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15 juillet 2013 1 15 /07 /juillet /2013 10:00

Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (French: République démocratique du Congo), sometimes referred to as DR Congo, Congo-Kinshasa or the DRC, is a country located in Central Africa. It is the second largest country in Africa by area and the eleventh largest in the world. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

With a population of over 75 million,[1] the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the nineteenth most populous nation in the world, the fourth most populous nation in Africa, as well as the most populous officially Francophone country. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

It borders the Central African Republic and South Sudan to the north; Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi in the east;Zambia and Angola to the south; the Republic of the Congo, the Angolan exclave of Cabinda, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; and is separated from Tanzania by Lake Tanganyika in the east.[1]  ACER TravelMate 4150 Series Laptop Keyboard

The country has access to the ocean through a 40-kilometre (25 mi) stretch of Atlantic coastline at Muanda and the roughly 9 km wide mouth of theCongo River which opens into the Gulf of Guinea. It has the second-highest total Christian population in Africa. HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

The Second Congo War, beginning in 1998, devastated the country and is sometimes referred to as the "African world war" because it involved nine African nations and twenty armed groups.[4][5] Despite the signing of peace accords in 2003, fighting continued in the east of the country in 2007. There, the prevalence of rape and other sexual violence is described as the worst in the world. [6] SONY VGN-FE770G Laptop Keyboard

The war is the world's deadliest conflict since the Chinese Civil War, killing 5.4 million people since 1998. [7] [8][9] More than 90% were not killed in combat. They died from diseases that were both preventable and treatable (malaria, diarrhea, HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

pneumonia and malnutrition) aggravated by displaced populations living in unsanitary and over-crowded conditions that lacked access to shelter, water, food and medicine.[10] Forty seven percent of those deaths were children under five.[7] Until today the ongoing conflicts excerbates the exhaustion of the country's great agricultural potential. This is one reason for a high mortality rate and prevalence of malnutrition.[11] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard

Conflict for control of the mineral wealth is behind some of the most violent atrocities.[12]

The Democratic Republic of the Congo was formerly, in chronological order, the Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Republic of the Congo, and Zaire (Zaïre in French).[1] LENOVO V022402AS1 Laptop Keyboard

Though it is located in the Central African UN subregion, the nation is also economically and regionally affiliated with Southern Africa as a member of theSouthern African Development Community (SADC). HP G62-a38SE Laptop Keyboard

A wave of early people was identified in the northern and north-western parts of central Africa during the second millennium BC. They produced food (pearl millet), maintained domestic livestock and developed a kind of arboriculture mainly based on the oil palm. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

From 1,550 BC to 50 BC, starting from a nucleus area in south Cameroon on both banks of the Sanaga River, the first Neolithic peopling of northern and western central Africa can be followed south-eastwards and southwards. SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard

In D.R. Congo, the first villages in the vicinity of Mbandaka and the Lake Tumba are known as the Imbonga Traditions, from around 650 BC. In Lower Congo, north of the Angolan border, it is the 'Ngovo Tradition' around 350 BC that shows the arrival of the Neolithic wave of advance.

In Kivu, across the country to the east, ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard

the Urewe Tradition villages first appeared about 650 BC. The few archaeological sites known in Congo are a western extension of the Urewe culture which has been found chiefly in Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and western Kenya and Tanzania. From the start of this tradition, the people knew iron smelting, as is evidenced by several iron-smelting furnaces excavated in Rwanda and Burundi. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

The earliest evidence further to the west is known in Cameroon and near to the small town of Bouar in Central Africa. Though further studies are needed to establish a better chronology for the start of iron production in Central Africa, the Cameroonian data places iron smelting north of the Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests around 650 BC to 550 BC. HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

This technology developed independently from the previous Neolithic expansion, some 900 years later. As fieldwork done by a German team shows, the Congo River network was slowly settled by food-producing villagers going upstream in the forest. Work from a Spanish project in the Ituri area further east suggests villages reached there only around 1,150 BC. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

The Bantu-speaking Neolithic and then iron-producing villagers added to and displaced the indigenous Pygmy populations (also known in the region as the "Batwa" or "Twa") into secondary parts of the country. Subsequent migrations from the Darfur andKordofan regions of Sudan into the north-east, HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard

as well as East Africans migrating into the eastern Congo, added to the mix of ethnic groups. The Bantu-speakers imported a mixed economy made up of agriculture, small-stock raising, fishing, fruit collecting, hunting and arboriculture before 3,500 BC; iron-working techniques, possibly from West Africa, a much later addition. The villagers established the Bantu language family as the primary set of tongues for the Congolese. HP G56-118CA Laptop Keyboard

The process in which the original Upemba society transitioned into the Kingdom of Luba was gradual and complex. This transition ran without interruption, with several distinct societies developing out of the Upemba culture prior to the genesis of the Luba. Each of these kingdoms became very wealthy due mainly to the region's mineral wealth, TOSHIBA Satellite L550-ST5701 Laptop Keyboard

especially in ores. The civilization began to develop and implement iron and copper technology, in addition to trading in ivory and other goods. The Luba established a strong commercial demand for their metal technologies and were able to institute a long-range commercial net (the business connections extended over 1,500 kilometres (930 miles), Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

all the way to the Indian Ocean). By the 16th century, the kingdom had an established strong central government based on chieftainship. The Eastern regions of the precolonial Congo were heavily disrupted by constant slave raiding, mainly from Arab/Zanzibari slave traders such as the infamous Tippu Tip.[14] HP 488590-001 Laptop Keyboard

Belgian exploration, exploitation, and administration took place from the 1870s until the 1920s. It was first led by Sir Henry Morton Stanley, who undertook his explorations under the sponsorship of King Leopold II of Belgium. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Leopold had designs on what was to become the Congo as a colony.[15] In a succession of negotiations, Leopold – professing humanitarian objectives in his capacity as chairman of the front organization Association Internationale Africaine – played one European rival against another.[citation needed]  HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard

Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Conference of Berlin in 1885 and made the land his private property and named it the Congo Free State.[15] Leopold's regime began various infrastructure projects, such as construction of the railway that ran from the coast to the capital of Leopoldville (now Kinshasa). TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

It took years to complete. Nearly all such projects were aimed at increasing the capital which Leopold and his associates could extract from the colony, leading to exploitation of Africans.[16]

In the Free State, colonists brutalized the local population to produce rubber, for which the spread of automobiles and development of rubber tires created a growing international market.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

The sale of rubber made a fortune for Leopold, who built several buildings in Brussels and Ostend to honor himself and his country. To enforce the rubber quotas, the army, the Force Publique (FP), was called in. The Force Publique made the practice of cutting off the limbs of the natives as a means of enforcing rubber quotas a matter of policy; TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard

 this practice was widespread. During the period of 1885–1908, millions of Congolese died as a consequence of exploitation and disease. In some areas the population declined dramatically; it has been estimated that sleeping sickness and smallpox killed nearly half the population in the areas surrounding the lower Congo River.[17] TOSHIBA Satellite P305-S8906 laptop keyboard

A government commission later concluded that the population of the Congo had been "reduced by half" during this period,[16] but determining precisely how many people died is impossible, as no accurate records exist. GATEWAY NX570X laptop keyboard

The actions of the Free State's administration sparked international protests led by British reporter Edmund Dene Morel and British diplomat/Irish rebel Roger Casement, whose 1904 report on the Congo condemned the practice. Famous writers such as Mark Twain and Arthur Conan Doyle also protested, and Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness was set in Congo Free State. HP Pavilion dv5-1044ca laptop keyboard

In 1908, the Belgian parliament, despite initial reluctance, bowed to international pressure (especially that from Great Britain) and took over the Free State from the king. From then on, as a Belgian colony,  HP Pavilion dv5-1050ed laptop keyboard

it was called the Belgian Congo and was under the rule of the elected Belgian government. The governing of the Congo improved significantly and considerable economic and social progress was achieved. The white colonial rulers had,  SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboard

however, generally a condescending, patronizing attitude toward the indigenous peoples, which led to bitter resentment from both sides.

During World War II, the Congolese army achieved several victories against the Italians in North Africa.[citation needed] Lenovo 3000 G430 4153 laptop keyboard

As the neighboring French colony of Middle Congo (Moyen Congo) also chose the name "Republic of Congo" upon achieving its independence, the two countries were more commonly known as "Congo-Léopoldville" and "Congo-Brazzaville", HP Pavilion G6-1B87CL laptop keyboard

after their capital cities. Another way they were often distinguished during the 1960s, such as in newspaper articles, was that "Congo-Léopoldville" was called "The Congo" and "Congo-Brazzaville" was called simply "Congo".[citation needed] HP Mini 110-3004tu laptop keyboard

On 5 September 1960, Kasavubu dismissed Lumumba from office. Lumumba declared Kasavubu's action unconstitutional and a crisis between the two leaders developed. (cf. Sécession au Katanga – J.Gerald-Libois -Brussels- CRISP) Lumumba had previously appointedJoseph Mobutu chief of staff of the new Congo army, Armée Nationale Congolaise (ANC). HP Pavilion dv6-2150es laptop keyboard

Taking advantage of the leadership crisis between Kasavubu and Lumumba, Mobutu garnered enough support within the army to create mutiny. With financial support from the United States and Belgium, Mobutu paid his soldiers privately. The aversion of Western powers to communism and leftist ideology influenced their decision to finance Mobutu's quest to maintain "order" in the new state by neutralizing Kasavubu and Lumumba in acoup by proxy. SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard

A constitutional referendum after Mobutu's coup of 1965 resulted in the country's official name being changed to the "Democratic Republic of the Congo."[1] In 1971 it was changed again to "Republic of Zaïre." TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

On 17 January 1961, Katangan forces and Belgian paratroops – supported by the United States and Belgium – kidnapped and executed Patrice Lumumba. Amidst widespread confusion and chaos, a temporary government was led by technicians (Collège des Commissaires) HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

with Evariste Kimba. The Katanga secession was ended in January 1963 with the assistance of UN forces. Several short-lived governments, of Joseph Ileo, Cyrille Adoula, and Moise Tshombe, took over in quick succession. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

In May 1960, a growing nationalist movement, the Mouvement National Congolais or MNC Party, led by Patrice Lumumba, won the parliamentary elections. The party appointed Lumumba as Prime Minister. The parliament elected as President Joseph Kasavubu, of the Alliance des Bakongo (ABAKO) party.  HP Compaq NW8440 Laptop Keyboard

Other parties that emerged included the Parti Solidaire Africain (or PSA) led by Antoine Gizenga, and the Parti National du Peuple (or PNP) led by Albert Delvaux and Laurent Mbariko. (Congo 1960, dossiers du CRISP, Belgium) The Belgian Congo achieved independence on 30 June 1960 under the name "République du Congo" ("Republic of Congo" or "Republic of the Congo" in English). SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard

Shortly after independence, the provinces of Katanga (led by Moise Tshombe) and South Kasai, and the Jabiyans in North Kivu engaged in secessionist struggles against the new leadership.[18] Most of the 100,000 Europeans who had remained behind after independence fled the country,[19]opening the way for Congolese to replace the European military and administrative elite.[20] SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

The new president had the support of the United States because of his staunch opposition to Communism. Western powers appeared to believe this would make him a roadblock to Communist schemes in Africa.[citation needed] ACER TravelMate 2403 Series laptop keyboard

A one-party system was established, and Mobutu declared himself head of state. He periodically held elections in which he was the only candidate. Although relative peace and stability were achieved, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Mobutu's government was guilty of severe human rights violations, political repression, a cult of personality and corruption. (Mobutu demanded every Congolese banknote be printed with his image, hanging of his portrait in all public buildings, most businesses, and on billboards. It was common for ordinary people to wear his likeness on their clothing.) DELL Vostro PP38L laptop keyboard

Corruption became so prevalent the term "le mal Zairois" or "Zairean Sickness",[21] meaning gross corruption, theft and mismanagement, was coined, reportedly by Mobutu himself.[22] By 1984, Mobutu was said to have $4 billion (USD), an amount close to the country's national debt, deposited in a personal Swiss bank account. Packard Bell Easynote TX86 laptop keyboard

International aid, most often in the form of loans, enriched Mobutu while he allowed national infrastructure such as roads to deteriorate to as little as one-quarter of what had existed in 1960. Zaire became a "kleptocracy" as Mobutu and his associates embezzled government funds. Lenovo Thinkpad X220 laptop keyboard

In a campaign to identify himself with African nationalism, starting on 1 June 1966, Mobutu renamed the nation's cities: Léopoldville became Kinshasa [the country was now Democratic Republic of The Congo – Kinshasa], Stanleyville became Kisangani, Elisabethville became Lubumbashi, and Coquihatville became Mbandaka. This renaming campaign was completed in the 1970s. Compaq Presario CQ42-173TU laptop keyboard

In 1971, Mobutu renamed the country the Republic of Zaire, its fourth name change in 11 years and its sixth overall. The Congo River was renamed the Zaire River. In 1972, Mobutu changed his legal name from Joseph-Désiré Mobutu to Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (translated as "the all powerful warrior who,  Packard Bell NEW95 laptop keyboard

because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, shall go from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake"[23]), although he only used the first three of his new names. Furthermore, he decreed that Christian names had to be Africanized and refused to allow Western-styled clothing to be worn by anyone. HP Pavilion dv6-2124eo laptop keyboard

During the 1970s and 1980s, Mobutu was invited to visit the United States on several occasions, meeting with U.S. PresidentsRichard Nixon, Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. In June 1989, Mobutu was the first African head of state invited for a state visit with newly elected President Bush.[24] Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, however, U.S. relations with Mobutu cooled, as he was no longer deemed necessary as a Cold War ally.  ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard

Opponents within Zaire stepped up demands for reform. This atmosphere contributed to Mobutu's declaring the Third Republic in 1990, whose constitution was supposed to pave the way for democratic reform. The reforms turned out to be largely cosmetic. Mobutu continued in power until the conflict forced him to flee Zaire in 1997. Thereafter, the nation chose to reclaim its name of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, since the name Zaire carried such strong connections to the rule of Mobutu. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard

forces (Interahamwe) fled to eastern Zaire and began refugee camps as a basis for incursion against Rwanda. These forces allied with the Zairian armed forces (FAZ) to launch a campaign against Congolese ethnic Tutsis in eastern Zaire.[25] SONY Vaio PCG-K23 Laptop Keyboard

A coalition of Rwandan and Ugandan armies then invaded Zaire to overthrow the government of Mobutu, and ultimately control the mineral resources of Zaire, launching the First Congo War. This new expanded coalition of two foreign armies allied with some longtime opposition figures, led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila, SONY 147664712 Laptop Keyboard

becoming the Alliance des Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Congo-Zaïre (AFDL). In 1997, Mobutu fled the country and Kabila marched into Kinshasa, naming himself president and reverting the name of the country to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

Later, Laurent Kabila asked foreign military forces to return to their countries because he was concerned that the Rwandan officers running his army were plotting a coup in order to give the presidency to a Tutsi who would report directly to the Rwandan president, Paul Kagame. Rwandan troops retreated to Goma and launched a new Tutsi led rebel military movement called theRassemblement Congolais pour la Democratie (RCD) TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard

to fight against their former ally, President Kabila, while Uganda instigated the creation of new rebel movement called the Movement for the Liberation of Congo (MLC), led by the Congolese warlord Jean-Pierre Bemba. The two rebel movements, along with Rwandan and Ugandan troops, started the Second Congo War by attacking the DRC army in 1998. Angola,  HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

Zimbabwe and Namibia became involved militarily on the side of the government to defend a fellow SADC member.

Kabila was assassinated in 2001 and was succeeded by his son Joseph Kabila, who called for multilateral peace talks to end the war. UN peacekeepers, MONUC, now known as MONUSCO, arrived in April 2001. Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

Talks led to the signing of a peace accord in which Kabila would share power with former rebels. By June 2003 all foreign armies except those of Rwanda had pulled out of Congo. DR Congo had atransitional government until the election was over. A constitution was approved by voters, and on 30 July 2006 DRC held its first multi-party elections. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

An election result dispute between Kabila and Jean-Pierre Bemba turned into an all-out battle between their supporters in the streets of Kinshasa. MONUC took control of the city. A new election was held in October 2006, which Kabila won with 70% of the vote and on December 2006 the transitional government came to an end as Joseph Kabila was sworn in as President. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

However, the Kivu conflict continued in the east. One of the former rebels integrated to the army, Laurent Nkunda, a member of a RCD branch, RCD-Goma, defected from the army along with troops loyal to him. They formed the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), GATEWAY NX570X Laptop Keyboard

which began an armed rebellion against the government and was believed to be again backed by Rwanda as a way to tackle the Hutu group, Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR). In March 2009, after a deal between the DRC and Rwanda, Rwandan troops entered the DRC and arrested Nkunda and were allowed to pursue FDLR militants. HP G61-336NR Laptop Keyboard

The CNDP signed a peace treaty with the government, in which it agreed to become a political party and its soldiers integrated into the national army in exchange for the release of its imprisoned members.[27] In 2012, the leader of the CNDP, Bosco Ntaganda, and troops loyal to him mutinied and formed the rebel military March 23 Movement, claiming a violation of the treaty by the government.[28] SONY VGN-FE31M Laptop Keyboard

In the resulting M23 rebellion, M23 captured the provincial capital, Goma, in November 2012 and withdrew in December following negotiations.[29][30]Neighboring countries, particularly Rwanda, have been accused of using rebels groups as proxies to gain control of the resource rich country and of arming rebels, a claim made by the United Nations and Human Rights Watch.[31][32] ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

On and off fighting in the Ituri conflict occurred between the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) and the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC) who claimed to represent the Lendu and Hema ethnic groups, HP Mini 210 laptop keyboard

respectively. In the northeast, Joseph Kony's LRA moved from their original bases in Uganda (where they have fought a 20-year rebellion) and South Sudan to DR Congo in 2005 and set up camps in the Garamba National Park.[33][34] In northern Katanga, the Mai-Mai created by Laurent Kabila slipped out of the control of Kinshasa. IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard

In 2009, people in the Congo may still be dying at a rate of an estimated 45,000 per month,[35] and estimates of the number who have died from the long conflict range from 900,000 to 5,400,000.[36] DELL Inspiron 6000 laptop keyboard

The death toll is due to widespread disease and famine; reports indicate that almost half of the individuals who have died are children under the age of 5.[37] There have been frequent reports of weapon bearers killing civilians, HP Pavilion dv6-2124eo laptop keyboard

destroying property, widespread sexual violence,[38]causing hundreds of thousands of people to flee their homes or otherwise breaching humanitarian and human rights law. A new study says more than 400,000 women are raped in the Democratic Republic of Congo every year.[39] HP Pavilion dv6-2173cl laptop keyboard

On February 24, 2013 a United Nations-backed accord aimed at stabilizing the Democratic Republic of the Congo called the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo was signed in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa by eleven African countries – Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo, the Republic of Congo, Rwanda, South Africa, South Sudan, Uganda and Tanzania (UN News Centre 2013).[40]  ASUS A9R laptop keyboard

The Congo is situated at the heart of sub-Saharan Africa and is bounded by (clockwise from the southwest) Angola, the South Atlantic Ocean, the Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, South Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania acrossLake Tanganyika, and Zambia. The country lies between latitudes 6°N and 14°S, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E525 laptop keyboard

and longitudes 12° and 32°E. It straddles the Equator, with one-third to the North and two-thirds to the South. The size of Congo, 2,345,408 square kilometres (905,567 sq mi), is slightly greater than the combined areas of Spain, France, Germany, Sweden, and Norway. GATEWAY MX6956 laptop keyboard

As a result of its equatorial location, the Congo experiences high precipitation and has the highest frequency of thunderstorms in the world. The annual rainfall can total upwards of 2,000 millimetres (80 in) in some places, and the area sustains the Congo Rainforest, the second largest rain forest in the world (after the Amazon). GATEWAY NX570X laptop keyboard

This massive expanse of lush jungle covers most of the vast, low-lying central basin of the river, which slopes toward the Atlantic Ocean in the west. This area is surrounded by plateaus merging into savannas in the south and southwest, by mountainous terraces in the west, and dense grasslands extending beyond the Congo River in the north. High, glaciated mountains are found in the extreme eastern region (Rwenzori Mountains). IBM Thinkpad Z60m laptop keyboard

The tropical climate has also produced the Congo River system which dominates the region topographically along with the rainforest it flows through, though they are not mutually exclusive. The name for the Congo state is derived in part from the river. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

The river basin (meaning the Congo River and all of its myriad tributaries) occupies nearly the entire country and an area of nearly 1,000,000 km2 (390,000 sq mi). The river and its tributaries (major offshoots include the Kasai, Sangha, Ubangi, Aruwimi, and Lulonga) form the backbone of Congolese economics and transportation. They have a dramatic impact on the daily lives of the people.  HP G71-445US laptop keyboard

The sources of the Congo are in the Albertine Rift Mountains that flank the western branch of the East African Rift, as well as Lake Tanganyika and Lake Mweru. The river flows generally west from Kisangani just below Boyoma Falls, then gradually bends southwest, passing by Mbandaka, joining with the Ubangi River, and running into the Pool Malebo (Stanley Pool).Kinshasa and Brazzaville are on opposite sides of the river at the Pool (see NASA image). Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

Then the river narrows and falls through a number of cataracts in deep canyons (collectively known as the Livingstone Falls), and then running past Boma into the Atlantic Ocean. The river also has the second-largest flow and the second-largestwatershed of any river in the world (trailing the Amazon in both respects). The river and a 45 km wide strip of land on its north bank provide the country's only outlet to the Atlantic. SONY VAIO VGN-CS110D/W laptop keyboard

The previously mentioned Albertine Rift plays a key role in shaping the Congo's geography. Not only is the northeastern section of the country much more mountainous, but due to the rift's tectonic activities, this area also experiences volcanicactivity, TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

 occasionally with loss of life. The geologic activity in this area also created the famous African Great Lakes, three of which lie on the Congo's eastern frontier: Lake Albert (known during the Mobutu era as Lake Mobutu Sese Seko), Lake Edward (known during the Amin era as Lake Idi Amin Dada), and Lake Tanganyika. Lake Edward and Lake Albert are connected by the Semliki River.  HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

The Rift Valley has exposed an enormous amount of mineral wealth throughout the south and east of the Congo, making it accessible to mining. Cobalt, copper, cadmium, industrial and gem-quality diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore, and coal are all found in plentiful supply, especially in the Congo's southeastern Katanga region.  HP AESP7U00110 Laptop Keyboard

On 17 January 2002 Mount Nyiragongo erupted in Congo, with the lava running out at 40 mph (64 km/h) and 50 yards (46 m) wide. One of the three streams of extremely fluid lava flowed through the nearby city of Goma, killing 45 and leaving 120,000 homeless. Four hundred thousand people were evacuated from the city during the eruption. HP G61-425ES Laptop Keyboard

The lava poisoned the water of Lake Kivu, killing fish. Only two planes left the local airport because of the possibility of the explosion of stored petrol. The lava passed the airport but ruined the runway, entrapping several airplanes. Six months after the 2002 eruption, nearby Mount Nyamulagira also erupted. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

Mount Nyamulagira also erupted in 2006 and again in January 2010.

The rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo contain great biodiversity, including many rare and endemic species, such as the common chimpanzee and the bonobo, the African forest elephant, mountain gorilla, okapi and white rhino. Five of the country's national parks are listed as World Heritage Sites: Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

theGarumba, Kahuzi-Biega, Salonga and Virunga National Parks, and the Okapi Wildlife Reserve. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most biodiverse African country.[41] The civil war and resultant poor economic conditions have endangered much of this biodiversity. Many park wardens were either killed or could not afford to continue their work. All five sites are listed by UNESCO as World Heritage in Danger.  DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard

Over the past century or so, the DRC has developed into the center of what has been called the Central African "bushmeat" problem, which is regarded by many as a major environmental as well as socio-economic crisis. "Bushmeat" is another word for the meat of wild animals. It is typically obtained through trapping, IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard

usually with wire snares, or otherwise with shotguns, poisoned arrows or arms originally intended for use in the DRC's numerous military conflicts. HP G62-a20EJ Laptop Keyboard

The "bushmeat crisis" has emerged in the DRC mainly as a result of the poor living conditions of the Congolese people and a lack of education about the dangers of eating it. A rising population combined with deplorable economic conditions has forced many Congolese to become dependent on bushmeat, either as a means of acquiring income (hunting the meat and selling),  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

or are dependent on it for food. Unemployment and urbanization throughout Central Africa have exacerbated the problem further by turning cities like the urban sprawl of Kinshasa into the prime market for commercial bushmeat. This combination has caused not only widespread endangerment of local fauna, HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl laptop keyboard

but has forced humans to trudge deeper into the wilderness in search of the desired animal meat. This overhunting results in the deaths of more animals and makes resources even more scarce for humans. The hunting has also been facilitated by the extensive logging prevalent throughout the Congo's rainforests (from corporate logging, SONY VAIO VGN-CR231E laptop keyboard

in addition to farmers clearing out forest for agriculture), which allows hunters much easier access to previously unreachable jungle terrain, while simultaneously eroding away at the habitats of animals.[42] Deforestation is accelerating in Central Africa.[43] HP Pavilion dv6-2115so laptop keyboard

A case that has particularly alarmed conservationists is that of primates. The Congo is inhabited by three distinct great ape species  — the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). It is the only country in the world in which bonobos are found in the wild. The chimpanzee and bonobo are the closest living evolutionary relatives to humans. HP Pavilion dv6-2141ee laptop keyboard

Much concern has been raised about great ape extinction. Because of hunting and habitat destruction, the chimpanzee and the gorilla, both of whose population once numbered in the millions, have now dwindled down to only about 200,000[44] ACER MP-04653U4-698 Laptop Keyboard

gorillas, 100,000[45] chimpanzees and possibly only about 10,000[45] bonobos. Gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos are all classified as Endangered by the World Conservation Union, as well as the okapi, which is also native to the area geography. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

After a four-year interim between two constitutions that established new political institutions at the various levels of all branches of government, as well as new administrative divisions for the provinces throughout the country, politics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have finally settled into a stable presidential democratic republic. GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

The 2003 transitional constitution[46]established a system composed of a bicameral legislature with a Senate and a National Assembly. The Senate had, among other things, the charge of drafting the new constitution of the country. The executive branch was vested in a 60-member cabinet, headed by aPresident and four vice presidents. The President was also the Commander-in Chief of the armed forces. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

The transition constitution also established a relatively independent judiciary, headed by a Supreme Court with constitutional interpretation powers.

The 2006 constitution, also known as the Constitution of the Third Republic, came into effect in February 2006. It had concurrent authority, HP Mini 110-1150LA Laptop Keyboard

however, with the transitional constitution until the inauguration of the elected officials who emerged from the July 2006 elections. Under the new constitution, the legislature remained bicameral; the executive was concomitantly undertaken by a President and the government,  TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

led by a Prime Minister, appointed from the party with the majority at the National Assembly. The government – not the President – is responsible to the Parliament.

The new constitution also granted new powers to the provincial governments with the creation of provincial parliaments, which have oversight over the Governor, head of the provincial government, whom they elect. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

The new constitution also saw the disappearance of the Supreme Court, which was divided into three new institutions. The constitutional interpretation prerogative of the Supreme Court is now held by the Constitutional Court. The United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women in 2006 expressed concern that in the post-war transition period, the promotion of women's human rights and gender equality is not seen as a priority.[52][53] HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard

The east of the country in particular, has been described as the "rape capital of the world" and the prevalence of sexual violence has been described as the worst in the world.[6][54] Violence against women seems to be perceived by large sectors of society to be normal.[55] In July 2007, the International Committee of the Red Cross expressed concern about the situation in eastern DRC.[56] DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

A phenomenon of 'pendulum displacement' has developed, where people hasten at night to safety. According to Yakin Ertürk, the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women who toured eastern Congo in July 2007, violence against women in North and South Kivu included 'unimaginable brutality'. 'SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

Armed groups attack local communities, loot, rape, kidnap women and children, and make them work as sexual slaves,' Ertürk said.[57] In December 2008 GuardianFilms of The Guardianreleased a film documenting the testimony of over 400 women and girls who had been abused by marauding militia.[58]  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

In June 2010, UK aid group Oxfam reported a dramatic increase in the number of rapes occurring in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, while researchers from Harvard discovered that rapes committed by civilians had increased seventeenfold.[59] TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard

In 2003, Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of Mbuti pygmies, told the UN's Indigenous People's Forum that during the war, his people were hunted down and eaten as though they were game animals. In neighbouring North Kivu province there has been cannibalism by a group known as Les Effaceurs ("the erasers") SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard

who wanted to clear the land of people to open it up for mineral exploitation.[60] Both sides of the war regarded them as "subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers.[61]

The global growth in demand for scarce raw materials and the industrial surges in ChinaTOSHIBA Qosmio F20 Series Laptop Keyboard

India, Russia, Brazil and other developing countries require thatdeveloped countries employ new, integrated and responsive strategies for identifying and ensuring, on a continual basis, an adequate supply of strategic and critical materials required for their security needs. HP Pavilion dm1-1002tu laptop keyboard

Highlighting the DR Congo's importance to United States national security, the effort to establish an elite Congolese unit is the latest push by the U.S. to professionalize armed forces in this strategically important region. SONY VAIO PCG-F20 Laptop Keyboard

There are economic and strategic incentives to bringing more security to the Congo, which is rich in natural resources such as cobalt. Cobalt is a strategic and critical metal used in many diverse industrial and military applications. SAMSUNG R522 laptop keyboard

The largest use of cobalt is in superalloys, which are used to make jet engine parts. Cobalt is also used in magnetic alloys and in cutting and wear-resistant materials such as cemented carbides. The chemical industry consumes significant quantities of cobalt in a variety of applications including catalysts for petroleum and chemical processing; drying agents for paints and inks; ground coats for porcelain enamels; decolourisers for ceramics and glass; HP 519265-001 laptop keyboard

and pigments for ceramics, paints, and plastics. The country contains 80% of the world's cobalt reserves.[62]

Mobutu Sese Seko ruled the DRC, which he renamed Zaire, from 1965 to 1997. A relative explained how the government illicitly collected revenue: SONY VAIO VGN-N110G laptop keyboard

"Mobutu would ask one of us to go to the bank and take out a million. We'd go to an intermediary and tell him to get five million. He would go to the bank with Mobutu's authority, and take out ten. Mobutu got one, and we took the other nine."[47] Mobutu institutionalized corruption to prevent political rivals from challenging his control, SAMSUNG NP-NB30-KP01 laptop keyboard

leading to an economic collapse in 1996.[48] Mobutu allegedly stole up to US$4 to US$5 billion while in office;[49] in July 2009, a Swiss court determined that the statute of limitations had run out on an international asset recovery case of about $6.7 million of deposits of Mobutu's in a Swiss bank, and therefore the assets should be returned to Mobutu's family.[50]  HP Pavilion dv5t-1200se CTO laptop keyboard

Although citizens of the DRC are among the poorest in the world, having the second lowest nominal GDP per capita, the Democratic Republic of Congo is widely considered to be the richest country in the world regarding natural resources; its untapped deposits of raw minerals are estimated to be worth in excess of US$ 24 trillion.[65][66][67] The DRC has more than 30% of the world's diamond reserves and 70% of the world's coltan.[68] SAMSUNG Q320 laptop keyboard

The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a nation endowed with resources of vast potential wealth, declined drastically since the mid-1980s. Since Congo's revenue gained up to 70% of export revenue from minerals in the 1970s and 1980s, the Congo was particularly hit when resource prices deteriorated at that time. By 2005 the Congo gained up to 90% of its revenue from minerals (Exenberger and Hartmann 2007:10).[69] HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx laptop keyboard

At the time of its independence in 1960, DRC was the second most industrialized country in Africa after South Africa, it boasted a thriving mining sector and its agriculture sector was relatively productive.[70] TOSHIBA Satellite M645-SP6001L laptop keyboard

The two recent conflicts (the First and Second Congo Wars), which began in 1996, have dramatically reduced national output and government revenue, have increased external debt, and have resulted in deaths of more than five million people from war, and associatedfamine and disease. Malnutrition affects approximately two thirds of the country's population. SONY VGN-FE865E/H laptop keyboard

Foreign businesses have curtailed operations due to uncertainty about the outcome of the conflict, lack of infrastructure, and the difficult operating environment. The war has intensified the impact of such basic problems as an uncertain legal framework, corruption, inflation, and lack of openness in government economic policy and financial operations. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

Conditions improved in late 2002 with the withdrawal of a large portion of the invading foreign troops. A number of International Monetary Fund and World Bankmissions have met with the government to help it develop a coherent economic plan, and President Joseph Kabila has begun implementing reforms. Much economic activity lies outside the GDP data. TOSHIBA MP-06863US-9308 Laptop Keyboard

A United Nations Human Development Index report shows human development to be one of the worst in decades. Through 2011 the Democratic Republic of the Congo had the lowest Human Development Index of the 187 ranked countries, classified lower than Niger despite a higher margin of improvement than the latter country from 2010's numbers. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

The economy of the second largest country in Africa relies heavily on mining. However, the smaller-scale economic activity occurs in the informal sector and is not reflected in GDP data.[71] By far the largest mines in the Congo are located in the Shaba province, in the South. They are highly mechanized, HP 608558-001 Laptop Keyboard

and have a maximum capacity of several millions of tons per year of copper and cobalt ore, with the capability of refining it into metal. The Congo is the world's largest producer of cobaltore,[72] and a major producer of copper and diamonds, the latter coming from the Kasai province in the West. The Congo has 70% of the world's coltan, DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

and more than 30% of the world's diamond reserves.[73] mostly in the form of small, industrial diamonds.Coltan is a major source of tantalum which is used in the fabrication of electronic components in computers and mobile phones. FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard

 The mines are small, and non-mechanized. In 2002, tin was discovered in the east of the country, but, to date, mining has been on a small scale.[74] Smuggling of the conflict minerals, coltan and cassiterite (ores of tantalum and tin, respectively), has helped fuel the war[75] in the Eastern Congo.

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The deal was ratified by presidential decree. In 2007 a World Bank report reviewed The Democratic Republic of Congo's three biggest mining contracts finding that the 2005 deals including one with Global Enterprises Company, a company co-owned by Dan Getler, were approved with "a complete lack of transparency (Mahtani January 3, 2007)".[ TOSHIBA MP-06863US-9308 laptop keyboard

76][77] [78] Gertler and Steinmetz placed Global Enterprises Corporate (GEC)'S 75% share in KOV into Nikanor Plc registered in the Isle of Man, which reached a market capitalization of $1.5 billion by 2007.[77] In February 2007, 22% of the Nikanor Mining company was owned by the Gertner Family Trust and 14% by Dan Gertler.[79] In January 2008 Katanga Mining acquired Nikanor PLC for $452m.[78] SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

In April 2006 Gertler's DGI took a major stake in DEM Mining. a cobalt-copper mining and services company based in Katanga.[77] In June 2006 Gertler boughtTremalt, which had a half share in the Mukondo Mine for about $60m from the Zimbabwean businessman John Bredenkamp. TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

In 2007 Tremalt was owned by Prairie International Ltd, of which Dan Gertler's family trust was a major shareholder. Tremalt owned 80% of Savannah Mining, which held concessions C17 and C18 in Katanga Province and 50% of the Mukondo project. SONY Vaio PCG-K33 laptop keyboard

The other 50% of Mukonda was held by Boss Mining, which in turn was 80% owned by Central African Mining & Exploration Company (CAMEC). Boss Mining had rented and operated Bredenkamp's half of Mukondo. Gertler terminated this arrangement.[77]  SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

Katanga Mining Limited, a Swiss-owned company, owns the Luilu Metallurgical Plant, which has a capacity of 175,000 tonnes of copper and 8,000 tonnes of cobalt per year, making it the largest cobalt refinery in the world. After a major rehabilitation program, the company restarted copper production in December 2007 and cobalt production in May 2008.[80] ACER Extensa 5235 laptop keyboard

In April 2013, anti-corruption NGOs revealed that tax authorities in the country had failed to account for $88 million from the mining sector, despite booming production figures and positive industrial performance. The missing funds date from 2010 and tax bodies should have reportedly paid them into the central bank.[81] HP Mini 110-1150LA laptop keyboard

Ground transport in the Democratic Republic of Congo has always been difficult. The terrain and climate of the Congo Basinpresent serious barriers to road and rail construction, and the distances are enormous across this vast country. HP AE0P7U00010 laptop keyboard

Furthermore, chronic economic mismanagement and internal conflict has led to serious under-investment over many years. On the other hand, the Democratic Republic of Congo has thousands of kilometres of navigable waterways, and traditionally water transport has been the dominant means of moving around approximately two-thirds of the country. SONY VAIO VGN-NW110D laptop keyboard

All air carriers certified by the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been banned from European Union airports by the European Commission, because of inadequate safety standards.[82] TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1AO laptop keyboard

In 2001 the literacy rate was estimated to be 67.2% (80.9% male and 54.1% female).[85] The education system in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is governed by three government ministries: the Ministère de l'Enseignement Primaire, HP Mini 210-2015la laptop keyboard

Secondaire et Professionnel (MEPSP), the M

inistère de l'Enseignement Supérieur et Universitaire (MESU) and the Ministère des Affaires Sociales (MAS). The educational system in the DRC is similar to that of Belgium. In 2002, HP G42-272BR laptop keyboard

there were over 19,000 primary schools serving 160,000 students; and 8,000 secondary schools serving 110,000 students. Primary education in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is not free and compulsory, even though the Congolese constitution says it should be (Article 43 of the 2005 Congolese Constitution).[86] HP Pavilion dm3-1080EF laptop keyboard

Gross enrollment ratios are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and therefore do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance.[87] In 2000, 65% of children ages 10 to 14 years were attending school.[87] As a result of the 6-year civil war, over 5.2 million children in the country receive no education.[87] DELL 454RX laptop keyboard

Over 200 ethnic groups populate the Democratic Republic of the Congo, of which the majority are Bantu peoples. Together,Mongo, Luba and Kongo peoples (Bantu) and Hamitic Mangbetu-Azande peoples constitute around 45% of the population. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

In 2009, the United Nations estimated the country's population to be 66 million people,[90] a rapid increase from 39.1 million in 1992 despite the ongoing war.[91] As many as 250 ethnic groups have been identified and named. The most numerous people are the Kongo, Luba, and Mongo. About 600,000 Pygmies are the aboriginal people of the DR Congo.[92] HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard

Although several hundred local languages and dialects are spoken, the linguistic variety is bridged both by widespread use of French and intermediary languages such as Kongo, Tshiluba, Swahili, and Lingala. SONY VGN-FE41M Laptop Keyboard

Given the situation in the country and the condition of state structures, it is extremely difficult to obtain reliable data. However, evidence suggests that DRC continues to be a destination country for immigrants in spite of recent declines. Immigration is seen to be very diverse in nature, with refugees and asylum-seekers – HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

products of the numerous and violent conflicts in the Great Lakes Region – constituting an important subset of the population in the country. Additionally, the country's large mine operations attract migrant workers from Africa and beyond and there is considerable migration for commercial activities from other African countries and the rest of the world,  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

but these movements are not well studied. Transit migration towards South Africa and Europe also plays a role. Immigration in the DRC has decreased steadily over the past two decades, most likely as a result of the armed violence that the country has experienced. According to the International Organization for Migration, HP COMPAQ NX6325 Laptop Keyboard

the number of immigrants in the DRC has declined from just over 1 million in 1960, to 754,000 in 1990, to 480,000 in 2005, to an estimated 445,000 in 2010. Valid figures are not available on migrant workers in particular, partly due to the predominance of the informal economy in the DRC. Data are also lacking on irregular immigrants, TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

however given neighbouring country ethnic links to nationals of the DRC, irregular migration is assumed to be a significant phenomenon in the country.[93] Figures on the number of Congolese nationals abroad vary greatly depending on the source, from 3 to 6 million. This discrepancy is due to a lack of official, reliable data. HP Mini 210-1073TU Laptop Keyboard

Emigrants from the DRC are above all long-term emigrants, the majority of which live within Africa and to a lesser extent in Europe; 79.7% and 15.3% respectively, according to estimates on 2000 data. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

New destination countries include South Africa and various points en route to Europe. In addition to being a host country, the DRC has also produced a considerable number of refugees and asylum-seekers located in the region and beyond. These numbers peaked in 2004 when, according to UNHCR, there were more than 460,000 refugees from the DRC;  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard

in 2008, Congolese refugees numbered 367,995 in total, 68% of which were living in other African countries.[93] Since 2003, more than 400,000 Congolese migrants have been expelled from Angola.[94]

HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard [95]

Of a population of 75 million, there are about 35 million Catholics in the country, representing nearly half of the total population[1] There are six archdioceses and 41 dioceses.[96] The impact of the Roman Catholic Church in the Democratic Republic of Congo is difficult to overestimate. Schatzberg has called it the country's "only truly national institution apart from the state."[97]  HP G61-400SP laptop keyboard

Its schools have educated over 60% of the nation's primary school students and more than 40% of its secondary students. The church owns and manages an extensive network of hospitals, schools, and clinics, as well as many diocesan economic enterprises, including farms, ranches, stores, and artisans' shops. SONY VAIO PCG-F50/BP laptop keyboard

Kimbanguism was seen as a threat to the colonial regime and was banned by the Belgians. Kimbanguism, officially "the church of Christ on Earth by the prophet Simon Kimbangu", now has about three million members,[98] SONY VAIO VGN-NW320F/T laptop keyboard

primarily among the Bakongo ofBas-Congo and Kinshasa.

Sixty-two of the Protestant denominations in the country are federated under the umbrella of the Church of Christ in Congo or CCC (in French, Église du Christ au Congo or ECC). It is often simply referred to as 'The Protestant Church', since it covers most of the 35% of the population who are Protestants.  TOSHIBA K000009780 laptop keyboard

According to the Pew Forum, Islam is the faith of 1.5% of the population.[95] According to the CIA World Factbook, Muslims make up 10% of the population.[99] Islam was introduced and mainly spread by Arab traders/merchants.[100] HP G56 laptop keyboard

The first members of the Baha'i Faith to live in the country came from Uganda in 1953. Four years later the first local administrative council was elected. In 1970 the National Spiritual Assembly (national administrative council) was first elected. HP Mini 210-1073TU laptop keyboard

Though the religion was banned in the 1970s and 1980s, due to misrepresentations of foreign governments, the ban was lifted by the end of the 1980s. In 2012 plans were announced to build a national Baha'i House of Worship in the country. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 6478 laptop keyboard

Traditional religions embody such concepts as monotheism, animism, vitalism, spirit and ancestor worship, witchcraft, and sorcery and vary widely among ethnic groups. The syncretic sects often merge elements of Christianity with traditional beliefs and rituals and are not recognized by mainstream churches as part of Christianity. Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard

 [citation needed] Under the weight of poverty, new variants of ancient beliefs have become widespread, lead by US inspired Pentecostal churches which have been in the forefront of witchcraft accusations particularly against children and the elderly[clarification needed]. GATEWAY MT6730 Laptop Keyboard

The usual term for these children is enfants sorciers (child witches) or enfants dits sorciers (children accused of witchcraft) and can lead to physical violence against these children[clarification needed].[102] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Non-denominational church organizations have been formed to capitalize on this belief by charging exorbitant fees for exorcisms. Though recently outlawed, children have been subjected to often-violent abuse at the hands of self-proclaimed prophets and priests.[103] HP Mini 210-2004sa Laptop Keyboard

French is the official language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is meant to be an ethnically neutral language, to ease communication among the many different ethnic groups of the Congo.  ASUS M70 Laptop Keyboard

Approximately 242 languages are spoken in the country, but only four have the status of national languages: Kikongo (Kituba),Lingala, Tshiluba and Swahili. Although some people speak these regional, or trade languages, as first languages, most of the population speak them as a second language after their own tribal language.  IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard

Primary education tends to be in the national Bantu language of the region, and secondary education, and beyond, tends to be in French.

Lingala was made the official language of the colonial army, the "Force Publique" under Belgian colonial rule. But since the recent rebellions, a good part of the army in the East also uses Swahili where it is prevalent. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

When the country was a Belgian colony, it had already instituted teaching and use of the four national languages in primary schools, making it one of the few African nations to have had literacy in local languages during the European colonial period. During the colonial period both Dutch and French were the official languages but French was by far the most important.  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

The culture of the Democratic Republic of the Congo reflects the diversity of its hundreds of ethnic groups and their differing ways of life throughout the country  — from the mouth of the River Congo on the coast, upriver through the rainforest and savanna in its centre, to the more densely populated mountains in the far east. ASUS X88S Laptop Keyboard

Since the late 19th century, traditional ways of life have undergone changes brought about by colonialism, the struggle for independence, the stagnation of the Mobutu era, and most recently, the First and Second Congo Wars. Despite these pressures, the customs and cultures of the Congo have retained much of their individuality.  Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

The country's 60 million inhabitants are mainly rural. The 30% who live in urban areas have been the most open toWestern influences.

Another notable feature in Congo culture is its sui generis music. The DROC has blended its ethnic musical sources with Cuban rumba, and merengue to give birth to soukous. Influential figures of soukous and its offshoots: N'dombolo and Rumba rock,  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

 are Grand Kalle, Dr. Nico, Franco Luambo, Tabu Ley, Lutumba Simaro, Papa Wemba King Kester Emeneya, Tshala Muana Koffi Olomide, JB Mpiana, Werrason, Kanda Bongo,Ray Lema, Mpongo Love, Abeti Masikini, Reddy Amisi, [Pasnas] Pepe Kalle, Fally Ipupa, Awilo Longomba,Gatho Buvens, Ferre Gola, Robert Maseko and Nyoka Longo.  TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard

Other African nations produce music genres that are derived from Congolese soukous. Some of the African bands sing in Lingala, one of the main languages in the DRC. The same Congolese soukous, under the guidance of "le sapeur",SONY VAIO VGN-N11S laptop keyboard

Papa Wemba, has set the tone for a generation of young men always dressed up in expensive designers' clothes', they became to be known as the 4th generation of the congolese music and they mostly come from the former well known band Wenge Musica. ACER TravelMate 3012 laptop keyboard

The Congo is also known for its art. Traditional art includes masks and wooden statues. Notable contemporary artists and fashion designers are Odette Maniema Krempin, Lema Kusa, Henri Kalama Akulez, Nshole, Mavinga, Claudy Khan et Chéri Samba. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z laptop keyboard

After its defeat in World War I, Germany handed control of a section of the former German East Africa to Belgium.[8]On October 20, 1924, this land, which consisted of modern-day Rwanda and Burundi, became a Belgian League of Nations mandate territory, in practical terms part of the Belgian colonial empire, known as Ruanda-Urundi. However, the Belgians allowed Ruanda-Urundi to continue its kingship dynasty.[9][10] HP Pavilion dv5-1120ez laptop keyboard

Following World War II, Ruanda-Urundi was a United Nations Trust Territory under Belgian administrative authority.[9] During the 1940s, a series of policies caused divisions throughout the country. On October 4, 1943, powers were split in the legislative division of Burundi's government between chiefdoms and lower chiefdoms. HP Pavilion DV7-3067cl laptop keyboard

Chiefdoms were in charge of land, and lower sub-chiefdoms were established. Native authorities also had powers.[10]In 1948, Belgium allowed the region to form political parties.[8] These factions would be one of the main influences for Burundi's independence from Belgium.

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 [11] Six months later, political parties were formed to bring attention to Burundi's independence from Europe and to separate Rwanda from Burundi.[11] The first of these political parties was the Union for National Progress (UPRONA). HP Pavilion DV6-1110eg laptop keyboard

Burundi's push for independence was influenced to some extent by the instability and ethnic persecution that occurred in Rwanda. In November 1959, Rwandese Hutu attacked the Tutsi and massacred them by the thousands. Many Tutsi escaped to Uganda and Burundi to find freedom from persecution.[12] The Hutu took power in Rwanda by winning Belgian-run elections in 1960.[13][14] ACER AEZU2R00010 laptop keyboard

The UPRONA, a multi-ethnic unity party led by Prince Louis Rwagasore and the Christian Democratic Party (PDC) became the most prominent organizations throughout Burundi-Urundi. After UPRONA's victory in legislative elections, Prince Rwagasore was assassinated on October 13 in 1961, allegedly with the help of the Belgian colonial administration.[8][15]  IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard

The country claimed independence on July 1, 1962,[8] and legally changed its name from Ruanda-Urundi to Burundi.[16] Mwami Mwambutsa IV was named king.[13] On September 18, 1962, just over two months after declaring independence from Belgium, Burundi joined the United Nations.[17]  Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

Upon Burundi’s independence, a constitutional monarchy was established and both Hutus and Tutsis were represented in parliament. When King Mwambutsa appointed a Tutsi prime minister, the Hutus, who were the majority in parliament, felt cheated. An ensuing attempted coup by the Hutu-dominated police was ruthlessly suppressed by the Army, then led by a Tutsi officer, Captain Michel Micombero.[18] When the next Hutu Prime Minister, ASUS X88S laptop keyboard

Pierre Ngendandumwe, was assassinated in 1965, Hutus engaged in a series of attacks on Tutsi, which the government repressed ruthlessly,[citation needed] fearing the killings of Tutsis by Hutus, who wanted to follow the "Model Rwanda".[clarification needed] The Burundi police and military were now brought under the control of the Tutsi.  Lenovo 04W2236 laptop keyboard

Mwambutsa was deposed in 1966 by his son, Prince Ntare V, who claimed the throne. That same year, Tutsi Prime Minister Captain Michel Micombero deposed Ntare, abolished the monarchy, and declared the nation a republic, though it was in effect a military regime.[8]  Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard

In 1972, an all Hutu organization known as Umugambwe w'Abakozi b'Uburundi or Burundi Workers' Party (UBU) organized and carried out systematic attacks on ethnic Tutsi with the declared intent of annihilating the whole group.[19] The military regime responded with large-scale reprisals targeting Hutus. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 laptop keyboard

The total number of casualties was never established, but estimates for the Tutsi genocide and the reprisals on the Hutus together are said to exceed 100,000 at the very least, with a similar number of asylum-seekers in Tanzania and Rwanda. In 1976, another Tutsi, Colonel Jean-Baptiste Bagaza, led a bloodless coup and promoted various reforms.  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, keeping Burundi a one-party state.[18] In August 1984, Bagaza was elected head of state. During his tenure, Bagaza suppressed political opponents and religious freedoms. Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

Major Pierre Buyoya, a Tutsi, overthrew Bagaza in 1987 and suspended the constitution, dissolved the political parties, and reinstated military rule under the Military Committee for National Salvation (CSMN).[18] Anti-Tutsi ethnic propaganda disseminated by the remnants of the 1972 UBU, which had re-organized as PALIPEHUTU in 1981, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

led to killings of Tutsi peasants in the northern communes of Ntega and Marangara in August 1988. The death toll was put at 5,000[citation needed] by the government, though some international NGOs believe this understates the losses.  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

The new regime did not unleash harsh reprisals (as in 1972), but the trust it gained was soon eroded when it decreed an amnesty for those who had called for, carried out, and taken credit for the killings on ethnic grounds, which amounts to genocide in international law. Many analysts consider this period as the beginning of the "culture of impunity. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

" But other analysts consider the "culture of impunity" to have started from 1965 and 1972, when the revolt of a small and identifiable number of Hutus unleashed massive killings of Tutsis on the whole territory.[citation needed] SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard

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In the aftermath of the killings, a group of Hutu intellectuals wrote an open letter to Pierre Buyoya, asking for more representation of the Hutus in the administration. The signatories were sent to gaol. Nevertheless, only a few weeks later, Buyoya appointed a new government with an equal number of Hutu and Tutsi, and a Hutu, HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Adrien Sibomana, as Prime Minister. Buyoya also created a commission in charge of addressing the issue of national unity.[18] In 1992, a new constitution that provided for multi-party system was promulgated,[18] and a civil war sprang up from Burundi's core. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5112WH Laptop Keyboard

An estimated 250,000 people died between 1962 and 1993.[20] Since Burundi's independence in 1962, there have been two events called genocides in the country. The 1972 mass killings of Hutus by the Tutsi-dominated army,[21] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

and the 1993 mass killings of Tutsis by the Hutu populace are both described as genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 2002.[22] DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

In June 1993, Melchior Ndadaye, leader of the Hutu-dominated Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU), won the first democratic election and became the first Hutu head of state, leading a pro-Hutu government. However, in October 1993, Tutsi soldiers assassinated Ndadaye, which started further years of violence between Hutus and Tutsis. It is estimated that some 300,000 people, mostly civilians, were killed in the years following the assassination.[23]  ACER AEZU2R00010 Laptop Keyboard

In early 1994, the parliament elected Cyprien Ntaryamira, also a Hutu, to the office of president. He and the president of Rwanda both died together when their airplane was shot down. More refugees started fleeing to Rwanda. Another Hutu, parliament speaker Sylvestre Ntibantunganya was appointed as president in October 1994.  ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

Within months, a wave of ethnic violence began, starting with the massacre of Hutu refugees in the capital,[citation needed] Bujumbura, and the withdrawal of the mainly Tutsi Union for National Progress from the government and parliament.  Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

In 1996, Pierre Buyoya, a Tutsi, took power through a coup d’état. He suspended the constitution and was sworn in as president in 1998. In response to the rebel attacks, the population was forced by the government to relocate to refugee camps.[24] Under his rule, long peace talks started, mediated by South Africa. Both parties signed agreements in Arusha, Tanzania and Pretoria, South Africa, to share power in Burundi.  DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

The agreements took four years to plan, and on August 28, 2000, a transitional government for Burundi was planned as a part of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement. The transitional government was placed on a trial basis for five years. After several aborted cease-fires, a 2001 DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

peace plan and power sharing agreement has been relatively successful. A cease-fire was signed in 2003 between the Tutsi-controlled Burundian government and the largest Hutu rebel group, CNDD-FDD (National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy).[25] HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

In 2003, FRODEBU Hutu leader Domitien Ndayizeye was elected president.[26] In early 2005, ethnic quotas were formed for determining positions in Burundi's government. Throughout the year, elections for parliament and president occurred[27]  DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

and Pierre Nkurunziza, once a leader of a Hutu rebel group, was elected president. As of 2008, the Burundian government is talking with the Hutu-led Palipehutu-National Liberation Forces (NLF)[28] to bring peace to the country.[29] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

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