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Demographics

In the 2001 census [INDEC], Argentina had a population of 36,260,130, and preliminary results from the 2010 census were of 40,091,359 inhabitants.[100][101] Argentina ranks third in South America in total population and 33rd globally. Sony VAIO VGN-Z36GD/J Battery

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Population density is of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area, well below the world average of 50 persons. The population growth rate in 2010 was an estimated 1.03% annually, with a birth rate of 17.7 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.4 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. Sony VAIO VGN-Z36TD/J Battery

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The net migration rate has ranged from zero to four immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants.[102]

The proportion of people under 15 is 25.6%, somewhat below the world average of 28%, and the proportion of people 65 and older is relatively high at 10.8%. In Latin America this is second only toUruguay and well above the world average, which is currently 7%.Sony VAIO VGN-Z37D/B Battery

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Argentina has one of Latin America's lowest population growth rates, recently about 1% a year, as well as a comparatively low infant mortality rate. Its birth rate of 2.3 children per woman is still nearly twice as high as that in Spain or Italy, compared here as they have similar religious practices and proportions.[103][104] Sony VAIO VGN-Z37GD/X Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z39D Battery

The median age is approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is 76.7 years.[102]

Ethnography

As with other areas of new settlement such as Canada, Australia, and the United States, Argentina is considered a country of immigrants.[105] Sony VAIO VGN-Z39D/X Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z41MD/B Battery

Most Argentines are descended from colonial-era settlers, and 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe.[2]Argentina was second only to the US in the numbers of European immigrants received and, at those times, the national population doubled every two decades. The majority of these European immigrants came from Italy and Spain.[106] Sony VAIO VGN-Z41WD/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z45GD/B Battery

86.4% of Argentina's population self-identify as being of European descent. An estimated 8% of the population is Mestizo and 4% of Argentines are ofArab or Asian heritage.[citation needed]

Recent Illegal immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia and Paraguay, with smaller numbers from Peru, Ecuador andRomania.[107] Sony VAIO VGN-Z45TD/B Battery

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The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program called Patria Grande ("Greater Homeland")[108] to encourage illegal immigrants to declare their status in return for two-year residence visas——so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.[109] Sony VAIO VGN-Z46GD/U Battery

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Religion

The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion but also requires the government to support Roman Catholicism economically.[110]Until 1994 the President and Vice President had to be Roman Catholic, though there were no such restrictions on other government officials; Sony VAIO VGN-Z46SD/B Battery

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although since 1945 members of other religious groups have held prominent posts. Catholic policy remains influential in government though, and still helps shape a variety of legislation.[111] In a study assessing world-wide levels of religious regulation and persecution, with scores ranging from 0–10 where 0 represented low levels of regulation or persecution, Sony VAIO VGN-Z46TD/R Battery

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Argentina received a score of 1.4 on Government Regulation of Religion, 6.0 on Social Regulation of Religion, 6.9 on Government Favoritism of Religion and 6 on Religious Persecution.[112] Sony VAIO VGN-Z48GD/X Battery

According to the World Christian Database Argentines are: 92.1% Christian, 3.1% agnostic, 1.9% Muslim, 1.3% Jewish, 0.9% atheist, and 0.9% Buddhist and others.[113] Argentine Christians are mostly Roman Catholic with estimates for the number of Catholics varying from 70%[114] to 90% of the population[115] (though perhaps only 20% attend services regularly).[102] Sony VAIO VGN-Z48TD/X Battery

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Evangelical churches have been gaining a foothold since the 1980s with approximately 9% of the total population,[116]Pentecostalchurches and traditional Protestant denominations are present in most communities and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints claims 330,000 followers in Argentina (their seventh-largest congregation in the world).[117] Sony VAIO VGN-Z51XG/B Battery

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Argentina has the largest Jewish population of any country in Latin America.[118] A recent study found that approximately 11% of Argentines are non-religious (which includes those who believe in God but do not follow a religion), 4% are agnostics and 5% areatheist. Overall 24% attended religious services regularly. Sony VAIO VGN-Z540EBB Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z540NLB Battery

Protestants were the only group with a majority of followers who regularly attended services.[116]

Language

The de facto official language of Argentina is Spanish, usually called castellano (Castilian) by Argentines. Sony VAIO VGN-Z540NMB Battery

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Argentina is the largest Spanish-speaking society that universally employs voseo (the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú (you), which occasions the use of alternate verb forms as well). The most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, whose speakers are primarily located in theRío de la Plata basin. Sony VAIO VGN-Z55F Battery

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Italian and other European immigrants influenced Lunfardo, the slang spoken in the Río de la Plata region, permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other regions as well. A phonetic study conducted by the Laboratory for Sensory Investigations of CONICET and the University of Toronto showed that the accent of the inhabitants of Buenos Aires (known asporteños) is closer to the Neapolitan language, spoken in Southern Italy, than any other spoken language.[119] Sony VAIO VGN-Z56GG/B Battery

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According to Ethnologue there are around 1.5 million Italian speakers (making it the second most spoken language in the country) and 1 million speakers of the North Levantine dialect of Arabic (spoken in Syria, Lebanon and Cyprus).[120] Standard German is spoken by 400,000—500,000 Argentines of German ancestry,[120] making it the fourth most spoken language. Sony VAIO VGN-Z56TG/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z56TG/E Battery

Some indigenous communities have retained their original languages. Guaraní is spoken by some in the north east, especially in Corrientes (where it enjoys official status) and Misiones. Quechua is spoken by some in the north west and has a local variant inSantiago del Estero. Sony VAIO VGN-Z56TG/R Battery

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Aymara is spoken by members of the Bolivian immigrant community. In Patagonia there are Welsh-speaking communities with around 25,000 using it as their second-language.[120] Recent immigrants have brought Chinese and Korean (mostly to Buenos Aires). Sony VAIO VGN-Z57G Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z57GG/X Battery

English, Brazilian Portuguese and French are also spoken. English is commonly taught at schools as a second language with Portuguese and French to a lesser extent.[citation needed]

Popular genetics

Studies conducted by researchers from Argentine and French scientific institutions concluded that: Sony VAIO VGN-Z57GGX Battery

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The average genetic admixture of Argentina's population is of 79.9% European, 15.8% Amerindian and 4.3% African. Another study by Argentine, Swedish, Guatemalan, and North American scientific institutions, under the direction of Michael F. Seldin from the University of California concluded that: Sony VAIO VGN-Z58GG/X Battery

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The genetic average of Argentine's population is 78% European, 19.4% Amerindian and 2.5% African.[121]

Urbanization

Argentina is highly urbanized.[122] The ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population, and fewer than one in ten live in rural areas. Sony VAIO VGN-Z590UAB Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z591U/B Battery

About 3 million people live in Buenos Aires City and the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world.[123]

The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1.3 million inhabitants each[123] and Mendoza, Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe[123][124]have at least half a million people each. Sony VAIO VGN-Z59G Battery

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The population is unequally distributed amongst the provinces: about 60% live in the Pampa region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos Aires Province; Córdoba Province Santa Fe Province and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires have 3 million each. Sony VAIO VGN-Z620N/B Battery

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Seven other provinces have over one million people each: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. Tucumán is the most densely populated with 60 inhabitants/km², the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average, while the southern province of Santa Cruz has around 1 inhabitant/km².Sony VAIO VGN-Z670N/B Battery

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Most European immigrants settled in the cities, and the many small towns founded along the expanding railway system. From the 1930s rural migration into the nation's larger cities accounted for much of their population growth.[17] Argentine cities were originally built in a colonial Spanish grid style and many still retain this general layout, which is known as a damero (checkerboard).Sony VAIO VGN-Z690NAX Battery

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Most of the larger cities also feature boulevards and diagonal avenues inspired by Haussmann's renovation of Paris. The city of La Plata, designed at the end of the 19th century by Pedro Benoit, combines the checkerboard layout with added diagonal avenues at fixed intervals——it was also the first in South America to have electric street lights.[125] Sony VAIO VGN-Z690PCB Battery

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Culture

Argentine culture has significant European influences. Buenos Aires, its cultural capital, is largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of European styles in architecture.[127] Sony VAIO VGN-Z690PEB Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z690PFB Battery

The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance. Finally, indigenous American traditions (like yerba mate infusions) have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu.

Literature

Argentina has a rich literary history, as well as one of the region's most active publishing industries. Sony VAIO VGN-Z690YAD Battery

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Argentine writers have figured prominently in Latin American literature since becoming a fully united entity in the 1850s. The struggle between the Federalists (who favored a loose confederation of provinces based on rural conservatism) and the Unitarians (pro-liberalism and advocates of a strong central government that would encourage European immigration), set the tone for Argentine literature of the time.[128] Sony VAIO VGN-Z691Y/X Battery

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The ideological divide between gaucho epic Martín Fierro by José Hernández, and Facundo[129] by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, is a great example. Hernández, a federalist, was opposed to the centralizing, modernizing and Europeanizing tendencies. Sony VAIO VGN-Z699JAB Battery

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Sarmiento wrote in support of immigration as the only way to save Argentina from becoming subject to the rule of a small number of dictatorial caudillo families, arguing such immigrants would make Argentina more modern and open to Western European influences and therefore a more prosperous society.[130] Sony VAIO VGN-Z71JB Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z73FB Battery

Argentine literature of that period was fiercely nationalist. It was followed by the modernist movement, which emerged in France in the late 19th century, and this period in turn was followed by vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes as an important reference. Sony VAIO VGN-Z790DKX Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z790DMR Battery

Jorge Luis Borges, its most acclaimed writer, found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate and his influence has extended to writers all over the globe. Borges is most famous for his works in short stories such as Ficciones and The Aleph. Sony VAIO VGN-Z790DND Battery

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Some of the nation's notable writers, poets and intellectuals include: Juan Bautista Alberdi, Roberto Arlt, Enrique Banchs, Adolfo Bioy Casares, Silvina Bullrich, Eugenio Cambaceres, Julio Cortázar, Esteban Echeverría, Leopoldo Lugones, Eduardo Mallea, Sony VAIO VGN-Z820G/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z890GLX Battery

Ezequiel Martínez Estrada, Tomás Eloy Martínez, Victoria Ocampo, Manuel Puig, Ernesto Sabato, Osvaldo Soriano, Alfonsina Storni and María Elena Walsh.

Visual arts

Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's cityscapes and, in recent decades, those around the world. Sony VAIO VGN-Z890GMR Battery

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Juan Antonio Buschiazzo helped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture and Francisco Gianotti combined Art Nouveau with Italianate styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century. Francisco Salamone and Viktor Sul?i? left an Art Deco legacy, and Alejandro Bustillo created a prolific body of Rationalist architecture. Sony VAIO VGN-Z90FS Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z90NS Battery

Clorindo Testa introduced Brutalist architecturelocally and César Pelli's and Patricio Pouchulu's Futurist creations have graced cities, worldwide. Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s, in particular, made him one of the world's most prestigious architects. Sony VAIO VGN-Z90PS Battery

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One of the most influential Argentine figures in fine arts was Xul Solar, whose surrealist work used watercolors as readily as unorthodox painting media; he also "invented" two imaginary languages. The works of Cándido López and Florencio Molina Campos(inNaïve art style), Sony VAIO VGN-Z90US Battery

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Ernesto de la Cárcova and Eduardo Sívori (realism), Fernando Fader (impressionism), Pío Collivadinoand Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós (post-impressionist), Emilio Pettoruti (cubist), Antonio Berni (neo-figurative), Gyula Košice(constructivism),Eduardo Mac Entyre (Generative art), Guillermo Kuitca (abstract), and Roberto Aizenberg (Surrealism) are a few of the best-known Argentine painters. Sony VAIO VGN-Z91JS Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z91PS Battery

Others include Benito Quinquela Martín, a quintessential 'port' painter for whom the working class and immigrant-bound La Bocaneighborhood, in particular, was excellently suited. A similar environment inspired Adolfo Bellocq, whose lithographs have been influential since the 1920s. Sony VAIO VGN-Z91YS Battery

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Evocative monuments ny Realist sculptors Erminio Blotta, Lola Mora and Rogelio Yrurtia became the part of the national landscape and today, Lucio Fontana and León Ferrari are acclaimed sculptors and conceptual artists. Ciruelois a world-famous fantasy artist and sculptor, and Marta Minujín is an innovative Conceptual artist. Sony VAIO VGN-Z92PS Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z92YS Battery

Film and theatre

The Argentine film industry creates around 80 full-length motion pictures annually.[127][131] The per capita number of screens is one of the highest in Latin America, and viewing per capita is the highest in the region.[128] Sony VAIO VGN-Z93FS Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z93GS Battery

The world's first animated feature filmswere made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani, in 1917 and 1918.[132]Since the 1980s, Argentine films have achieved worldwide recognition, such as The Official Story (Best foreign film oscar in 1986),Sony VAIO VGN-Z93HS Battery

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Man Facing Southeast, A Place in the World, Nine Queens, Son of the Bride, The Motorcycle Diaries, Blessed by Fire, and The Secret in Their Eyes, winner of the 2009Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. A new generation of Argentine directors has caught the attention of critics worldwide.[133] Sony A1258274A Battery

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Argentine composers Luis Enrique Bacalov and Gustavo Santaolalla have been honored with Academy Award for Best Original Score nods. Lalo Schifrin has received numerous Grammys and is best known for the Theme from Mission: Impossible.

Buenos Aires is one of the great capitals of theater.[128] Sony VGP-BPS10 Battery

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The Teatro Colón is a national landmark for opera and classical performances; its acoustics are considered the best in the world.[127]With its theatre scene of national and international caliber, Corrientes Avenue is synonymous with the art. It is thought of as 'the street that never sleeps' and sometimes referred to as the Broadway of Buenos Aires.[134] Sony VGP-BPS10A/B Battery

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The Teatro General San Martín is one of the most prestigious along Corrientes Avenue and the Teatro Nacional Cervantes functions as the national stage theater of Argentina. The Teatro Argentino de La Plata, El Círculoin Rosario,Independencia in Mendoza and Libertador in Córdoba are also prominent. Sony VGP-BPS10A Battery

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Griselda Gambaro, Copi, Roberto Cossa, Marco Denevi, Carlos Gorostiza, and Alberto Vaccarezzaare a few of the more prominent Argentine playwrights. Julio Bocca, Jorge Donn, José Neglia and Norma Fontenla are some of the great ballet dancers of the modern era. Sony VGP-BPL11 Battery

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Music

Tango, the music and lyrics (often sung in a form of slang called lunfardo), is Argentina's musical symbol. It has influences from the European and African culture.[135][136] The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored that of jazz and swing in the United States, Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery

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featuring large orchestral groups too, like the bands of Osvaldo Pugliese, Aníbal Troilo, Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caroand Juan d'Arienzo. Incorporating acoustic music and later, synthesizers into the genre after 1955, bandoneón virtuosoÁstor Piazzolla popularized "new tango" creating a more subtle, Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

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intellectual and listener-oriented trend. Today tango enjoys worldwide popularity; ever-evolving, neo-tango is a global phenomenon with renown groups like Tanghetto, Bajofondo and the Gotan Project.

Argentine rock developed as a distinct musical style in the mid-1960s, when Buenos Aires and Rosario became cradles of several garage groups and aspiring musicians. Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery,Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery

Today it is widely considered the most prolific and successful form of Rock en Español.[citation needed] Bands such as Soda Stereo or Sumo, and composers like Charly García, Luis Alberto Spinetta, and Fito Páezare referents of national culture. Serú Girán bridged the gap into the 1980s, when Argentine bands became popular across Latin America and elsewhere. Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

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Current popular bands include: Babasónicos, Rata Blanca, Horcas, Attaque 77, Bersuit, Los Piojos,Intoxicados, Catupecu Machu, Carajo and Miranda!.

European classical music is well represented in Argentina. Buenos Aires is home to the world-renowned Colón Theater. Sony VGP-BPS13AS Battery

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Classical musicians, such as Martha Argerich, Eduardo Alonso-Crespo, Daniel Barenboim, Eduardo Delgado and Alberto Lysy, and classical composers such as Juan José Castro and Alberto Ginastera are internationally acclaimed. Some cities have annual events and important classical music festivals like Semana Musical Llao Llao in San Carlos de Bariloche and the multitudinous Amadeus in Buenos Aires. Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery,Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Battery

Beyond dozens of regional dances, a national Argentine folk style emerged in the 1930s. Perón's Argentina would give rise to nueva canción, as artists began expressing in their music objections to political themes. The style went on to influence the entirety of Latin American music.[137] Sony VGP-BPS13Q Battery

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Today, Chango Spasiuk and Soledad Pastorutti have brought folk back to younger generations. León Gieco's folk-rock bridged the gap between Argentine folklore and Argentine rock, introducing both styles to millions overseas in successive tours. Sony VGP-BPL7 Battery,Sony VGP-BPS7 Battery

Media

The print media industry is highly developed and independent of the government, with more than two hundred newspapers. The major national newspapers are from Buenos Aires, including the centrist Clarín, the best-selling daily in Latin America and the second most widely circulated in the Spanish-speaking world.[138] Sony VGP-BPL8 Battery,Sony VGP-BPL8A Battery

Other nationally circulated papers are La Nación (center-right, published since 1870), Página/12 (left-wing), Ámbito Financiero (business conservative), Olé (sports) andCrónica (populist). The most circulated newsmagazine is Noticias.[139] Sony VGP-BPL8B Battery,Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

Radio broadcasting in Argentina is predated only by radio in the United States, and began on 27 August 1920, when Richard Wagner's Parsifal was broadcast by a team of medical students led Enrique Susini in Buenos Aires' Teatro Coliseo.[140] There are currently 260 AM broadcasting and 1150 FM broadcasting radio stations in Argentina.[141] Sony VGP-BPS8A Battery,Sony VGP-BPS8B Battery

The Argentine television industry is large and diverse, widely viewed in Latin America, and its productions seen around the world. Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America, similar to percentages in North America.[142] Sony VGP-BPL9 Battery,Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery

Argentine comic artists have contributed prominently to national culture, including Alberto Breccia, Dante Quinterno, Oski, Francisco Solano López, Horacio Altuna,Guillermo Mordillo, Roberto Fontanarrosa, whose grotesque characters captured life's absurdities with quick-witted commentary, and Quino, known for the soup-hatingMafalda and her comic strip gang of childhood friends. Sony VGP-BPS9/B Battery,Sony VGP-BPS9/S Battery

Sports

The official national sport of Argentina is pato,[143] played with a six-handle ball on horseback, but the most popular sport is association football.[144] The national football team has won 25 major international titles[145] including two FIFA World Cups, two Olympic gold medals and fourteen Copa Américas.[146] Sony VGP-BPS9A Battery

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Over one thousand Argentine players play abroad, the majority of them in European football leagues.[147] There are 331,811 registered football players,[148] with increasing numbers of girls and women, who have organized their own national championships since 1991 and were South American champions in 2006. Sony VGP-BPS9A/S Battery

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The Argentine Football Association (AFA) was formed in 1893 and is the eighth oldest national football association in the world. The AFA today counts 3,377 football clubs,[148] including 20 in the Premier Division. Sony VGP-BPX11 Battery

Since the AFA went professional in 1931, fifteen teams have won national tournament titles, including River Plate with 33 and Boca Juniors with 24.[149] Over the last twenty years, futsal and beach soccer have become increasingly popular. The Argentine beach football team was one of four competitors in the first international championship for the sport, in Miami, in 1993.[150] Sony VGP-BPL18 Battery

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Basketball is the second most popular sport; a number of basketball players play in the U.S. National Basketball Association and European leagues including Manu Ginóbili, Andrés Nocioni, Carlos Delfino, Luis Scola and Fabricio Oberto. The men's national basketball team won Olympic gold in the 2004 Olympics and the bronze medal in 2008. Sony VGP-BPL20 Battery

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Argentina is currently ranked first by the International Basketball Federation. Argentina has an important rugby union football team, "Los Pumas", with many of its players playing in Europe. Argentina beat host nation France twice in the 2007 Rugby World Cup, placing them third in the competition. Sony VGP-BPS20/S Battery

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The Pumas are currently eighth in theofficial world rankings.[151] Other popular sports include field hockey (particularly amongst women), tennis, auto racing, boxing, volleyball, polo and golf.

The Vamos vamos Argentina chant is a trademark of Argentine fans during sporting events. Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

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Cuisine

Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous and Criollo creations, which include empanadas (a stuffed pastry), locro (a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), humitas and yerba mate, all originally indigenous Amerindian staples, the latter considered Argentina's national beverage.Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

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Other popular items include chorizo (a spicy sausage), facturas (Viennese-style pastry) and Dulce de leche, a sort of milk carameljam.

The Argentine barbecue, asado as well as a parrillada, includes various types of meats, among them chorizo, sweetbread, chitterlings, and morcilla (blood sausage). Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery,Sony VGP-BPL22 Battery

Thin sandwiches, sandwiches de miga, are also popular. Argentines have the highest consumption of red meat in the world.[152]

The Argentine wine industry, long among the largest outside Europe, has benefited from growing investment since 1992; in 2007,Sony VGP-BPS22 Battery

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60% of foreign investment worldwide inviticulture was destined to Argentina.[153] The country is the fifth most important wine producer in the world,[154] with the annual per capita consumption of wine among the highest. Malbec grape, a discardable varietal in France (country of origin), has found in the Province of Mendoza an ideal environment to successfully develop and turn itself into the world's best Malbec.[153] Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery,Sony VGP-BPL23 Battery

Mendoza accounts for 70% of the country's total wine production. "Wine tourism" is important in Mendoza province, with the impressive landscape of the Cordillera de Los Andes and the highest peak in the Americas, Mount Aconcagua, 6,952 m (22,808 ft) high, providing a very desirable destination for international tourism. Sony VGP-BPS23 Battery

National emblems

Argentina has a number of national symbols, some of which are extensively defined by law.[155]

The National Flag consists of three, equal in width, horizontal stripes, colored light blue, white and light blue, with the Sun of May in the centre of the middle, white stripe. Sony VGP-BPS23/B Battery,Sony VGP-BPS23/D Battery

The flag was designed by Manuel Belgrano in 1812; it was adopted as a national symbol 20 July 1816. The Coat of Arms of Argentina, which represents the union of the provinces, came into use in 1813 as a seal for official documents. Sony VGP-BPS23/G Battery

The Argentine National Anthem, adopted in 1813, was written by Vicente López y Planes with music by Blas Parera. It has been subsequently shortened to only three paragraphs, after omitting the lyrics' attacks against former occupant Spain. Sony VGP-BPS23/P Battery

The Cockade of Argentina was first used during the May Revolution of 1810 and was made official two years later. The Hornero, habitating practically across all the national territory, was unanimously designated as Argentina's national animal in 1927. The ceibois the country's designated national flower and tree,[155]

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while the horseback game of pato is its national sport.[156] Asado is the designated national dish, the Rhodochrosite the national stone, and wine the national liquor.[157]

Education

After independence Argentina built a national public education system in comparison to other nations, placing the country high in the global rankings of literacy. Sony Limited Edition 007 Battery,Sony VAIO VGC-LB15 Battery

Today Argentina has a literacy rate of 97%, and three in eight adults over age 20 have completed secondary school studies or higher.[73]

School attendance is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 17. The Argentine school system consists of an elementary or lower school level lasting six or seven years, and a secondary or high school level lasting between five to six years. Sony VGN-AR Series Battery,Sony VGN-CR Series Battery

In the 1990s, the system was split into different types of high school instruction, called Educacion Secundaria and the Polimodal. Some provinces adopted the Polimodal while others did not. A project in the executive branch to repeal this measure and return to a more traditional secondary level system was approved in 2006.[158] Sony VIAO VGN-G Series Battery,Sony VIAO VGN-G118 Battery

President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento is credited with pushing for and implementing a free and modern education system in Argentina. The 1918 university reform shaped the current tripartite representation of most public universities.

Education is funded by tax payers at all levels except for the majority of graduate studies. Sony VIAO VGN-G118CN/B Battery

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There are many private school institutions in the primary, secondary and university levels. Around 11.4 million people were enrolled in formal education of some kind in 2006, including 1.5 million in the nation's 85 universities.[73]

Public education in Argentina is tuition-free from the elementary to the university levels. Sony VIAO VGN-G218 Battery,Sony VGN-TZ121 Battery

Though literacy was nearly universal as early as 1947,[73] the majority of Argentine youth had little access to education beyond the compulsory seven years of grade school during the first half of the 20th century; since then, when the tuition-free system was extended to the secondary and university levels, demand for these facilities has often outstripped budgets (particularly since the 1970s).[159] Sony VGN-TZ13 Battery,Sony VGN-TZ131 Battery

Consequently, public education is now widely found wanting and in decline; this has helped private education flourish, though it has also caused a marked inequity between those who can afford it (usually the middle and upper classes) and the rest of society, as private schools often have no scholarship systems in place. Sony VGN-TZ132N Battery,Sony VGN-TZ132/N Battery

Roughly one in four primary and secondary students and one in six university students attend private institutions.[73][159]

There are thirty-eight public universities across the country,[160] as well as numerous private ones. Sony VGN-TZ17N Battery,Sony VGN-TZ16N Battery

The University of Buenos Aires, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba,Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, and the National Technological University are among the most important. Public universities faced cutbacks in spending during the 1980s and 1990s, which led to a decline in overall quality. Sony VGN-TZ18N Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-AR47G/E1 Battery

Health care

Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labor union-sponsored plans (Obras Sociales), government insurance plans, public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans. Sony VAIO VGN-AR520E Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-AR53DB Battery

Government efforts to improve public health can be traced to Spanish Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz's first Medical Tribunal of 1780.[162] Following independence, medical schools were established at the University of Buenos Aires (1822) and the National University of Córdoba (1877). Sony VAIO VGN-AR54DB Battery

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The training of doctors and nurses at these and other schools enabled the rapid development of health care cooperatives, which during the presidency of Juan Perón became publicly subsidized Obras Sociales. Today, these number over 300 (of which 200 are related to labor unions) and provide health care for half the population; Sony VAIO VGN-AR55DB Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-AR630E Battery

the national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers nearly all of the five million senior citizens.[163]

Health care costs amount to almost 10% of GDP and have been growing in pace with the proportion of Argentines over 65 (7% in 1970). Sony VAIO VGN-AR64DB Battery

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Public and private spending have historically split this about evenly: public funds are mainly spent through Obras, which in turn, refer patients needing hospitalization to private and public clinics; private funds are spent evenly between private insurers' coverage and out-of-pocket expenses.[164][165] Sony VAIO VGN-AR660U Battery

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There are more than 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and 37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed nations).[166][167] The relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted in mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from 1953 to 2005, Sony VAIO VGN-AR71ZU Battery

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deaths from cardiovascular disease increased from 20% to 23% of the total, those from tumors from 14% to 20%, respiratoryproblems from 7% to 14%, digestive maladies (non-infectious) from 7% to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries, 6%, and infectious diseases, 4%. Causes related to senility led to many of the rest. Infant deaths have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005.[166][168] Sony VAIO VGN-AR73DB Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-AR74DB Battery

The availability of health care has also reduced infant mortality from 70 per 1000 live births in 1948[169] to 12.1 in 2009[166] and raised life expectancy at birth from 60 years to 76.[169] Though these figures compare favorably with global averages, they fall short of levels in developed nations and in 2006, Argentina ranked fourth in Latin America. Sony VAIO VGN-AR75UDB Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-AR790U/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-AR820E Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-AR830E BatterySony VAIO VGN-AR83S Battery

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