home to multiple teams in the big four sports leagues, though currently hosts none. Connecticut's longest-tenured and only modern full-time "big four" franchise were the Hartford Whalers of the National Hockey League, Sony VAIO VPCEC20 Battery who played in Hartford from 1979 to 1997 at the Hartford Civic Center. Their departure to Raleigh, North Carolina, over disputes with the state over the construction of a new arena, caused great controversy and resentment. The former Whalers are now known as the Carolina Hurricanes. Sony VAIO VPCEE20 Battery Connecticut has hosted teams from the other big four leagues at various times. The Hartford Dark Blues joined the National Leaguefor one season in 1876, becoming the state's first and only major league baseball franchise. In 1926, Hartford had a franchise in the National Football League known as the Hartford Blues. Sony VAIO VPCEF20 Battery The NFL would return to Connecticut from 1973–1974 when New Haven hosted the New York Giants atYale Bowl while Giants Stadium was under construction.[75] From 1975 to 1995, the Boston Celticsof the National Basketball Associationplayed a number of home games at the Hartford Civic Center. Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B Battery The Connecticut Sun of the WNBA currently play at the Mohegan Sun Arena in Uncasville. From 1996 to 1998, Connecticut was home to another professional woman's basketball team, American Basketball League franchise the New England Blizzard, who played at the Hartford Civic Center。 Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery The UConn Huskies play NCAA Division I sports and are popular in the state. Both the men's basketball and women's basketball teams have won multiple national championships, including in 2004, when UConn became the first school in NCAA Division I history to have its men's and women's basketball programs win the national title in the same year. Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI Battery The UConn Huskies football teamhas played in the Football Bowl Subdivision since 2002, and has played in four bowl games since. Other Connecticut universities which feature Division I sports teams includeYale University, Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery Quinnipiac University, Fairfield University, Central Connecticut State University, Sacred Heart University, and the University of Hartford. Several United States Coast Guard Academy teams compete in Division I as well. Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery New Haven biannually hosts "The Game" between Yale and Harvard, the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Yale alum Walter Camp, deemed the "Father of American Football," helped develop modern football while living in New Haven.[76]Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery Hartford has hosted two Arena Football League franchises, in the Connecticut Coyotes from 1995–1996 and the New England Sea Wolves from 1999–2000, both playing at the Civic Center. Hartford is currently home to the Hartford Colonials of the United Football League. Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery Connecticut is a battleground between fans of the New York Yankees, Boston Red Sox, and New York Mets.[77] For the Mets and Red Sox, split allegiances among fans of both teams in the state during the 1986 World Series led to an article in The Boston Globe to coin the phrase "Red Sox Nation."[78]Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery The state hosts several

major sporting events. Since 1952, a PGA Tour golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open," the event is now known as the Travelers Championship. Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery The Pilot Pen Tennis tournament is held annually in the Cullman-Heyman Tennis Center at Yale University in New Haven. Lime Rock Park is a motorsport track home of American Le Mans Series, Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series and NASCAR Camping World East Series races. Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery The Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC) is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports. Names and symbols The name "Connecticut" originates from the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning "place of long tidal river".[60] Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–1639 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world.[1]Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as "The Nutmeg State".[1] The origins of the nutmeg connection to Connecticut are unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice). Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.[79]Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B Battery George Washington gave Connecticut the title of "The Provisions State"[1] because of the material aid the state rendered to the American Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits".[1]Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" – Cotton Mather in 1702. "Connecticutensian" – Samuel Peters in 1781. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery "Nutmegger" is sometimes used,[2] as is "Yankee" (the official State Song is "Yankee Doodle"), though this usually refers someone from the wider New England region (and in the Southern United States, to anyone who lives north of the Mason-Dixon Line).[80] Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn."; the official postal abbreviation is CT. Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B Battery Commemorative stamps issued by the United States Postal Service with Connecticut themes include Nathan Hale, Eugene O'Neill, Josiah Willard Gibbs,Noah Webster, Eli Whitney, the whaling ship the Charles W. Morgan which is docked in Mystic Seaport, and a decoy of a broadbill duck. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery Delaware Delaware is 96 miles (154 km) long and ranges from 9 miles (14 km) to 35 miles (56 km) across, totaling 1,954 square miles (5,060 km2), making it the second-smallest state in the United States after Rhode Island. Delaware is bounded to the north by Pennsylvania; to the east by the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean; and to the west and south by Maryland. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery Small portions of Delaware are also situated on the eastern side of the Delaware River sharing land boundaries with New Jersey. The state of Delaware, together with theEastern Shore counties of Maryland and two counties of Virginia, form the Delmarva Peninsula, which stretches down the Mid-Atlantic Coast. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery The definition of the northern boundary of the state is unusual. Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was originally defined by an arc extending 12 miles (19.3 km) from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle. This boundary is often referred to as the Twelve-Mile Circle.[11] This is the only nominally circular state boundary in the United States. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery This border extends all the way east to the low-tide mark on the New Jersey shore, then continues south along the shoreline until it again reaches the 12-mile (19 km) arc in the south; then the boundary continues in a more conventional way in the middle of the main channel (thalweg) of the Delaware River. Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery To the west, a portion of the arc extends past the easternmost edge of Maryland. The remaining western border runs slightly east of due south from its intersection with the arc. The Wedge of land between the northwest part of the arc and the Maryland border was claimed by both Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1921, when Delaware's claim was confirmed. Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery Topography Delaware is on a level plain, with the lowest mean elevation of any state in the nation.[12] Its highest elevation, located at Ebright Azimuth, near Concord High School, does not rise fully 450 feet (140 m) above sea level.[12] The northernmost part of the state is part of the Appalachian Piedmont with hills and rolling surfaces. Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery The fall line approximately follows the Robert Kirkwood Highwaybetween Newark and Wilmington; south of this road is the Atlantic Coastal Plain with flat, sandy, and, in some parts, swampy ground. Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/B Battery A ridge about 75 to 80 feet (23 to 24 m) in elevation extends along the western boundary of the state and separates between the watersheds that feed Delaware River and Bay to the east and the Chesapeake Bay to the west. Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/D Battery Since almost all of Delaware is a part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the effects of the ocean moderate its climate. The state is in a transitional zone between a humid subtropical climate and a continental climate. Despite its small size (roughly 100 miles (160 km) from its northernmost to southernmost points), there is significant variation in mean temperature and amount of snowfall between Sussex County and New Castle County. Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/G Battery The southern portion of the state has a somewhat milder climate and a longer growing season than the northern portion of the state. Delaware's all time record high of 110 °F (43 °C) was recorded at Millsboro on July 21, 1930; the all time record low of −17 °F (−27 °C) was also recorded at Millsboro on January 17, 1893. Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/P Battery The transitional climate of Delaware supports a wide variety of vegetation. In the northern third of the state are found Northeastern coastal forests, mixed oak forests typical of the northeastern United States.[13]Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/W Battery In the southern two-thirds of the state are found Middle Atlantic coastal forests.[13] Trap Pond State Park in Sussex County, for example, supports what may be one of the northernmost stands of bald cypress. Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/B Battery Native Americans Before Delaware was settled by European colonists, the area was home to the Eastern Algonquian tribes known as the UnamiLenape or Delaware throughout the Delaware valley, and the Nanticoke along the rivers leading into the Chesapeake Bay. The Unami Lenape in the Delaware Valley were closely related to Munsee Lenape tribes along the Hudson River. Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/D Battery They had a settled hunting and agricultural society, and they rapidly became middlemen in an increasingly frantic fur trade with their ancient enemy, the Minqua or Susquehannock. With the loss of their lands on the Delaware River and the destruction of the Minqua by the Iroquoisof the Five Nations in the 1670s, Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/G Battery the remnants of the Lenape who wished to remain identified as such left the region and moved over the Alleghany Mountains by the mid-18th century. Generally, those who did not relocate out of the State of Delaware were baptized, became Christian and were grouped together with other persons of color in official records and in the minds of their non-Native American neighbors. Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/P Battery Colonial Delaware The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle in present-day Delaware in the Middle region by establishing a trading post at Zwaanendael, near the site of Lewes in 1631. Within a year all the settlers were killed in a dispute with area Indian tribes. In 1638 New Sweden, a Swedish trading post and colony, was established at Fort Christina (now in Wilmington) by Peter Minuit at the head of a group of Swedes, Finns and Dutch. Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/W Battery The colony of New Sweden lasted for 17 years. In 1651, the Dutch, reinvigorated by the leadership of Peter Stuyvesant, established a fort at present-day New Castle, and in 1655 they conquered the New Sweden colony, annexing it into the Dutch New Netherland.[14] Only nine years later, in 1664, the Dutch were conquered by a fleet of English ships by Sir Robert Carr under the direction of James, the Duke of York. Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/B Battery Fighting off a prior claim by Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, Proprietor of Maryland, the Duke passed his somewhat dubious ownership on toWilliam Penn in 1682. Penn strongly desired access to the sea for his Pennsylvania province and leased what then came to be known as the "Lower Counties on the Delaware" [14] from the Duke. Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/B Battery Penn established representative government and briefly combined his two possessions under one General Assembly in 1682. However, by 1704 the Province of Pennsylvania had grown so large that their representatives wanted to make decisions without the assent of the Lower Counties and the two groups of representatives began meeting on their own, one at Philadelphia, and the other at New Castle. Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/D Battery Penn and his heirs remained proprietors of both and always appointed the same person Governor for their Province of Pennsylvania and their territory of the Lower Counties. The fact that Delaware and Pennsylvania shared the same governor was not unique. From 1703-1738, New York and New Jersey shared a governor.[15] Massachusetts and New Hampshirealso shared a governor for some time.[16]Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/D Battery Dependent in early years on indentured labor, Delaware imported more slaves as the number of English immigrants decreased with better economic conditions in England. The colony became a slave society and cultivated tobacco as a cash crop, although English immigrants continued to arrive. Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/G Battery American Revolution Like the other middle colonies, the Lower Counties on the Delaware initially showed little enthusiasm for a break with Britain. The citizenry had a good relationship with the Proprietary government, and generally were allowed more independence of action in their Colonial Assembly than in other colonies. Merchants at the port of Wilmington had trading ties with the British. Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/G Battery So it was that New Castle lawyer Thomas McKean denounced the Stamp Act in the strongest terms, and Kent County native John Dickinson became the "Penman of the Revolution." Anticipating the Declaration of Independence, Patriot leaders Thomas McKean and Caesar Rodney convinced the Colonial Assembly to declare itself separated from British and Pennsylvania rule on June 15, 1776. Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/P Battery The person best representing Delaware's majority, George Read, could not bring himself to vote for a Declaration of Independence. Only the dramatic overnight ride of Caesar Rodney gave the delegation the votes needed to cast Delaware's vote for independence. Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/P Battery Initially led by John Haslet, Delaware provided one of the premier regiments in the Continental Army, known as the "Delaware Blues" and nicknamed the "Blue Hen Chickens." Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/W Battery In August 1777,General Sir William Howe led a British army through Delaware on his way to a victory at the Battle of Brandywine and capture of the city of Philadelphia. The only real engagement on Delaware soil was the Battle of Cooch's Bridge, fought on September 3, 1777, at Cooch's Bridge in New Castle County. Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/W Battery Following the Battle of Brandywine, Wilmington was occupied by the British, and State President John McKinly was taken prisoner. The British remained in control of the Delaware River for much of the rest of the war, Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/D Battery disrupting commerce and providing encouragement to an active Loyalist portion of the population, particularly in Sussex County. Because the British promised slaves of rebels freedom for fighting with them, escaped slaves flocked north to join their lines.[17]Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/B Battery Following the American Revolution, statesmen from Delaware were among the leading proponents of a strong central United States with equal representation for each state. Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/G Battery Slavery and race Many colonial settlers came to Delaware from Maryland and Virginia, which had been experiencing a population boom. The economies of these colonies were chiefly based on tobacco culture and were increasingly dependent on slave labor for its intensive cultivation. Most of the English colonists arrived as indentured servants, hiring themselves out as laborers for a fixed period to pay for their passage. Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/P Battery In the early years the line between indentured servants and African slaves or laborers was fluid. Most of the free African-American families in Delaware before the Revolution had migrated from Maryland to find more affordable land. Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/W Battery They were descendants chiefly of relationships or marriages between servant women and enslaved, servant or free African or African-American men.[18] As the flow of indentured laborers to the colony decreased with improving economic conditions in England, more slaves were imported for labor. Sony VAIO VPCP115JC Battery At the end of the colonial period, the number of enslaved people in Delaware began to decline. Shifts in the agriculture economy from tobacco to mixed farming created less need for slaves' labor. Local Methodists and Quakers encouraged slaveholders to free their slaves following the American Revolution, Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/B Battery and many did so in a surge of individual manumissions for idealistic reasons. By 1810 three-quarters of all blacks in Delaware were free. When John Dickinson freed his slaves in 1777, he was Delaware's largest slave owner with 37 slaves. By 1860 the largest slaveholder owned only 16 slaves.[19]Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/D Battery Although attempts to abolish slavery failed by narrow margins in the legislature, in practical terms, the state had mostly ended the practice. By the 1860 census on the verge of the Civil War, 91.7 percent of the black population, or nearly 20,000 people, were free.[20][21]Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/G Battery The independent black denomination was chartered by freed slave Peter Spencer in 1813 as the "Union Church of Africans". This followed the 1793 establishment of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, which had ties to the Methodist Episcopal Church until 1816. Spencer built a church in Wilmington for the new denomination.[22]Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/P Battery This was renamed the African Union First Colored Methodist Protestant Church and Connection, more commonly known as the A.U.M.P. Church. Begun by Spencer in 1814, the annual gathering of the Big August Quarterly still draws people together in a religious and cultural festival, the oldest such cultural festival in the nation. Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/W Battery At the onset of the Civil War, Delaware was only nominally a slave state, and it remained in the Union. Sony VAIO VPCP115KG Battery Delaware voted against secession on January 3, 1861. As the governor said, Delaware had been the first state to embrace the Union by ratifying the Constitution and would be the last to leave it. While most Delaware citizens who fought in the war served in the regiments of the state, some served in companies on the Confederate side in Maryland and Virginia Regiments. Sony VAIO VPCP116KG Battery Delaware is notable for being the only slave state from which no Confederate regiments or militia groups were assembled. It freed the remaining 1,000 or so Delaware slaves with the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution in December 1865. Sony VAIO VPC-P116KX/B Battery According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Delaware had a population of 897,934. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 68.9% White (65.3% Non-Hispanic White Alone), 21.4% Black or African American, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.2% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 3.4% from Some Other Race, and 2.7% from Two or More Races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 8.2% of the population. [24]Sony VAIO VPC-P116KX/D Battery Delaware is the sixth most densely populated state, with a population density of 442.6 people per square mile, 356.4 per square mile more than the national average, and ranking 45th in population. Sony VAIO VPC-P116KX/G Battery Only the states of Delaware, West Virginia, Vermont, Maine, North Dakota, and Wyoming do not have a single city with a population over 100,000 as of the 2007 census estimates.[7]Thecenter of population of Delaware is located in New Castle County, in the town of Townsend.[25]Sony VAIO VPC-P116KX/W Battery Languages As of 2000, 90.5% of Delaware residents age 5 and older speak only English at home; 4.7% speak Spanish. French is the third most spoken language at 0.7%, followed by Chinese at 0.5% and German at 0.5%.Sony VAIO VPC-P116KX/P Battery Legislation had been proposed in both the House and the Senate in Delaware to designate English as the official language.[26][27]Neither bill was passed in the legislature. Sony VAIO VPCP118JC Battery As of the year 2000, The Association of Religion Data Archives[28] reported that the three largest denominational groups in Delaware are Catholic, Mainline Protestant, and Evangelical Protestant. Sony VAIO VPCP118JC/B Battery The Catholic Church has the highest number of adherents in Delaware (at 151,740), followed by the United Methodist Church with 59,471 members reported and the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), reporting 14,880 adherents. The religious body with the largest number of congregations is the United Methodist Church(with 162 congregations) followed by the Catholic Church (with 46 congregations). Sony VAIO VPCP118JC/P Battery The Roman Catholic Diocese of Wilmington and the Episcopal Diocese of Delaware oversee the parishes within their denominations. The A.U.M.P. Church, the oldest African-American denomination in the nation, was founded in Wilmington. It still has a substantial presence in the state. Reflecting new immigrant populations, an Islamic mosque has been built in the Ogletown area, and a Hindutemple in Hockessin. Sony VAIO VPCP118JC/W Battery The per capita personal income was $34,199, ranking 9th in the nation. In 2005, the average weekly wage was $937, ranking 7th in the nation.[30]Sony VAIO VPC-P118KX/B Battery In common with many counties in the United States, each of the three Delaware counties have experienced a year-on-year decreasing in the sales price of new and existing homes when comparing 2010 to 2011. Sony VAIO VPC-P118KX/D Battery Over 50% of US publicly traded corporations and 60% of the Fortune 500 companies are incorporated in Delaware;[36] the state's attractiveness as a corporate haven is largely because of its business-friendly corporation law. Franchise taxes on Delaware corporations supply about one-fifth of its state revenue.[37]Sony VAIO VPC-P118KX/G Battery Although Delaware is ranked first tax haven in the world by Tax Justice Network,[38] it is not listed on the OECD's 2009 "Black List", despite objections of Luxembourg's and Switzerland's authorities. Sony VAIO VPC-P118KX/P Battery The transportation system in Delaware is under the governance and supervision of the Delaware Department of Transportation, also known as "DelDOT".[43][44]DelDOT manages programs such as a Delaware Adopt-a-Highway program, major road route snow removal, traffic control infrastructure (signs and signals), toll road management, Delaware Division of Motor Vehicles, the Delaware Transit Corporation (branded as "DART First State", the state government public transportation organization), among others. Sony VAIO VPC-P118KX/W Battery Almost 90 percent of the state's public roadway miles are under the direct maintenance of DelDOT which far exceeds the United States national average of 20 percent for state department of transportation maintenance responsibility; the remaining public road miles are under the supervision of individual municipalities. Sony VAIO VPCP119JC Battery Roads One major branch of the U.S. Interstate Highway System, Interstate 95, crosses Delaware southwest-to-northeast across New Castle County. In addition to I-95, there are six U.S. highways that serve Delaware: U.S. Route 9, U.S. Route 13, U.S. Route 40, U.S. Route 113, U.S. Route 202, and U.S. Route 301. Sony VAIO VPCP119JC/BI Battery There are also several state highways that cross the state of Delaware; a few of them include Delaware Route 1, Delaware Route 9, and Delaware Route 404. U.S. 13 and DE Rt 1 are primary north-south highways connecting Wilmington and Pennsylvania with Maryland, with DE 1 serving as the main route between Wilmington and the Delaware beaches. Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/B Battery DE Rt. 9 is a north-south highway connecting Dover and Wilmington via a scenic route along the Delaware Bay. U.S. 40, is a primary east-west route, connecting Maryland with New Jersey. DE Rt. 404 is another primary east-west highway connecting the Chesapeake Bay Bridge in Maryland with the Delaware beaches. Sony VAIO VPC-P11S1E/B Battery The state also operates two toll highways, the Delaware Turnpike, which is Interstate 95, between Maryland and New Castle and the Korean War Veterans Memorial Highway, which is DE Rt. 1, between Wilmington and Dover. Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/D Battery A bicycle route, Delaware Bicycle Route 1, spans the north-south length of the state from the Maryland border in Fenwick Island to the Pennsylvania border north of Montchanin. It is the first of several signed bike routes planned in Delaware.[45]Sony VAIO VPC-P11S1E/D Battery Delaware has around 1,450 bridges, ninety-five percent of which are under the supervision of DelDOT. About 30 percent of all Delaware bridges were built prior to 1950 and about 60 percent of the number are included in the National Bridge Inventory. Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/G Battery Some bridges not under DelDOT supervision includes the four bridges on the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, which are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Delaware Memorial Bridge, which is under the bi-state Delaware River and Bay Authority. Sony VAIO VPC-P11S1E/G Battery It has been noted that the tar and chip composition of secondary roads in Sussex County make them more prone to deteriorationthan asphalt roadways found in the rest of the state.[46] Among these roads, Sussex (county road) 238 is among the most problematic.[46]Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/P Battery Amtrak has two stations in Delaware along the Northeast Corridor; the relatively quiet Newark Rail Station in Newark, and the busier Wilmington Rail Station in Wilmington. The Northeast Corridor is also served by SEPTA's Wilmington/Newark Lineof Regional Rail, which serves Claymont, Wilmington, Churchmans Crossing, and Newark. Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/W Battery The major freight railroad in Delaware is the Class 1 Norfolk Southern, which provides service to most of Delaware. It connects with two shortline railroads, the Delaware Coast Line Railway and the Maryland & Delaware Railroad. These two shortlines serve local customers in Sussex County. Another Class 1 railroad, CSX, passes through northern New Castle County parallel to the Amtrak Northeast Corridor. Sony VAIO VPC-P11S1E/W Battery The public transportation system, DART First State, was named "Most Outstanding Public Transportation System" in 2003 by the American Public Transportation Association. Coverage of the system is broad within northern New Castle County with close association to major highways in Kent and Sussex counties. Sony VAIO VPCP11Z9E/B Battery The system includes bus, subsidized passenger rail operated by Philadelphia transit agency SEPTA, and subsidized taxi and paratransit modes, the latter consisting of a state-wide door-to-door bus service for the elderly and disabled. Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery Air Delaware is the only state in the United States without commercial air service. New Castle Airport near Wilmington has been served by commercial airlines in the past, the last being Skybus Airlines, which provided service to Columbus, Ohio and Greensboro, North Carolina from March 7, 2008[47] until its bankruptcy on April 5, 2008. Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery Delaware is centrally situated in the Northeast Corridor region of cities along I-95. Therefore, Delaware commercial airlinepassengers most frequently use Philadelphia International Airport (PHL) andBaltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI) for domestic and international transit. Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery Residents of Sussex County will also use Wicomico Regional Airport, as it is located less than 10 miles (16 km) from the Delaware border. Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) and Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA) are also within a 100-mile (160 km) radius of New Castle County. Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery The large Dover Air Force Base of the USAF Air Mobility Command is located in the central part of the state, and it is the home of the 436th Airlift Wing and the 512th Airlift Wing. Other general aviation airports in Delaware include Summit Airport near Middletown, Delaware Airpark near Cheswold, and Sussex County Airport near Georgetown. Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery The Delaware General Assembly consists of a House of Representatives with 41 members and a Senate with 21 members. It sits in Dover, the state capital. Representatives are elected to two-year terms, while senators are elected to four-year terms. The Senate confirms judicial and other nominees appointed by the governor. Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery Minor non-constitutional courts include the Justice of the Peace Courts and Aldermen's Courts. Significantly, Delaware has one of the few remaining Courts of Chancery in the nation, which has jurisdiction over equity cases, the vast majority of which are corporate disputes, many relating tomergers and acquisitions. Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery The Court of Chancery and the Supreme Court have developed a worldwide reputation for rendering concise opinions concerning corporate law which generally (but not always) grant broad discretion to corporate boards of directors and officers. In addition, the Delaware General Corporation Law, which forms the basis of the Courts' opinions, is widely regarded as giving great flexibility to corporations to manage their affairs. Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery For these reasons, Delaware is considered to have the most business-friendly legal system in the United States; therefore a great number of companies are incorporated in Delaware, including 60% of the companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange.[48]Delaware was the last US state to use judicial corporal punishment, in 1952.[49]Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ Battery Politics The Democratic Party holds a plurality of registrations in Delaware. Until the 2000 presidential election, the state tended to be a Presidential bellwether, sending its three electoral votes to the winning candidate since 1952. Bucking that trend, however, in 2000 and again in 2004, Delaware voted for the Democratic candidate. In the 2000 election Delaware voted with the winner of the popular vote, Al Gore, Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ Battery who subsequently lost the Electoral College toGeorge W. Bush. John Kerry won Delaware by eight percentage points with 53.5% of the vote in 2004. In 2008, Democrat Barack Obama defeated Republican John McCain in Delaware 62.63% to 37.37%. Obama's running mate was Joe Biden, who had represented Delaware in the United States Senatesince 1973. Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ Battery For a period of time the Republican Party was the dominant political party in the state due in part to the influence of the du Pont family. Ralph Naderassembled a working group to investigate ties between Delaware's politicians and industrialists and published its findings in the book The Company State. Sony VAIO VPCS11AVJ Battery The nominees of the Democratic Party have won the past four gubernatorial elections. Democrats presently hold eight of the nine statewide elected offices, while the Republicans hold only one statewide office, State Auditor. Sony VAIO VPCS11J7E/B Battery Government revenue Delaware has six different income tax brackets, ranging from 2.2% to 5.95%. The state does not assess sales tax on consumers. The state does, however, impose a tax on the gross receipts of most businesses. Business and occupational license tax rates range from 0.096% to 1.92%, depending on the category of business activity. Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery Delaware does not assess a state-level tax on real or personal property. Real estate is subject to county property taxes, school district property taxes, vocational school district taxes, and, if located within an incorporated area, municipal property taxes. Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery Gambling provides significant revenue to the state. For instance, the casino at Delaware Park Racetrack provided more than $100 million USD to the state in 2010.[53Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery Tourism While Delaware has no places designated as national parks,[57] national seashores, national battlefields, national memorials, or national monuments, it does have several museums, wildlife refuges,parks, houses, lighthouses, and other historic places. Delaware is home to the second longest twin span suspension bridge in the world, the Delaware Memorial Bridge. Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B Battery Rehoboth Beach, together with the towns of Lewes, Dewey Beach, Bethany Beach, South Bethany, and Fenwick Island, comprise Delaware's beach resorts. Rehoboth Beach often bills itself as "The Nation's Summer Capital" because it is a frequent summer vacation destination for Washington, Sony VAIO VPCS123FGB Battery D.C., residents as well as visitors from Maryland, Virginia, and in lesser numbers, Pennsylvania. Vacationers are drawn for many reasons, including the town's charm, artistic appeal, nightlife, and tax free shopping. Sony VAIO VPCS125EC Battery Delaware is home to several festivals, fairs, and events. Some of the more notable festivals are the Riverfest held in Seaford, the World Championship Punkin Chunkin held at various locations throughout the county since 1986, the Rehoboth Beach Chocolate Festival, the Bethany Beach Jazz Funeral to mark the end of summer, Sony VAIO VPCS128EC Battery the Apple Scrapple Festival held in Bridgeville, the Rehoboth Beach Jazz Festival, the Sea Witch Halloween Festival and Parade in Rehoboth Beach, the Rehoboth Beach Independent Film Festival, the Nanticoke Indian Pow Wow in Oak Orchard, and the Return Day Parade held after every election in Georgetown. Sony VAIO VPCS129GC Battery In place of in-state professional sports teams, many Delawareans follow either Philadelphia or Baltimore teams, depending on their location within the state, with Philadelphia teams receiving the largest fan following, though before the Baltimore Ravens entered the NFL, Sony VAIO VPCS12C7E/B Battery the Washington Redskins had a significant fan base in Sussex County and the Baltimore Colts had a significant fan base in northern counties. The University of Delaware's football team has a large following throughout the state with the Delaware State University and Wesley College (Delaware)Wesley College teams also enjoying a smaller degree of support. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B Battery Delaware is home to Dover International Speedway and Dover Downs. DIS, also known as the Monster Mile, hosts two NASCARraces each year. Dover Downs is a popular harness racing facility. It is the only co-located horse and car-racing facility in the nation, with the Dover Downs track is located inside the DIS track. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B Battery Delaware has been home to professional wrestling outfit Combat Zone Wrestling (CZW). CZW has been affiliated with the annual Tournament of Death and ECWA with its annual Super 8 Tournament. Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/P Battery Delaware is home to the Diamond State Games, an amateur Olympic-style sports festival. The event is open to athletes of all ages and is also open to residents beyond the borders of Delaware. The Diamond State Games were created in 2001 and participation levels average roughly 2500 per year in 12 contested sports. Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/PC Battery Delaware was the origin of Belton v. Gebhart, one of the four cases which was combined into Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court of the United States decision that led to the end ofsegregated public schools. Significantly, Belton was the only case in which the state court found for the plaintiffs, thereby ruling that segregation was unconstitutional. Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/T Battery Unlike many states, Delaware's educational system is centralized in a state Superintendent of Education, with local school boards retaining control over taxation and some curriculum decisions. Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/W Battery As of 2011, the Delaware Department of Education had authorized the founding of 25 charter schools in the state, among them one all-girls facility.[54Sony VAIO VPCW111XXP Battery

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