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David Livingstone David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with theLondon Missionary Society and an explorer in Africa. His meeting with H. M. Stanley gave rise to the popular quotation, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" COMPAQ Presario CQ60-112EM Laptop Keyboard Perhaps one of the most popular national heroes of the late 19th century in Victorian Britain, Livingstone had a mythic status, which operated on a number of interconnected levels: that of Protestant missionary martyr, that of working-class "rags to riches" inspirational story, that of scientific investigator and explorer, that of imperial reformer, anti-slavery crusader, and advocate of commercial empire. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard His fame as an explorer helped drive forward the obsession with discovering the sources of the River Nile that formed the culmination of the classic period of European geographical discovery and colonial penetration of the African continent. At the same time his missionary travels, "disappearance" and death in Africa, SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard and subsequent glorification as posthumous national hero in 1874 led to the founding of several major central African Christian missionary initiatives carried forward in the era of the European "Scramble for Africa".[1] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

Early life

David Livingstone was born on 19 March 1813 in the mill town of Blantyre, in a tenement building for the workers of a cotton factory on the banks of the Clyde River under the bridge crossing into Bothwell, Lanarkshire, Scotland.[2] He was the second of seven children born to Neil Livingstone (1788–1856) and his wife Agnes Hunter (1782–1865). DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard Along with many of the Livingstones, David was at the age of ten employed in the cotton mill of H. Monteith & Co. in the village of Blantyre Works. David and his brother John worked twelve-hour days as "piecers," tying broken cotton threads on the spinning machines. TOSHIBA PK13CW10100 Laptop Keyboard Livingstone's father Neil was very committed to his beliefs, a Sunday School teacher and teetotaller who handed out Christian tracts on his travels as a door to door tea salesman, and who read extensively books on theology, travel and missionary enterprises. This rubbed off on the young David, who became an avid reader, TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard but he also loved scouring the countryside for animal, plant and geological specimens in local limestone quarries. Neil Livingstone had a fear of science books as undermining Christianity and attempted to force him to read nothing but theology, but David's deep interest in nature and science led him to investigate the relationship between religion and science.[3] SONY VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Laptop Keyboard When in 1832 he read Philosophy of a Future State by the science teacher, amateur astronomer and church ministerThomas Dick, he found the rationale he needed to reconcile faith and science, and apart from the Bible this book was perhaps his greatest philosophicalinfluence.[4]HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard Other significant influences in his early life were Thomas Burke, a Blantyre evangelist and David Hogg, his Sabbath School teacher.[4] At age nineteen, David and his father left the Church of Scotland for a local Congregational church, influenced by preachers like Ralph Wardlaw who denied predestinatarian limitations on salvationHP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard . Influenced by American revivalistic teachings, Livingstone's reading of the missionary Karl Gützlaff's "Appeal to the Churches of Britain and America on behalf of China" enabled him to persuade his father that medical study could advance religious ends.[5]TOSHIBA MP-09K53US6698 Laptop Keyboard Livingstone's experience from age 10 to 26 in H. Monteith's Blantyre cotton mill, first as a piecer and later as a spinner, was also important. Necessary to support his impoverished family, this work was monotonous but taught him persistence, endurance, and a natural empathy with all who labour, as expressed by lines he used to hum from the egalitarian Rabbie Burns song: "When man to man, the world o'er / Shall brothers be for a' that".[6] HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard Livingstone attended Blantyre village school along with the few other mill children with the endurance to do so despite their 12-hour workday (6 am–8 pm), but having a family with a strong, ongoing commitment to study also reinforced his education. After reading Gutzlaff's appeal for medical missionaries for China in 1834, HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard he began saving money and in 1836 entered Anderson's College (now University of Strathclyde) in Glasgow, founded to bring science and technology to ordinary folk, and attended Greek and theology lectures at the University of Glasgow.[7] It is now known that to enter Medical School he required some knowledge of Latin. HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard A local Roman Catholic, Daniel Gallagher, helped him learn Latin to the required level. Later in life Gallagher became a Catholic priest and founded the third oldest Catholic Church in Glasgow, St. Simon's Church, Partick. A painting of both Gallagher and Livingstone by Roy Pertire hangs in that church's coffee room. St. Simons R.C. Church For pictures click here and scroll down In addition,  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard he attended divinity lectures by Wardlaw, a leader at this time of vigorous anti-slavery campaigning in the city. Shortly after, he applied to join the London Missionary Society (LMS) and was accepted subject to missionary training. He continued his medical studies in London while training there and was attached to a church in Ongar, ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard Essex, to be a minister under LMS.[5] Despite his impressive personality, he was a plain preacher and would have been rejected by the LMS had not the director given him a second chance to pass the course.[4]TOSHIBA Satellite L355 Laptop Keyboard Livingstone hoped to go to China as a missionary, but the First Opium War broke out in September 1839 and the LMS suggested the West Indies instead. In 1840, while continuing his medical studies in London, Livingstone met LMS missionary Robert Moffat, on leave from Kuruman, a missionary outpost in South Africa, HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard north of the Orange River. Excited by Moffat's vision of expanding missionary work northwards, and influenced by abolitionist T.F. Buxton's arguments that the African slave trade might be destroyed through the influence of "legitimate trade" and the spread of Christianity, Livingstone focused his ambitions on Southern Africa.[5] HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard He was deeply influenced by Moffat's judgment that he was the right person to go to the vast plains to the north of Bechuanaland, where he had glimpsed "the smoke of a thousand villages, where no missionary had ever been."[4]TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard David Livingstone also lived in Hamilton, South Lanarkshire from 1862 until his death on 1 May 1873. The house still stands and has a plaque can be seen outside the house (17 Burnbank Road). He was also awarded the freedom of the town of Hamilton. TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard After the Kolobeng mission had to be closed because of drought, he explored the African interior to the north, in the period 1852–56, and was the first European to see the Mosi-oa-Tunya ("the smoke that thunders") waterfall (which he renamed Victoria Falls after his monarch, Queen Victoria), of which he wrote later, "Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight." (Jeal, p. 149) HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard Livingstone was one of the first Westerners to make a transcontinental journey across Africa, Luanda on the Atlantic toQuelimane on the Indian Ocean near the mouth of the Zambezi, in 1854–56.[4] Despite repeated European attempts, especially by the Portuguese, central and southern Africa had not been crossed by Europeans at that latitude owing to their susceptibility to malaria, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard dysentery and sleeping sickness which was prevalent in the interior and which also prevented use of draught animals (oxen and horses), as well as to the opposition of powerful chiefs and tribes, such as the Lozi, and the Lunda of Mwata Kazembe. SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard The qualities and approaches which gave Livingstone an advantage as an explorer were that he usually travelled lightly, and he had an ability to reassure chiefs that he was not a threat. Other expeditions had dozens of soldiers armed with rifles and scores of hired porters carrying supplies, and were seen as military incursions or were mistaken for slave-raiding parties.  HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard Livingstone on the other hand travelled on most of his journeys with a few servants and porters, bartering for supplies along the way, with a couple of guns for protection. He preached a Christian message but did not force it on unwilling ears; he understood the ways of local chiefs and successfully negotiated passage through their territory, and was often hospitably received and aided, even by Mwata Kazembe.[4] HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard Livingstone was a proponent of trade and Christian missions to be established in central Africa. His motto, inscribed in the base of the statue to him at Victoria Falls, was "Christianity, Commerce and Civilization." At this time he believed the key to achieving these goals was the navigation of the Zambezi River as a Christian commercial highway into the interior.[8] TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Laptop Keyboard He returned to Britain to try to garner support for his ideas, and to publish a book on his travels which brought him fame as one of the leading explorers of the age. SONY VAIO VGN-AR170P Laptop Keyboard Believing he had a spiritual calling for exploration rather than mission work, and encouraged by the response in Britain to his discoveries and support for future expeditions, in 1857 he resigned from the London Missionary Society after they demanded that he do more evangelizing and less exploring.[4] With the help of the Royal Geographical Society's president, Livingstone was appointed as Her Majesty's Consul for the East Coast of Africa. TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Laptop Keyboard

Zambezi expedition

The British government agreed to fund Livingstone's idea and he returned to Africa as head of the Zambezi Expedition to examine the natural resources of southeastern Africa and open up the River Zambezi. Unfortunately it turned out to be completely impassable to boats past the Cabora Bassa rapids, a series ofcataracts and rapids that Livingstone had failed to explore on his earlier travels.[8]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5214 Laptop Keyboard The expedition lasted from March 1858 until the middle of 1864. Expedition members recorded that Livingstone was an inept leader incapable of managing a large-scale project. He was also said to be secretive, self righteous, moody and could not tolerate criticism which severely strained the expedition and which led to his physician, John Kirk, writing in 1862, HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard "I can come to no other conclusion than that Dr. Livingstone is out of his mind and a most unsafe leader".[9] The artistThomas Baines was dismissed from the expedition on charges (which he vigorously denied) of theft. The expedition became the first to reach Lake Malawi and they explored it in a four-oared gig.  FUJITSU Lifebook S6240 Laptop Keyboard In 1862 they returned to the coast to await the arrival of a steam boat specially designed to sail on Lake Malawi. Mary Livingstone also arrived along with the boat. She died on 27 April 1862 of malaria and Livingstone continued his explorations. Attempts to navigate the Ruvuma River failed because of the continual fouling of the paddle wheels from the bodies thrown in the river by slave traders, and Livingstone's assistants gradually died or left him.[9]Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard It was at this point that he uttered his most famous quote, "I am prepared to go anywhere, provided it be forward." He eventually returned home in 1864 after the government ordered the recall of the expedition because of its increasing costs and failure to find a navigable route to the interior. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505 Series Laptop Keyboard The Zambezi Expedition was castigated as a failure in many newspapers of the time, and Livingstone experienced great difficulty in raising funds further to explore Africa. Nevertheless, the scientists appointed to work under Livingstone,John Kirk, Charles Meller, and Richard Thornton did contribute large collections of botanic, ecological, geological and ethnographic material to scientific Institutions in the United Kingdom.[9] HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

The River Nile

In January 1866, Livingstone returned to Africa, this time to Zanzibar, from where he set out to seek the source of the Nile. Richard Francis Burton, John Hanning Speke and Samuel Baker had (although there was still serious debate on the matter) identified either Lake Albert or Lake Victoria as the source (which was partially correct,  HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard as the Nile "bubbles from the ground high in the mountains of Burundi halfway between Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria"[10]). Livingstone believed the source was further south and assembled a team of freed slaves, Comoros Islanders, twelve Sepoys and two servants, Chuma and Susi, from his previous expedition to find it.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Setting out from the mouth of the Ruvuma river Livingstone's assistants began deserting him. The Comoros Islanders had returned to Zanzibar and informed authorities that Livingstone had died. He reached Lake Malawi on 6 August, by which time most of his supplies, including all his medicines, had been stolen.  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Livingstone then travelled through swamps in the direction of Lake Tanganyika. With his health declining he sent a message to Zanzibar requesting supplies be sent toUjiji and he then headed west. Forced by ill health to travel with slave traders he arrived at Lake Mweru on 8 November 1867 and continued on, HP 550 Laptop Keyboard travelling south to become the first European to see Lake Bangweulu. Finding the Lualaba River, Livingstone mistakenly concluded it was the high part of the Nile River; in fact it flows into the River Congo at Upper Congo Lake. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Keyboard The year 1869 began with Livingstone finding himself extremely ill whilst in the jungle. He was saved by Arab traders who gave him medicines and carried him to an Arab outpost.[11] HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Keyboard In March 1869 Livingstone, suffering from pneumonia, arrived in Ujiji to find his supplies stolen. Coming down with cholera and tropical ulcers on his feet he was again forced to rely on slave traders to get him as far as Bambara where he was caught by the wet season. With no supplies, Livingstone had to eat his meals in a roped off open enclosure for the entertainment of the natives in return for food.[9]HP AEAT8TPU319 Keyboard On 15 July 1871, according to Livingstone's recently released original handwritten diaries,[12] while he was visiting the town of Nyangwe on the banks of the Lualaba River, he witnessed 400 Africans being massacred by slavers.[13] The massacre horrified Livingstone, leaving him too shattered to continue his mission to find the source of the Nile.[12] HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Keyboard Following the end of the wet season, he travelled 240 miles from Nyangwe – violently ill most of the way – back to Ujiji, an Arab settlement on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika, arriving on 23 October 1871. HP G42-386TX Laptop Keyboard

Geographical discoveries

Although Livingstone was wrong about the Nile, he discovered for Western science numerous geographical features, such as Lake Ngami, Lake Malawi, and Lake Bangweulu in addition to Victoria Falls mentioned above. He filled in details of Lake Tanganyika, Lake Mweru and the course of many rivers, HP Pavilion dv6-3117sl Laptop Keyboard especially the upper Zambezi, and his observations enabled large regions to be mapped which previously had been blank. Even so, the furthest north he reached, the north end of Lake Tanganyika, was still south of the Equator and he did not penetrate the rainforest of the River Congo any further downstream than Ntangwe near Misisi.[14]TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01 Laptop Keyboard Livingstone was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society of London and was made a Fellow of the society, with which he had a strong association for the rest of his life.[4]SONY Vaio PCG-K35 Laptop Keyboard Livingstone completely lost contact with the outside world for six years and was ill for most of the last four years of his life. Only one of his 44 letter dispatches made it to Zanzibar. One surviving letter to Horace Waller, made available to the public in 2010 by its owner Peter Beard, reads: "I am terribly knocked up but this is for your own eye only, ... Doubtful if I live to see you again ..."[15][16] ACER Aspire 6930 Laptop Keyboard Henry Morton Stanley, who had been sent to find him by the New York Herald newspaper in 1869, found Livingstone in the town of Ujiji on the shores of Lake Tanganyika on 27 October 1871,[17]  HP Mini 210-2006sa Laptop Keyboard greeting him with the now famous words "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" to which he responded "Yes, and I feel thankful that I am here to welcome you." These famous words may have been a fabrication, as Stanley later tore out the pages of this encounter in his diary.[18] Even Livingstone's account of this encounter does not mention these words.  SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard However, the phrase appears in a New York Herald editorial dated 10 August 1872, and the Encyclopædia Britannica and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography both quote it without questioning its veracity. The words are famous because of their tongue-in-cheek humorous nature: Dr. Livingstone was the only white person for hundreds of miles.  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard Despite Stanley's urgings, Livingstone was determined not to leave Africa until his mission was complete. His illness made him confused and he had judgment difficulties at the end of his life. He explored the Lualaba and, failing to find connections to the Nile, returned to Lake Bangweulu and its swamps to explore possible rivers flowing out northwards. GATEWAY MT6700 Laptop Keyboard David Livingstone died in that area in Chief Chitambo's village at Ilala southeast of Lake Bangweulu in present-day Zambia on 1 May 1873 from malaria and internal bleeding caused by dysentery. He took his final breaths while kneeling in prayer at his bedside. (His journal indicates that the date of his death would have been 1 May, but his attendants noted the date as 4 May, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard which they carved on a tree and later reported; this is the date on his grave.) Britain wanted the body to give it a proper ceremony, but the tribe would not give his body to them. Finally they relented, but cut the heart out and put a note on the body that said, "You can have his body, but his heart belongs in Africa!".[20]DELL Vostro 3700 Laptop Keyboard Livingstone's heart was buried under a Mvula tree near the spot where he died, now the site of the Livingstone Memorial. His body together with his journal was carried over a thousand miles by his loyal attendants Chuma and Susi to the coast to Bagamoyo, and was returned to Britain for burial. DELL Inspiron 1545 Keyboard After lying in repose at No.1 Savile Row—then the headquarters of the Royal Geographical Society, now the home of bespoke tailors Gieves & Hawkes— his remains were interred at Westminster Abbey.[4][21]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7330 Keyboard Livingstone and slavery We passed a slave woman shot or stabbed through the body and lying on the path. [Onlookers] said an Arab who passed early that morning had done it in anger at losing the price he had given for her, because she was unable to walk any longer".[23]DELL Latitude D600 Keyboard Livingstone's letters, books, and journals[19] did stir up public support for the abolition of slavery;[24] however, he became humiliatingly dependent for assistance on the very slave-traders whom he wanted to put out of business. Because he was a poor leader of his peers, he ended up on his last expedition as an individualist explorer with servants and porters but no expert support around him. SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Keyboard At the same time he did not use the brutal methods of maverick explorers such as Stanley to keep his retinue of porters in line and his supplies secure. For these reasons from 1867 onwards he accepted help and hospitality from Mohamad Bogharib and Mohamad bin Saleh (also known as Mpamari), traders who kept and traded in slaves, as he recounts in his journals. HP 317443-001 Keyboard They in turn benefited from Livingstone's influence with local people, which facilitated Mpamari's release from bondage to Mwata Kazembe.[19] By the late 1860s Livingstone's reputation in Europe had suffered owing to the failure of the missions he set up, and of the Zambezi Expedition; and his ideas about the source of the Nile were not supported. His expeditions were hardly models of order and organization.[8]HP Mini 210-2006sa Keyboard His reputation was rehabilitated by Stanley and his newspaper,[8] and by the loyalty of Livingstone's servants whose long journey with his body inspired wonder. The publication of his last journal revealed stubborn determination in the face of suffering.[4]HP Probook 4710S Keyboard SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Keyboard He had made geographical discoveries for European knowledge. He inspired abolitionists of the slave trade, explorers and missionaries. He opened up Central Africa to missionaries who initiated the education and health care for Africans, and trade by the African Lakes Company. He was held in some esteem by many African chiefs and local people and his name facilitated relations between them and the British.[4]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Keyboard Partly as a result, within fifty years of his death, colonial rule was established in Africa and white settlement was encouraged to extend further into the interior. HP 550 Keyboard On the other hand, within a further fifty years after that, two other aspects of his legacy paradoxically helped end the colonial era in Africa without excessive bloodshed. Livingstone was part of an evangelical and nonconformist movement in Britain which during the 19th century changed the national mindset from the notion of a divine right to rule 'lesser races', TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7330 Keyboard to ethical ideas in foreign policy which, with other factors, contributed to the end of the British Empire.[25] Secondly, Africans educated in mission schools founded by people inspired by Livingstone were at the forefront of national independence movements in central, eastern and southern Africa. ASUS X53S Keyboard The church which Livingstone attended as a boy closed in 1966. It merged with a local Congregational Church, situated in South Park Street, Hamilton, of which his parents had been amongst the founder members. A small but active congregation continues worshipping and serving as Hamilton United Reformed Church.[27] HP Pavilion G60-230 Keyboard The Church situated in Park Street originally belonged to the Evangelical Union when it was known as Park Street E.U.Church. In 1896 the Evanglical Union and the Scottish Congregationalists united to form the Congregational Union of Scotland. A member of the Park Street E.U. Church was the youngKeir Hardie the founder of the Labour Party in Britain. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Keyboard The majority of Scottish Congregational Churches formed a new United Reformed Church by joining with the existing United Reformed Church in April 2000. Livingstone is also remembered in Argentina. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard A Congregational Church started a medical centre in a very need part of the city. The took inspiration from Livingstone, whose background was Congregational, and who was also a doctor. And so was born the Dr. Livingstone Healthservice in Jardìn Amèrica, Misiones, Argentina. SONY NSK-S8101 Keyboard The David Livingstone Centre in Blantyre celebrates his life and is based in the house in which he was born, on the site of the mill in which he started his working life. His Christian faith is evident in his journal, where one entry reads: "I place no value on anything I have or may possess, except in relation to the kingdom of Christ. ASUS X53S Keyboard If anything will advance the interests of the kingdom, it shall be given away or kept, only as by giving or keeping it I shall promote the glory of Him to whom I owe all my hopes in time and eternity."[28]ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard

Family life

While Livingstone had a great impact on British Imperialism, he did so at a tremendous cost to his family. In his absences, his children grew up missing their father, and his wife Mary (daughter of Mary and Robert Moffat) endured very poor health, and died of malaria trying to follow him in Africa. He had six children: Robert reportedly died in the American Civil War;[29] HP Pavilion DV6-1007tx Keyboard Agnes (b.1847), Thomas, Elizabeth (who died two months after her birth), William Oswell (nicknamed Zouga because of the river along which he was born, in 1851) and Anna Mary (b.1858). Only Agnes, William Oswell and Anna Mary married and had children.[30]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Keyboard Sir Henry Morton Stanley, GCB, born John Rowlands (28 January 1841 – 10 May 1904), was a Welsh journalist andexplorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. Upon finding Livingstone, Stanley allegedly uttered the now-famous greeting, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" TOSHIBA PK130260100 Keyboard、 When Stanley was born in Denbigh, Wales, his mother, Elizabeth Parry, was 19 years old. He never knew his father, who died within a few weeks of his birth;[1] there is some doubt as to his true parentage.[2] His parents were unmarried, so hisbirth certificate refers to him as a bastard and the stigma of illegitimacy weighed heavily upon him all his life. DELL Latitude E5500 Keyboard Originally taking his father's name of Rowlands, Stanley was brought up by his grandfather until the age of five. When his guardian died, Stanley stayed at first with cousins and nieces for a short time, but was eventually sent to St. Asaph UnionWorkhouse for the poor, where overcrowding and lack of supervision resulted in frequent abuse by the older boysLenovo ThinkPad T410-2522 Keyboard . When he was ten, his mother and two siblings stayed for a short while in this workhouse, without Stanley realising who they were. He stayed until the age of 15. After completing an elementary education, he was employed as a pupil teacher in a National School. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R50 2889 Keyboard

New country, new name

In 1859, at the age of 18, he made his passage to the United States in search of a new life. Upon arriving in New Orleans, he absconded from his boat. According to his own declarations, he became friendly with a wealthy trader named Henry Hope Stanley, by accident: he saw Stanley sitting on a chair outside his store and asked him if he had any job opening for a person such as himself. DELL Inspiron N4050 Keyboard However, he did so in the British style, "Do you want a boy, sir?" As it happened, the childless man had indeed been wishing he had a boy of his own, and the inquiry led not only to a job, but to a close relationship.[3]FUJITSU Lifebook S7111 Keyboard The youth ended up taking Stanley's name. Later, he would write that his adoptive parent had died only two years after their meeting, but in fact the elder Stanley did not die until much later, in 1878.[4] In any case, young Stanley assumed a local accent and began to deny being a foreigner. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Keyboard Stanley participated reluctantly[5] in the American Civil War, first joining the Confederate Army and fighting in the Battle of Shiloh in 1862.[6] After being taken prisoner he was recruited at Camp Douglas, Illinois by its commander, Col. James A. Mulligan, as a "Galvanized Yankee" and joined the Union Army on 4 June 1862, SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Keyboard but was discharged 18 days later due to severe illness.[7]Recovering, he served on several merchant ships before joining the Navy in July 1864. On board the Minnesota he became a record keeper, which led to freelance journalism. ASUS F8Sp Keyboard Stanley and a junior colleague jumped ship on 10 February 1865 in New Hampshire, in search of greater adventures.[8] Stanley thus became possibly the only man to serve in the Confederate Army, the Union Army, and the Union Navy.[9]ACER Aspire 5536 Keyboard Following the Civil War, Stanley began a career as a journalist. As part of this new career, Stanley organised an expedition to the Ottoman Empire that ended catastrophically when Stanley was imprisoned. He eventually talked his way out of jail and even received restitution for damaged expedition equipment.[10]HP Probook 4515S Keyboard In 1867, Stanley was recruited by Colonel Samuel Forster Tappan (a one-time journalist) of the Indian Peace Commission, to serve as a correspondent to cover the work of the Commission for several newspapers. Stanley was soon retained exclusively byJames Gordon Bennett (1795–1872), SAMSUNG R470 Keyboard founder of the New York Herald, who was impressed by Stanley's exploits and by his direct style of writing. He describes this early period of his professional life in Volume I of his book My Early Travels and Adventures in America and Asia (1895). He became one of the Herald's overseas correspondents and, in 1869, HP G62-b25SA Keyboard was instructed by Bennett's son to find the Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone, who was known to be in Africa but had not been heard from for some time. According to Stanley's account, he asked James Gordon Bennett, Jr. (1841–1918), who had succeeded to the paper's management after his father's retirement in 1867, HP G42-359TU Keyboard how much he could spend. The reply was "Draw £1,000 now, and when you have gone through that, draw another £1,000, and when that is spent, draw another £1,000, and when you have finished that, draw another £1,000, and so on — BUT FIND LIVINGSTONE!", In actuality, Stanley had lobbied his employer for several years to mount this expedition which presumably would lead to fame and fortune. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Keyboard Stanley travelled to Zanzibar in March 1871 and outfitted an expedition with the best of everything, requiring no fewer than 200 porters. This 700 miles (1,100 km) expedition through the tropical forest became a nightmare. His thoroughbred stallion died within a few days after a bite from a Tsetse fly, many of his carriers deserted and the rest were decimated by tropical diseases. HP Pavilion DV6-1022el Keyboard Some recent authors suggest that Stanley's treatment of indigenous porters helps to refute his reputation for brutality.[11] However, statements by contemporaries of Stanley like Sir Richard Francis Burton, who claimed "Stanley shoots negroes as if they were monkeys", paint a very different picture.[12][13]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard Stanley found Livingstone on 10 November 1871, in Ujiji near Lake Tanganyika in present-day Tanzania, and may have greeted him with the now-famous, "Doctor Livingstone, I presume?" This famous phrase may be a fabrication, as Stanley tore out of his diary the pages relating to the encounter.[14]HP Pavilion dm3-1020CA Keyboard Even Livingstone's account of the encounter fails to mention these words. However, a summary of Stanley's letters published by The New York Times on 2 July 1872, quotes the phrase.[15] However, Tim Jeal argues in his biography that Stanley invented it afterwards because of his "insecurity about his background".[16]ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard The Herald's own first account of the meeting, published 2 July 1872, also includes the phrase: "Preserving a calmness of exterior before the Arabs which was hard to simulate as he reached the group, Mr. Stanley said: – Doctor Livingstone, I presume? A smile lit up the features of the hale white man as he answered: "Yes, and I feel thankful that I am here to welcome you."[17][18]HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Keyboard Stanley joined Livingstone in exploring the region, establishing for certain that there was no connection between Lake Tanganyika and the River Nile. On his return, he wrote a book about his experiences : How I Found Livingstone; travels, adventures, and discoveries in Central Africa.[19]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard In 1874, the New York Herald, in partnership with Britain's Daily Telegraph, financed Stanley on another expedition to the African continent. One of his missions was to solve a last great mystery of African exploration by tracing the course of theCongo River to the sea. The difficulty of this expedition is hard to overstate. SONY VAIO VGN-AR170 Keyboard Stanley used sectional boats to pass the great cataracts separating the Congo into distinct tracts. After 999 days, on 9 August 1877, Stanley reached a Portugueseoutpost[clarification needed] at the mouth of the Congo River. Starting with 356 people, only 114 had survived the expedition, of whom Stanley was the only European. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Keyboard

Claiming the Congo for the Belgian king

Stanley was approached by the ambitious Belgian king Leopold II, who in 1876 had organised a private holding company disguised as an international scientific and philanthropic association, which he called the International African Society. The king spoke of his intentions to introduce Western civilization and bring religion to that part of Africa, but did not mention he wanted to claim the lands. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Keyboard At the end of his life, he was embittered by the growing perception that his establishment of a Congo Free State was mitigated by its unscrupulous government; in his defense for having imposed Christian civilization, it was maintained that Stanley had "only been responsible for the death of six or seven hundred negroes.... ACER Aspire 7520 Keyboard and all these negroes fell as the result of attacking Stanley."[21] In addition, the spread of Sleeping Sickness across central Africa is attributed to the movements of Stanley's enormous baggage train[22] and the Emin Pasha relief expedition. COMPAQ Presario C700 Keyboard In 1886, Stanley led the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition to "rescue" Emin Pasha, the governor of Equatoria in the southernSudan. King Leopold II demanded that Stanley take the longer route, via the Congo river, hoping to acquire more territory and perhaps even Equatoria. After immense hardships and great loss of life, ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard Stanley met Emin in 1888, charted the Ruwenzori Rangeand Lake Edward, and emerged from the interior with Emin and his surviving followers at the end of 1890. (Turnbull, 1983) But this expedition tarnished Stanley's name because of the conduct of the other Europeans: British gentlemen and army officers. IBM Thinkpad T61P Keyboard An army major was shot by a carrier, after behaving with extreme cruelty. James Jameson, heir to an Irish whiskey manufacturer, bought an eleven-year old girl and offered her to cannibals in order to document and sketch how she was cooked and eaten.[23] Stanley only found out when Jameson had died of fever. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Keyboard On his return to Europe, he married Welsh artist Dorothy Tennant, and they adopted a child, Denzil, who in 1954, donated some 300 items to the Stanley archives at the Royal Museum of Central Africa in Tervuren, HP 597635-001 Keyboard Belgium. Denzil died in 1959.[24] Stanley entered Parliament as Liberal Unionist member for Lambeth North, serving from 1895 to 1900. He became Sir Henry Morton Stanley when he was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in 1899, in recognition of his service to the British Empire in Africa. DELL NSK-D8001 Keyboard He died in London on 10 May 1904; at his funeral, he was eulogised by Daniel P. Virmar. His grave, in the churchyard of St. Michael's Church in Pirbright,Surrey, is marked by a large piece of granite inscribed with the words "Henry Morton Stanley, Bula Matari, 1841–1904, Africa". Bula Matari, which translates as "Breaker of Rocks" or "Breakstones" in Kikongo, HP pavilion DV7-1000 Keyboard was Stanley's name among locals in Congo. It can be translated as a term of endearment: for as the leader of Leopold's expedition, he commonly worked with the labourers breaking rocks with which they built the first modern road along the Congo River.[25] It can also be translated in far less flattering terms, ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Keyboard and it was suggested by Adam Hochschild that while Stanley understood it as an heroic epithet, his Congolese companions understood it in a mocking and pejorative tone.[26]HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Keyboard Stanley wrote in Through the Dark Continent that "the savage only respects force, power, boldness, and decision."[20] His legacy of death and destruction in the Congo region is considered an inspiration for Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness.[27]SONY VGN-FE31M Keyboard In 1939, a popular film called Stanley and Livingstone was released, with Spencer Tracy as Stanley and Cedric Hardwicke as Livingstone. Stanley appears as a character in Simon Gray's 1978 play The Rear Column, which tells the story of the men left behind to wait forTippu Tib while Stanley went on to relieve Emin Pasha. An NES game based on his life was released in 1992 called "Stanley: The Search for Dr. Livingston".[28]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Keyboard In 1997, a made-for-television film, Forbidden Territory: Stanley's Search for Livingstone, was produced by National Geographic. Stanley was portrayed by Aidan Quinn and Livingstone was portrayed by Nigel Hawthorne. DELL Inspiron 1564 Keyboard Stanley Electric Co., Ltd. of Japan, uses Stanley's family name in honour of his discoveries "that have brought light into many spots of the world undiscovered and hitherto unknown to mankind".[29] The company produces light emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, and lamps. His great grandson, Richard Stanley, is a South African filmmaker and directs documentaries.[30]SONY VAIO VGN-CR160F Keyboard There is a hospital in St. Asaph, north Wales named after Stanley in honour of his birth in the area. It was the former workhouse in which he spent much of his early life. memorials to H M Stanley have recently been erected in St Asaph (which has caused local controversy for being phalic shaped) and in Denbigh (a statue of H M Stanley with an outstretched hand). HP Mini 210-2030ez Keyboard In 1971 the BBC produced a six-part dramatised documentary series, Search for the Nile. Much of the series was shot on location, with Stanley played by Keith Buckley.[31]HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Keyboard The 2009 History Channel series, Expedition Africa, documents a group of explorers attempting to traverse the route of Stanley's expedition in search of Livingstone. St Asaph (English pronunciation: /sənt ˈæsəf/;[1] Welsh: Llanelwy pronounced [ɬanˈɛlʊɨ̯]) is a city[2] and community on the River Elwy in Denbighshire, Wales. In the 2001 Census it had a population of 3,491.[3]HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Keyboard The city of St Asaph is surrounded by countryside and views of the Vale of Clwyd. It is situated close to a number of busy coastal towns such as Rhyl, Prestatyn, Abergele, Colwyn Bay and Llandudno. The historic castles of Denbigh andRhuddlan are also nearby. HP 640208-001 Keyboard The earliest inhabitants of the vale of Elwy lived in the nearby Paleolithic site of Pontnewydd (Bontnewydd), which was excavated from 1978 by a team from the University of Wales, led by Dr Stephen Aldhouse Green. Teeth and part of a jawbone excavated in 1981 were dated to 225,000 years ago. HP Pavilion zd7040ea Keyboard This site is the most north-western site in Eurasia for remains of early hominids and is considered of international importance. Based on the morphology and age of the teeth, particularly the evidence of tauradontism, the teeth are believed to belong to a group of Neanderthals who hunted game in the vale of Elwy in an interglacial period. ACER Aspire 5336 Keyboard Later some historians postulate that the Roman fort of Varae sat on the site of the Cathedral. However, the city is believed to have developed around a sixth century Celtic monastery founded by Saint Kentigern, and is now home to the small fourteenth century St Asaph Cathedral. This is dedicated to Saint Asaph (also spelt in Welsh as Asaff), its secondbishop. HP G61-110SA Keyboard The Cathedral has had a chequered history. In the thirteenth century, the troops of Edward I of England burnt the cathedral almost to the ground and, in 1402, Owain Glyndŵr's troops went on the rampage causing severe damage to the furnishings and fittings. Two hundred and fifty years later, during the Commonwealth the building was used to house farm animals – pigs, cattle and horses.[4]HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Keyboard The Laws in Wales Act 1535 placed St Asaph in Denbighshire. However, in 1542, St Asaph was placed in Flintshire for voting purposes. Between 1 April 1974 and 1 April 1996 it was part of non-metropolitan Clwyd. Dell Latitude D400 Keyboard As the seat of an ancient cathedral and diocese, St Asaph was historically regarded as a city, and the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica refers to it as a city on that basis; by the end of the 20th century the relationship between possessing a cathedral and automatic entitlement to city status had been broken, and the town was no longer regarded as a city. SAMSUNG R522 Keyboard The town applied for restoration of city status in competitions held by the government in 2000 (for the Millennium) and 2002 (Queen's Golden Jubilee) but was unsuccessful. In 2012 it again competed for the right to become a city as part of theQueen's Diamond Jubilee celebrations. TOSHIBA NB100-11B Keyboard It was announced on 14 March 2012 that the application was successful and city status was to be bestowed upon St Asaph alongside Chelmsford and Perth.[5][6] The status was formally granted by letters patent dated 1 June 2012.[7]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Keyboard

Community

Despite the previous lack of official city status, the council had referred to itself as the City of St Asaph Town Council. The local community is passionate about St Asaph's historic claim to be known as a city like its Welsh cousin St David's, and this has led to a number of local businesses using 'City' as part of their business name. The city is promoted locally as the 'City of Music'. HP Pavilion dv6-2108ea Keyboard The past few decades have seen the local economy in St Asaph thrive, first with the opening of the A55 road in 1970, which took East/West traffic away from the city, and, more recently, with a business park being built, attracting investment from at home and overseas. HP 597635-001 Keyboard The crowded roads in St Asaph have been a hot political issue for many years. In recent years, increasing volumes of traffic on A525, St Asaph High Street, which links A55 with the Clwyd Valley, Denbigh and Ruthin have led to severe congestion in the city. This congestion is having a detrimental effect on the city, HP 550 Keyboard and residents have repeatedly called for a bypass to take this North/South road and its traffic away from the city, but the National Assembly for Wales rejected these calls in 2004, presenting a further setback for residents campaigning on the issue. FUJITSU CP253873-XX Keyboard St Asaph is now home to Ysgol Glan Clwyd, a Welsh language secondary school that opened in Rhyl in 1956 and moved to St Asaph in 1969; and was the first Welsh medium secondary school in Wales. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Keyboard A number of famous people have strong links to St Asaph, having been born, raised, lived, worked or died in the city. These include actor Richard Ian Cox,William Morgan who translated the Bible into Welsh in 1588, the first archbishop of Wales Alfred George Edwards, comedian Greg Davies, singer Lisa Scott-Lee, HP Pavilion dv4t-1300 CTO Keyboard omposer William Mathias, former Wales football captain Ian Rush, the explorer and journalist Henry Morton Stanley, Dic Aberdaron, who taught himself Latin at the age of 11, Felicia Hemans (1793–1835), poet ("The boy stood on the burning deck"), and LET golfer Becky Brewerton. Another well-known individual, TOSHIBA NB200 Keyboard Geoffrey of Monmouth, served as bishop of St Asaph from 1152 to 1155. However, due to war and unrest in Wales at the time, he probably never set foot in his see.The current Swansea City left back, Welsh International and Team GB squad member Neil Taylor was also born in St. Asaph. HP 605344-001 Keyboard The hospital in the city (formerly the St Asaph Union Workhouse) was named in honour of H.M. Stanley. The city's hospice was named after Saint Kentigern. The original Welsh Bible is kept on public display in the city's cathedral. HP 646568-001 Keyboard The Irish Sea (Irish: Muir Éireann,[1] Scottish Gaelic: Muir Èireann,[2] Manx: Y Keayn Yernagh,[3] Welsh: Môr Iwerddon,Scots: Erse Sea, Ulster-Scots: SONY VAIO VGN-FS215B Keyboard Airish Sea) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. It is connected to theCeltic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Atlantic Ocean in the north by the North Channel. Anglesey is the largest island within the Irish Sea, followed by the Isle of Man. The sea is occasionally, but rarely, referred to as the Manx Sea (Irish: Muir Meann,[4] Manx: Mooir Vannin, Scottish Gaelic: Muir Mhanainn).[5][6][7]TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9531D Keyboard The sea is of significant economic importance to regional trade, shipping and transport, fishing, and power generation in the form of wind power and nuclear plants. Annual traffic between Great Britain and Ireland amounts to over 12 million passengers and 17 million tonnes of traded goods. HP Pavilion DV6-1210sa Keyboard

Shipping

Unlike Great Britain, Ireland has no tunnel or bridge connection to mainland Europe. Thus the vast majority of heavy goods trade is done by sea. Northern Ireland ports handle 10 million tonnes of goods trade

with Great Britain annually, while ports in the Republic of Ireland handle 7.6 million tonnes, representing 50% and 40% respectively of total trade by weight. TOSHIBA NB200-00C Keyboard The Port of Liverpool handles 32 million tonnes of cargo and 734 thousand passengers a year.[9] Holyhead port handles most of the passenger traffic from Dublin and Dún Laoghaire ports, as well as 3.3 million tonnes of freight.[10]DELL Inspiron 9300 Keyboard Ports in the Republic handle 3,600,000 travellers crossing the sea each year, amounting to 92% of all Irish Sea travel.[11]This has been steadily dropping for a number of years (20% since 1999), probably as a result of low cost airlines.[citation needed]APPLE A1278 Keyboard Ferry connections from Great Britain to Ireland across the Irish Sea include the routes from Swansea to Cork, Fishguardand Pembroke to Rosslare, Holyhead to Dún Laoghaire, Holyhead to Dublin, Stranraer to Belfast and Larne, and Cairnryan to Larne. There is also a connection between Liverpool and Belfast via the Isle of Man or direct from BirkenheadHP G61 Keyboard . The world's largest car ferry, Ulysses, is operated by Irish Ferries on the Dublin Port–Holyhead route; Stena Line also operates between Britain and Ireland. The Port of Barrow-in-Furness, despite being one of Britain's largest shipbuilding centres and being home to the United Kingdom's only submarine-building complex, is only a minor port. HP Probook 4710S Keyboard "Irish Sea" is also the name of one of the BBC's Shipping Forecast areas defined by the coordinates: 54°50′N 05°05′W 54°45′N 05°45′W 52°30′N 06°15′W52°00′N 05°05′WHP G42-364LA Keyboard The most accessible and possibly the greatest wildlife resource of the Irish Sea lies in its estuaries: particularly the Dee Estuary, the Mersey Estuary, the Ribble Estuary, Morecambe Bay, the Solway Firth, ASUS F82Q Keyboard Loch Ryan, the Firth of Clyde, Belfast Lough, Strangford Lough, Carlingford Lough, Dundalk Bay, Dublin Bay and Wexford Harbour. However, a lot of wildlife also depends on the cliffs, salt marshes and sand dunes of the adjoining shores, the seabed and the open sea itself. FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Keyboard The information on the invertebrates of the seabed of the Irish Sea is rather patchy because it is difficult to survey such a large area, where underwater visibility is often poor and information often depends upon looking at material brought up from the seabed in mechanical grabs. HP 550 Keyboard However, the groupings of animals present depend to a large extent on whether the seabed is composed of rock, boulders, gravel, sand, mud or even peat. In the soft sediments seven types of community have been provisionally identified, variously dominated by brittle-stars, sea urchins, worms, mussels, tellins, furrow-shells, and tower-shells. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Keyboard Parts of the bed of the Irish Sea are very rich in wildlife. The seabed southwest of the Isle of Man is particularly noted for its rarities and diversity,[14] as are the horse mussel beds of Strangford Lough. Scallops and queen scallops are found in more gravelly areas. In the estuaries, where the bed is more sandy or muddy, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Keyboard the number of species is smaller but the size of their populations is larger. Brown shrimp, cockles and edible mussels support local fisheries in Morecambe Bay and the Dee Estuary and the estuaries are also important as nurseries for flatfish, herring and sea bass. Muddy seabeds in deeper waters are home to populations of the Dublin Bay prawn, also known as "scampi".[15]SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Keyboard The open sea is a complex habitat in its own right. It exists in three spatial dimensions and also varies over time and tide. For example, where freshwater flows into the Irish Sea in river estuaries its influence can extend far offshore as the freshwater is lighter and "floats" on top of the much larger body of saltwater until wind and temperature changes mix it in. Similarly, HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Keyboard warmer water is less dense and seawater warmed in the inter-tidal zone may "float" on the colder offshore water. The amount of light penetrating the seawater also varies with depth and turbidity. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard This leads to differing populations of plankton in different parts of the sea and varying communities of animals that feed on these populations. However, increasing seasonal storminess leads to greater mixing of water and tends to break down these divisions, which are more apparent when the weather is calm for long periods. TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Keyboard Plankton includes bacteria, plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton) that drift in the sea. Most are microscopic, but some, such as the various species of jellyfish and sea gooseberry, can be much bigger. APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Keyboard Diatoms and dinoflagellates dominate the phytoplankton. Although they are microscopic plants, diatoms have hard shells and dinoflagellates have little tailsthat propel them through the water. Phytoplankton populations in the Irish Sea have a spring "bloom" every April and May, when the seawater is generally at its greenest. DELL Inspiron 1564 Keyboard DELL Inspiron 1564 Keyboard Crustaceans, especially copepods, dominate the zooplankton. However, many animals of the seabed, the open sea and the seashore spend their juvenile stages as part of the zooplankton. The whole plankton "soup" is vitally important, directly or indirectly, as a food source for most species in the Irish Sea, even the largest. The enormous basking shark, for example, lives entirely on plankton and the leatherback turtle's main food is jellyfish. ACER ZU2 Keyboard A colossal diversity of invertebrate species live in the Irish Sea and its surrounding coastline, ranging from flower-like fan-worms to predatory swimming crabsto large chameleon-like cuttlefish.[15] Some of the most significant for other wildlife are the reef-building species like the inshore horse mussel of Strangford Lough and the inter-tidal honeycomb worm of Morecambe Bay, Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Keyboard Cumbria and Lancashire. These build up large structures over many years and, in turn, provide surfaces, nooks and crannies where other marine animals and plants may become established and live out some or all of their lives. SONY 147996611 Keyboard There are quite regular records of live and stranded leatherback turtle in and around the Irish Sea. This species travels north to the waters off the British Isles every year following the swarms of jellyfish that form its prey. ASUS Z91E Keyboard Loggerhead turtle, Ridley sea turtle and green turtle are found very occasionally in the Irish Sea but are generally unwell or dead when discovered. They have strayed or been swept out of their natural range further south into colder waters.[16]DELL Vostro 1015 Keyboard The estuaries of the Irish Sea are of international importance for birds. They are vital feeding grounds on migration flyways for shorebirds travelling between the Arctic and Africa. Others depend on the milder climate as a refuge when continental Europe is in the grip of winter.[15]ACER Aspire 5552 Keyboard Twenty-one species of seabird are reported as regularly nesting on beaches or cliffs around the Irish Sea. Huge populations of the sea duck, common scoter, spend winters feeding in shallow waters off eastern Ireland, Lancashire and North Wales.[15]SONY VGN-FE11H Keyboard Whales, dolphins and porpoises all frequent the Irish Sea, but knowledge of how many there may be and where they go is somewhat sketchy. About a dozen species have been recorded since 1980, ASUS A6M Keyboard but only three are seen fairly often. These are the harbour porpoise, bottlenose dolphin and common dolphin. The more rarely seen species are minke whale, fin whale, sei whale, sperm whale, northern bottlenose whale, long-finned pilot whale, orca, white-beaked dolphin, striped dolphin andRisso's dolphin.[15]DELL Vostro 1014 Keyboard The common or harbour seal and the grey seal are both resident in the Irish Sea. Common seals breed in Strangford Lough, grey seals in southwest Wales and, in small numbers, on the Isle of Man. Grey seals haul out, but do not breed, off Hilbre and Walney islands, Merseyside, the Wirral, Barrow-in-Furness Borough, and Cumbria.[15]DELL Studio 1558 Keyboard

Radioactivity

The Irish Sea has been described by Greenpeace as the most radioactively contaminated sea in the world with some "eight million litres of nuclear waste" discharged into it each day from Sellafield reprocessing plants, contaminating seawater, sediments and marine life.[17]HP Pavilion dv6-3208tx Keyboard Low-level radioactive waste has been discharged into the Irish Sea as part of operations at Sellafield since 1952. The rate of discharge began to accelerate in the mid- to late 1960s, reaching a peak in the 1970s and generally declining significantly since then. As an example of this profile, discharges of plutonium(specifically 241Pu) peaked in 1973 at 2,755TBq[18] falling to 8.1 TBq by 2004.[19]DELL Precision M65 Keyboard Improvements in the treatment of waste in 1985 and 1994 resulted in further reductions in radioactive waste discharge although the subsequent processing of a backlog resulted in increased discharges of certain types of radioactive waste. Discharges of technetium in particular rose from 6.1 TBq in 1993 to a peak of 192TBq in 1995 before dropping back to 14TBq in 2004.[18][19] SAMSUNG R20 Keyboard In total 22PBq of 241Pu was discharged over the period 1952 to 1998.[20] Current rates of discharge for many radionuclides are at least 100 times lower than they were in the 1970s.[21]HP G42-381TX Keyboard Analysis[22][23] of the distribution of radioactive contamination after discharge reveals that mean sea currents result in much of the more soluble elements such as caesium being flushed out of the Irish Sea through the North Channel about a year after discharge. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard Measurements of technetium concentrations post-1994 has produced estimated transit times to the North Channel of around six months with peak concentrations off the northeast Irish coast occurring 18–24 months after peak discharge. Less soluble elements such as plutonium are subject to much slower redistribution. ASUS X53S Keyboard The dispersal of these elements is closely associated with sediment activity, with muddy deposits on the seabed acting as sinks, soaking up an estimated 200 kg of plutonium.[24] The highest concentration is found in the eastern Irish Sea in sediment banks lying parallel to the Cumbrian coast. HP Probook 4710S Keyboard This area acts as a significant source of wider contamination as radionuclides are dissolved once again. Studies have revealed that 80% of current sea water contamination by caesium is sourced from sediment banks, whilst plutonium levels in the western sediment banks between the Isle of Man and the Irish coast are being maintained by contamination redistributed from the eastern sediment banks. HP 550 Keyboard HP G62-456TU Keyboard The consumption of seafood harvested from the Irish Sea is the main pathway for exposure of humans to radioactivity.[25]The environmental monitoring report for the period 2003 to 2005 published by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) reported that in 2005 average quantities of radioactive contamination found in seafood ranged from less than 1Bq/kg for fish to under 44Bq/kg for mussels.[26] SONY VAIO VGN-NW250D/W Keyboard Doses of man-made radioactivity received by the heaviest consumers of seafood in Ireland in 2005 was 1.10µSv.[27] This compares with a corresponding dosage of radioactivity naturally occurring in the seafood consumed by this group of 148µSv and a total average dosage in Ireland from all sources of 3620µSv.[28] In terms of risk to this groupACER Aspire 5560 Keyboard , heavy consumption of seafood generates a 1 in 18 million chance of causing cancer. The general risk of contracting cancer in Ireland is 1 in 522. In the UK, the heaviest seafood consumers in Cumbria received a radioactive dosage attributable to Sellafield discharges of 0.22mSv (220µSv) in 2005.[29] This compares to average annual dose of naturally sourced radiation received in the UK of 2.23mSv (2230µSv).[30]ACER Aspire 5739G Keyboard Also see Beaufort's Dyke. With 7.5 trillion cubic feet (210 km³) of natural gas and 176 million barrels (28,000,000 m³) of petroleum estimated by the field operators as initially recoverable hydrocarbon reserves from eight producing fields (DTI, 2001), the East Irish Sea Basin is at a mature exploration phase. Early Namurian basinalmudstones are the source rocks for these hydrocarbons. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-18Z Keyboard Production from all fields is from fault-bounded traps of the Lower Triassic formation, principally the aeolian Sherwood Sandstone reservoir, top-sealed by younger Triassic continental mudstones and evaporites. Future mineral exploration will initially concentrate on extending this play, but there remains largely untested potential also for gas and oil within widespread Carboniferous fluvial sandstone reservoirs. SAMSUNG R522 Keyboard This play requires intraformational mudstone seal units to be present, as there is no top-seal for reservoirs subcropping the regional base Permian unconformity in the east of the basin, and Carboniferous strata crop out at the sea bed in the west. HP Pavilion dv6-2153eo Keyboard The Caernarfon Bay basin contains up to 7 km³ of Permian and Triassic syn-rift sediments in an asymmetrical graben that is bounded to the north and south by Lower Paleozoic massifs. Only two exploration wells have been drilled so far, and there remain numerous undrilled targets in tilted fault block plays. As in the East Irish Sea Basin, DELL Inspiron N4050 Keyboard the principal target reservoir is the Lower Triassic, Sherwood Sandstone, top-sealed by younger Triassic mudstones and evaporites. Wells in the Irish Sector to the west have demonstrated that pre-rift, Westphalian coal measures are excellent hydrocarbon source rocks, and are at peak maturity for gas generation (Maddox et al., 1995). Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Keyboard Seismic profiles clearly image these strata continuing beneath a basal Permian unconformity into at least the western part of the Caernarfon Bay Basin. The timing of gas generation presents the greatest exploration risk. Maximum burial of, and primary gas migration from, the source rocks could have terminated as early as the Jurassic, HP Mini 210-2145dx Keyboard whereas many of the tilted fault blocks were reactivated or created during Paleogene inversion of the basin. However, it is also possible that a secondary gas charge occurred during regional heating associated with intrusion of Paleogene dykes, such as those that crop out nearby on the coastline of north WalesTOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Keyboard . (Floodpage et al., 1999) have invoked this second phase of Paleogene hydrocarbon generation as an important factor in the charging of the East Irish Sea Basin's oil and gas fields. It is not clear as yet whether aeromagnetic anomalies in the southeast of Caernarfon Bay are imaging a continuation of the dyke swarm into this area too, SAMSUNG NP-N150-KA03 Keyboard or whether they are instead associated with deeply buried Permian syn-riftvolcanics. Alternatively, the fault block traps could have been recharged by exsolution of methane from formation brines as a direct result of the Tertiary uplift (cf. Doré and Jensen, 1996). TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7467 Keyboard

The Cardigan Bay Basin

The Cardigan Bay Basin forms a continuation into British waters of Ireland's North Celtic Sea Basin, which has two producing gas fields. The basin comprises a south-easterly deepening half-graben near the Welsh coastline, although its internal structure becomes increasingly complex towards the southwest. SONY VAIO PCG-FR215H Keyboard Permian to Triassic, syn-rift sediments within the basin are less than 3 km thick and are overlain by up to 4 km of Jurassic strata, and locally also by up to 2 km of Paleogene fluvio-deltaic sediments. The basin has a proven petroleum system, with potentially producible gas reserves at the Dragon discovery near the UK/ROI median line, Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Keyboard and oil shows in a further three wells. The Cardigan Bay Basin contains multiple reservoir targets, which include the Lower Triassic (Sherwood Sandstone), Middle Jurassic shallow marine sandstones and limestone (Great Oolite), and Upper Jurassic fluvial sandstone, the reservoir for the Dragon discovery. HP G62-451SA Keyboard The most likely hydrocarbon source rocks are Early Jurassic marine mudstones. These are fully mature for oil generation in the west of the British sector, and are mature for gas generation nearby in the Irish sector. Gas-prone, Westphalian pre-rift coal measures may also be present at depth locally. TOSHIBA 92.N4XBC.A01 Keyboard The Cardigan Bay Basin was subjected to two Tertiary phases of compressive uplift, whereas maximum burial that terminated primary hydrocarbon generation was probably around the end of the Cretaceous, or earlier if Cretaceous strata, now missing, were never deposited in the basin. Despite the Tertiary structuration, DELL Inspiron 6400 Keyboard the Dragon discovery has proved that potentially commercial volumes of hydrocarbons were retained at least locally in Cardigan Bay. In addition to undrilled structural traps, the basin contains untested potential for stratigraphic entrapment of hydrocarbons near synsedimentary faults, especially in the Middle Jurassic section.[31][32]SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Keyboard Oil is produced from the Lennox and Douglas fields. It is then treated at the Douglas Complex and piped 17 kilometres to an oil storage barge ready for export by tankers. Gas is produced from the Hamilton, Hamilton North and Hamilton East reservoirs. After initial processing at the Douglas Complex the gas is piped bysubsea pipeline to the Point of Ayr gas terminal for further processing. ASUS X53S Keyboard The gas is then sent by onshore pipeline to PowerGen's combined cycle gas turbine power station at Connah's Quay. PowerGen is the sole purchaser of gas from the Liverpool Bay development. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Keyboard The Liverpool Bay development comprises four offshore platforms. Offshore storage and loading facilities. The onshore gas processing terminal at Point of Ayr. Production first started at each filed as follows: Hamilton North in 1995, Hamilton in 1996, Douglas in 1996, Lennox (oil only) in 1996 and Hamilton East 2001. The first contract gas sales were in 1996. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Keyboard The quality of the water in Liverpool Bay was historically contaminated by dumoing of sewage sludge at sea[33] but this practice became illegal in December 1988 and no further sludge was deposited after that date[34]HP 519265-001 Keyboard

Dalkey Island Exploration Prospect

Previous exploration drilling in the Kish Bank Basin has confirmed the potential for petroleum generation with oil shows seen in a number of wells together with natural hydrocarbon seeps recorded from airborne surveys. New analysis of vintage 2-D seismic data has revealed the presence of a large undrilled structural closure at Lower Triassic level situated c. ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard 10 km offshore Dublin. This feature, known as the Dalkey Island exploration prospect, may be prospective for oil, as there are prolific oil productive Lower Triassic reservoirs nearby in the eastern Irish Sea offshore Liverpool. Whilst the Dalkey Island exploration prospect could contain c. 870 MMBO in place HP 640436-001 Keyboard this undrilled prospect still has significant risk and the partners are currently advancing a focused work programme in order to better understand and hopefully mitigate these risks. However, given its location in shallow water and close proximity to shore, the prospect is of great interest as exploration drilling, together with any future development costs, are likely to be low.[citation needed]HP 550 Keyboard HP Envy 15 Keyboard Discussions of linking Britain to Ireland began in 1895,[35] with an application for £15,000 towards the cost of carrying out borings and soundings in the North Channel to see if a tunnel between Ireland and Scotland was viable. Sixty years later Harford Montgomery Hyde, Unionist MP for North Belfast, called for the building of such a tunnel.[36] TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Keyboard A tunnel project has been discussed several times in the Irish parliament.[37][38][39][40] The idea for such a 34 km (21 mi) long rail bridge or tunnel, continues to be mooted.[41]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard Several potential Irish Sea tunnel projects have been proposed, including one between Dublin and Holyhead put forward in 1997 by the British engineering firm Symonds. At 80 kilometres (50 mi), it would be by far the longest in the world, and would cost an estimated €20 billion. DELL Inspiron 6400 Keyboard DELL Latitude D830 Keyboard

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