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The culture of the United Kingdom is the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with the United Kingdom and its people. It is influenced by the UK's history as a developed island country, a liberal democracy and a major power, its predominantly Christian religious life, and its composition of four countries—England, HP Pavilion dv6-1045ee CPU Fan

Northern Ireland,Scotland and Wales—each of which has distinct customs, cultures and symbolism. The wider culture of Europe has also influenced British culture, and Humanism, Protestantism and representative democracy developed from broader Western culture. HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan

British literature, music, cinema, art, theatre, media, television, philosophy and architecture are influential and respected across the world. The United Kingdom is also prominent in science and technology. Sport is an important part of British culture; numerous sports originated in the country, including football. HP Pavilion dv6t-3200 CTO CPU Fan

The UK has been described as a "cultural superpower",[3][4] and London has been described as a world cultural capital.[5][6][7][8]

The Industrial Revolution, with its origins in the UK, had a profound effect on the socio-economic and cultural conditions of the world. Toshiba Satellite L505-144 CPU Fan

As a result of the British Empire, significant British influence can be observed in thelanguage, culture and institutions of a geographically wide assortment of countries, including Australia, Canada, India, Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

These states are sometimes collectively known as the Anglosphere, and are among Britain's closest allies.[9][10] In turn the empire also influenced British culture, particularly British cuisine.[11]

The cultures of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are diverse and have varying degrees of overlap and distinctiveness. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

First spoken in early medieval England, the English language is the de facto official language of the UK, and is spoken monolingually by an estimated 95% of the British population.[12][note 1]

However, individual countries within the UK have frameworks for the promotion of their indigenous languages. Toshiba Satellite A660-BT2N22 CPU Fan

In Wales, all pupils at state schools must either be taught through the medium of Welsh or study it as an additional language until age 16, and the Welsh Language Act 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998 provide that the Welsh and English languages should be treated equally in the public sector, so far as is reasonable and practicable. Toshiba Satellite P305-S8814 CPU Fan

Irish and Ulster Scots enjoy limited use alongside English in Northern Ireland, mainly in publicly commissioned translations. The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act, passed by the Scottish Parliament in 2005, recognisedGaelic as an official language of Scotland, commanding equal respect with English, Toshiba Satellite L550-13U CPU Fan

and required the creation of a national plan for Gaelic to provide strategic direction for the development of the Gaelic language.[note 2] There is also a campaign under way to recogniseScots as a language in Scotland, though this remains controversial. The Cornish language enjoys neither official recognition nor promotion by the state in Cornwall. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

Under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, the UK Government has committed to the promotion of certain linguistic traditions. The United Kingdom has ratified the charter for: Welsh (in Wales), Scottish Gaelic and Scots (in Scotland), Cornish (in Cornwall), and Irish and Ulster Scots (in Northern Ireland). British Sign Language is also a recognised language. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan

At its formation, the United Kingdom inherited the literary traditions of England, Scotland and Wales, including the earliest existing native literature written in the Celtic languages, Old English literature and more recent English literature including the works ofGeoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare and John Milton. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

The early 18th century is known as the Augustan Age of English literature. The poetry of the time was highly formal, as exemplified by the works of Alexander Pope, and the English novel became popular, with Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (1721), Samuel Richardson's Pamela (1740) and Henry Fielding's Tom Jones (1749). HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

From the late 18th century, the Romantic period showed a flowering of poetry comparable with the Renaissance 200 years earlier and a revival of interest in vernacular literature. In Scotland the poetry of Robert Burnsrevived interest in Scots literature, and the Weaver Poets of Ulster were influenced by literature from Scotland. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

In Wales the late 18th century saw the revival of the eisteddfod tradition, inspired by Iolo Morganwg. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) by Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy.

In the 19th century, major poets in English literature included William Blake, IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Alfred Lord Tennyson, John Keats, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Percy Shelley and Lord Byron. The Victorian period was the golden age of the realistic English novel, represented by Jane Austen, theBrontë sisters (Charlotte, Emily and Anne), Charles Dickens, William Thackeray, George Eliot and Thomas Hardy. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

World War I gave rise to British war poets and writers such as Wilfred Owen, Siegfried Sassoon, Robert Gravesand Rupert Brooke who wrote (often paradoxically), of their expectations of war, and/or their experiences in the trench.

The most widely popular writer of the early years of the 20th century was arguably Rudyard Kipling. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

To date the youngest ever recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature, Kipling's novels include The Jungle BookThe Man Who Would Be King and Kim, while his inspirational poem If— is a national favourite. Like William Ernest Henley's poem Invictus,[16] it is a memorable evocation of Victorian stoicism, a traditional British virtue.[17] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Notable Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, James Joyce, Bram Stoker, Jonathan Swift, George Bernard Shaw andW. B. Yeats. The Celtic Revival stimulated a new appreciation of traditional Irish literature. The Scottish Renaissance of the early 20th century brought modernism to Scottish literature as well as an interest in new forms in the literatures of Scottish Gaelic and Scots.FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

The English novel developed in the 20th century into much greater variety and it remains today the dominant English literary form.

Other globally well-known British novelists include George Orwell, C. S. Lewis, Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, H. G. Wells,D. H. Lawrence, Mary Shelley, Lewis Carroll, J. R. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

R. Tolkien, Virginia Woolf, Ian Fleming, Walter Scott, Agatha Christie, J. M. Barrie, Joseph Conrad, Graham Greene, E. M. Forster, Aldous Huxley, Roald Dahl, Helen Fielding, Arthur C. Clarke, Alan Moore, Ian McEwan, Anthony Burgess, Evelyn Waugh, William Golding, Salman Rushdie, Douglas Adams, P. G. Wodehouse, HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

Martin Amis, Anthony Trollope, Beatrix Potter, A. A. Milne, Philip Pullman, Terry Pratchett, H. Rider Haggard, Neil Gaimanand J. K. Rowling. Important British poets of the 20th century include Rudyard Kipling, W. H. Auden, Ted Hughes, Philip Larkin, John Betjeman and Dylan Thomas. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

In 2003 the BBC carried out a UK survey entitled The Big Read in order to find the "nation's best-loved novel" of all time, with works by English novelists Tolkien,Austen, Pullman, Adams and Rowling making up the top five on the list. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

From its formation in 1707, the United Kingdom has had a vibrant tradition of theatre, much of it inherited from England and Scotland. The West End is the main theatre district in the UK, which is located in the West End of London.[19][20] The West End'sTheatre Royal in Covent Garden in the City of Westminster dates back to the mid 17th century, making it the oldest London theatre.[21] HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

In the 18th century, the highbrow and provocative Restoration comedy lost favour, to be replaced by sentimental comedy, domestictragedy such as George Lillo's The London Merchant (1731), and by an overwhelming interest in Italian opera. Popular entertainment became more important in this period than ever before, FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

with fair-booth burlesque and mixed forms that are the ancestors of the English music hall. These forms flourished at the expense of legitimate English drama, which went into a long period of decline. By the early 19th century it was no longer represented by stage plays at all, but by the closet drama, plays written to be privately read in a "closet" (a small domestic room). DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

In 1847, a critic using the pseudonym Dramaticus published a pamphlet[22] describing the parlous state of British theatre. Production of serious plays was restricted to the patent theatres, and new plays were subjected to censorship by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

At the same time, there was a burgeoning theatre sector featuring a diet of low melodrama and musical burlesque; but critics described British theatre as driven by commercialism and a 'star' system.

A change came in the late 19th century with the plays on the London stage by the Irishmen George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde, who influenced domestic English drama and vitalised it again. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre was opened in Shakespeare's birthplaceStratford upon Avon in 1879; and Herbert Beerbohm Tree founded an Academy of Dramatic Art at Her Majesty's Theatre in 1904.[25] ProducerRichard D'Oyly Carte brought together librettist W. S. Gilbert and composer Arthur Sullivan, and nurtured their collaboration.[26Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

] AmongGilbert and Sullivan's best known comic operas are H.M.S. PinaforeThe Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado.[27] Carte built the West End's Savoy Theatre in 1881 to present their joint works, and through the inventor of electric light Sir Joseph Swan, the Savoy was the first theatre, and the first public building in the world, to be lit entirely by electricity.[28][29] DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

Sadler's Wells, under Lilian Baylis, nurtured talent that led to the development of an opera company, which became the English National Opera (ENO), a theatre company, which evolved into the National Theatre, and a ballet company, which eventually became the English Royal Ballet. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

Making his professional West End debut at the Garrick Theatre in 1911, flamboyant playwright, composer and actor Noël Coward had a career spanning over 50 years, in which he wrote many comic plays, and over a dozen musical theatre works.[32] In July 1962, a board was set up to supervise construction of aNational Theatre in London and a separate board was constituted to run a National Theatre Company and lease the Old Vic theatre. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

The Company was to remain at the Old Vic until 1976, when the new South Bankbuilding was opened. A National Theatre of Scotland was set up in 2006. Today the West End of Londonhas a large number of theatres, particularly centred on Shaftesbury Avenue. A prolific composer of musical theatre in the 20th century, HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

Andrew Lloyd Webber has been referred to as "the most commercially successful composer in history".[24] His musicals which include; The Phantom of the OperaCatsJesus Christ Superstar and Evita, have dominated the West End for a number of years and have travelled to Broadway in New York and around the world as well as being turned into films.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Lloyd Webber has worked with producer Sir Cameron Mackintosh, lyricist Sir Tim Rice, actress and singer Sarah Brightman, while his musicals originally starred Elaine Paige, who with continued success has become known as the First Lady of British Musical Theatre.[33] Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

The Royal Shakespeare Company operates out of Stratford-upon-Avon, producing mainly but not exclusively Shakespeare's plays.[34]Important modern playwrights include Nobel laureate Harold Pinter, Tom Stoppard, Alan Ayckbourn, John Osborne, Michael Frayn andArnold Wesker. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

While the British national anthem "God Save the Queen" and other patriotic songs such as "Rule, Britannia!" represent the United Kingdom, each of the four individual countries of the UK also has their own patriotic hymns. Edward Elgar's "Land of Hope and Glory", and Hubert Parry's "Jerusalem" set to William Blake's poem And did those feet in ancient timeHP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

are among England's most patriotic hymns.[37] Scottish patriotic songs include "Flower of Scotland", "Scotland the Brave" and "Scots Wha Hae"; patriotic Welsh hymns include "Bread of Heaven", set to the tune "Cwm Rhondda", and "Land of My Fathers"; the latter is the national anthem of Wales.[38] HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The patriotic Northern Irish ballad Danny Boy is set to the tune "Londonderry Air". The traditional marching song, "The British Grenadiers", is often performed by British Army bands, and is played at the Trooping the Colour.[39] Written by British Army bandmaster F. J. Ricketts, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the "Colonel Bogey March" is often whistled, becoming part of British way of life during World War II.[40] George Frideric Handel composed Zadok the Priest in 1727 for the coronation of George II, which has been performed at every subsequent British coronation, traditionally performed during the sovereign's anointing. Jeremiah Clarke's "Trumpet Voluntary" is popular for wedding music, and has featured in royal weddings.[41] HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Other notable British composers: Henry Purcell, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Benjamin Britten, Gustav Holst, William Byrd, Thomas Tallis, Henry Wood, John Taverner, John Blow, Arthur Sullivan, William Walton, John Stafford Smith, Henry Bishop, Ivor Novello, Malcolm Arnold, Michael Tippett and John Barry have made major contributions to British music, and are known internationally. HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Living composers include Sir George Martin, Harrison Birtwistle, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Oliver Knussen, Harry Gregson Williams, Mike Oldfield, John Rutter, James MacMillan, Joby Talbot, John Powell, David Arnold, Anne Dudley, Trevor Horn, John Murphy, Brian Eno, Clint Mansell,Craig Armstrong and Michael Nyman. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The traditional folk music of England has contributed to several genres, such as sea shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. Wynkyn de Worde's printed ballads of Robin Hood from the 16th century are an important artefact, as are John Playford's The Dancing Master and Robert Harley's Roxburghe Ballads collections.[42] IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some of the best known songs are GreensleevesScarborough FairPastime with Good CompanyOver the Hills and Far Away amongst others. The bagpipes have long been a national symbol of Scotland, and the Great Highland Bagpipe is widely recognised. The most famous Scottish folk song, Auld Lang Syne, is well known throughout the English-speaking world, and is often sung to celebrate the start of the New Year, especially at Hogmanay in Edinburgh.[43] HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

From the mid-16th century, nursery rhymes began to be recorded in English plays.[44] Some of the best known nursery rhymes from Britain include; Twinkle Twinkle Little StarRoses are redJack and JillCock a doodle dooBaa, Baa, Black SheepThe Grand Old Duke of YorkLondon Bridge Is Falling DownHey Diddle DiddleSONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Three Blind MiceLittle Miss MuffetPat-a-cakePop Goes the WeaselOne, Two, Buckle My ShoePeter PiperHickory Dickory DockRock-a-bye Baby,One for SorrowThis Old ManSimple SimonOld Mother HubbardLittle Bo PeepSing a Song of SixpenceMary, Mary, Quite ContraryOld King Cole and Humpty Dumpty.[45] HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Christmas carols in English first appear in a 1426 work by John Awdlay, a Shropshire chaplain who lists twenty five "caroles of Cristemas", probably sung by groups of 'wassailers', who went from house to house.[46] Some of the most notable carols from the UK include; We Wish You a Merry ChristmasO Come All Ye FaithfulHP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The First NoelGod Rest You Merry, GentlemenThe Holly and the IvyI Saw Three ShipsDeck the HallsIn the Bleak MidwinterJoy to the WorldOnce in Royal David's CityHark! The Herald Angels SingWhat Child Is This?Good King WenceslasHere We Come A-Caroling and While Shepherds Watched Their FlocksHP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The music of Christmas has always been a combination of sacred and secular, and every year in the UK there is highly publicised competition to be the Christmas number one single, which has led to the production of music which still provides the mainstay of festive playlists. During WWII, Vera Lynn was known as the Forces' Sweetheart,  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

with "We'll Meet Again", sung to British troops, among the songs most associated with her.[47] The UK single and album charts are revealed every Sunday on BBC Radio 1, with Elton John's "Candle in the Wind 1997" the best-selling single in the UK, and Queen's Greatest Hits the best-selling album. SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The United Kingdom supports a number of major orchestras including the BBC Symphony Orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, thePhilharmonia, the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra. London is one of the world's major centres for classical music: Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

it has several important concert halls and is also home to the Royal Opera House, one of the world's leading opera houses. British traditional music has also been very influential abroad. The Brit Awards, the BPI's annual pop music awards, take place at The O2 Arena every February.[54] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The UK was one of the two main countries in the creation and development of many genres of popular music, including; rock music; The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Who, The Kinks; hard rock; Led Zeppelin, Cream, Def Leppard, Whitesnake; progressive rock; Pink Floyd,Genesis, Yes; Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

glam rock; Queen, Elton John, David Bowie, T. Rex, blues rock; The Yardbirds, The Animals, Eric Clapton, Dire Straits; heavy metal; Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Iron Maiden, Motörhead, Judas Priest; punk rock; Sex Pistols, The Clash, Billy Idol; new wave;The Police, Elvis Costello, Culture Club, Duran Duran; goth rock; HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Cure, Siouxsie and the Banshees; art rock; The Moody Blues,Emerson, Lake and Palmer, Procol Harum, Peter Gabriel, Kate Bush; folk rock; Van Morrison, Cat Stevens, Donovan, Mumford & Sons; soft rock; The Hollies, blue-eyed soul; Dusty Springfield, Tom Jones, Steve Winwood; disco; SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Bee Gees; synth pop; Depeche Mode, Eurythmics, Pet Shop Boys; reggae; UB40; pop rock; Rod Stewart, Phil Collins, Sting, Joe Cocker, Robert Palmer, Bonnie Tyler; alternative rock; The Smiths, New Order, Radiohead, Coldplay; symphonic rock; ELO, Muse; Britpop; Oasis, Blur, The Verve; soul; Sade, Amy Winehouse, Adele. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The UK has also pioneered various forms of electronic dance music including dubstep, acid house, uk garage, drum and bass and trip hop, with acts including; The Prodigy, Massive Attack, Jamiroquai, The Chemical Brothers, Gorillaz, Calvin Harris and Fatboy Slim. Other notable British artists in pop music include; APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Spice Girls, George Michael, Seal, Leona Lewis, One Direction and Robbie Williams. In 2009, British artists topped the decade end ranking, with "Chasing Cars" by Snow Patrol announced as the most widely played song of the decade in the UK, and Back to Bedlam by James Blunt the best selling album of the 2000s in the UK.[55][56HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Since the mid 2000s, British rap is becoming increasingly popular, mainly within the youth of large cities such as London, Manchester, Birmingham, Nottingham, Leeds and Sheffield. Popular British R&B artists include Taio Cruz, Jay Sean, M.I.A. and Jessie J.

The UK has had a large impact on modern cinema, producing some of the greatest actors, directors and motion pictures of all time, including Sir Alfred Hitchcock, HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Charlie Chaplin, David Lean, Laurence Olivier, Vivien Leigh, Audrey Hepburn, John Gielgud, Sean Connery, Richard Burton, Vanessa Redgrave, Michael Caine, Anthony Hopkins and Daniel Day-Lewis. The BFI Top 100 British films is a poll conducted by the British Film Institute which ranks what they consider to be the 100 greatest British films of all time. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Two of the biggest actors in the silent era were Charlie Chaplin and Stan Laurel. English photographer Eadweard Muybridge pioneered motion picture,[57] while pioneering Scottish documentary maker John Grierson coined the term "documentary" to describe a non-fiction film in 1926.[58] Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Hitchcock's first thriller, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog (1926), helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his 1929 film, Blackmail, is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.[59][60] The 39 Steps (1935) features a signatureHitchcock cameo, and established the quintessential English 'Hitchcock blonde' Madeleine Carroll as the template for his succession of ice cold and elegant leading ladies.[6HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

1] Sir Alexander Korda's The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933), was the first British production to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. Boris Karloff played the leading role in several major Hollywood horror films in the 1930s. Famous for recording many motion picture film scores, the London Symphony Orchestra first performed film music in 1935. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The first British Academy Film Awards ceremony took place in 1947. Sir Laurence Olivier starred in and directed Henry V (1944), and Hamlet (1948), the latter being the first non-American film to win the Academy Award for Best Pictureand also picked up the BAFTA Award for Best Film. HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The third Shakespearean film directed by Olivier was Richard III (1955). The British film-making partnership of Powell and Pressburger made a series of influential films in the 1940s and 1950s, with The Red Shoes (1948) their most commercially successful film. Carol Reed directed The Third Man (1949), regarded among the best British films of the 20th century.[64] Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

David Lean emerged as a major filmmaker in the 1940s with Brief Encounter (1945) and Great Expectations (1946), and his first big-screen epic The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957) won seven Academy Awards. Towards the end of the 1950s, Hammer Films embarked on their series of influential and wildly successful horror films,  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

including lavish colour versions of Frankenstein (1957), Dracula(1958) and The Mummy (1959), with actors Peter Cushing and Christopher Lee at the forefront. The Dam Busters (1955), recreates the true story of the RAF's raid on dams in Nazi Germany using Sir Barnes Wallis's invention the "bouncing bomb".HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Carry On series, which consists of 31 comedy motion pictures, commenced in 1958. A West Country native where many well-known English pirates hailed from, Robert Newton's portrayal of Long John Silver in 1950s films popularised the stereotypical West Country pirate accent.[65] ACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Films that explored the "Swinging London" phenomenon of the 1960s included, Alfie (1966), Blowup (1966) and Bedazzled (1967). TheJames Bond film series began in the early 1960s, with Sean Connery in the leading role. Bond, portrayed by Connery, was selected as the third-greatest hero in cinema history by the AFI.[6 HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

6] After The Beatles films A Hard Day's Night (1964) and Help! (1965), it became standard for each new pop group to have a verité style feature film made about them. A Man for All Seasons (1966), based on Sir Thomas More, is listed by theVatican as being among the greatest religious movies of all time.  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Other major British films of the 1960s included Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Tom Jones (1963), Zulu (1964) and Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines (1965). Four of the decade's Academy Award winners for best picture were British productions, including six Oscars for the film musical Oliver! (1968), based on Charles Dickens' classic Oliver Twist Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The caper film The Italian Job (1969), starringMichael Caine, is regarded as one of the greatest British films ever, with the line "You were only supposed to blow the bloody doors off!" by Caine voted favourite film one-liner in a poll.[69] Other British actors in starring roles in 1960s films included Richard Burton,  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Peter Sellers, Audrey Hepburn (played Cockney flower girl Eliza Doolittle in My Fair Lady, 1964), Julie Christie, Peter Ustinov,Rex Harrison, Alec Guinness, David Niven and Julie Andrews, whose portrayal of English nanny Mary Poppins is named one of the greatest movie characters.[70] HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Ken Russell's Women in Love (1969) starred Glenda Jackson, who won the Academy Award for best actress.

In the 1970s, Ronald Neame directed the festive favourite Scrooge (1970). A Clockwork Orange (1971), based on Anthony Burgess' novella of the same name, starred Malcolm McDowell as the leader of a gang of thugs in a dystopian future Britain.[71] HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British horror film The Wicker Man (1973), starring Christopher Lee, is considered a cult classic. Two adaptations of Agatha Christie stories Murder on the Orient Express (1974) and Death on the Nile (1978) were critically acclaimed. British musical comedy film The Rocky Horror Picture Show(1975) featuring Tim Curry,  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

is the longest-running theatrical release in film history.[72] In the mid-1970s, seminal British comedy teamMonty Python switched their attention to films, beginning with Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975), followed by Monty Python's Life of Brian (1979), the latter regularly voted the funniest film of all time by the British public.[73][ DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

74] Hollywood blockbusters that were filmed at major British studios in 1977–79, include Star Wars (featuring Alec Guinness, and 'the dean of special effects' John Stears)[75] at Elstree Studios, Superman (featuring Terence Stamp) at Pinewood, and Alien (directed by Ridley Scott) at Shepperton. HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

British films won back to back Academy Award for best picture in the 1980s, with Chariots of Fire (1982), followed by Gandhi (1983).John Hurt won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor for his titular role as 19th-century Englishman Joseph Merrick in The Elephant Man (1980).Richard Marquand directed Star Wars Episode VICompaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

: Return of the Jedi in 1983, the only non-American to direct a Star Wars film. The 1985 dark comedy fantasy film, Brazil, is regarded as one of the best British films of the mid 1980s, while the 1987 black comedy, Withnail and I, has been described as "one of Britain's biggest cult films".[76] HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

During the late 1980s, a number of young British actors who were becoming major stars, such as Gary Oldman, Daniel Day-Lewis, Colin Firth, Tim Roth and Rupert Everett, were dubbed the 'Brit Pack'.[77]

The 1990s saw a large number of traditional British period dramas, including Sense and Sensibility (1995),  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Restoration (1995), Emma(1996), Mrs. Brown (1997), The Wings of the Dove (1997), Shakespeare in Love (1998) and Topsy-Turvy (1999). Anthony Minghella's biggest directorial success was The English Patient (1996), winning nine Academy Awards. English film composer Michael Nyman wrote the critically acclaimed score for The Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Piano (1993). Elton John and lyricist Sir Tim Rice collaborated to write music for Disney's The Lion King (1994), winning the Academy Award for Best Original Song, as did Phil Collins for Disney's Tarzan (1999). Scottish composer Craig Armstrong wrote the award winning score for the modern version of Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet (1996). HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

BAFTA award winning British films included Danny Boyle's drama Trainspotting (1996) that centres on life in Edinburgh, the 1997 comedy The Full Monty set in Sheffield, and the biographical drama Elizabeth (1998). Richard Curtis's 1994 film Four Weddings and a Funeral set a pattern for British-set romantic comedies, including Sliding Doors (1998) and Notting Hill (1999). HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At the start of the 21st century, three major international British successes were the romantic comediesBridget Jones's Diary (2001), sequel Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason (2004), and Richard Curtis's directorial debut Love Actually(2003). In 2000, Leavesden Film Studios began filming the first instalment of the Harry Potter film series.[78HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] English composer Clint Mansell's score for Requiem for a Dream has been well received,[79] and its main theme Lux Aeterna has gained wide usage in popular culture and has featured in a number of film trailers. Famous for his creation Mr. Bean, the much celebrated comedian Rowan Atkinsonstarred in Johnny English (2003). HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Wallace and Gromit creator and four time Academy Award winning animator Nick Park directed Chicken Run(2000) and Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit (2005). Helen Mirren starred as Elizabeth II in The Queen (2006), winning Academy and Bafta Awards for best actress. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Acclaimed British sci-fi films, 28 Days Later (2002), and Children of Men (2007), depict a dystopian Britain. Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire (2008) was the most successful British film of the decade, receiving critical acclaim and won eight Academy Awards.[80] Based on Mark Millar's comic, the superhero action comedy-film Kick-Ass (2010), HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

directed byMatthew Vaughn and starring Aaron Taylor-Johnson as the title character, won the Empire Award for Best British Film. Historical drama The King's Speech (2010), featuring Colin Firth as George VI, received widespread acclaim, won four Academy Awards and seven Baftas, and is being hailed as the most successful independent British film ever.[81][8HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

2] In 2012, the twenty-third James Bond film Skyfall became thehighest-grossing film of all-time in the UK.

The five most commercially successful British directors in recent years are David Yates, Christopher Nolan,Mike Newell, Ridley Scott and Paul Greengrass.[84] Other contemporary British film directors include Guy Ritchie, HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Alan Parker, Tony Scott, Terry Gilliam, Richard Attenborough, Kenneth Branagh, Paul W. S. Anderson, Tom Hooper, Edgar Wright, Matthew Vaughn, Richard Curtis, Danny Boyle, Steve McQueen and Sam Mendes.

British actors and actresses have always been significant in international cinema. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Well-known currently active performers include the likes of Catherine Zeta-Jones, Ian McKellen, Clive Owen, Jude Law, Rachel Weisz, Ewan McGregor, Kate Winslet, Hugh Grant, Colin Firth,Daniel Radcliffe, Daniel Craig, Emma Watson, Keira Knightley, Ralph Fiennes, Orlando Bloom, HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Tilda Swinton, Christian Bale, Jason Statham, Idris Elba, Paul Bettany, Sacha Baron Cohen, Emma Thompson, Kate Beckinsale, Michael Sheen, Helena Bonham Carter, Hugh Laurie, Ben Kingsley, Christopher Lee, Alan Rickman, Jason Isaacs, John Hurt, Emily Blunt, Benedict Cumberbatch, Sienna Miller, Bill Nighy, HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Carey Mulligan, Ray Winstone, Peter O'Toole, Jeremy Irons, Gary Oldman, Helen Mirren, Liam Neeson, Tim Roth, Robert Pattinson,Julie Andrews, Sean Bean, Gemma Arterton, Gerard Butler, Tom Hiddleston, Maggie Smith, Russell Brand, Andrew Garfield, Henry Cavill,Simon Pegg, Chiwetel Ejiofor,  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Tom Hardy, Patrick Stewart, Daniel Day-Lewis, Judi Dench, Anthony Hopkins and Michael Caine.

Hollywood films with a British dimension have had enormous worldwide commercial success. Many of the highest-grossing films worldwide of all time have a British historical, cultural or creative theme. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Films based on British historical events; RMSTitanic,[85] Piracy in the Caribbean,[86] Mutiny on the Bounty,[87] The Great Escape,[88] historical people; William Wallace,Lawrence of Arabia, King Arthur, Elizabeth I, British stories; The Lord of the RingsHarry PotterJames BondThe Chronicles of NarniaSherlock HolmesFrankensteinA Christmas CarolHP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Charlie and the Chocolate FactoryTreasure IslandThe War of the Worlds among many others, while British video game Tomb Raider featuring English archaeologist Lara Croft, has been made into feature films. British influence can also be seen with the 'English Cycle' of Disney animated films, which feature Alice in WonderlandPeter PanCompaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Jungle BookRobin HoodThe Hundred and One DalmatiansThe Sword in the StoneThe Rescuers andWinnie the Pooh.

The UK has been at the forefront of developments in film, radio, and television. Broadcasting in the UK has historically been dominated by the taxpayer-funded but independently run British Broadcasting Corporation or BBC, HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

although other independent radio and television (ITV, Channel 4, Five) and satellite broadcasters (especially BSkyB which has over 10 million subscribers[90]) have become more important in recent years. BBC television, and the other three main television channels are public service broadcasters who, HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

as part of their license allowing them to operate, broadcast a variety of minority interest programming. The BBC and Channel 4 are state-owned, though they operate independently.

Many successful British TV shows have been exported around the world, such as Pop Idol (created by Simon Fuller), HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?Britain's Got Talent (created by Simon Cowell), The X FactorHell's Kitchen (created by Gordon Ramsay), The Office(created by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant), Ramsay's Kitchen NightmaresStrictly Come DancingDoctor WhoDownton Abbey and Top GearHP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British Film Institute drew up a list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes in 2000, voted by industry professionals.[91] In 2004 the BBC conducted a nationwide poll to find "Britain's Best Sitcom".[92]

The United Kingdom has a large number of national and local radio stations which cover a great variety of programming. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The most listened to stations are the five main national BBC radio stations. BBC Radio 1, a new music station aimed at the 16–24 age group. BBC Radio 2, a varied popular music and chat station aimed at adults is consistently highest in the ratings. BBC Radio 4, a varied talk station, is noted for its news, current affairs, drama and comedy output as well as The ArchersHP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

its long running soap opera, and other unique programmes. The BBC, as a public service broadcaster, also runs minority stations such as BBC Asian Network, BBC Radio 1Xtra and BBC Radio 6 Music, and local stations throughout the country. Talksport is one of the biggest commercial radio stations in the UK. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

From the creation of the United Kingdom, the English school of painting is mainly notable for portraits and landscapes, and indeed portraits in landscapes. Among the artists of this period are Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723–1792), George Stubbs (1724–1806), and Thomas Gainsborough (1727–1788). DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

William Hogarth painted far more down-to-earth portraits and satires, and was the first great English printmaker.

The late 18th century and the early 19th century was perhaps the most radical period in British art, producing William Blake(1757–1827), DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

John Constable (1776–1837) and William Turner (1775–1851), three of the most influential British artists, each of whom have dedicated spaces allocated for their work at the Tate Britain.[95]

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (PRB) achieved considerable influence after its foundation in 1848 with paintings that concentrated on religious, literary, and genre subjects executed in a colourful and minutely detailed style. HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

PRB artists included John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and subsequently Edward Burne-Jones. Also associated with it was the designer William Morris, whose efforts to make beautiful objects affordable (or even free) for everyone led to his wallpaper and tile designs to some extent defining the Victorian aesthetic and instigating the Arts and Crafts movement. HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Visual artists from the United Kingdom in the 20th century include Lucian Freud, Francis Bacon, David Hockney, Bridget Riley, and the pop artists Richard Hamilton and Peter Blake. Also prominent amongst twentieth-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general.[96] HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sir Jacob Epstein was a pioneer of modern sculpture. In 1958 artist Gerald Holtom designed the protest logo for the British CND, which later became a universal peace symbol used in many different versions worldwide.[97] As a reaction to abstract expressionism, pop art emerged originally in England at the end of the 1950s. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Known for his thickly impasted portrait and figure paintings, Lucian Freud was widely considered the pre-eminent British artist of his time.[98] The 1990s saw the Young British Artists, Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin.

Randolph Caldecott, Walter Crane, Kate Greenaway, John Tenniel, Aubrey Beardsley, Roger Hargreaves, Arthur Rackham,  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

John Leech, George Cruikshank and Beatrix Potter were notable book illustrators. In the late 1960s, British graphic designer Storm Thorgerson co-founded the English graphic art group Hipgnosis, who have designed many iconic single and album covers for rock bands. His works were notable for their surreal elements,  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

with perhaps the most famous being the cover for Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon.[99] The subversive political artwork of Banksy (pseudonym of the renowned English graffiti artist whose identity is concealed) can be found on streets, walls and buildings all over the world, and has also featured in TV shows.[100][1HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

01] Arts institutions include the Royal College of Art, Royal Society of Arts, New English Art Club, Slade School of Art, Royal Academy, and the Tate Gallery (founded as the National Gallery of British Art).

The architecture of the United Kingdom includes many features that precede the creation of the United Kingdom in 1707, SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

from as early as Skara Brae and Stonehenge to the Giant's Ring, Avebury and Roman ruins. In most towns and villages the parish church is an indication of the age of the settlement. Many castles remain from the medieval period such as; Windsor Castle (longest-occupied castle in Europe),[102]  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Stirling Castle (one of the largest and most important in Scotland),[103] Bodiam Castle (moated castle), and Warwick Castle. Over the two centuries following the Norman conquest of England of 1066, and the building of the Tower of London, castles such as Caernarfon Castle in Wales and Carrickfergus Castle in Ireland were built. HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

English Gothic architecture flourished from the 12th to the early 16th century, and famous examples include Westminster Abbey, the traditional place of coronation for the British monarch, which also has a long tradition as a venue for royal weddings;[105] Canterbury Cathedral, one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England; ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Salisbury Cathedral, which has the tallest church spire in the UK;[106] and Winchester Cathedral, which contains the longest nave and overall length of any Gothic cathedral in Europe.[107]

In the United Kingdom, a listed building is a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical or cultural significance. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

About half a million buildings in the UK have "listed" status.

In the 1680s, Downing Street was built by Sir George Downing, and its most famous address 10 Downing Street, became the residence of the Prime Minister in 1730.[108] One of the best known English architects working at the time of the foundation of the United Kingdom was Sir Christopher Wren. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

He was employed to design and rebuild many of the ruined ancient churches of London following the Great Fire of London. His masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral, was completed in the early years of the United Kingdom.[109] Buckingham Palace, the official London residence of the British monarch, was built in 1705. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the early 18th century baroque architecture – popular in Europe – was introduced, and Blenheim Palace was built in this era. However, baroque was quickly replaced by a return of the Palladian form. The Georgian architecture of the 18th century was an evolved form of Palladianism. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Many existing buildings such as Woburn Abbey and Kedleston Hall are in this style. Among the many architects of this form of architecture and its successors, neoclassical and romantic, were Robert Adam, Sir William Chambers, and James Wyatt. The aristocratic stately home continued the tradition of the first large gracious unfo

rtified mansions such as the Elizabethan Montacute House andHatfield House. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

During the 18th and 19th centuries to the highest echelons of British society, theEnglish country house served as a place for relaxing, hunting and running the countryside. Many stately homes have become open to the public; Knebworth House, now a major venue for open air rock and pop concerts,[111] ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Alton Towers, theme park and the most popular in the UK,[112] and Longleat, the world's first safari park outside Africa.

In the early 19th century the romantic medieval gothic style appeared as a backlash to the symmetry of Palladianism, and such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to develop incorporating steel as a building component; one of the greatest exponents of this was Joseph Paxton, architect of the Crystal Palace. Paxton also continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular retrospective Renaissancestyles. HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In this era of prosperity and development British architecture embraced many new methods of construction, but ironically in style, such architects as August Pugin ensured it remained firmly in the past.

At the beginning of the 20th century a new form of design arts and crafts became popular,  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the architectural form of this style, which had evolved from the 19th century designs of such architects as George Devey, was championed by Edwin Lutyens. Arts and crafts in architecture is symbolised by an informal, non-symmetrical form, often with mullioned or lattice windows, multiple gablesand tall chimneys. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This style continued to evolve until World War II. Following the Second World War, reconstruction went through a variety of phases, but was heavily influenced by Modernism, especially from the late 1950s to the early 1970s. Many bleak town centre redevelopments—criticised for featuring hostile, HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

concrete-lined "windswept plazas"—were the fruit of this interest, as were many equally bleak public buildings, such as the Hayward Gallery. Many Modernist inspired town centres are today in the process of being redeveloped, Bracknell town centre being a case in point. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

However, in the immediate post-War years many thousands (perhaps hundreds of thousands) of council houses in vernacular style were built, giving working-class people their first experience of private gardens and indoorsanitation.

Modernism remains a significant force in UK architecture, although its influence is felt predominantly in commercial buildings. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The two most prominent proponents are Lord Rogers of Riverside and Norman Foster. Rogers' iconic London buildings are probably Lloyd's Building and the Millennium Dome, while Foster created the 'Gherkin' and the City Hall. Completed in 2012, the Shard London Bridge is the tallest building in the European Union.[115HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

] Other major skyscrapers under construction in London include The Pinnacle, and Heron Tower.[116][117] Modernist architect Nicholas Grimshaw designed the Eden Project in Cornwall, which is the world's largest greenhouse.

Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, Reading and Leeds Festivals. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

The UK was at the forefront of the illegal, free rave movement from the late 1980s, which led to pan-European culture of teknivalsmirrored on the UK free festival movement and associated travelling lifestyle.[119] The most prominent opera house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent Gardens.[120] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The Proms, a season of orchestral classical music concerts held at the Royal Albert Hall, is a major cultural event held annually.[120] The Royal Ballet is one of the world's foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built on two prominent figures of 20th century dance, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is the world’s largest arts festival.[121] Established in 1947, it takes place in Scotland's capital during three weeks every August alongside several other arts and cultural festivals. The Fringe mostly attracts events from the performing arts, particularly theatre and comedy, although dance and music also figure significantly. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

The circus is a traditional form of entertainment in the UK. Chipperfield's Circus dates back more than 300 years in Britain, making it one of the oldest family circus dynasties.[114] Philip Astley is regarded as the father of themodern circus. Following his invention of the circus ring in 1768,[122] Astley's Amphitheatre opened in London in 1773. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

As an equestrian master Astley had a genius for trick horse-riding, and when he added tumblers, tightrope-walkers, jugglers, performing dogs, and a clown to fill time between his own demonstrations – the modern circus was born.[123][124] Having began his theatrical career with Hughes Royal Circus in London in the 1780s, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Englishman John Bill Ricketts brought the modern circus to the US in 1792, and he gave America's first complete circus performance in Philadelphia on 3 April 1793.[123] Joseph Grimaldi is the most celebrated of English clowns, and is widely considered the father of modern clowning. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

Much of the folklore of the United Kingdom pre-dates the UK. Though some of the characters and stories are present across Britain, most belong to specific countries or regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elfs, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angeln and Weyland Smith,[127] others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.[128] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

During the High Middle Ages tales originated from Brythonic traditions, notably the Arthurian myth.[129][130][131] Deriving from Welsh source;King Arthur, Excalibur and Merlin, while the Jersey poet Wace introduced the Knights of the Round Table. These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum BritanniaeHP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Another early figure from British tradition, King Cole, may have been based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain, a collection of shared British folklore.

The Loch Ness Monster is a cryptid that is reputed to inhabit Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

The legendary monster has been affectionately referred to by the nickname Nessie since the 1950s.[132] The Leprechaun figures large in Irish folklore. A mischievous fairy type creature in emerald green clothing who when not playing tricks spend all their time busily making shoes, Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

the Leprechaun is said to have a pot of gold hidden at the end of the rainbow, and if ever captured by a human it has the magical power to grant three wishes in exchange for release.[133] In mythology, English fairy tales such as Jack and the Beanstalk helped form the modern perception of giants as stupid and violent, HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

while the legendary dwarf Tom Thumb is a traditional hero in English folklore. English fairy tale Goldilocks and the Three Bears is one of the most popular fairy tales in the English language.[134] Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry, the heroic English figure Hereward the Wake resisted the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park, and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.[135] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while the colourful English piratesBlackbeard and Calico Jack are renowned.[86] The Gremlin is part of RAF folklore dating from the 1920s, with gremlin being RAF slang for a mishievous creature that sabotages aircraft, meddling in the planes equipment.[136] ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

Legendary figures from nineteenth century London whose tales have been romanticised include Sweeney Todd, the murderous barber of Fleet Street, and serial killer Jack the Ripper. On 5 November, people in England make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in commemoration of the foiling of the Gunpowder Plotcentred on Guy Fawkes, Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

which became an annual event after The Thanksgiving Act of 1606 was passed.[137] The Guy Fawkes mask has become an emblem for anti-establishment protest groups.

Halloween is a traditional and much celebrated holiday in Scotland and Ireland on the night of 31 October.[139] The name Halloweenis first attested in the 16th century as a Scottish shortening of the fuller All-Hallows-Even,[140HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

] and according to some historians has its roots in the gaelic festival Samhain, where the Gaels believed the border between this world and the otherworld became thin, and the dead would revisit the mortal world.[141] In 1780, Dumfries poet John Mayne makes note of pranks at Halloween; "What fearfu' pranks ensue!"HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

as well as the supernatural associated with the night, "Bogies" (ghosts).[142] The bard of Scotland Robert Burns' 1785 poem "Halloween" is recited by Scots at Halloween, and Burns was influenced by Mayne's composition.[142][143] In Scotland and Ireland, traditional Halloween customs include; HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Guising — children disguised in costume going from door to door requesting food or coins – which became practice by the late 19th century,[144][145] turnips hollowed-out and carved with faces to make lanterns,[146] holding parties where games such as apple bobbing are played.[147] Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

Other practices in Ireland include lightingbonfires, and having firework displays.[148][149] Further contemporary imagery of Halloween is derived from Gothic and Horrorliterature (notably Shelley's Frankenstein and Stoker's Dracula), and classic horror films (such as Hammer Horrors). HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

Mass transatlantic Irish and Scottish migration in the 19th century popularised Halloween in North America.

Each country of the United Kingdom has its own body responsible for heritage matters.

English Heritage is the governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrasting role. Seventeen of the United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites fall within England.[152]Some of the best known of these include; HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

Hadrian's Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast,Westminster, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and various others.[153]

Historic Scotland is the executive agency of the Scottish Government, responsible for historic monuments in Scotland, such asStirling Castle. The Old and New Town of Edinburgh is a notable Scottish World Heritage site. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

Many of Wales' great castles, such as the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd and other monuments, are under the care ofCadw, part of the Welsh Government.

The Northern Ireland Environment Agency promotes and conserves the natural and built environment in Northern Ireland, and The Giants Causeway in the northeast coast, is one of the UK's natural World Heritage sites. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

The British Museum in London with its collection of more than seven million objects,[154] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world,[155] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

National Museums of Scotland bring together national collections in Scotland. Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales comprises eight museums in Wales. The Titanic Belfast museum, a visitor attraction in the Titanic Quarter, east Belfast, Northern Ireland on the regenerated site of the shipyard where Titanic was built, was officially opened to the public in March 2012.[156DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

] The architecture is a tribute to Titanic itself, with the external facades, a nod to the enormous hull of the cruise liner.[157] The first Madame Tussauds wax museum opened in London in 1835, and today displays waxworks of famous people from various fields, including; HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

royalty (Princess Diana), historical figures (Henry VIII), sports heroes (Beckham) among others.[158]

The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize.[159] The National Galleries of Scotland are the five national galleries of Scotland and two partner galleries. The National Museum of Art, Wales, opened in 2011. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

The British Library in London is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books.[161] The National Library of Scotland in Edinburgh, holds 7 million books, fourteen million printed items and over 2 million maps.[162] HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

The National Library of Wales is the national legal deposit library of Wales.

From the time of the Scientific Revolution, England and Scotland, and thereafter the United Kingdom, have been prominent in world scientific and technologicaldevelopment. The Royal Society serves as the national academy for sciences, with members drawn from many different institutions and disciplines. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Formed in 1660, it is one of the oldest learned societies still in existence.

Sir Isaac Newton's publication of the Principia Mathematica ushered in what is recognisable as modern physics. The first edition of 1687 and the second edition of 1713 framed the scientific context of the foundation of the United Kingdom. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

He realised that the same force is responsible for movements of celestial and terrestrial bodies, namely gravity. He was the father of classical mechanics, formulated as his three laws and as the co-inventor (with Gottfried Leibniz) of differential calculus. He also created the binomial theorem, worked extensively on optics, and created a law of cooling. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Since Newton's time, figures from the UK have contributed to the development of most major branches of science. Examples include Michael Faraday, who, with James Clerk Maxwell, unified the electric and magneticforces in what are now known as Maxwell's equations; James Joule, who worked extensively in thermodynamics and is often credited with the discovery of the principle of conservation of energy; HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

Paul Dirac, one of the pioneers of quantum mechanics; naturalist Charles Darwin, author of On the Origin of Species and discoverer of the principle of evolution by natural selection; Harold Kroto, the discoverer of buckminsterfullerene; William Thomson (Baron Kelvin) who drew important conclusions in the field of thermodynamics and invented the Kelvinscale of absolute zero; HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

botanist Robert Brown discovered the random movement of particles suspended in a fluid (Brownian motion); and the creator of Bell's Theorem, John Stewart Bell. Other British pioneers in their field include; Joseph Lister (Antiseptic surgery), Edward Jenner (Vaccination), ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

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