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7 mars 2012 3 07 /03 /mars /2012 10:11

Conversion to the SUCRE

Nicaragua is currently a member of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, which is also known as ALBA. Dell Studio XPS M1640 Battery,Dell Latitude E5500 Battery

ALBA has proposed creating a new currency, the Sucre for use among its members. In essence, this means that the Nicaraguan córdoba will be replaced with the Sucre. Members must make their local currency deposits inCaracas, to enter into force on sucre. The monetary union first will be virtual, to be used only among the states for inter-regional trade. Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

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It will then be used in print form. The ALBA-Sucre union is similar to that of the Euro of the European Union.

Other nations that will follow a similar pattern include: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Honduras, Cuba, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Dominicaand Antigua and Barbuda.[112] Dell Inspiron 1410 Battery

Tourism

By 2006, tourism in Nicaragua had become the second largest industry in the nation,[113] over the last 7 years tourism has grown about 70% nationwide with rates of 10%–16% annually.[114] Nicaragua had seen positive growth in the tourism sector over the last decade, and it became the first largest industry in 2007. Dell Vostro 1014 Battery,Dell Vostro 1015 Battery

The increase and growth led to the income from tourism to rise more than 300% over a period of 10 years.[115] The growth in tourism has also positively affected the agricultural, commercial, and finance industries, as well as the construction industry.

Every year about 60,000 U.S. citizens visit Nicaragua, primarily business people, tourists, and those visiting relatives.[116] Dell Vostro A840 Battery,Dell Vostro A860 Battery

Some 5,300 people from the U.S. reside in the country now. The majority of tourists who visit Nicaragua are from the U.S., Central or South America, and Europe. According to the Ministry of Tourism of Nicaragua (INTUR),[117] the colonial city of Granada is the preferred spot for tourists. Dell Vostro A860n Battery,Dell Studio 17 Battery

Also, the cities of León, Masaya, Rivas and the likes of San Juan del Sur, San Juan River, Ometepe, Mombacho Volcano, the Corn Islands, and others are main tourist attractions. In addition, ecotourismand surfing attract many tourists to Nicaragua. Dell Studio 1735 Battery

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According to TV Noticias (news program) on Canal 2, a Nicaragua television station, the main attractions in Nicaragua for tourists are the beaches, scenic routes, the architecture of cities such as León and Granada, and most recentlyecotourism and agritourism, particularly in Northern Nicaragua.[114] Dell Studio 1535 Battery,Dell Studio 1536 Battery

As a result of increased tourism, Nicaragua has seen its foreign direct investment increase by 79.1% from 2007 to 2009.[118]

Population

According to the CIA World Factbook, Nicaragua has a population of 5,891,199; comprising mainly 69% mestizo, 17%white, 5% Amerindian, 9.0% black and other races and this fluctuates with changes in migration patterns. The population is 84% urban. Dell Studio 1537 Battery

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According to the CIA World Factbook, Nicaragua's life expectancy was 71.90 years in 2011,[119] a figure roughly equivalent to that of Vietnam and Palau. The infant mortality rate stood at 25.5, roughly equivalent to that of the Marshall Islands andParaguay.[120]

Nicaragua appears ranked 91st in the international mortality rate, which places it between the world average and Panama.[121] Dell Studio 1557 Battery,Dell Studio PP33L Battery

The most populous city in Nicaragua is the capital, Managua, with a population of 1.8 million (2005) and an estimated 2.2 by 2010 and more than 2.5 mill for the metro area. As of 2005, over 7.0 million inhabitants live in the Pacific, Central and North regions, 5.5 in the Pacific region alone, while inhabitants in the Caribbean region reached an estimated 700,000.[122] Dell Studio PP39L Battery

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There is a growing expatriate community[123] the majority of whom move for business, investment or retirement from all across the world, such as from the US, Canada, Taiwan, and various European countries; the majority have settled in Managua, Granadaand San Juan del Sur.

Many Nicaraguans live abroad, particularly in the United States, Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Canada.[124] Dell Inspiron 1210 Battery,Dell Mini 10 Battery

Nicaragua has a population growth rate of 1.8% as of 2008.[citation needed] This is the result of one of the highest birth rates in the Western Hemisphere: 24.9 per 1,000 according to the United Nations for the period 2005–2010. The death rate is 4.1 per 1,000 during the same period according to the United Nations. Dell Mini 1010 Battery,Dell Mini 1010n Battery

Ethnic groups

The majority of the Nicaraguan population, (86% or approximately 5.06 million people), is either Mestizo or White. 69% are Mestizos (mixed Amerindian and European) and 17% of European origin, the majority of Spanish, German, Italian, English or French ancestry. Mestizos and Whites mainly reside in the western region of the country. Dell Mini 1010v Battery,Dell Mini 1011 Battery

About 9% of Nicaragua's population are black, and mainly reside on the country's sparsely populated Caribbean or Atlantic coast. The black population is mostly composed of black English-speaking Creoles who are the descendents of escaped or shipwrecked slaves; many carry the name of Scottish settlers who brought slaves with them, such as Campbell, Gordon, Downs and Hodgeson. Dell Mini 1011n Battery,Dell Mini 1011v Battery

Although many Creoles supported Somoza because of his close association with the US, they rallied to the Sandinista cause in July 1979 only to reject the revolution soon afterwards in response to a new phase of 'westernization' and imposition of central rule from Managua.[125] Nicaragua has the largest African diaspora population in Central America. Dell Inspiron 1501 Battery Battery

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There is also a smaller number of Garifuna, a people of mixed West African, Carib and Arawak descent. In the mid-1980s, the government divided the department of Zelaya – consisting of the eastern half of the country – into two autonomous regions and granted the black and indigenous people of this region limited self-rule within the Republic. Dell Inspiron 1545 Battery Battery,Dell D820 Battery Battery

The remaining 5% of Nicaraguans are Amerindians, the unmixed descendants of the country's indigenous inhabitants. Nicaragua's pre-Columbianpopulation consisted of many indigenous groups. In the western region the Nicarao people, after whom the country is named, were present along with other groups related by culture and language to the Mayans. Dell D830 Battery Battery

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The Caribbean coast of Nicaragua was inhabited by indigenous peoples who were mostly chibcha related groups that had migrated from South America, primarily present day Colombia andVenezuela. These groups include the Miskitos, Ramas and Sumos. In the 19th century, there was a substantial indigenous minority, but this group was also largely assimilated culturally into the mestizo majority. Dell Vostro 1000 Battery Battery,Dell Vostro 1310 Battery Battery

Immigration

Relative to its overall population, Nicaragua has never experienced any large-scale immigrant waves. The total number of immigrants to Nicaragua, both originating from other Latin American countries and all other countries, never surpassed 1% of its total population prior to 1995. Dell Vostro 1510 Battery Battery,Dell Vostro 1520 Battery Battery

The 2005 census showed the foreign-born population at 1.2%, having risen a mere .06% in 10 years.[122]

In the 19th century Nicaragua experienced modest waves of immigration from Europe. In particular, families from Germany, Italy, Spain, France and Belgium immigrated to Nicaragua, particularly the departments in the Central and Pacific region. Dell Vostro 2510 Battery Battery

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As a result, the Northern cities of Estelí, Jinotega and Matagalpahave significant communities of fourth generation Germans. They established many agricultural businesses such as coffee and sugar cane plantations, newspapers, hotels and banks.

Also present is a small Middle Eastern-Nicaraguan community of Syrians, Armenians, Palestinian Nicaraguans, Jewish Nicaraguans, Dell XPS M1530 Battery

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and Lebanese people in Nicaragua with a total population of about 30,000. There is also an East Asian community mostly consisting of Chinese, Taiwanese, and Japanese. The Chinese Nicaraguan population is estimated at around 12,000.[126] The Chinese arrived in the late 19th century but were unsubstantiated until the 1920s. Dell INSPIRON 1100 Battery

Diaspora

The Civil War forced many Nicaraguans to start lives outside of their country. Although many Nicaraguans returned after the end of the war, many people emigrated during the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century due to the lack of employment opportunities and poverty. Dell Inspiron 1200 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1420 Battery

The majority of the Nicaraguan Diaspora migrated to [[Costa Rica] and the United States, and today one in six Nicaraguans live in these two countries.[127]

The diaspora has also seen Nicaraguans settling around in smaller communities in other parts of the world, particularly Western Europe. Dell Inspiron 1520 Battery

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Small communities of Nicarguans are found in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Communities also exist in Australia and New Zealand. Canada, Brazil and Argentina in the Americas also host small groups of these communities. In Asia, Japan also hosts a small Nicaraguan community. Dell Inspiron 1720 Battery

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Due to extreme poverty in Nicaragua, many Nicaraguans are now living and working in neighboring El Salvador a country that has the US dollar as currency.[128] [129]

Maternal and child health care

In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on The State of the World's Midwifery. Dell Inspiron 2000 Series Battery,Dell INSPIRON 2100 SERIES Battery

It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Nicaragua is 100. This is compared with 102.6 in 2008 and 100.8 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 27 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 46. Dell Inspiron 2200 Battery

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The aim of this report is to highlight ways in which the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, particularly Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality and Goal 5 – improve maternal death. In Nicaragua the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 7 and 1 in 300 shows us the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women.[130] Dell INSPIRON 2650 SERIES Battery

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Culture

Nicaraguan culture has strong folklore, music and religious traditions, deeply influenced by European culture but enriched with Amerindian sounds and flavors. Nicaraguan culture can further be defined in several distinct strands. The Pacific coast has strong folklore, music and religious traditions, deeply influenced by Europeans. Dell INSPIRON 3700 SERIES Battery

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It was colonized by Spain and has a similar culture to other Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. The indigenous groups that historically inhabited the Pacific coast have largely been assimilated into the mestizo culture.

The Caribbean coast of the country, on the other hand, was once a British protectorate. Dell INSPIRON 4000 SERIES Battery.Dell INSPIRON 4100 SERIES Battery

English is still predominant in this region and spoken domestically along with Spanish and indigenous languages. Its culture is similar to that of Caribbean nations that were or are British possessions, such as Jamaica, Belize, the Cayman Islands, etc. Unlike on the west coast, the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean coast have maintained distinct identities, and some still speak their native languages as first languages. Dell INSPIRON 4150 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 500M SERIES Battery

Music

Nicaraguan music is a mixture of indigenous and European, especially Spanish, influences. Musical instruments include the marimbaand others common across Central America. The marimba of Nicaragua is uniquely played by a sitting performer holding the instrument on his knees. He is usually accompanied by a bass fiddle, guitar and guitarrilla (a small guitar like a mandolin). Dell INSPIRON 5100 Battery,Dell INSPIRON 6000 Battery

This music is played at social functions as a sort of background music. The marimba is made with hardwood plates placed over bamboo or metal tubes of varying lengths. It is played with two or four hammers. The Caribbean coast of Nicaragua is known for a lively, sensual form of dance music called Palo de Mayo which is popular throughout the country. Dell INSPIRON 600M SERIES Battery,Dell Inspiron 630m Battery

It is especially loud and celebrated during the Palo de Mayo festival in May. The Garifuna community (Afro-Indian) is known for its popular music called Punta.

Nicaragua enjoys a variety of international influence in the music arena. Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery

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Bachata, Merengue, Salsa and Cumbia have gained prominence in cultural centers such as Managua, Leon and Granada. Cumbia dancing has grown popular with the introduction of Nicaraguan artists, including Gustavo Leyton, on Ometepe Island and in Managua. Salsa dancing has become extremely popular in Managua's nightclubs. Dell Inspiron 710m Battery

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With various influences, the form of salsa dancing varies in Nicaragua. New York style and Cuban Salsa (Salsa Casino) elements have gained popularity across the country.

Bachata dancing has also gained popularity in Nicaragua. Combinations of styles from the Dominican Republic and the United States can be found throughout the country. Dell INSPIRON 8100 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 8200 SERIES Battery

The nature of the dance in Nicaragua varies depending on the region. Rural areas tend to have a stronger focus on movement of the hips and turns. Urbanized cities, on the other hand, focus primarily on more sophisticated footwork in addition to movement and turns. A considerable amount of Bachata dancing influence comes from Nicaraguans living abroad, in cities that include Miami, Dell INSPIRON 8500M SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 8600 Battery

Los Angeles and, to a much lesser extent, New York City. Tango has also surfaced recently in cultural cities and ballroom dance occasions.

Literature

The literature of Nicaragua can be traced to pre-Columbian times; the myths and oral literature formed the cosmogonic view of the world of the indigenous people. Dell INSPIRON 8600M SERIES Battery

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Some of these stories are still known in Nicaragua. Like many Latin American countries, the Spanish conquerors have had the most effect on both the culture and the literature. Nicaraguan literature has historically been an important source of poetry in the Spanish-speaking world, with internationally renowned contributors such as Rubén Darío, Dell INSPIRON 9200 Battery

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who is regarded as the most important literary figure in Nicaragua. He is called the "Father of Modernism" for leading the modernismoliterary movement at the end of the 19th century.[132] Other literary figures include Carlos Martinez Rivas, Pablo Antonio Cuadra,Alberto Cuadra Mejia, Manolo Cuadra, Pablo Alberto Cuadra Arguello, Orlando Cuadra Downing, Dell Inspiron 9400 Battery

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Alfredo Alegría Rosales, Sergio Ramirez Mercado, Ernesto Cardenal, Gioconda Belli, Claribel Alegría and José Coronel Urtecho, among others.

The satirical drama El Güegüense was the first literary work of post-Columbian Nicaragua. It is regarded as one of Latin America's most distinctive colonial-era expressions and as Nicaragua's signature folkloric masterpiece, combining music, dance and theater.[132] Dell Inspiron E1705 Battery

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The theatrical play was written by an anonymous author in the 16th century, making it one of the oldest indigenoustheatrical/dance works of the Western Hemisphere.[133] After centuries of popular performance, the play was first published in a book in 1942.[134]

Language

Nicaraguan Spanish has many indigenous influences and several distinguishing characteristics. Dell Inspiron Mini 9N (all 8.9 series) Battery,Dell Inspiron XPS Gen 2 Battery

Until the 19th century, a hybrid form of Nahuat-Spanish was the common language of Nicaragua. Today Nahuat, Mangue, and Mayan words and syntax can be found in everyday speech.[135] The Nicaraguan accent dates back to the 16th century in Andalusia, and the relative isolation of Nicaragua meant that the accent did not change in the same ways that the Andalusian accent has. Dell Inspiron XPS M140 Battery,Dell Inspiron XPS M170 Battery

For example, some Nicaraguans have a tendency to replace the "s" sound with an "h"" sound when speaking.[135] Other Nicaraguans pronounce the word vos with a strong ssound at the end. In the central part of the country, regions such as Boaco pronounce vos without the s sound at the end. The result is vo, similar to vous in French and voi in Italian. Dell Inspiron XPS M1710 Battery

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In this map, the use of the voseo form is illustrated, with countries such as Nicaragua, where it is predominant, represented in dark blue. Voseo is also predominant in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, where Rioplatense Spanish is spoken. Dell Latitude 110L Battery

Central American Spanish is spoken by about 90% of Nicaragua's population. In Nicaragua, the voseo form of address is dominant in both speech and publications. The same is true for the Río de la Plata region of South America. Nicaraguan Spanish can be understood everywhere in the Hispanosphere.Dell Latitude C Battery,Dell LATITUDE C500 Battery

Nicaraguans, unlike most Spanish-speaking groups, cannot be categorized uniformly in terms of accent and word usage. Although Spanish is spoken throughout the country, the country has great variety: vocabulary, accents and colloquial language can vary between towns and departments.[136]

In the Caribbean coast, many Afro-Nicaraguans and creoles speak English and creole Englishas their first language, Dell LATITUDE C510 Battery,Dell LATITUDE C540 Battery

but as a second language, they speak a fluent Spanish. The language in the North and South Atlantic Regions are influenced by English, Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish and French roots. In addition, many of the indigenous people speak their native languages, such as theMiskito, Sumo, Rama and Garifuna language.[137] Dell LATITUDE C600 Battery,Dell LATITUDE C610 Battery

In addition, many ethnic groups in Nicaragua have maintained ancestral languages, while also speaking Spanish or English; these include Chinese, Arabic, German, and Italian.

Spanish is taught as the principal language. English is taught to students during their high school years and tends to be the national second language. Other languages can also be found sporadically, particularly within expatriate communities. Dell LATITUDE C640 Battery

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Nicaragua was home to three extinct languages, one of which was never classified. Nicaraguan Sign Language is also of particular interest to linguists as the world's youngest language.[138]

Religion

While Religion in Nicaragua is growing in diversity, the majority of Nicaraguans identify themselves as observers of the Roman Catholic faith. Dell LATITUDE C810 Battery

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Pictured above is the Leon Cathedral, which is among one of the nation's World Heritage Sites and an active place of religious worship inLeón, Nicaragua.

Religion is a significant part of the culture of Nicaragua and is referred to in the constitution. Dell Latitude CP Battery

Religious freedom, which has been guaranteed since 1939, and religious tolerance are promoted by both the Nicaraguan government and the constitution.

Nicaragua has no official religion. Catholic Bishops are expected to lend their authority to important state occasions, and their pronouncements on national issues are closely followed. Dell LATITUDE CP SERIES Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPI Battery

They can also be called upon to mediate between contending parties at moments of political crisis.[139]

The largest denomination, and traditionally the religion of the majority, is Roman Catholic. The numbers of practicing Roman Catholics have been declining, while members of evangelical Protestant groups and Mormons have been rapidly growing in numbers since the 1990s. Dell LATITUDE CPIC Battery,Dell Latitude CPID Battery

There are also strong Anglican and Moravian communities on the Caribbean coast.

Roman Catholicism came to Nicaragua in the 16th century with the Spanish conquest and remained, until 1939, the established faith. Protestantism and other Christian denominations came to Nicaragua during the 19th century, but only gained large followings in the Caribbean Coast during the 20th century. Dell LATITUDE CPIR Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPIR400GT Battery

Popular religion revolves around the saints, who are perceived as intercessors (but not mediators) between human beings and God. Most localities, from the capital of Managua to small rural communities, honor patron saints, selected from the Roman Catholic calendar, with annual fiestas. In many communities, Dell LATITUDE CPM Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPT Battery

a rich lore has grown up around the celebrations of patron saints, such as Managua's Saint Dominic (Santo Domingo), honored in August with two colorful, often riotous, day-long processions through the city. The high point of Nicaragua's religious calendar for the masses is neither Christmas nor Easter, but La Purísima, Dell LATITUDE CPTC Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPTS Battery

a week of festivities in early December dedicated to the Immaculate Conception, during which elaborate altars to the Virgin Mary are constructed in homes and workplaces.[139]

The country's close political ties have also encouraged religious ties. Buddhism has increased with a steady influx of immigration.[140] Dell LATITUDE CPTV Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPX Battery

Cuisine

The Cuisine of Nicaragua is a mixture of criollo food and dishes of pre-Columbian origin. The Spaniards found that the Creole people had incorporated local foods available in the area into their cuisine.[141] Traditional cuisine changes from the Pacific to the Caribbean coast; Dell LATITUDE CPXH Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPXJ Battery

while the Pacific coast's main staple revolves around local fruits and corn, the Caribbean coast cuisine makes use of seafood and the coconut.

As in many other Latin American countries, corn is a main staple. Corn is used in many of the widely consumed dishes, Dell LATITUDE D400 SERIES Battery,Dell Latitude D505 Battery

such as the nacatamal, and indio viejo. Corn is also an ingredient for drinks such as pinolillo and chicha as well as sweets and desserts. In addition to corn, rice and beans are eaten very often.

Gallo pinto, Nicaragua's national dish, is made with white rice and red beans that are cooked separately and then fried together. Dell LATITUDE D505 SERIES Battery

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The dish has several variations including the addition of coconut oil and/or grated coconut on the Caribbean coast. Most Nicaraguans begin their day with Gallopinto. Gallopinto is most usually served with carne asada, a salad, fried cheese, platains or maduros. Dell LATITUDE D600 SERIES Battery

Many of Nicaragua's dishes include indigenous fruits and vegetables such as jocote, mango, papaya, tamarindo, pipian, banana, avocado, yuca, and herbs such ascilantro, oregano and achiote.[141]

Nicaraguans also have been known to eat guinea pigs, tapirs, iguanas, turtle eggs, armadillos and boas but efforts are currently underway to curb this tendency.[citation needed] Dell Latitude D610 Series Battery,Dell Latitude D620 Battery

Sports

Baseball is the most popular sport played in Nicaragua. Although some professional Nicaraguan baseball teams have folded in the recent past, Nicaragua enjoys a strong tradition of American-style Baseball. Baseball was introduced to Nicaragua at different years during the 19th century. Dell LATITUDE D800 SERIES Battery

In the Caribbean coast locals from Bluefields were taught how to play baseball in 1888 by Albert Addlesberg, a retailer from the United States.[142]Baseball did not catch on in the Pacific coast until 1891 when a group of mostly students originating from universities of the United States formed "La Sociedad de Recreo" (Society of Recreation) where they played various sports, Dell LATITUDE LS 400 Battery,Dell LATITUDE LS SERIES Battery

baseball being the most popular among them.[142] There are five teams that compete amongst themselves: Indios del Boer (Managua), Chinandega, Tiburones (Sharks) of Granada, León and Masaya. Players from these teams comprise the national team when Nicaragua competes internationally. Dell Latitude LSH Battery,Dell LATITUDE LST Battery

The country has had its share of MLBplayers (including current Boston Red Sox pitcher Vicente Padillaand Boston Red Sox pitcher Devern Hansack), but the most notable is Dennis Martínez, who was the first baseball player from Nicaragua to play in Major League Baseball.[143] He became the first Latin-born pitcher to throw a perfect game, and the 13th in major league history, Dell LATITUDE PP01 Battery,Dell LATITUDE PP01L Battery

when he played with the Montreal Expos against the Dodgers at Dodger Stadium in 1991.[144]

Boxing is the second most popular sport in Nicaragua.[145] The country has had world champions such as Alexis Argüello and Ricardo Mayorga among others. Recently,football has gained popularity, especially with the younger population. Dell LATITUDE PP01X Battery

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The Dennis Martínez National Stadium has served as a venue for both baseball and football but the first ever national football stadium in Managua is currently under construction.[146]

Education

Nicaragua's first public primary school opened in 1837. By the late 1860s public grade schools existed in most of the larger cities. Dell LATITUDE PPX Battery

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In 1877, Nicaraguan authorities accepted the principle that such schools should be nationally funded, and that attendance should be free and compulsory. In 1881 education was formally removed from religious control and turned over to government, but church-run schools continued to operate alongside the public system. Dell LATITUDE X200 Battery,Dell LATITUDE X300 Battery

Subsequently shortages of facilities and teachers, especially in rural areas, hampered educational development. The Sandinista government sharply increased spending on education and reduced illiteracy significantly, but shortages of facilities and personnel remained a problem. The Sandinistas also added a leftist ideological content to the curriculum, which was removed after 1990.[82] Dell LATITUDE X300 SERIES Battery,Dell M170 Battery

Higher education dates from 1818 when the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua (UNAN) was founded in León. A major reform, begun in 1980, reorganized the country's postsecondary system into two universities: the UNAN, with campuses in León and Managua, and the Central American University in Managua. Dell PRCISION M60 MOBILE WORKSTATION Battery

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It also restructured the curriculum, giving more emphasis to science and technology, and less to law and commerce. Nicaragua also has several more specialized institutions, with a focus on education that will promote economic development.[82]

Education is paid via taxes for all Nicaraguans.[147] Elementary education is free and compulsory, but many children in rural areas are unable to attend due to lack of schools and other reasons. Dell Precision M20 Series Battery,Dell PRECISION M40 Battery

Communities on the Caribbean coast have access to education in their native languages.

The majority of higher education institutions are in Managua, higher education has financial, organic and administrative autonomy, according to the law. Also, freedom of subjects is recognized.[148] Dell PRECISION M50 Battery,Dell Precision M90 SERIES Battery

Nicaragua's higher education system consists of 48 universities, and 113 colleges and technical institutes in the areas of electronics, computer systems and sciences, agroforestry, construction and trade-related services.[149] The educational system includes 1 U.S. accredited English-language university, 3Bilingual university programs, 5 Bilingual secondary schools and dozens of English Language Institutes. Dell Precision Mobile Workstation M20 Battery,Dell PRECISION WORKSTATION M50 Battery

In 2005, almost 400,000 (7%) of Nicaraguans held a university degree.[150] 18% of Nicaragua's total budget is invested in primary, secondary and higher education. University level institutions account for 6% of 18%.

As of 1979, the educational system was one of the poorest in Latin America.[151] Dell SMART PC100N Battery,Dell Vostro 1400 Battery

Under the Somoza dictatorships, limited spending on education and generalized poverty, which forced many adolescents into the labor market, constricted educational opportunities for Nicaraguans. One of the first acts of the newly elected Sandinista government in 1980 was an extensive and successful literacy campaign, using secondary school students, Dell Vostro 1500 Battery

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university students and teachers as volunteer teachers: it reduced the overall illiteracy rate from 50.3% to 12.9% within only five months.[152] This was one of a number of large scale programs which received international recognition for their gains in literacy, health care, education, childcare, unions, and land reform.[ Dell Winbook N4 Battery

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In September 1980, UNESCO awarded Nicaragua the Nadezhda Krupskaya award for the literacy campaign. This was followed by the literacy campaigns of 1982, 1986, 1987, 1995 and 2000, all of which were also awarded by UNESCO. Dell XPS M1210 Battery,Dell XPS M1330 Battery,Dell XPS M170 Battery,Dell XPS M1710 SERIES Battery,Dell XPS M1530 Battery Battery,Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery Battery

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