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8 février 2012 3 08 /02 /février /2012 02:50

Democratic restoration and elections (1979–present day)

During the 1980s, cultivation of illicit coca was established in large areas on the eastern Andean slope. Rural insurgent movements,Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/P Battery

like the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL) and the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) increased during this time and derived significant financial support from alliances with the narcotraffickers, leading to the Internal conflict in Peru. Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/W Battery

In the May 1980 elections, President Fernando Belaúnde Terry was returned to office by a strong plurality. One of his first actions as President was the return of several newspapers to their respective owners. Sony VAIO VPCP115JC Battery

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In this way, freedom of speech once again played an important part in Peruvian politics. Gradually, he also attempted to undo some of the most radical effects of the Agrarian Reforminitiated by Velasco, and reversed the independent stance that the Military Government of Velasco had with the United States. Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/D Battery,Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/G Battery

Belaúnde's second term was also marked by the unconditional support for Argentine forces during the Falklands War with the United Kingdom in 1982. Belaúnde declared that "Peru was ready to support Argentina with all the resources it needed." This included a number of fighter planes and possibly personnel from the Peruvian Air Force, Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/P Battery

as well as ships, and medical teams. Belaunde's government proposed a peace settlement between the two countries, but it was rejected by both sides, as both claimed undiluted sovereignty of the territory. In response to Chile's support of the UK, Belaúnde called for Latin American unity. Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/W Battery

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The nagging economic problems left over from the previous military government persisted, worsened by an occurrence of the "El Niño" weather phenomenon in 1982–83, which caused widespread flooding in some parts of the country, severe droughts in others, and decimated the schools of ocean fish that are one of the country's major resources. Sony VAIO VPCP116KG Battery

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After a promising beginning, Belaúnde's popularity eroded under the stress of inflation, economic hardship, and terrorism.

In 1985, the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA) won the presidential election, bringing Alan García to office. Sony VAIO VPC-P116KX/D Battery

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The transfer of the presidency from Belaúnde to García on July 28, 1985, was Peru's first exchange of power from one democratically elected leader to another for the first time in 40 years.

With a parliamentary majority for the first time in APRA's history, Alan García started his administration with hopes for a better future. Sony VAIO VPC-P116KX/P Battery

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However, economic mismanagement led to hyperinflation from 1988 to 1990. García's term in office was marked by bouts of hyperinflation, which reached 7,649% in 1990 and had a cumulative total of 2,200,200% between July 1985 and July 1990, thereby profoundly destabilizing the Peruvian economy. Sony VAIO VPCP118JC/B Battery

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Owing to such chronic inflation, the Peruvian currency, the sol, was replaced by the Inti in mid-1985, which itself was replaced the nuevo sol ("new sun") in July 1991, at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion old soles. During his administration, the per capita annual income of Peruvians fell to $720 (below the level of 1960) and Peru's Gross Domestic Productdropped 20%. Sony VAIO VPCP118JC/W Battery

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By the end of his term, national reserves were a negative $900 million.

The economic turbulence of the time acerbated social tensions in Peru and partly contributed to the rise of the violent rebel movement Shining Path. The García administration unsuccessfully sought a military solution to the growing terrorism, committing human rights violations which are still under investigation. Sony VAIO VPC-P118KX/D Battery

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Fujimori's presidency and the Fujishock (1990-2000)

Concerned about the economy, the increasing terrorist threat from Sendero Luminoso and MRTA, and allegations of official corruption, voters chose a relatively unknown mathematician-turned-politician, Alberto Fujimori, as president in 1990. Sony VAIO VPC-P118KX/P Battery

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The first round of the election was won by well-known writer Mario Vargas Llosa, a conservative candidate who went on to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2010, but Fujimori defeated him in the second round. Fujimori implemented drastic measures that caused inflation to drop from 7,650% in 1990 to 139% in 1991. Sony VAIO VPCP119JC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCP119JC/BI Battery

Faced with opposition to his reform efforts, Fujimori dissolved Congress in the auto-golpe of April 5, 1992. He then revised the constitution; called new congressional elections; and implemented substantial economic reform, including privatization of numerous state-owned companies, creation of an investment-friendly climate, and sound management of the economy. Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/B Battery

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Fujimori's administration was dogged by several insurgent groups, most notably Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path), which carried on a terrorist campaign in the countryside throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/D Battery

He cracked down on the insurgents and was successful in largely quelling them by the late 1990s, but the fight was marred by atrocities committed by the both Peruvian security forces and the insurgents: the Barrios Altos massacre and La Cantuta massacre by Government paramilitary groups, and the bombings of Tarataand Frecuencia Latina by Shining Path. Sony VAIO VPC-P11S1E/D Battery

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Those examples subsequently came to be seen as symbols of the human rights violations committed during the last years of violence. With the capture of Abimael Guzmán (known as President Gonzalo) in September 1992, the Shining Path received a severe blow which practically destroyed the organization. Sony VAIO VPC-P11S1E/G Battery,Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/P Battery

In December 1996, a group of insurgents belonging to the MRTA took over the Japanese embassy in Lima, taking 72 people hostage. Military commandos stormed the embassy compound in May 1997, which resulted in the death of all 15 hostage takers, one hostage, and 2 commandos. Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/W Battery

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It later emerged, however, that Fujimori's security chief Vladimiro Montesinos may have ordered the killing of at least eight of the rebels after they surrendered.

Fujimori's constitutionally questionable decision to seek a third term and subsequent tainted victory in June 2000 brought political and economic turmoil. Sony VAIO VPCP11Z9E/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery

A bribery scandal that broke just weeks after he took office in July forced Fujimori to call new elections in which he would not run. The scandal involved Vladimiro Montesinos, who was shown in a video broadcast on TV bribing a politician to change sides. Montesinos subsequently emerged as the center a vast web of illegal activities, Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery

including embezzlement, graft, drug trafficking, as well as human rights violations committed during the war against Sendero Luminoso.

Toledo, García, Humala's presidencies (2001-today)

In November 2000, Fujimori resigned from office and went to Japan in self-imposed exile, avoiding prosecution for human rights violations and corruption charges by the new Peruvian authorities. Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery

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His main intelligence chief, Vladimiro Montesinos, fled Peru shortly afterwards. Authorities in Venezuela arrested him in Caracas in June 2001 and turned him over to Peruvian authorities; he is now imprisoned and charged with acts of corruption and human rights violations committed during Fujimori's administration. Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery

A caretaker government presided over by Valentín Paniagua took on the responsibility of conducting new presidential and congressional elections. The elections were held in April 2001; observers considered them to be free and fair. Alejandro Toledo (who led the opposition against Fujimori) defeated former President Alan García. Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery

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The newly elected government took office on July 28, 2001. The Toledo Administration managed to restore some degree of democracy to Peru following the authoritarianism and corruption that plagued both the Fujimori and García governments. Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ Battery

Innocents wrongfully tried by military courts during the war against terrorism (1980–2000) were allowed to receive new trials in civilian courts.

On August 28, 2003, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (CVR), which had been charged with studying the roots of the violence of the 1980–2000 period, presented its formal report to the President. Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ Battery

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President Toledo was forced to make a number of cabinet changes, mostly in response to personal scandals. Toledo's governing coalition had a minority of seats in Congress and had to negotiate on an ad hoc basis with other parties to form majorities on legislative proposals. Sony VAIO VPCS11J7E/B Battery

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Toledo's popularity in the polls suffered throughout the last years of his regime, due in part to family scandals and in part to dissatisfaction amongst workers with their share of benefits from Peru's macroeconomic success. Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery

After strikes by teachers and agricultural producers led to nationwide road blockages in May 2003, Toledo declared a state of emergency that suspended some civil liberties and gave the military power to enforce order in 12 regions. The state of emergency was later reduced to only the few areas where the Shining Path was operating. Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B Battery

On July 28, 2006 former president Alan García became the current President of Peru. He won the 2006 elections after winning in a runoff against Ollanta Humala.

In May 2008, President García was a signatory to the The UNASUR Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations. Peru has ratified the treaty. Sony VAIO VPCS123FGB Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS125EC Battery

On June 5, 2011, Ollanta Humala was elected President in a run-off against Keiko Fujimori, the daughter of Alberto Fujimori and former First Lady of Peru, in the2011 elections, making him the first leftist president of Peru since Juan Velasco Alvarado. In December 2011, the state of emergency was declared following popular opposition to some major mining project and environmental concerns. Sony VAIO VPCS128EC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS129GC Battery

Government

Peru is a presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. Under the current constitution, the President is thehead of state and government; he or she is elected for five years and can only seek re-election after standing down for at least one full term.[33] Sony VAIO VPCS12C7E/B Battery

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The President designates the Prime Minister and, with his advice, the rest of the Council of Ministers.[34] Congressisunicameral with 130 members elected for a five-year term.[35] Bills may be proposed by either the executive or the legislative branch; they become law after being passed by Congress and promulgated by the President.[36] Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B Battery

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The judiciary is nominally independent,[37] though political intervention into judicial matters has been common throughout history and arguably continues today.[38]

The Peruvian government is directly elected, and voting is compulsory for all citizens aged 18 to 70.[39] Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/PC Battery

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General elections held in 2011ended in a second-round victory for presidential candidate Ollanta Humala of the Gana Perú alliance (51.4% of valid votes) over Keiko Fujimori of Fuerza 2011 (48.5%).[40] Congress is currently composed of Gana Perú (47 seats), Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/W Battery

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Fuerza 2011 (37 seats), Alianza Parlamentaria (20 seats), Alianza por el Gran Cambio (12 seats), Solidaridad Nacional (8 seats) and Concertación Parlamentaria (6 seats).[41]

Peruvian foreign relations have been dominated by border conflicts with neighboring countries, most of which were settled during the 20th century.[42] Sony VAIO VPCW111XXT Battery

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Currently, Peru disputes its maritime limits with Chile in the Pacific Ocean.[43] Peru is an active member of several regional blocs and one of the founders of the Andean Community of Nations. It is also a participant in international organizations such as the Organization of American States and the United Nations. Sony VAIO VPCW115XG Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW115XGP Battery

The Peruvian military is composed of an army, a navy and an air force; its primary mission is to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country.[44]The armed forces are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense and to the President as Commander-in-Chief. Sony VAIO VPCW115XW/P Battery

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Conscription was abolished in 1999 and replaced by voluntary military service.

Politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby thePresident of Peru is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Sony VAIO VPCW115XW/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW117XC/P Battery

Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

The Republic of Peru is in a state of ongoing democratization. Sony VAIO VPCW117XC/T Battery

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Led by President Alan García, the executive branch is attempting to be transparent and accountable. Previously a rubberstamp body, Peru's unicameral Congress is emerging as a strong counterbalance to the once-dominant executive branch, with increased oversight and investigative powers. The executive branch and Congress are attempting to reform the judicial branch, antiquated and rife with corruption. Sony VAIO VPCW119XJ Battery

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Peruvians, whose expectations were raised during the 2000 and 2001 election campaigns, are frustrated at the slow pace of economic recovery and job creation. As discontent rises, the Toledo administration is in a race to strengthen the economy so that popular pressures do not force a shift to more radical measures. Sony VAIO VPCW119XJ/W Battery

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So far, the Toledo government remains committed to neoliberaleconomic policies and structural reform in the hope of attracting sufficient international investment to generate growth and job creation.[dated info] Sony VAIO VPCW11S1E/P Battery

Other important political currents stem from the ongoing investigation of Fujimori-era corruption (notably the proceedings against Fujimori's former advisor,Vladimiro Montesinos), and an increase in activities by the insurgent group Sendero Luminoso. Sony VAIO VPCW11S1E/T Battery

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The recent trial of Abimael Guzmán has been suspended, due in part to Guzmán's use of it as a forum for broadcasting Sendero Luminoso propaganda.[dated info]

Regarding the latter, the Toledo government has been forced to consider putting resources back into the security forces which they had been hoping to use to fund social programs. Sony VAIO VPCW121AX Battery

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Another relevant opposition leader is nationalist and former military commander Ollanta Humala.

After the impeachment of Fujimori (at present in jail), Alejandro Toledo could not run for the presidency again. Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/P Battery

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The most recent presidential election was held on Sunday, April 9, 2006, and more than 16 million Peruvians were eligible to vote worldwide. No candidate received more than 50% of the vote, so a runoff election was held in June.

After a bitter and often vitriolic campaign, disgraced former President Alan Garcia won with 53.1% of the vote. Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/W Battery

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Nationalist rival and former coup-plotter, Ollanta Humala, received 46.9%. Mr Garcia, whose first presidency in 1985-1990 was blighted by record-breaking hyperinflation, debt-default, wide-scale corruption and a Maoist insurgency, says that he's learned from his mistakes. Sony VAIO VPCW12AAJ Battery

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Executive branch

Under the current constitution, the President is the head of state and government; he or she is elected for a five-year term and may not immediately be re-elected.[1] All citizens above the age of eighteen are entitled and in fact compelled to vote. Sony VAIO VPCW12AVJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/P Battery

The first and second vice presidents also are popularly elected but have no constitutional functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties.

The President appoints the Council of Ministers (Consejo de Ministros, or Cabinet) and Prime Minister (primer ministro). All presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to Congress must be approved by the Council of Ministers. Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/T Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/W Battery

Legislative branch

The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Congress (Congreso) of 120 members. elected for a five-year term by proportional representation In addition to passing laws, Congress ratifies treaties, authorizes government loans, and approves the government budget. Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/T Battery

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The president has the power to block legislation with which the executive branch does not agree.

Judicial branch

The judicial branch of government is headed by a 16-member Supreme Court seated in Lima. The National Council of the Judiciary appoints judges to this court. Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/L Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/P Battery

The Constitutional Court (Tribunal Constitucional) interprets the constitution on matters of individual rights. Superior courts in regional capitals review appeals from decisions by lower courts. Courts of first instance are located in provincial capitals and are divided into civil, penal, and special chambers. Sony VAIO VPCW215AG/L Battery

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The judiciary has created several temporary specialized courts in an attempt to reduce the large backlog of cases pending final court action.

Peru's legal system is based on civil law system. Peru has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/L Battery

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In 1996 a human rightsombudsman's office (defensor del pueblo)was created to address human rights issues.

Peru is a presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. Under the current constitution, the President is the head of state and government; Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/T Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/W Battery

he or she is elected for five years and cannot seek immediate re-election, he or she must stand down for at least one full constitutional term before reelection. The President designates the Prime Minister and, with his advice, the rest of the Council of Ministers. There is a unicameral Congress with 130 members elected for a five-year term. Sony VAIO VPCW218JC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/L Battery

Bills may be proposed by either the executive or the legislative branch; they become law after being passed by Congress and promulgated by the President. The judiciary is nominally independent, though political intervention into judicial matters has been common throughout history and arguably continues today. Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/T Battery

Regions

Peru is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima. Each region has an elected government composed of a president and council that serve four-year terms.[46] These governments plan regional development, execute public investment projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property.[47] Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/W Battery

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The province of Lima is administered by a city council.

The administrative divisions of Peru have changed from time to time, since the nation gained independence from Spain in the early 19th century. The old territorial subdivisions have split or merged due to several reasons, the most common ones being the need for decentralization, and population increase, especially in Lima. Sony VAIO VPCW219AJ/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW219AJ/W Battery

Peru was divided into 24 departments (departamentos; singular: departamento) until the creation of the regions in 2002. These regions are governed by Regional Governments. Many people still use the old departamentos term when referring to the current regions of Peru, although it is now obsolete. Sony VAIO VPCW21AAJ Battery

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The departments were identical to today's regions, with the exception of two new regions (Callao and Lima). Before the 2002 changeover, the province of Lima (which is basically the city of Lima) was part of the Lima department, and the city of Callao had the special status of Provincia Constitucional (constitutional province). Sony VAIO VPCW21AVJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCY115FGS Battery

When the regionalization law was passed, the Callao region was created from the former constitutional province, and the province of Lima separated from the rest of the Lima department, which in turn came to form the new Lima Region. A failed attempt to divide the country into twelve autonomous regions was made during the 1980s under the government of Alan García. Sony VAIO VPCY115FX/BI Battery

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Districts

For a new district to be legally established, a 1982 law requires a minimum number of residents to live in the area: 3,500 if it is located in the rainforest, 4,000 in the Andes highlands and 10,000 in the coastal area. Sony VAIO VPCY118EC Battery

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In the dry Andean area, many districts have fewer than 3,500 inhabitants due to low population density. In some cases, their populations have decreased in comparison to the days when they were founded. Districts that are located at very high altitudes tend to be scarcely populated. Sony VAIO VPCY119FJ/S Battery

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These districts usually are large in area, but they have little available level land for use. Many basic government services do not reach all residents of these districts due to their difficult geography. Many such districts lack financial means to govern their whole jurisdictions and they often have high emigration rates. Sony VAIO VPCY11AGJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCY11AHJ Battery

A similar pattern can be observed in many districts located in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest. Once important settlements created during the era of colonization, they now do not offer much space for agriculture. Deeper into the jungle, the districts of the selva alta(lower jungle) have higher populations living in geographically large districts. Sony VAIO VPCY11AVJ Battery

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Districts located outside the former colonized area have very low populations, which are entirely composed of Native Amazoniantribes.

All over the country, many districts have higher populations than the minimum required by law. Sony VAIO VPCY11S1E Battery

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This is true of the colonized areas of the rainforest and the northern Andes, as well as in the southern Andes from Huancayo to the shores of Lake Titicaca, which is the historical heartland of the Peruvian highlands. These districts are old centers of civilization; they tend to be smaller in area with high population densities since pre-Hispanic times. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/BI Battery

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Districts in the Chala (coastal area) tend to be mid-sized, except in low-density areas such as the Sechura desert and part of the Southern coast. All have gained large populations due to emigration from other regions of the country, which has turned the Peruvian coast into the country's main economic powerhouse. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/L Battery

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Districts with a population of more than 10 000 inhabitants should ideally be subdivided, particularly if they are also large in area, as is the case in part of the Amazon rainforest. Settlement can happen quickly and boundaries of districts are often not modified, except in large urban areas. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery

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This is less of a problem in the coast where communication is easier. However, reaching to large populations remain a problem in this area.[1]

Current division

Peru's territory, according to the Regionalization Law which was passed on November 18, 2002, is divided into 25 regions (regiones; singular: región). Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/SI Battery

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These regions are subdivided into provinces, which are composed of districts (provincias and distritos). There are 195 provinces and 1833 districts in Peru.[2]

The Lima Province, located in the central coast of the country, is unique in that it does not belong to any of the twenty-five regions.Sony VAIO VPCZ110GB/BI Battery

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The city of Lima, which is the nation's capital, is located in this province. Callao also is its own region, even though it only contains one province, the Constitutional Province of Callao.

Geography

Peru covers 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi). Sony VAIO VPCZ114GX/S Battery

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It borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The Andes Mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean; they define the three regions traditionally used to describe the country geographically. Sony VAIO VPCZ115FC/B Battery

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The costa (coast), to the west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. The sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes; it includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the 6,768 m (22,205 ft) Huascarán.[49] Sony VAIO VPCZ116 Battery

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The third region is the selva(jungle), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. Almost 60% of the country's area is located within this region.

Most Peruvian rivers originate in the peaks of the Andes and drain into one of three basins. Sony VAIO VPCZ117 Battery

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Those that drain toward the Pacific Ocean are steep and short, flowing only intermittently. Tributaries of theAmazon River are longer, have a much larger flow, and are less steep once they exit the sierra. Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca are generally short and have a large flow.[51] Sony VAIO VPCZ118 Battery

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Peru's longest rivers are theUcayali, the Marañón, the Putumayo, the Yavarí, the Huallaga, the Urubamba, the Mantaro, and the Amazon.[52]

Peru, unlike other equatorial countries, does not have an exclusively tropical climate; Sony VAIO VPCZ118GX/S Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ119 Battery

the influence of the Andes and the Humboldt Current cause great climatic diversity within the country. The costa has moderate temperatures, low precipitations, and high humidity, except for its warmer, wetter northern reaches.[53] In the sierra, rain is frequent during summer, and temperature and humidity diminish with altitude up to the frozen peaks of the Andes.[54] Sony VAIO VPCZ119FJ/S Battery

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The selva is characterized by heavy rainfall and high temperatures, except for its southernmost part, which has cold winters and seasonal rainfall.[55] Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru has a high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals reported as of 2003; 5,855 of them endemic. Sony VAIO VPCZ119L Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ119R/B Battery

The combination of tropical latitude, mountain ranges, topography variations and two ocean currents (Humboldt and El Niño) gives Peru a large diversity of climates.

Amazon Basin or Low Amazon

The eastern portions of Peru include the Amazon Basin or selva baja, a region that is larger in the north than in the south. Sony VAIO VPCZ119R/S Battery

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Representing roughly 60% of Peru's national territory, this area includes the Amazon, Marañón, Huallaga and Ucayali Rivers. It is a vast tropical forest with countless rivers and streams. Rainfall varies from 2,000 to 4,000 mm (78.7 to 157.5 in) per year. Sony VAIO VPCZ11AGJ Battery

Almost 60% of the country's area is located within this region,[1] (70,000,000 hectares / 172,973,767 acres or 700,000 km2/270,272 sq mi) giving Peru the fourth largest area of tropical forest in the world after Brazil, Congo andIndonesia.[2]Sony VAIO VPCZ11AVJ Battery

Andean Mountain Ranges

The Andes shelter the largest variety of climates in the country. The climate is semi-arid in the valleys and moist in higher elevations and towards the eastern flanks. Rainfall varies from 200 to 1,500 mm (7.9 to 59.1 in) per year. Sony VAIO VPCZ11CGX/X Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ11DGX/SJ Battery

The rainy season starts in October and ends in April. The rainiest months are January through March where travel can be sometimes affected.

The western slopes are arid to semi-arid and receive rainfall only between January and March. Sony VAIO VPCZ11FHX/XQ Battery

Below the 2,500 m (8,202 ft) mark, the temperatures vary between 5 and 15 °C (41 and 59 °F) in the night versus 18 to 25 °C (64.4 to 77 °F) in the day.

Between 2,500 and 3,500 meters (8,202 and 11,483 ft) the temperatures vary from 0 to 12 °C (32 to 53.6 °F) in the night and from 15 to 25 °C (59 to 77 °F) during the day. Sony VAIO VPCZ11V9R/B Battery

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At higher elevations from 3,500 to 4,500 meters (11,483 to 14,764 ft), thePuna ecoregion, the temperature varies from ?10 to 8 °C (14 to 46.4 °F) during the night versus 15 °C (59 °F) during the day.

The northernmost regions of the Andes around Cajamarca and Piura regions have Paramo climates. Sony VAIO VPCZ11Z9E/B Battery

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Coast

The Peruvian coast is a microclimatic region. The region is affected by the cold Humboldt Current, the El Niño Southern Oscillation, tropical latitude, and the Andes mountain range.

The central and southern coast consists mainly of a subtropical desert climate composed of sandy or rocky shores and inland cutting valleys. Sony VAIO VPCZ127FC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ128GC Battery

Days alternate between overcast skies with occasional fog in the winter and sunny skies with occasional haze in the summer, with the only precipitation being an occasional light-to-moderate drizzle that is known locally as garúa. These regions are usually characterized by having mildy cold lows (14 °C / 57.2 °F) and also mild highs (29 °C / 84 °F). Sony VAIO VPCZ12M9E/B Battery

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Temperatures rarely fall below 12 °C (53.6 °F) and do not go over 29 °C (84 °F). An exception is the southern coast, where it does get a bit warmer and drier for most of the year during daytime, and where it can also get much colder during winter nights (8 to 9 °C / 46.4 to 48.2 °F). Sony VAIO VPCZ13V9E/X Battery

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The occasional drizzle or fog of the central and southern coast is common during winter months, but even during summer days there are some foggy days. One must not forget that although it may not be as warm as typical tropical latitudes, the sun will hit and strike as if you were in any other tropical place. Sony VAIO VPCZZZHJ Battery

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The northern coast, on the contrary, has a curious tropical-dry climate, generally referred to as tropical savanna. This region is a lot warmer and can be unbearable during summer months, where rainfall is also present. Sony VAIO VPZ118 Battery

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The region differs from the southern coast by the presence of shrubs, equotorial dry forests , mangrove forests, tropical valleys near rivers such as the Chira and the Tumbes, and is blessed with clear, sunny skies for most of the year. The average temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). Sony VPCM11M1E/B Battery

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Central & Southern Coast

The central and southern coast has a subtropical desert climate, although this region is located in the tropics. TheHumboldt Currentis 7 °C (12.6 °F) to 8 °C (14.4 °F) colder than normal tropical seas at 14 to 19 °C (57.2 to 66.2 °F), so this prevents high tropical temperatures from appearing. Sony VPCM12M1E/L Battery

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Moreover, the Andes mountains are very close to the coast, so this prevents cumulus clouds or cumulonimbus clouds from appearing. Therefore, a shade effect is created, and there are only few annual rainfalls in this region. Sony VPCM12M1E/W Battery,Sony VPCM13M1E/L Battery

Rainfall averages 5 mm (0.2 in)/yr near the Chilean border to 200 mm (7.9 in)/yr in the northern coast and near the Andes.

The central coast is composed of regions like La Libertad, Ancash and Lima, having a spring-like climate for most of the year. Sony VPCM13M1E/P Battery

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Foggy and sunny days intermingle around the humid sand dunes most of the year.

Most summers (January–April) have pleasant temperatures from 19 to 21 °C (66.2 to 69.8 °F) during the nights to about 28 to 29 °C (82.4 to 84.2 °F) during daytime. Sony VAIO VGN-Z11MN/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z11VN/X Battery

Winters (June–October) are very humid, and range from 12 to 15 °C (53.6 to 59 °F) during the nights to around the 17 to 18 °C (62.6 to 64.4 °F) during the day.

The spring and autumn months have a pleasant climate that ranges from 23 °C (73.4 °F) during the day to around 17 °C(62.6 °F) during the night. Sony VAIO VGN-Z11WN/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z11XN/B Battery

As you go inland, away from the coast and on to the yunga valleys the climate is drier and warmer during all seasons: around 3 °C (5.4 °F) warmer in any given month.

Strangely enough, it also gets warmer if you go north of Lima into La Libertad or Ancash or south of Lima (Pisco, Chincha), at least during the day. Sony VAIO VGN-Z15 Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z15N Battery

The reason is probably since Lima is located where the Humboldt current prevails, yet there are tropical sun rays above the clouds that create fog and since there is no passage of hot clouds from the Amazon to the coast, the climate is cooler that similar tropical latitudes. This created a lot of humidity and fog in winter times. Sony VAIO VGN-Z17 Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z17N Battery

The southern coast composed of Ica, Arequipa, Moquegua and Tacna regions have a drier and warmer climate during the day-time for all months except for winters. There are regions famous for their sand dunes and impressive deserts since the climate is drier and hotter. Sony VAIO VGN-Z19 Battery

The temperatures can go as high as 36 °C (96.8 °F) in the Nazca and regions inland, yet can fall to 8 or 9 °C (46.4 or 48.2 °F) during the winter months. During the daytime temperatures rarely go below the 22 or 23 °C (71.6 or 73.4 °F) for all months. TSony VAIO VGN-Z19N Battery

hese fact determine that the southern coast have a semi Mediterranean desert like climate yet there is small variations between temperatures during night time or day time, as regions in tropical latitudes. Clear skies are for the most part attractive near the coastal cliffs, home to a variety of fish and marine mammals. Sony VAIO VGN-Z21MN/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z21VN/X Battery

Northern Coast

The northern coast consists of the eastern region of Lambayeque, the Piura Region and the Tumbes Region. They are characterized by having different climate and geography from the rest of the coast. Sony VAIO VGN-Z21WN/B Battery

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Right between the 3 hour drive on the Sechura desert, which is located north of the Lambayeque Region and south of the Piura Region, is the evidence of climate change from the common subtropical desert found on the south to visible tropicalization effects of the tropical dry climate or tropical savanna. Sony VAIO VGN-Z21ZN/X Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z25 Battery

Examples of this are the tropical dry forests that begin to appear. They are composed of shrubs, thorny trees, carrob trees, faique trees, huayacan trees, hualtaco trees, palo santo trees, ceibo trees and on the coast mangrove forests. It is also a biodiverse area where typical wildlife can be observed such as crocodiles, reptiles, iguanas, boas, pava aliblanca, anteater, bear, sloth (bearh) and many more. Sony VAIO VGN-Z25/B Battery

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This climatical reasons for change are the presence of the warm Niño Current during the summer months (December to April), the eventual El Niño Phenomenon and the passing of Amazon Jungles clouds due to mountain openings and lower altitudes of the Andes Chain. Sony VAIO VGN-Z26TN/B Battery

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These are the causes for a climate change in a short two or three hour trajectory that is visible between the Lambayeque Region and the Sechura Province, where not only geography changes but a temperature rise of 6 °C (10.8 °F) or more depending on the month. It is directly off the shores of the Sechura Region where the cold Humboldt current and warm el Niño current meet, at about 5° to 6° south of the equator. Sony VAIO VGN-Z27/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z27TN/X Battery

From this point warm temperatures are most common, and there are no true winters. Average temperatures range between 24.5–27 °C (76.1–80.6 °F). Clear skies, beautiful warm valleys, eroded terrains with reddish colored sands, rice fields, palm trees, savannas, bushy forests, dense rivers, beautiful warm turquoise beaches, orangey or yellowish terrains, clearer sands and a sun that hits like the African plateau, where shade is almost impossible. Sony VAIO VGN-Z29N Battery

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Summer (December through March) is more humid and very hot, with average temperatures that vary from 25 °C (77 °F) during the night to around 34 °C (93.2 °F)during the day, although north of Lambayeque it can reach the 40 °C (104 °F). Winters (June–September) are cooler during the nights; around 16 °C (60.8 °F)during the night, to around 27 °C (80.6 °F) during the daytime. Sony VAIO VGN-Z31MN/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z31VN/X Battery

There are protected areas in Tumbes and Piura filled with tropical canelo forests and tropical dry forests such as Caza de Coto and Cerros de Amotape, both extending into southern Ecuador. The areas of Eastern Lambayeque also have tropical dry forests which are found in the Chaparri and Chongoyape provinces. Sony VAIO VGN-Z31WN/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z31ZN/X Battery

These forests have the particularity of connecting to the Amazon basin through the Marañon passage (an area where there are also tropical dry forests). Mangrove forests are located in four specific areas from Sechura to Tumbes. Sony VAIO VGN-Z35 Battery

In these regions there are mangroove forests at the ending strips of the Piura River in the Sechura Province Vice (the southernmost mangroves in the Pacific Ocean). To the north the ending strips of the Chira River, Tumbes River, and Zarumilla River also have mangrove forests that flow into the ocean. Sony VAIO VGN-Z35/B Battery

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Economy

Peru is a developing country with a market-oriented economy; its 2010 per capita income is estimated by the IMF at US$5,195[2]and it has a high Human Development Index score of 0.723 based on 2010 data.[57] Sony VAIO VGN-Z36GD Battery

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Historically, the country's economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments.[58] Although they have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitarian distribution of income have proven elusive.[59] Sony VAIO VGN-Z36GD/J Battery

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According to 2010 data, 31.3% of its total population is poor, including 9.8% that is extremely poor.

Peruvian economic policy has varied widely over the past decades. The 1968–1975 government of Juan Velasco Alvaradointroduced radical reforms, Sony VAIO VGN-Z36TD/J Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z37D Battery

which included agrarian reform, the expropriation of foreign companies, the introduction of an economic planning system, and the creation of a large state-owned sector. These measures failed to achieve their objectives of income redistribution and the end of economic dependence on developed nations.[61] Sony VAIO VGN-Z37D/B Battery

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Despite these results, most reforms were not reversed until the 1990s, when the liberalizing government of Alberto Fujimori ended price controls, protectionism, restrictions onforeign direct investment, and most state ownership of companies.[62]Reforms have permitted sustained economic growth since 1993, except for a slump after the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[63] Sony VAIO VGN-Z37GD/X Battery

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Services account for 53% of Peruvian gross domestic product, followed by manufacturing (22.3%), extractive industries (15%), and taxes (9.7%).[64] Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, and rising investment and consumption.[65] Sony VAIO VGN-Z39D/X Battery

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Trade is expected to increase further after the implementation of a free trade agreement with the United States signed on April 12, 2006.[66]Peru's main exports are copper, gold, zinc, textiles, and fish meal; its major trade partners are the United States, China, Brazil, and Chile.[67] Sony VAIO VGN-Z41WD/B Battery

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Demographics

Peru is a multiethnic country formed by different groups over five centuries. Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before the Spanish Conquest of the 16th century; according to historian David N. Sony VAIO VGN-Z45TD/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z46GD/B Battery

Cook their population decreased from nearly 5–9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases.[68] Spaniards and Africansarrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and indigenous peoples. Sony VAIO VGN-Z46GD/U Battery

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Gradual European immigration from England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain followed independence.[69] Chinese arrived in the 1850s, replacing slave workers, and have since greatly influenced Peruvian society.[70] There are 15 uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru.[71] Sony VAIO VGN-Z46SD/B Battery

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With about 29.5 million inhabitants, Peru is the fourth most populous country in South America.[72] Its demographic growth rate declined from 2.6% to 1.6% between 1950 and 2000; population is expected to reach approximately 42 million in 2050.[73] As of 2007, 75.9% lived in urban areas and 24.1% in rural areas.[74] Sony VAIO VGN-Z46TD/R Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z47GD/X Battery

Major cities include Lima (home to over 8 million people), Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, Iquitos, Cusco,Chimbote, and Huancayo; all reported more than 250,000 inhabitants in the 2007 census.[75]

Spanish, the first language of 83.9% of Peruvians aged five and older in 2007, is the primary language of the country. Sony VAIO VGN-Z48GD/X Battery

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It coexists with several indigenous languages, the most common of which is Quechua, spoken by 13.2% of the population. Other native and foreign languages were spoken at that time by 2.7% and 0.1% of Peruvians, respectively.[76] In the 2007 census, 81.3% of the population over 12 years old described themselves as Catholic, Sony VAIO VGN-Z51WG/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z51XG/B Battery

12.5% as Evangelical, 3.3% as of other denominations, and 2.9% as non-religious.[77] Literacy was estimated at 92.9% in 2007; this rate is lower in rural areas (80.3%) than in urban areas (96.3%).[78]Primary and secondary education are compulsory and free in public schools.[79] Sony VAIO VGN-Z530N/B Battery

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Culture

Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions,[80] though it has also been influenced by various African, Asian, and European ethnic groups. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture ofPre-Inca cultures. Sony VAIO VGN-Z540NLB Battery

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The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu.Baroque dominated colonial art, though modified by native traditions.[81] During this period, most art focused on religious subjects; the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cuzco School are representative.[82] Sony VAIO VGN-Z550N/B Battery

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Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of Indigenismo in the early 20th century.[83] Since the 1950s, Peruvian art has been eclectic and shaped by both foreign and local art currents.[84] Sony VAIO VGN-Z55TG/B Battery

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Peruvian literature is rooted in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century; colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature. After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticismbecame the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma.[85] Sony VAIO VGN-Z56GG/E Battery

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The early 20th century's Indigenismomovement was led by such writers as Ciro Alegría[86] and José María Arguedas.[87] César Vallejo wrote modernist and often politically engaged verse. Modern Peruvian literature is recognized thanks to authors such as Nobel laureate Mario Vargas Llosa, a leading member of the Latin American Boom. Sony VAIO VGN-Z56TG/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z56TG/E Battery

Peruvian cuisine blends Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from African, Arab, Italian, Chinese, and Japanese cooking.[89] Common dishes include anticuchos, ceviche, and pachamanca. Peru's varied climate allows the growth of diverse plants and animals good for cooking.[90] Sony VAIO VGN-Z56TG/R Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z570N/B Battery

Peru's diversity of ingredients and cooking techniques is receiving worldwide acclaim.[91]

Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish, and African roots.[92] In pre-Hispanic times, musical expressions varied widely in each region; the quena and the tinya were two common instruments.[93] Sony VAIO VGN-Z57G Battery

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Spaniards introduced new instruments, such as the guitar and the harp, which led to the development of crossbred instruments like the charango.[94] African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the cajón, a percussion instrument.[95]Peruvian folk dances include marinera, tondero, zamacueca, and huayno. Sony VAIO VGN-Z57GGX Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z57TG/X Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z58GG/X Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z58GGX Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z590NJB Battery

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