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textiles can be created by weaving together fibres of different colours (tartan or Uzbek Ikat), adding coloured stitches to finished fabric (embroidery),  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

creating patterns by resist dyeing methods, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the rest (tie-dyeing), or drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them (batik), or using various printing processes on finished fabric. Woodblock printing, still used in India and elsewhere today, is the oldest of these dating back to at least 220CE in China. Textiles are also sometimes bleached, making the textile pale or white.  HP Pavilion dv6-2110sm laptop keyboard

Textiles are sometimes finished by chemical processes to change their characteristics. In the 19th century and early 20th centurystarching was commonly used to make clothing more resistant to stains and wrinkles. Since the 1990s, with advances in technologies such as permanent press process, finishing agents have been used to strengthen fabrics and make them wrinkle free.[18] More recently,  IBM Thinkpad Z61m laptop keyboard

nanomaterials research has led to additional advancements, with companies such as Nano-Tex and NanoHorizons developing permanent treatments based on metallic nanoparticles for making textiles more resistant to things such as water, stains, wrinkles, and pathogens such as bacteria and fungi.[19] IBM Thinkpad Z60t laptop keyboard

More so today than ever before, textiles receive a range of treatments before they reach the end-user. From formaldehyde finishes (to improve crease-resistance) to biocidic finishes and from flame retardants to dyeing of many types of fabric, the possibilities are almost endless. However, many of these finishes may also have detrimental effects on the end user. IBM Thinkpad Z61m laptop keyboard

A number of disperse, acid and reactive dyes (for example) have been shown to be allergenic to sensitive individuals.[20] Further to this, specific dyes within this group have also been shown to induce purpuric contact dermatitis.[21] HP Pavilion DV6-1130ei laptop keyboard

Although formaldehyde levels in clothing are unlikely to be at levels high enough to cause an allergic reaction,[22] due to the presence of such a chemical, quality control and testing are of utmost importance. Flame retardants (mainly in the brominated form) are also of concern where the environment, and their potential toxicity, HP G62-b88SS laptop keyboard

are concerned.[23] Testing for these additives is possible at a number of commercial laboratories, it is also possible to have textiles tested for according to the Oeko-tex certification standard which contains limits levels for the use of certain chemicals in textiles products. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

Tobacco is a product processed from the dried leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be used as a pesticide, and extracts form ingredients of some medicines,[1] but is most commonly consumed as a drug. Tobacco is a name for any plant of the genus Nicotiana of the Solanaceae family (nightshade family) and for the product manufactured from the leaf used in cigars and cigarettes, snuff, pipe tobacco, SONY VAIO VGN-CS21Z/Q laptop keyboard

chewing tobacco and flavored shisha. Tobacco plants are also used in plant bioengineering, and some of the more than 70 species are grown as ornamentals. The chief commercial species, N. tabacum, is believed native to tropical America, like most nicotiana plants, but has been so long cultivated that it is no longer known in the wild. SONY 147996611 laptop keyboard

N. rustica, a species producing fast-burning leaves, was the tobacco originally raised in Virginia, but it is now grown chiefly in Turkey, India, and Russia. The addictive alkaloid nicotine is popularly considered the most characteristic constituent of tobacco but the harmful effects of tobacco consumption can also derive from the thousands of different compounds generated in the smoke, HP Pavilion dm1-1002tu laptop keyboard

including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such asbenzopyrene), formaldehyde, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), phenols, and many others.[2]Tobacco also contains beta-carboline alkaloids which inhibit monoamine oxidase.[3]  Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

In consumption it most commonly appears in the forms of smoking, chewing, snuffing, or dipping tobacco. Tobacco had long been in use as an entheogen in the Americas, but upon the arrival of Europeans in North America, SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboard

it quickly became popularized as a trade item and a widely abused drug. This popularization led to the development of the southern economy of the United States until it gave way to cotton. Following the American Civil War, a change in demand and production techniques allowed for the development of the cigarette. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

This new product quickly led to the growth of tobacco companies.

Because of the powerfully addictive properties of tobacco, tolerance and dependence develop.[4][5] The usage of tobacco is an activity that is practiced by some 1.1 billion people, and up to 1/3 of the adult population.[6] SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports it to be the leading preventable cause of death worldwide and estimates that it currently causes 5.4 million deaths per year.[7] Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in developed countries, but continue to rise in developing countries. DELL 0RT129 laptop keyboard

Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds are sown in cold frames or hotbeds to prevent attacks from insects, and then transplanted into the fields. Tobacco is an annual crop, which is usually harvested mechanically or by hand. After harvest, tobacco is stored for curing, either by hanging, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

bundling or placing in large piles with tubular vents to allow the heat to escape from the center. Curing allows for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids. This allows for the agricultural product to take on properties that are usually attributed to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Following this, tobacco is packed into its various forms of consumption, SONY VAIO VGN-FS830 laptop keyboard

which include smoking, chewing, snuffing, and so on. Most cigarettes incorporate flue-cured tobacco, which produces a milder, more inhalable smoke. Use of low-pH, inhalable, flue-cured tobacco is one of the principal reasons smoking causes lung cancer and other diseases associated with smoke inhalation.[2] SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

The Spanish and Portuguese word tabaco is thought to have originated in Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to refer either to a roll of tobacco leaves (according to Bartolomé de las Casas, 1552), or to the tabago, a kind of Y-shaped pipe for sniffing tobacco smoke also known as snuff(according to Oviedo; with the leaves themselves being referred to as cohiba).[8]  HP Pavilion dv5-1235et laptop keyboard

However, similar words in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian were commonly used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs which is believed to be originating from theArabic طبق tabbaq, a word reportedly dating to the 9th century, as the name of various herbs.[9]. Others argued the word may have actually originated from India as tambākū; तंबाकू SONY VAIO VGN-CR140F Laptop Keyboard

Tobacco had already long been used in the Americas when European settlers arrived and introduced the practice to Europe, where it became popular. Many Native American tribes have traditionally grown and used tobacco with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400-1000 B.C.[10] Eastern North American tribes carried large amounts of tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item, and often smoked it in peace pipes, SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard

either in defined sacred ceremonies, or to seal a bargain,[11] and they smoked it at such occasions in all stages of life, even in childhood.[12] It was believed that tobacco is a gift from the Creator, and that the exhaled tobacco smoke carries one's thoughts and prayers to heaven.[13]

Before the development of lighter Virginia and White Burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled traditionally by Native Americans in ceremonial use or by Europeans who used it in the form of pipes and cigars.[14] Inhaling "rough"DELL M711P Laptop Keyboard

 tobacco without seriously damaging the lungs in the short term required smoking only small quantities at a time using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah (See Thuoc lao for a modern continuance of this practice). Inhaling smoke was already common in India and China through the consumption ofcannabis and opium millennia before. HP G72-b20SG laptop keyboard

Following the arrival of the Europeans, tobacco became increasingly popular as a trade item. It fostered the economy for thesouthern United States until it was replaced by cotton. Following the American civil war, a change in demand and a change in labor force allowed inventor James Bonsack to create a machine that automated cigarette production.  HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard

This increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century.

Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, and eventually became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1. This strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted theFood and Drug Administration (FDA) to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes. ACER Extensa 5635Z laptop keyboard

In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization (WHO)[15]successfully rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco. This led to the development of tobacco cessation products. SONY VAIO VGN-FS285H laptop keyboard

There are many species of tobacco in the genus of herbs Nicotiana. It is part of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) indigenous to North and South America, Australia, South West Africa and the South Pacific. SONY VAIO VGN-CR410E laptop keyboard

Many plants contain nicotine, a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos contain a higher concentration of nicotine than most other plants. Unlike many other Solanaceae, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are often poisonous to humans and other animals. SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids (varying between species) to deter most herbivores,[16] a number of such animals have evolved the ability to feed onNicotiana species without being harmed. Nonetheless, tobacco is unpalatable to many species, and accordingly some tobacco plants (chiefly tree tobacco, N. glauca) have become established as invasive weeds in some places.  HP Pavilion dv6-2138ca laptop keyboard

The harms caused by using tobacco include diseases affecting the heart and lungs, with smoking being a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, and cancer (particularly lung cancer, cancers of the larynx and mouth, and pancreatic cancers).  Packard Bell NEW90 laptop keyboard

The World Health Organization estimates that tobacco caused 5.4 million deaths in 2004[28] and 100 million deaths over the course of the 20th century.[29] Similarly, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes tobacco use as "the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature death worldwide."[30] FUJITSU Lifebook S7111 laptop keyboard

Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in the developed world. Smoking rates in the United States have dropped by half from 1965 to 2006, falling from 42% to 20.8% in adults.[31] In the developing world, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year.[32]

When the market for tobacco reduced in the West, the industry looked to India and China for 'emerging markets'. In response, various activists in these markets have campaigned against tobacco products. Packard Bell Easynote TM81 laptop keyboard

China is the world's largest manufacturer of cigarettes, producing about 2.4 trillion per year or 40 percent of the world's total.[2] Changes have been made to eliminate advertising, post health warnings, and ban smoking from public buildings. SONY VAIO VGN-N21Z laptop keyboard

Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds were at first quickly scattered onto the soil. However, young plants came under increasing attack from flea beetles (Epitrix cucumeris or Epitrix pubescens), which caused destruction of half the tobacco crops in United States in 1876. By 1890 successful experiments were conducted that placed the plant in a frame covered by thin cotton fabric. Today, tobacco is sown in cold frames or hotbeds, as their germination is activated by light.[citation needed] SONY VAIO VGN-NW25E/B laptop keyboard

In the United States, tobacco is often fertilized with the mineral apatite, which partially starves the plant of nitrogen, to produce a more desired flavor.

After the plants are about eight inches tall, they are transplanted into the fields. Farmers used to have to wait for rainy weather to plant. A hole is created in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg, either a curved wooden tool or deer antler. SONY VAIO VGN-NW200 laptop keyboard

After making two holes to the right and left - you would move forward two feet, select plants from your bag and repeat. Various mechanical tobacco planters like Bemis, New Idea Setter, and New Holland Transplanter were invented in the late 19th and 20th centuries to automate the process: making the hole, watering it, guiding the plant in — all in one motion.[citation needed]

Tobacco is cultivated annually, and can be harvested in several ways. ACER Extensa 2600 laptop keyboard

In the oldest method still used today, the entire plant is harvested at once by cutting off the stalk at the ground with a tobacco knife. It is then speared onto sticks, four to six plants a stick and hung in a curing barn. In the 19th century, bright tobacco began to be harvested by pulling individual leaves off the stalk as they ripened. The leaves ripen from the ground upwards,  SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard

so a field of tobacco harvested in this manner will involve the serial harvest of a number of "primings," beginning with the volado leaves near the ground, working to the seco leaves in the middle of the plant, and finishing with the potent ligero leaves at the top. Before this the crop needs to be topped when the pink flowers develop. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard

Topping always refers to the removal of the tobacco flower before the leaves are systematically removed and, eventually, entirely harvested. As the industrial revolution took hold, harvesting wagons used to transport leaves were equipped with man-powered stringers, an apparatus that used twine to attach leaves to a pole. In modern times, large fields are harvested mechanically, although topping the flower and in some cases the plucking of immature leaves is still done by hand. Most tobacco in the U.S. is grown in North Carolina, Kentucky, and Virginia.[34] SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

Production of tobacco leaf increased by 40% between 1971, during which 4.2 million tons of leaf were produced, and 1997, during which 5.9 million tons of leaf were produced.[38] According to the Food and Agriculture organization of the UN, tobacco leaf production was expected to hit 7.1 million tons by 2010. This number is a bit lower than the record high production of 1992, during which 7.5 million tons of leaf were produced.[39] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

The production growth was almost entirely due to increased productivity by developing nations, where production increased by 128%.[40] During that same time period, production in developing countries actually decreased.[39] HP Mini 1001TU Laptop Keyboard

China’s increase in tobacco production was the single biggest factor in the increase in world production. China’s share of the world market increased from 17% in 1971 to 47% in 1997.[38]This growth can be partially explained by the existence of a high import tariff on foreign tobacco entering China. While this tariff has been reduced from 64% in 1999 to 10% in 2004,[41] it still has led to local, Chinese cigarettes being preferred over foreign cigarettes because of their lower cost. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Every year 6.7 million tons of tobacco are produced throughout the world. The top producers of tobacco are China (39.6%), India (8.3%), Brazil (7.0%) and the United States (4.6%).[42]

Around the peak of global tobacco production there were 20 million rural Chinese households producing tobacco on 2.1 million hectares of land.[43] While it is the major crop for millions of Chinese farmers, growing tobacco is not as profitable as cotton or sugar cane. SONY VAIO VGN-CR140F laptop keyboard

This is because the Chinese government sets the market price. While this price is guaranteed, it is lower than the natural market price, because of the lack of market risk. To further control tobacco in their borders, China founded a State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) in 1982. STMA control tobacco production, marketing, imports and exports and contributes 12% to the nation's national income.[44] SONY VAIO VGN-CR32L laptop keyboard

As noted above, despite the income generated for the state by profits from state-owned tobacco companies and the taxes paid by companies and retailers, China's government has acted to reduce tobacco use.[45]  SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z laptop keyboard

In Brazil around 135,000 family farmers cite tobacco production as their main economic activity.[43] Tobacco has never exceeded 0.7% of the country’s total cultivated area. TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard

These types of tobacco are used for cigarettes. In the northeast, darker, air- and sun-cured tobacco is grown. These types of tobacco are used for cigars, twists and dark-cigarettes.[46] Brazil’s government has made attempts to reduce the production of tobacco, but has not had a successful systematic anti-tobacco farming initiative. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5277 laptop keyboard

Brazil’s government, however, provides small loans for family farms, including those that grow tobacco, through the Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (PRONAF).[47] TOSHIBA Satellite L300D-242 laptop keyboard

India's Tobacco Board is headquartered in Guntur in the state of A

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charlotte luis 03/04/2017 19:33

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