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6 octobre 2011 4 06 /10 /octobre /2011 03:24

Defeat and death

By late 1944, the Red Army had driven the German army back into Western Europe, and the Western Allies were advancing into Germany.Sony VAIO VGN-CR13/B Battery

 After being informed of the twin defeats in his Ardennes Offensive at his Adlerhorst command complex – Operation Wacht am Rheinand Operation Nordwind – Hitler realized that Germany was about to lose the war, but he did not permit an orderly retreat of his armies. Sony VAIO VGN-CR13/L Battery

His hope was to negotiate peace with America and Britain, buoyed by the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt on 12 April 1945. Hitler ordered the destruction of all German industrial infrastructure before it could fall into Allied hands; he also acted on his view that Germany's military failures had forfeited its right to survive as a nation.Sony VAIO VGN-CR13/P Battery

 Execution of this scorched earth plan was entrusted to arms minister Albert Speer, who, however, quietly disobeyed the order.[219]

On 20 April 1945, Hitler celebrated his 56th birthday in the Führerbunker ("Führer's shelter") below the Reichskanzlei (Reich Chancellery). Sony VAIO VGN-CR13/R Battery

The garrison commander of the besieged Festung Breslau("fortress Breslau"), General Hermann Niehoff, had chocolates distributed to his troops in honour of Hitler's birthday. 

By 21 April, Georgi Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front had broken through the last defences of German General Gotthard Heinrici's Army Group Vistula during the Battle of the Seelow Heights.Sony VAIO VGN-CR13/W Battery

 Facing little resistance, the Soviets advanced into the outskirts of Berlin.In denial of his increasingly dire situation, Hitler placed his hopes on the units commanded by Waffen SS General Felix Steiner, theArmeeabteilung Steiner ("Army Detachment Steiner"). Although "Army Detachment Steiner" was more than a corps it was less than an army. Sony VAIO VGN-CR131E/L Battery

Hitler ordered Steiner to attack the northern flank of thesalient made up of Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front. At the same time, the German Ninth Army, which had been pushed south of the salient, was ordered to attack northward in a pincer attack. Sony VAIO VGN-CR13G Battery

Late on 21 April, Gotthard Heinrici called Hans Krebs, chief of the Oberkommando des Heeres (Supreme Command of the Army or OKH), to inform him that Hitler's defence plans could not be implemented. Heinrici also told Krebs to impress upon Hitler the need to withdraw the 9th Army from its position.Sony VAIO VGN-CR13G/B Battery

On 22 April, during military conference, Hitler asked about Steiner's offensive. After a long silence, Hitler was told that the attack had never been launched and that the Russians had broken through into Berlin. This news prompted Hitler to ask everyone except Wilhelm Keitel, Hans Krebs, Alfred Jodl, Wilhelm Burgdorf, and Martin Bormann to leave the room.Sony VAIO VGN-CR13G/L Battery

 Hitler then launched a tirade against the treachery and incompetence of his commanders, culminating in Hitler's declaration—for the first time—that the war was lost. Hitler announced that he would stay in Berlin, to direct the defence of the city and then shoot himself.Sony VAIO VGN-CR13G/P Battery

Before the day ended, Hitler again found fresh hope in a new plan that included General Walther Wenck's Twelfth Army.  This new plan had Wenck turn his army – currently facing the Americans to the west – and attack towards the east to relieve Berlin. The Twelfth Army was to link up with the Ninth Army and break through to the city. Sony VAIO VGN-CR13G/R Battery

Wenck did attack and made temporary contact with the Potsdam garrison. But the link with the Ninth Army, like the plan in general, was unsuccessful. 

On 23 April, Joseph Goebbels made the following proclamation to the people of Berlin:Sony VAIO VGN-CR13G/W Battery

I call on you to fight for your city. Fight with everything you have got, for the sake of your wives and your children, your mothers and your parents. Your arms are defending everything we have ever held dear, and all the generations that will come after us. Be proud and courageous! Be inventive and cunning!Sony VAIO VGN-CR13T/L Battery

 Your Gauleiter is amongst you. He and his colleagues will remain in your midst. His wife and children are here as well. He, who once captured the city with 200 men, will now use every means to galvanise the defence of the capital. The Battle for Berlinmust become the signal for the whole nation to rise up in battle ...Sony VAIO VGN-CR13T/P Battery

Also on 23 April, Göring sent a telegram from Berchtesgaden in Bavaria, arguing that since Hitler was cut off in Berlin, he, Göring, should assume leadership of Germany. Göring set a time limit after which he would consider Hitler incapacitated.  Hitler responded angrily by having Göring arrested, and when writing his will on 29 April,Sony VAIO VGN-CR13T/R Battery

 Göring was removed from all his positions in the government.  Hitler appointed General der Artillerie Helmuth Weidling as the commander of the Berlin Defence Area, replacing Lieutenant General (Generalleutnant) Helmuth Reymann and Colonel (Oberst) Ernst Kaether. Sony VAIO VGN-CR13T/W Battery

Hitler also appointed Waffen-SS Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke the (Kommandant) Battle Commander for the defence of the government district (Zitadelle sector) that included the Reich Chancellery and Führerbunker. 

On 27 April, Berlin became completely cut off from the rest of Germany. As the Soviet forces closed in, Hitler's followers urged him to flee to the mountains of Bavaria to make a last stand in thenational redoubt.Sony VAIO VGN-CR15/B Battery

 However, Hitler was determined to either live or die in the capital.

On 28 April, Hitler discovered that Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler was trying to discuss surrender terms with the Western Allies (through the Swedish diplomat Count Folke Bernadotte). Hitler ordered Himmler's arrest and had Hermann Fegelein (Himmler's SS representative at Hitler's HQ in Berlin) shot.Sony VAIO VGN-CR150E/B Battery

Adding to Hitler's woes was Wenck's report that his Twelfth Army had been forced back along the entire front and that his forces could no longer support Berlin.

After midnight on 29 April, Hitler married Eva Braun in a small civil ceremony in a map room within the Führerbunker. Sony VAIO VGN-CR190 Battery

Antony Beevor stated that after Hitler hosted a modest wedding breakfast with his new wife, he then took secretary Traudl Junge to another room and dictated his last will and testament. Hitler signed these documents at 4:00 am. The event was witnessed and documents signed by Hans Krebs, Wilhelm Burgdorf, Joseph Goebbels, and Martin Bormann.Sony VAIO VGN-CR190E/L Battery

 Hitler then retired to bed. That afternoon, Hitler was informed of the assassination of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, which presumably increased his determination to avoid capture. 

On 30 April 1945, after intense street-to-street combat, when Soviet troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery, Hitler and Braun committed suicide; Sony VAIO VGN-CR190E/P Battery

Braun by biting into a cyanide capsule and Hitler by shooting himself with his 7.65 mm Walther PPK pistol. Hitler had at various times contemplated suicide, and the Walther was the same pistol that his niece, Geli Raubal had used in her suicide. Sony VAIO VGN-CR190E/R Battery

The lifeless bodies of Hitler and Eva Braun were carried up the stairs and through the bunker's emergency exit to the bombed-out garden behind the Reich Chancellery where they were placed in a bomb crater and doused with petrol. The corpses were set on fire as the Red Army advanced and the shelling continued. Sony VAIO VGN-CR190E/W Battery

On 2 May, Berlin surrendered, and there were conflicting reports about what happened to Hitler's remains. Records in the Soviet archives— obtained after the fall of the Soviet Union—showed that the remains of Hitler, Eva Braun, Joseph and Magda Goebbels, the six Goebbels children, General Hans Krebs and Hitler's dogs, were repeatedly buried and exhumed.Sony VAIO VGN-CR19VN/B Battery

On 4 April 1970, a Soviet KGB team with detailed burial charts secretly exhumed five wooden boxes which had been buried at the SMERSH facility in Magdeburg. The remains from the boxes were thoroughly burned and crushed, after which the ashes were thrown into the Biederitz river, a tributary of the nearby Elbe.Sony VAIO VGN-CR19XN/B Battery

According to the Russian Federal Security Service, a fragment of human skull stored in its archives and displayed to the public in a 2000 exhibition came from Hitler's remains. However, the authenticity of the skull fragment was challenged by historians and researchers,Sony VAIO VGN-CR20 Battery

and DNA analysis conducted in 2009 showed the skull fragment to be that of a woman. Analysis of the sutures between the skull plates indicated that it belonged to a 20–40-year-old individual. 

Legacy

Hitler's policies and orders resulted in the death of approximately 40 million people, including about 27 million in the Soviet Union.Sony VAIO VGN-CR21/B Battery

The actions of Hitler, and Hitler's ideology, Nazism, are almost universally regarded as gravely immoral.Historians, philosophers, and politicians have often applied the word evil to describe Hitler's ideology and its outcomes. Historical and cultural portrayals of Hitler in the west are overwhelmingly condemnatory. Sony VAIO VGN-CR21E/L Battery

For example, in Germany and Austria the denial of the Holocaust and the display of Nazi symbols such as swastikas are both prohibited by law.

Outside of Hitler's birthplace in Braunau am Inn, Austria, the Memorial Stone Against War and Fascism is engraved with the following message:Sony VAIO VGN-CR21E/P Battery

Loosely translated it reads: "For peace, freedom // and democracy // never again fascism // millions of dead remind [us]"

Following WWII the toothbrush moustache fell out of favour in the West because of its strong association with Hitler, earning it the nickname "Hitler moustache". The use of the name "Adolf" also declined in post-war years.Sony VAIO VGN-CR21E/W Battery

Hitler and his legacy are occasionally described in more neutral or even favourable terms. Former Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat spoke of his 'admiration' of Hitler in 1953, when he was a young man, but it is possible that Sadat's views were shaped mainly by his anti-British sentiments. Louis Farrakhan has referred to Hitler as a "very great man".Sony VAIO VGN-CR21S/L Battery

 Bal Thackeray, leader of the right-wingHindu nationalist Shiv Sena party in the Indian state of the Maharashtra, declared in 1995 that he was an admirer of Hitler. Friedrich Meinecke, the German historian, said of Hitler's life that "it is one of the great examples of the singular and incalculable power of personality in historical life".Sony VAIO VGN-CR21S/P Battery

Religious views

Hitler's parents were Roman Catholics, but after leaving home he never attended Mass or received the sacraments. Hitler favoured aspects of Protestantism that suited his own views. However, he also adopted some elements of the Catholic Church's hierarchical organization, liturgy and phraseology in his politics.Sony VAIO VGN-CR21S/W Battery

After his move to Germany, where Catholic and Protestant churches are largely financed through a church tax, Hitler did not leave his church, leading the historian Richard Steigmann-Gall to conclude that Hitler "can be classified as Catholic", but that "nominal church membership is a very unreliable gauge of actual piety in this context."Sony VAIO VGN-CR21Z/N Battery

In public, Hitler often praised Christian heritage, German Christian culture, and professed a belief in an "Aryan" Jesus Christ, a Jesus who fought against the Jews. In his speeches and publications, Hitler spoke of his interpretation of Christianity as a central motivation for his antisemitism, stating that "As a Christian I have no duty to allow myself to be cheated,Sony VAIO VGN-CR21Z/R Battery

 but I have the duty to be a fighter for truth and justice."  In private, Hitler was more critical of traditional Christianity, considering it a religion fit only for slaves; he admired the power of Rome but maintained a severe hostility towards its teaching.  Hitler's critical views on Catholicism resonated with Streicher's contention that the Catholic establishment was allying itself with the Jews.Sony VAIO VGN-CR220E/R Battery

In light of these private statements, forJohn S. Conway and many other historians, it is beyond doubt that Hitler held a "fundamental antagonism" towards the Christian churches.  However, some researchers have questioned the authenticity of Hitler's private statements; for instance, Hermann Rauschning's Hitler speaks is considered by most historians to be an invention.Sony VAIO VGN-CR23/B Battery

In the political relations with the churches in Germany, however, Hitler readily adopted a strategy "that suited his immediate political purposes".  Hitler had a general plan, even before his rise to power, to destroy Christianity within the Reich. Sony VAIO VGN-CR23/L Battery

The leader of the Hitler Youth stated that "the destruction of Christianity was explicitly recognized as a purpose of the National Socialist movement" from the start, but "considerations of expedience made it impossible" publicly to express this extreme position.[276] His intention was to wait until the war was over to destroy the influence of Christianity.Sony VAIO VGN-CR23/N Battery

Hitler, for a time, advocated a form of the Christian faith he called "Positive Christianity", a belief system purged of what he objected to in orthodox Christianity, and featuring racist elements. By 1940, however, Hitler had abandoned advocating even the syncretist idea of a positive Christianity.Sony VAIO VGN-CR23/P Battery

Hitler maintained that the "terrorism in religion is, to put it briefly, of a Jewish dogma, which Christianity has universalized and whose effect is to sow trouble and confusion in men's minds.

Hitler articulated his view on the relationship between religion and national identity as, "We do not want any other god than Germany itself. It is essential to have fanatical faith and hope and love in and for Germany".Sony VAIO VGN-CR23/R Battery

Attitude towards occultism

Some researchers suggest that Hitler did not follow esoteric ideas, occultism, or Ariosophy,  and Hitler does ridicule such beliefs in Mein Kampf. Others have suggested that Hitler's views, particularly on race, had been strongly influenced by works that promulgated a mystical superiority of the Germans;Sony VAIO VGN-CR23/W Battery

 these works included the occult and antisemitic magazine Ostara, whose publisherLanz von Liebenfels claimed that Hitler had visited him in 1909 and had praised his work.  Historians are divided on the question of the reliability of von Liebenfels' claim.Sony VAIO VGN-CR240E/B Battery

Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke considers his account reliable, Brigitte Hamann leaves the question open and Ian Kershaw, although questioning the degree to which Hitler was influenced by it, notes that, "Most likely, Hitler did read Ostara, along with other racist pulp which was prominent on Vienna newspaper stands."Sony VAIO VGN-CR240N/B Battery

Kershaw notes that it is usually accepted that Hitler did read and was influenced by this occult publication, pointing to Hitler's account of his conversion to antisemitism after reading antisemitic pamphlets.

Health

Hitler's health frequently has been the subject of speculation. It has been suggested that he suffered from irritable bowel syndrome, skin lesions, irregular heartbeat, Parkinson's disease,Sony VAIO VGN-CR25G/N Battery

syphilis, tinnitus, and Asperger syndrome.   Hitler also had dental problems—his personal dentist, Hugo Blaschke, had fitted a large dental bridge to Hitler's upper jaw in 1933, and in 1944, Blaschke removed the left rear section of the bridge to treat an infection of Hitler's gums that coincided with a sinus infection.Sony VAIO VGN-CR290EAL Battery

From the mid-1930s, Hitler followed a largely vegetarian diet, and ate meat only occasionally. At social events, Hitler sometimes gave graphic accounts of the slaughter of animals in an effort to make his dinner guests shun meat.A fear of cancer (from which his mother died) is the most widely cited reason for Hitler's dietary habits. Sony VAIO VGN-CR290EAN Battery

However, Hitler, an antivivisectionist, may have followed his selective diet out of a profound concern for animals. Martin Bormann had a greenhouse constructed near the Berghof (near Berchtesgaden) to ensure a steady supply of fresh fruit and vegetables for Hitler throughout the war.Sony VAIO VGN-CR290EAP Battery

Hitler was a non-smoker and promoted aggressive anti-smoking campaigns throughout Germany. (See Anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany.)  Hitler strongly despised alcohol. 

Syphilis

During the last years of his life, Hitler suffered from tremors and irregular heartbeat, which could have been symptoms of tertiary (late-stage) syphilis.Sony VAIO VGN-CR290EAR Battery

Theodor Morell (a specialist venereologist) and another physician diagnosed Hitler with syphilis in early 1945 in a joint report to SS head Heinrich Himmler. Some historians have noted Hitler's preoccupation with syphilis in Mein Kampf, calling it a "Jewish disease" and leading to speculation he may have contracted the disease himself.Sony VAIO VGN-CR290EAW Battery

 Since the 1870s, however, it was common for the völkisch right to associate Jews with diseases such as syphilis. Historian Robert Waite claims that Hitler tested negative on a Wassermann test in 1939; however, the test was prone to false-negative results.Sony VAIO VGN-CR29XN/B Battery

 Regardless of Hitler's infection status, he lived in constant fear of the disease, and took treatment for it ignoring his physician's opinions. For example, Hitler may have discovered in 1908 that he was syphilitic, and this may have influenced his views on prostitution and similar societal features and spurred his intent to eliminate these perceived ills.Sony VAIO VGN-CR305E/RC Battery

In Mein Kampf, he wrote about the temptation of prostitution and the spreading of syphilis, specifically volume 1, chapter 10, "Causes of the Collapse". 

The journalist Joseph Kessel reports that renowned masseur, Felix Kersten, in the winter of 1942 was shown a top-secret 26-page report that indicated that Hitler had contracted syphilis in his youth and was treated for it at a hospital in Pasewalk, Sony VAIO VGN-CR31S/D Battery

Germany. In 1937, Hitler had first displayed late-stage symptoms, and by the start of 1942, progressive syphilitic paralysis (Tabes dorsalis) was occurring. Hitler was treated by Morell and his disease was kept as a state secret.  The only people privy to the report's content were Martin Bormann and Hermann Göring.Sony VAIO VGN-CR323/W Battery

Monorchism

It has been alleged that Hitler had monorchism, the medical condition of having only one testicle. Hitler's personal doctor, Johan Jambor, supposedly described this condition to a priest whose records were uncovered in 2008, 23 years after the doctor's death.Sony VAIO VGN-CR33 Battery

Soviet journalist, Lev Bezymensky, allegedly involved in the Soviet autopsy of Hitler's remains, stated in a 1967 book that Hitler's left testicle had been missing, but he later admitted to have falsified this claim. Hitler had been examined by many doctors throughout his life, and no mention of this clinical condition has been discovered. Sony VAIO VGN-CR382 Battery

Records show that he was wounded in 1916 during theBattle of the Somme, with some sources describing his injury as a wound to the groin.

Parkinson's disease

It has also been speculated Hitler had Parkinson's disease. Sony VAIO VGN-CR490EBL Battery

Newsreel footage of Hitler show tremors of his hand and a shuffling walk, which began before the war and worsened towards the end of his life. Morell treated Hitler with a drug that was commonly used in 1945 to treat the condition.Sony VAIO VGN-CR490EBN Battery

Ernst-Günther Schenck, working as emergency doctor in the Reich Chancellery during April 1945, also claimed Hitler might have had Parkinson's disease. However, Schenck saw Hitler only briefly on two occasions, and his diagnosis was formed at a time of immense stress and exhaustion, as he had been working in the surgery for several days without much sleep.Sony VAIO VGN-CR490EBP Battery

Other complaints

From the 1930s, Hitler suffered from stomach pains. In 1936, a non-cancerous polyp was removed from his throat and he developed eczema on his legs. He also suffered ruptured eardrums as a result of the 20 July plot bomb blast in 1944, and two hundred wood splinters had to be removed from his legs.Sony VAIO VGN-CR490EBR Battery

 Hitler's otologist observed that Hitler had developed tinnitus after the Röhm-Putsch, and considered it psychogenic in origin. Hitler treated the condition with the prescription-free lipid lecithin. 

Addiction to amphetamine

Hitler began using amphetamine occasionally after 1937 and became addicted to the drug after the late summer of 1942.Sony VAIO VGN-CR490EBT Battery

 Albert Speer has linked Hitler's use of amphetamines with his increasingly inflexible decision making (for example, never to allow military retreats). 

Historians' views

The German historian Hans-Ulrich Wehler dismisses theories that link the rise of Nazi Germany to Hitler's medical conditions and mental states. Sony VAIO VGN-CR490EBW Battery

The theories about Hitler's medical condition are difficult to prove, and according them too much weight may have the effect of attributing many of the events and consequences of the Third Reich to the possibly impaired physical health of one individual. Sony VAIO VGN-CR50B/W Battery

Ian Kershaw agrees that it is better to take a broader view of German history by seeking to examine what social forces led to the Third Reich and its policies rather than to pursue narrow explanations for the Holocaust and World War II based on only one person. Sony VAIO VGN-CR51B/W Battery

Sexuality

To the public, Hitler promoted his own image as that of a man without a domestic life, dedicated entirely to his political mission. However, he was engaged toMimi Reiter in the 1920s, and later had a mistress, Eva Braun. He had a close bond with his half-niece Geli Raubal, which may have included sexual relations, though there is no evidence that conclusively supports such a relationship.Sony VAIO VGN-CR520E/J Battery

All three women attempted suicide, which has led to speculation that Hitler may have had sexual fetishes that affected the mental well-being of his close partners. Otto Strasser, a political opponent of Hitler, claimed that Hitler had urolagnia (sexual arousal by urine or urination), but Mimi Reiter has disputed this claim.Sony VAIO VGN-CR52B/W Battery

Hitler may have also had a sexual relationship with British fascist, Unity Mitford.Sony VAIO VGN-CR590EBL Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CR590EBN Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CR590EBP Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CR590EBR Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CR590EBT Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CR590EBW Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CR60B/L Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CR60B/P Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CR60B/R Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CR61B/L Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CR61B/N Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CR61B/P Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CR61B/R Battery

 

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