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Crops are not only for human consumption but also for animal consumption, which opens a new market such as canary seed. Cuniculture, or rabbit farming, is another livestock enterprise. Cannabis is an important crop in some areas, making up 5% of British Columbia's GDP. According to BC Business Magazine, the crop is worth $7.5 billion to the province annually, and gives employment to 250,000 people.[42] Québec produces an even bigger crop. ASUS G2P CPU Fan

The Department of Agriculture set out in the British North America Act (B.N.A.) of 1867 states each province may have jurisdiction over agricultural concerns, as well as the Dominion Government may also make law in regard to agriculture. Newfoundland agricultural affairs were dealt with by the Agricultural Division of the Department of Natural Resources at Confederation.[10] Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

The B.N.A. Act states that the federal Government has sole authority in coastal and inland fishery matters. Provinces have rights over non-tidal waters and fishing practices there only.

Canadian farms, fisheries and ranches produce a wide variety of crops, livestock, food, feed, fibre, fuel and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals which are dependent upon the geography of the province. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

In 2001 farms numbered only 246,923 at a size of 676 acres (2.74 km2) as the production of food and fibre for human or livestock sustenance has evolved into intensive and industrial practices.[44][45] As of 2002, wheat constituted the largest crop area at 12.6%. Canadian farmers received a record $36.3 billion in 2001 from livestock, crop sales and program payments.[46] HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

In 2001, the accrued net income of farm operators from farm production amounted to 1,633 million dollars, which amounts to 0.147% of Canada's gross domestic product at market prices which is 1,108,200 million dollars.[45] Fisheries are also playing an important role while forestry plays a secondary role. Canada's evolution has abandoned subsistence techniquesand now sees a mere 3% of Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

Canada's population employed as a mechanized industrial farmer who are able feed the rest of the nation's population of 30,689.0 thousand people (2001) as well as export to foreign markets.[47] (Canada's estimated population was 32,777,300 on 1 January 2007)

The marketing and economic movement of Canada's various agriculture commodities has been a challenge. Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

Domestic trade encompasses providing goods within Canada provincially and inter-provincial. Support agencies and services such as storage, railways, warehouses, stores, banking institutions all affect domestic trade. Trade of wheat from the Canada's prairies are monitored by the Canadian Wheat Board. Canada's depression of 1882–1897 brought a low of 64¼ cents per bushel ($24/t) as of 1893. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

This era during Laurier's administration saw thousands of homesteads cancelled. Wheat prices soared during World War I. In 1928, Canada exported high quantities of wheat, flour, and goods. The depression took its toll on Canada as exports sunk to approximately 40% of their 1928 amount. European markets stopped needing to import Canadian wheat as they started growing their own varieties, and then World War II events put a blockade on trade to European markets. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

Canada became more of an industrial entity during the time of this industrial revolution, and less of an agricultural nation. Following World War II the United Kingdom entered into contract for a large amount of agricultural commodities such as bacon, cheese, wheat, oats and barley. After the United Kingdom, the United States is Canada's largest external trade partner. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

Between 1943 and 1953, the average export of Canadian wheat was 347,200,000 bushels (9,449,000 t).[49] The three year International Wheat Agreement of 1955, which really lasted 6 years, included exports of wheat or flour to 28 of 44 importing countries including Germany, Japan, Belgium, UK, and the Netherlands.

Agribusiness are activities of food and fibre production and processing which are not part of the farm operation. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

This would include the production of farm equipment and fertilizers to aid farm production.[50] Agribusiness also includes the firms that purchase the raw goods from the farm for further processing. The meat packing industry, flour mill, and canning industry would be included in the agribusiness sector processing farm products.[51] A recent growth area in agribusiness is the advent of organized farmland investment funds operating on the model of direct land ownership with rental back to farmers as operators. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

Agricultural science began developing new styles of farming and strains of wheat and crops so that farming could become a successful venture. Farming methods were developed at places such as Dominion Experimental Farm,[82] Rosthern Experimental Station,[83] and Bell Farm.[84] From 1914 to 1922, the Better Farming Traintravelled around rural of Saskatchewan areas educating pioneer farmers.[85] SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

The 1901 census showed 511,100 farms and the number of farms peaked in 1941 at a record 732,800 farms.[45] The industrial revolution modernised the farming industry as mechanized vehicles replaced the oxen ploughed land or the horse-drawn cart. Farms became much larger, and mechanized evolving towards industrial agriculture. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Farming activities were very labour intensive before the industrial revolution and the advent of tractors, combines, balers, etc. From the late 19th century to mid-20th century, a great percentage of the Canadian labour force was engaged in high labour, smaller farming practices. After mechanization, scientific advancement, improved marketing practices farms became more efficient, larger and less labour intensive. Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

The labour population was freed up and went to industry, government, transportation, trade and finance.[86] Agriculture, stock raising and horticulture employed one-fourth of the Canadian population according to the 1951 census as well as providing products for exports and Canadian manufacturing concerns.

The Oliver Chilled Plow, which could cut through the prairie sod, was in use by 1896. Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

Binders which could cut and tie grain for the harvest season and grain elevators for storage were introduced in the late 19th century as well.[87] Plows, tractors, spreaders, combines to name a few are some mechanized implements for the grain crop or horticultural farmer which are labour saving devices. Many Canadian museums such as Reynolds-Alberta Museum will showcase the evolution and variety of farm machinery. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

The depression and drought of the Dirty Thirties was devastating. This drought resulted in a mass exodus of population from the prairies, as well as new agricultural practices such as soil conservation, and crop rotation.[88]

Soil conservation practices such as crop rotation, cover crops, and windbreaks to name a few were massively developed and set in forth upon recovering from the drought experiences of the dirty thirties. Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

Literally layers and layers of topsoil would be blowing away during this time. Bow River Irrigation Project, Red Deer River Project and the St. Mary Irrigation project of Alberta, were a few of the major projects undertaken by the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act (P.F.R.A.) resulting in reservoirs, and distribution systems.[10] A current project is Liming (soil) soil liming at the Land Resource Research Institute.[89][90] HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

Wheat diseases such as wheat bunt and stinking smut can be successfully treated with a fungicide. Disease of plants and animals can break an agricultural producer. Tuberculosis in animals was an early threat, and cattle needed to be tested, and areas accredited in 1956. The newer disease such as chronic wasting disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affects both elk and deer. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan


Elk and deer raising is a pioneer field of domestication, has had a setback with this disease.[91] Mad cow disease in cattle[92] and scrapie of sheep[93]are monitored by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The poultry sector was plagued by Pullorum disease, and by controlling the flock via poultry husbandry, this disease has been brought under control. Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

Plants whose traits can be modified to survive a disease or insect have made inroads into Canadian agricultural practices. Cereal rusts which can destroy the majority of areas seeded to wheat, was controlled in 1938 by breeding strains which were rust-resistant. This strain was successful until around 1950, when again a new variety of rust broke out, and again a new species of wheat called Selkirk was developed which was rust resistant.[9HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

Biotechnology is the center of new research and regulations affecting agriculture this century.

To increase the viability of agriculture as an economic lifestyle several improvements have been made by various nationwide educational facilities. Inroads and innovations have been made in the diverse fields of agricultural science, agricultural engineering, HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

agricultural soil science, Sustainable agriculture,Agricultural productivity, agronomy, biodiversity, bioengineering, irrigation and swine research for example. Canadian universities conducting agricultural research include McGill University, Nova Scotia University, Université Laval, Université de Montréal, University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, HP G60-230us CPU Fan

University of Calgary, University of Guelph, University of Manitoba, University of Saskatchewan and University of Prince Edward Island. The Ontario Veterinary College is located at the University of Guelph and the Western College of Veterinary Medicine is located at the University of Saskatchewan.[97] The Atlantic Veterinary College is located at the University of P.E.I.[98] and there are also faculties of veterinary medicine at the University of Calgary[99] and Université de Montréal. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

Canada and the United States share a common trading relationship. Canada's job market continues to perform well along with the US, reaching a 30 year low in the unemployment rate in December 2006, following 14 consecutive years of employment growth.

The United States is by far Canada's largest trading partner, with more than $1.7 billion CAD in trade per day in 2005. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

In 2009 73% of Canada's exports went to the United States, and 63% of Canada's imports were from the United States.[51]Trade with Canada makes up 23% of the United States' exports and 17% of its imports.[52] By comparison, in 2005 this was more than U.S. trade with all countries in the European Union combined,[53] and well over twice U.S. trade with all the countries of Latin America combined.[54] COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

Just the two-way trade that crosses the Ambassador Bridge between Michigan andOntario equals all U.S. exports to Japan. Canada's importance to the United States is not just a border-state phenomenon: Canada is the leading export market for 35 of 50 U.S. states, and is the United States' largest foreign supplier of energy.

Bilateral trade increased by 52% between 1989, when the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) went into effect, IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

and 1994, when the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) superseded it.[citation needed] Trade has since increased by 40%. NAFTA continues the FTA's moves toward reducing trade barriers and establishing agreed-upon trade rules. It also resolves some long-standing bilateral irritants and liberalizes rules in several areas, including agriculture, services, energy, financial services, investment, and government procurement. NAFTA forms the largest trading area in the world, embracing the 405 million people of the three North American countries. HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

The largest component of U.S.-Canada trade is in the commodity sector.

The U.S. is Canada's largest agricultural export market, taking well over half of all Canadian food exports.[55]Similarly, Canada is the largest market for U.S. agricultural goods, with nearly 20% of American food exports going to its northern neighbour.[ DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Nearly two-thirds of Canada's forest products, including pulp and paper, are exported to the United States; 72% of Canada's total newsprint production also is exported to the U.S.

At $73.6 billion in 2004, U.S.-Canada trade in energy is the largest U.S. energy trading relationship, with the overwhelming majority ($66.7 billion) being exports from Canada. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

The primary components of U.S. energy trade with Canada arepetroleum, natural gas, and electricity. Canada is the United States' largest oil supplier and the fifth-largest energy producing country in the world. Canada provides about 16% of U.S. oil imports and 14% of total U.S. consumption of natural gas. The United States and Canada's national electricity grids are linked, and both countries share hydropower facilities on the western borders. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

While most of U.S.-Canada trade flows smoothly, there are occasionally bilateral trade disputes, particularly in the agricultural and cultural fields. Usually these issues are resolved through bilateral consultative forums or referral to World Trade Organization (WTO) or NAFTA dispute resolution. In May 1999, the U.S. and Canadian governments negotiated an agreement on magazines that provides increased access for the U.S. publishing industry to the Canadian market. Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

The United States and Canada also have resolved several major issues involving fisheries. By common agreement, the two countries submitted a Gulf of Maine boundary dispute to the International Court of Justice in 1981; both accepted the court's 12 October 1984 ruling which demarcated the territorial sea boundary. A current issue between the United States and Canada is the ongoing softwood lumber dispute, as the U.S. alleges that Canada unfairly subsidizes its forestry industry.[ Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

In 1990, the United States and Canada signed a bilateral Fisheries Enforcement Agreement, which has served to deter illegal fishing activity and reduce the risk of injury during fisheries enforcement incidents. The U.S. and Canada signed a Pacific Salmon Agreement in June 1999 that settled differences over implementation of the 1985 Pacific Salmon Treaty for the next decade.[ Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Canada and the United States signed an aviation agreement during Bill Clinton's visit to Canada in February 1995, and air traffic between the two countries has increased dramatically as a result. The two countries also share in operation of the St. Lawrence Seaway, connecting the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.[56]

The U.S. is Canada's largest foreign investor and the most popular destination for Canadian foreign investments; Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

at the end of 2007, the stock of U.S. direct investment in Canada was estimated at $293 billion, while Canadian direct investment (stock) in the United States was valued at $213 billion.[57][58] U.S. FDI accounts for 59.5% of total foreign direct investment in Canada while Canadian FDI in the U.S. accounts for 10% (5th largest foreign investor).[59] US investments are primarily directed at Canada's mining and smelting industries, ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

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petroleum, chemicals, the manufacture of machinery and transportation equipment, and finance, while Canadian investment in the United States is concentrated in manufacturing, wholesale trade, real estate, petroleum, finance, and insurance and other services.

The United States and Canada have the largest trade relationship in the world.[1] SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

In 2012, US merchandise trade with Canada consisted of $324.2 billion in imports and $292.4 billion in exports.[2] The trade relationship between the two countries crosses all industries and is vital to both nations’ success. Each country is the largest trade partner of the other. The trade across Ambassador Bridge between Windsor, Ontario and Detroit, Michigan alone is equal to all the trade between the United States and Japan. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

Since 1866, free trade has been a debated topic by Canadian politicians.[citation needed] Free trade was generally supported by the Liberal Party of Canada, and was a main topic in the 1911 Canadian Federal Election.[citation needed] After the Liberals lost that election, the topic was a non-issue for many years. Although there were many bilateral agreements reducing tariffs, HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

a free trade agreement was not reached until the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement in 1987. The agreement intended to promote a free market between the two nations, and encourage investments within that market.

The Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement laid the groundwork for a multilateral agreement between, the United States, Mexico, and Canada, called the North American Free Trade Agreement. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

NAFTA has helped fuel the relations between the three nations. Although there are some discrepancies between the countries’ especially in the area of automobiles and agriculture, the trends are negligible as the agreement has arguably been a boon for none all nations involved.

There are several disputes arising from the bilateral trade between the two nations. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

The United States has placed Canada on its Special 301 watch list overintellectual property rights enforcement (although under the mildest category of "rebuke"). Other products from Canada under dispute include softwood lumber, beef, tomatoes, and other agricultural products.[4]

The heightened border security as a result of the 2001 terrorist attacks has been an issue of concern for businesses in both countries. Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

The Issue has become less of a concern as technology, registration, training, and fewer rules. However a midpoint estimate of US $10.5 billion cost to businesses in delays and uncertain travel time.[1]

One ongoing and complex trade issue involves the importation of cheaper prescription drugs from Canada to the United States. Due to the Canadian government'sprice controls as part of their state-run medical system, HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

prices for prescription drugs can be a fraction of the price paid by consumers in the unregulated U.S. market. While laws in the United States have been passed at the national level against such sales, specific state and local governments have passed their own legislation to allow the trade to continue. American drug companies—often supporters of political campaigns—have obviously come out against the practice. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

According to a 2007 study commissioned by the Canadian Embassy in the United States, Canada–U.S. trade supported 7.1 million U.S. jobs.

The Canada–United States softwood lumber dispute is one of the most significant and enduring trade disputes in modern history. The dispute has had its biggest effect on British Columbia, the major Canadian exporter of softwood lumber to the United States.COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

The heart of the dispute is the claim that the Canadian lumber industry is unfairly subsidized by the federal and provincial governments. Specifically, most timber in Canada is owned by provincial governments. The price charged to harvest the timber (the "stumpage fee") is set administratively rather than through a competitive auction, as is often the practice in the United States.Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

The United States claims that the provision of government timber at below market prices constitutes an unfair subsidy. Under U.S. trade remedy laws, foreign goods benefiting from subsidies can be subject to a countervailing duty tariff to offset the subsidy and bring the price of the product back up to market rates.

Since the September 11th attacks, there has been debate on whether there should be further North American integration. HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

Some have proposed the adoption of the Amero under the North American Currency Union as the official currency of North America.While these discussions are more prevalent in Canada, studies have shown that United States citizens would not object to economic integration. According to Former U.S. Ambassador Paul Cellucci however, “Security trumps trade” in the United States, HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

and so as long as Canada is considered a possible point of entry for terrorists, such integration seems unfeasible.

The strength of the Canada-U.S. relationship is demonstrated by impressive bilateral trade of approximately $1.9 billion a day, along the world’s longest undefended border. Energy trade is the largest component of this cross-border commerce. Canada has the third-largest oil reserves, HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

after Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, because of its oil-sands resources. The United States has historically been Canada’s only foreign market for natural gas, oil, and hydro power. In 2010, almost 100% of Canada’s exports in these commodity classes were destined for the United States. Canada is the largest foreign supplier of crude oil (25% of oil imports) and natural gas to the United States. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

In short, this energy relationship has enhanced U.S. energy security and provided Canada with security of demand for its energy exports. Yet, this highly integrated U.S.-Canada energy relationship may change dramatically in the near future. U.S. oil and natural gas production and reserves are expanding because of growing shale oil and gas developmentsHP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

. Furthermore, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts slower growth in U.S. oil and natural gas consumption in the coming decades to 2035. Consequently, the United States no longer appears to be an unlimited market for Canadian energy, leaving Canada seeking new destinations. In addition, imminent policy decisions in the United States, such as whether to approve Keystone XL, HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

may have profound effects on the U.S.-Canada energy relationship for decades and will have a significant impact on energy markets beyond North America. Both Canada and the U.S. are increasingly reliant on foreign investment to develop their resource sectors, and Asia has been an important source of capital. Asian investors initially focused on project investments as minority jointventure partners but are showing increasing interest in owning production companies. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

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Asian investors' objectives for investing in the North American energy sector include both attractive financial returns on investment as well as an interest in North America as an energy supply source for their economies. The expanding energy investment and trade between North America and Asia can be mutually beneficial. Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

Because English is the majority language in both countries, and accents and dialects on both sides of the border are (relatively) similar (as compared to the British or Australian English), both high culture and mass media are easily traded between the two countries. Both countries have minority-language media, of course: Canada has a large francophone population and the United States a large hispanophone population, HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

and both countries have other immigrant and indigenous language populations; however, cultural trade is mostly through the English-language media. The major difference is that America's English-language media market is more fifteen times as large, meaning that American producers of books, newspapers, magazines, radio programs, songs, films, and websites have an in-built advantage over their Canadian competitors. Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

This has been the case since the nineteenth century when Canada was flooded with American books. It was also the case in the 1920s when Canada's radio market was dominated by American broadcasts, leading cultural nationalists to form the Canadian Radio League, a pressure group demanded that the Canadian government create a publicly funded broadcaster to compete with the American stations. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan


This was the beginning of a pattern Canadian cultural protectionism, which has caused frequent trade disputes between the two nations. During the 1950s, the pattern was repeated in television, with Canadian stations airing US programming and US stations broadcasting into Canada, leading to the creation of CBC Television in response. Since the 1970s, Canadian radio and television stations have been required to air a minimum percentage of Canadian Content. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

One source of tension is a difference in philosophy: the Canadian position is that Canada's culture must be protected to preserve Canada's nationhood and should therefore be excluded from free trade agreements, whereas Americans negotiators have claimed that media is a commodity like any other. This difference came light during the dispute over "split-run" magazine during the 1990s. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

Split-runs are American or other foreign magazines which produce a slightly modified Canadian edition and which re-sell much of the advertising space in the magazine to Canadian advertisers. Publishers of Canadian magazines argued that the Americans were poaching all their advertising revenue without producing substantial Canadian content. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

The American publishers and the US government claimed that banning "split-runs" was illegal under international trade law. There have also been disputes over the generous tax credits that the Canadian federal and provincial governments give to television and film productions. This, combined with a weaker Canadian dollar caused American filmmakers to complain during the 1990s that "runaway productions" were hurting American employment in the film industry, especially in California. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

The economies of Canada and the United States are similar because they are both developed countries and are each other's largest trading partners. However, key differences in population makeup, geography, government policies and productivity all result in different economies.

In Canada total tax and non-tax revenue for every level of government equals about 38.4% of GDP,[1] compared to the U.S. rate of 28.2%.[2] HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

A significant portion of this tax differential is due to spending differences between the two countries. While the US is running deficits of about 4% of GDP,[3] Canada's Federal government posted a budget surplus of around 1% of GDP per year from the mid-1990s until 2008, and is projected to enter back into a surplus by 2016.[4] The deficit patterns and indebtedness of Canada's individual provinces vary like they do in the US among different states. HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

Considered in a revenue-neutral context, the differential is much smaller - Canada's total governmental spending was about 36% of GDP[5]vs. 31% in the US.[3] In addition, caution must be used when comparing taxes across countries, due to the different services each offers. Whereas the Canadian healthcare system is 70% government-funded, the US system is just under 50% government-funded (mostly via Medicare and Medicaid); SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

adding the additional healthcare-spending burden to the above figures to obtain comparable numbers (+3% for Canada, +7% for the US) gives adjusted expenditures of 38–39% of GDP for each of the two nations.

The taxes are applied the same as well. Canada's income tax system is more heavily biased against the highest income earners, thus while Canada's income tax rate is higher on average[, the bottom fifty percent of the population is roughly taxed the same on income as in the United States. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

However, Canada has a national goods and services tax (GST) of 5% on most purchases, while the U.S. federal government does not, increasing the tax burden on Canadian low-income earners due to the proportional nature of a sales tax. Canadian GST does not tax food and other essentials and a GST rebate for low-income earners mitigates regressiveness.[6] HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

In addition to the 5% GST levied on most purchases, some Canadians also pay a provincial sales tax at a rate that varies by province and can be as high as 10%. In Ontario, for example, where the provincial sales tax (PST) is 8%, consumers must pay a total of 13% sales tax on top of the purchase price. (It should be noted that Ontario has eliminated both the PST and GST, ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

replacing them with harmonized sales tax, or HST, of 13%, which changes the sales tax on some items.) There are some purchases which are PST exempt, such as children's clothing. In the U.S., most states impose a sales tax, and cities and counties are often permitted to levy taxes as well, which can exceed 10% on purchases but realistically average at about 6-8%. Five U.S. states do not have any sales tax imposed.[7] IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

The Canadian province of Alberta and all three territories have no provincial or territorial sales tax on top of the GST.

Government spending at all levels (federal, state/provincial and local) has traditionally been higher in Canada than the United States. In Canada, government spending as a percentage of GDP peaked at 53% in 1992. Since 1992 spending has steadily declined in Canada to just below 40 percent in 2008.[8] SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

Spending in the United States fluctuated narrowly around 34-38 percent of GDP over the same period.[9] However, starting in 2008 US spending has turned sharply upwards to reach an estimated 42.7% of GDP in 2009[dated info] [10] from 39% in 2008. Spending is expected to reach 45% of GDP in 2011[dated info],[11] and stabilize at that level.

For its higher taxes Canada has a larger system of social programs than the United States. Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan

This includes having a national broadcaster in the CBC, a largely government-funded health care system, and having all major universities receive partial government funding. The United States, however, does have most of its major universities subsidized by state government. The US also has two national public broadcasters which receive partial government funding, PBS (television) and NPR (radio).

The greatest difference in social programs is in health care. Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan

Contrary to popular belief, the U.S. Government spends as much on health care, 7% of GDP, as the Canadian government does,[12] and total healthcare spending is much higher - 14.6% of GDP in the US vs. 10% in Canada.[13] Canadians, however, receive comparable care to those Americans who receive treatment, and result measures. HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

The Canadian health care system is said by some also to be attractive to employers, as in Canada health care is mostly paid through employee income taxes, while in the United States most companies choose to extend health benefits to full-time employees. Many employers in Canada do offer employees some additional medical coverage, for non-necessary treatments, and for pharmaceuticals which are not universally covered by the government-paid health insurance system. Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan

The most common complaint regarding the Canadian system are the long lines and waiting periods that have appeared for minor and non-life threatening procedures over the last 15 years, since the introduction of widespread cuts to public funding. Separately, a number of medical tests and screenings are not covered (or due to increasing costs, are no longer covered) by the Canadian health system, forcing patients to pay for these services out of their own pockets. Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan

For these reasons, some relatively wealthy Canadians undergo treatment at private healthcare facilities at their own expense, either in Canada, in India, or in other nations[14] to avoid waiting for medical treatment, joining "medical tourists" from many nations, including the US.[14] Despite these sporadic problems, Canada's healthcare performance is generally on par with the US.[Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Efforts were made to reduce wait times by many provincial governments in the 1990s and 2000s, in an effort to improve care. Furthermore, healthcare coverage is universal for Canadians, and transferable outside a home province within Canada. In the United States, however, the most common complaint is that approximately 50 million people are uninsured, and thus do not have access to even the most basic healthcare services which Canadians have access to. Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan

This puts a burden on the emergency room services in the States and causes increases in healthcare costs significantly.

The United States has since the Sherman Anti-Trust Act been strongly opposed to monopolies. In Canada this has been far less of an issue, and Canada has never had rigorously enforced rules against monopolization, and in certain situations the government has even encouraged monopolies. HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan

However, the Canadian government is more willing to interfere in the operations of large, integrated firms where they appear to be acting against the public interest, offsetting in part one reason that American law prevents large-scale monopolization. Historical transport policy led to the promotion of one railway operator & one dominant flag carrier and the promotion of bus carriers through the suppression of other bus-like services. HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan

In telecommunications policy, oligopoly conditions are reinforced through the actions of the Canada Radio and Telecommunications (CRTC). Foreign ownership has been banned in Canada's cell phone market (Though one Egyptian-owned entrant, WIND mobile, has led to a possibility of a liberalization of telecommunications) Banking policy has been regulated through Bank Acts passed by Parliament. Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan

Canada is generally forced to follow American monetary policy quite closely, any large difference in interest rates could quickly lead to large problems for the Canadian economy. The U.S. Federal Reserve and the Bank of Canada both staunchly believe in fighting inflation while neither aggressively pursue policies offull employment. HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan

One difference that has emerged recently is that while Canada is still hewing closely to the balanced budgets policies of the 1990s the United States has moved into a heavy deficit, a policy both countries followed in the 1970s and 1980s.

One of the most important differences historically between Canada and the United States was the size of the two markets. When both nations had high tariffs the two countries did not have a unified market. HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan

Canada's smaller market led to higher prices and greater inefficiency.

A good example of this is the automobile industry, which can be clearly demarcated into two periods: before and after the free trade creating Auto Pact of 1969. Before this, Canada had its own production lines creating each of the models that would be sold in Canada. HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan

These branch plant factories would only make small production runs of each vehicle, requiring frequent, and expensive retoolings. The factories would also generally be smaller. Fewer varieties were available to Canadian consumers and prices were generally higher. However, these cars were almost all still made by American companies. After the Auto Pact, the industry was transformed as a unified North American market was created. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan

The Canadian factories were rebuilt to be much larger, but to make only one model that would be sold in both countries creating large economies of scale. The prices of cars fell in Canada as wages and total employment in the automobile sector increased.

After the Second World War tariffs between the two countries gradually fell, with full free trade being established by the 1988 Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement. Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan

Some industries are still protected, however. These are mostly perceived as sensitive areas such as cultural industries including publishing, television, and newspapers, all of which have stringent foreign ownership rules. Other areas such as the transport industry are also protected with Canadian control of the airlines and trains being viewed as in the national interest. Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan

This tends to create far more monopolies in Canada. For instance the air travel industry in Canada until recently was dominated by a single airline, Air Canada. Canada has long had to make a trade-off between monopolization and efficiency which the United States has not. The United States can support a number of airlines that are big enough to operate efficiently, and still have a competitive market (although in recent years the competitiveness of the major US airlines declined sharply). HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Canadians are forced to choose between small inefficient airlines that would be competitive, or monopolistic airlines that will generate their own inefficiency.

Canada and the United States have long had very different banking systems. The United States' was copied from England, while Canada's was taken from Scotland. The United States traditionally has had a plethora of banks, some with very few branches.TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

The U.S. system continues to support the creation of numerous small banks through both government-sponsored institutions like the Federal Home Loan Banks and similar non-government entities like Bankers' bank, that does not exist in markets like Canada. This has led to a more competitive but less stable system, with many thousands of banks having collapsed during U.S. history. HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan

TheGlass–Steagall Act and other laws and regulations prevented U.S. banks from growing beyond certain limits. Changes allowed U.S. banks to grow and the Glass–Steagall Act was repealed in 1999. Canada has always had far fewer banks per capita, but the banks have been larger and quickly expanded nationwide. Canadian banks have many branches and distributed assets. Canada has only had one major bank, the Home Bank, collapse in its history. Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan

This concentration of banks in Canada relative to the U.S. has continued to this day. In 2002, Canada's the six largest banks controlled 90 percent of Canadian domestic banking assets, while the five largest U.S. banks controlled only 9.7 percent of their domestic assets.

There are several subsidies in the U.S. system that do not exist in Canada. In terms of direct impact to consumers, DELL R859C CPU Fan

mortgage interest is a tax deductible in the U.S. (a market distortion designed to encourage home ownership), but is not in Canada. The U.S. also indirectly subsidizes mortgages through a plethora ofgovernment sponsored enterprises. The U.S. entities do much more than provide mortgage insurance, and use their own huge balance sheets to purchase mortgages. Toshiba Satellite A105-S2101 CPU Fan

The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation historically was mainly limited to providing mortgage insurance, although now facilitates funding of mortgages also through the Canada Mortgage Bond program, which has also grown to be quite large.

Canada's banks have traditionally been fierce competitors internationally, while America's largest banks have had a more significant presence overseas. SONY Vaio VGN-FW140E CPU Fan

In part, the history of this situation is rooted in Canada's smaller market. For Canadian banks, international exchange was always a central concern. For American banks, domestic banking was paramount. In the 1920s, Canadian banks dominated the international banking sector due to greater expertise and focus in the American economic centre of New York. Thus Canadian banks came to have a wider spread networks. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

Much of the banking system in the West Indies is controlled by the Canadian banks. Canadian banks also have far more of a presence in the United States than American firms do in Canada. In part, this is because American firms cannot buy Canadian banks, but Canadian banks have, at times, been able to buy American ones. Since the large Canadian banks already operated nationwide chains of a thousand or more branches, SONY Vaio VPC-EB4S1E/WI CPU Fan

they find it relatively easy to integrate smaller chains of American banks into their systems.

In recent years this advantage has disappeared as American banks have also grown substantially in size and today have many branches, and the large American banks are now operating over 2000 branches each. In fact, the ten largest banks in North America today are all U.S.-based. HP Pavilion dv9580ed CPU Fan

Overseas, American banks have a larger presence than Canadian banks. Only Royal Bank of Canada's RBC Capital Markets division has a global scale that even approaches that of the U.S. investment banks.

Until recently, Canadian banks had historically been far less strictly regulated than their American counterparts. Canadian banks had, until the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act in 1999, been freer to participate in the financial planning and insurance industries than their American counterparts. Toshiba Satellite L305D-S5934 CPU Fan

In the 1980s and 1990s, the large Canadian banks acquired almost all significant trust and brokerage companies in Canada. They also started their own mutual fund and insurance businesses. As a result, Canadian banks broadened out to become supermarkets of financial services, a trend that started later in the U.S. market. The average U.S. bank is a domestic banking operation. SONY Vaio VGN-CR31S/P CPU Fan

The large Canadian banks are financial conglomerates, with large domestic Canadian banking operations.

Bank regulation in the United States is highly fragmented compared to Canada which has only OSFI as the bank regulator (although credit unions are provincially regulated). In the U.S., a bank's primary regulator could be the Federal Reserve Board, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, HP Pavilion dv5-1210et CPU Fan

the Office of Thrift Supervision, or any one of 50 state regulatory bodies, depending on the charter of the bank. And within the Federal Reserve Board, there are 12 districts with 12 different regulatory staffing groups. The U.S. is also one of the most highly regulated banking environments in the world; however, many of the regulations are not safety and soundness related, but are instead focused on privacy, SONY Vaio VGN-FW465J/B CPU Fan

disclosure, fraud prevention, anti-money laundering, anti-terrorism, anti-usurylending, and promoting lending to lower-income segments. Even individual cities enact their own financial regulation laws (for example, for usury lending). Canadian banks have not faced laws against usury, or interest guarantees on deposits. Return on equity for Canadian banks were generally comparable to U.S. banks (with return on assets lower, but with Canadian banks using more leverage to compensate). HP Envy 15 CPU Fan

Credit unions in Canada are tax-paying entities, while they have been tax-exempt in the U.S. However, as restrictions on the size of credit unions in the U.S. have eased, the American Bankers Association has lobbied to have credit unions taxed to level the playing field.

In Canada prices have long tended to be higher. This is partly because of structural issues in Canada such as low population densityand harsher weather , HP Pavilion dv7-1190er CPU Fan

and partly due to Canada's tax system, which depends more heavily on sales taxes relative to income taxes than the US. This has contributed to phenomena such as cross-border shopping. Since the early 1990s this has not been the case[as the Canadian dollar had fallen low enough[vague] that it more than made up for price differences[Today prices are somewhat lower in Canada for at least one item: Toshiba Satellite A105-S4074 CPU Fan

the Big Mac Index shows that in January 2006 a Big Mac cost $3.15 in the States and only $3.01 in Canada [1] (both figures in USD). In October, 2007 a strong Canadian dollar rose to parity with a weak American dollar, benefiting Canadian travelers and consumers. However, this was not favorable to Canadian manufacturers and exporters who do most of their business south of the border.  IBM MCF-208AM05-1 CPU Fan

As the economic conditions decayed in 2008, a flight to safety in the American dollar and lower prices[quantify] for Canadian commodities[which?] reversed some of the growth in the Canadian dollar relative to the American dollar.

Fuel prices have always been higher in Canada, even though Canada is a net exporter of energy. This is because Canada, unlike many oil producers, does not heavily subsidize fuel. Prices are based on the world market price. IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

Canadian workers are estimated to be 82% as productive per hour as their American counterparts.[15] The industries with the largest productivity advantages for the U.S. are the manufacturing (particularly electronics and computer), finance, and service sectors. Industries where Canada is more productive than the U.S. are the construction and natural resources sectors with Canadian workers achieving 129% relative productivity.[16]  HP GB0507PGV1-A CPU Fan

The productivity gap had been even larger in the 1950s but the difference has been narrowing, aided by the elimination of the smaller market problem through free trade. The gap was still closing somewhat in the 1980s but at a much slower pace than in the 1960s. From 1961 to 1973 labour productivity rose annually by 3.3 percent in Canada and 1.7 percent in the United States. IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

From 1973 to 1995 productivity growth was 1.1% in Canada and 0.8% in the United States.[17]

The productivity gap began to widen again in the 1990s, particularly in the manufacturing sector. By 2000, this was called Canada's "Excellence Gap" by the Chief Economist of Canadian Manufacturers & Exporters.[18] The United States has the second-highest productivity of the G8 countries,[19] while Canada's is 5th based on the 1997 estimate.[20] HP Pavilion dv6-3385la CPU Fan

Five main reasons for the productivity gap: the lower capital intensity of economic activity in Canada; an innovation gap in Canada relative to the United States; Canada's relatively underdeveloped high-tech sector; less developed human capital in Canada in terms of proportionately fewer university graduates and scientists and engineers in research and development; and more limited economies of scale and scope in Canada. HP Pavilion tx2510us  CPU  Fan

Both Canada and the U.S. follow the Wagoner Act model of regulating trade unions and collective bargaining, though legislation regulating organized labor principally falls under provincial jurisdiction in Canada. That North American model differs significantly from patterns of organized labor found in other developed countries.

For several decades Canada typically had reported its unemployment rate as somewhat higher than the US rate. HP G62-b55EV CPU Fan

For example, in June 2008 the reported unemployment in the US was 5.5 percent and 6.1% in Canada. However, a closer examination reveals that the two countries measure the unemployment rate differently. Craig Riddell, a University of British Columbia economist, found th

at a 0.9% difference was caused by the differing measurement systems.[21] HP Pavilion dv6-2145sf CPU Fan

Statistics Canada has also acknowledged this, and it now publishes a second unemployment rate using the same methodology as the Americans. Using the American methodology, the June 2008 Canadian unemployment rate was 5.3%, which was 0.2% lower than the American rate.[22]

Prior to the identification of the difference in methodologies, some politicians claimed that higher income taxes, HP Pavilion dv7-1120ew CPU Fan

restrictive labour laws, unions, universal healthcare, and greater unemployment benefits in Canada were causing a higher actual unemployment rate. However, when unemployment insurance and welfare were sharply cut in many parts of Canada during the 1990s there was little gain in employment relative to the Americans. Others attempted to explain the reported difference in terms of the large number of seasonal workers in trades such as fishing and logging who are unemployed for a portion of the year. HP 538340-001 CPU Fan\

While the United States has in recent years had a large trade deficit, Canada had for several decades maintained a trade surplus, which turned to a deficit since 2006.[23] The Canadian surplus had been almost entirely due to trade with the United States. Canada has trade deficits with Europe and Asia, just as the Americans do. In 2005, Canada exported about $109 billion worth of goods more than they imported from the U.S. HP 535766-001 CPU Fan

With the rest of the world, Canada had a trade deficit of $47 billion creating an overall surplus of some $62 billion.

Although wealth is more highly concentrated in the U.S., the median (50th percentile) worker has essentially the same purchasing power in each nation. In terms of purchasing power parity, the most recent statistics from the IMF has Canada (US $35,494) lower than that in the United States (US $43,444).[25] HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

In the late 1990s, the GDP gap widened. In this period, GDP increased by 5% annually in the United States, and 2% in Canada. Earlier, it had been narrowing between 1961 and 1995. However, it was closing at a much faster rate in the 1960s than the early 1990s. From 1961 to 1973, real GDP grew at an average annual rate of 5.5% in Canada and 4.0% in the United States. From 1973 to 1995 it was 2.6% in Canada and 2.3% in the USA. [2HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

] Canada was not hit as hard by the economic downturn in 2001, however, so cumulative growth in real GDP has been almost exactly the same amount in each country over the last 15 years.

The United Nations Human Development Index ranks the United States (fourth) higher than Canada (eighth).[26] Other independent groups, such as the Economist have ranked each of Canada's four largest cities as better places to live than any American city. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

In their 2005 ranking, Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver and Ottawa ranked within the top 10 livable cities while the highest-ranked American cities, Cleveland and Pittsburgh, were tied at 26th place.[27]

Canada ranks higher than the U.S. in statistics such as life expectancy (80.22 years in Canada versus 77.85 in the U.S.) and infant mortality (4.75 Canadian deaths per 1000 versus 6.50 in the States). HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

Both countries rank highly with 99% literacy rates. The United States has more major consumer goods per capita than Canada. For instance, while Canada had only 297 computers per 1000 people in 1996, the United States had 403.

Average income is slightly higher in the United States. However, as of 2009, Canada's median family income surpassed that of the USA by approximately 10%.HP 533736-001 CPU Fan

In terms of racial disparity, United States African-Americans and Hispanics have a lower standard of living than the rest of the population; in Canada, Aboriginal peoples and Black Canadians are disproportionately likely to live in poverty, although these groups represent 25% of the US population and only 6% of Canada's. In both countries, recent immigrants tend to have lower earnings than more established residents. IBM 13R2760 CPU Fan

Canada's French-Canadians also used to be a poorer group, but since the Quiet Revolution in the 1960s this has been partially remedied.The United States measures poverty, while Canada does not have an official measure (see Poverty in Canada#Measures of poverty in Canada), although Statistics Canada measures something called the Low-Income Cutoffs, ACER LU.S040A.067 CPU Fan

the statistical agency repeatedly states that this is not a poverty measure (it is an income dispersion measure like the Gini coefficient). In the United States the poverty line is set at triple the "minimum adequate food budget." When a common measure is used, such as that of the Luxembourg Income Study, the United States has higher rates. The LIS reports that Canada has a poverty rate of 15.4% and the United States 18.7%. [3] ACER LU.S050B.078 CPU Fan

In both countries lower incomes are found in those most affected by poverty include single-parent families and single elderly people.

It may be said the cost of absorbing lower skilled, poorer workers in the US skews comparison studies downward for the United States[28] (see also Economic impact of illegal immigrants in the United States). DELL Studio 1535 CPU Fan

In recent years, what otherwise would have been a reduction in the low-income cutoff, was more than offset by the impact of immigration. According to a 2003 study by Statistics Canada "The rise in the low-income rates in the three major Canadian cities, and in Ontario and B.C. during the 1990s in particular, was largely concentrated among the immigrant population. HP Pavilion dv6736nr CPU Fan

Basically, low-income rates have been falling over the past two decades among the Canadian born, and rising among immigrants."[29] A more recent January 2007 study by Statistics Canada explains that the low-income rates of new immigrants has deteriorated by yet another significant amount from 2000 to 2004[30] (see also Economic impact of immigration to Canada). HP Envy 15-1050ca CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv7-6100et CPU Fan,APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

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