Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
18 mai 2014 7 18 /05 /mai /2014 04:26

Denmark has a modern, prosperous and developed mixed market economy, ranking 21st in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) per capita and 10th in nominal GDP per capita. A liberalisation of import tariffs in 1797 marked the end of mercantilism and further liberalisation in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century established the Danish liberal tradition in international trade that was only to be broken by the 1930s.[79] ACER Aspire 7736ZG Keyboard

 [80] Property rights have enjoyed strong protection. Denmark's economy stands out as one of the most free in the Index of Economic Freedom[81] and the Economic Freedom of the World.[82] The economy has high levels ofinternational trade and Denmark is known as a free trade advocate in the European Union. Denmark is one of the most competitive economies in the world according to World Economic Forum 2008 report, IMD and The Economist.[83] TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Keyboard

As a result of its acclaimed "flexicurity" model, Denmark has the most free labour market in Europe, according to the World Bank. Employers can hire and fire whenever they want (flexibility), and between jobs, unemployment compensation is very high (security). The World Bank ranks Denmark as the easiest place in Europe to do business. Establishing a business can be done in a matter of hours and at very low costs.[84] HP 9J.N0Y82.H01 Keyboard

Denmark has a competitive company tax rate of 25% and a special time-limited tax regime for expatriates.[85] The Danish taxation system is broad based, with a 25% VAT, in addition to excise taxes, income taxes and other fees. The overall tax burden (sum of all taxes, as a percentage of GDP) is estimated to be 46% in 2011.[86]

Denmark has a labour force of about 2.9 million. Denmark has the fourth highest ratio of tertiary degree holders in the world.[87HP 517865-031 Keyboard

] GDP per hour worked was the 13th highest in 2009. Denmark has the world's lowest level of income inequality, according to the World Bank Gini (%),[88] and the world's highest minimum wage, according to the IMF.[89] In July 2013 the unemployment rate was at 6.7%, which was below the EU average of 10.9%.

Denmark's currency, the krone, is pegged at approximately 7.46 kroner per euro through the ERM.  Lenovo 0A62039 Keyboard

Although a September 2000 referendum rejected adopting the euro,[91] the country in practice follows the policies set forth in the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union and meets the economic convergence criteria needed to adopt the euro. The majority of the political parties in the parliament are for the euro, but as yet a new referendum has not been held, despite plans;[92] SONY VAIO VGN-CS31S/R Keyboard

scepticism of the EU among Danish voters has historically been strong. Denmark is known for the Danish cooperative movement within among others farming, thefood industry (Danish Crown), dairy production (Arla Foods), retailing (Brugsen), wind turbine cooperatives and co-housing associations. Many large companies are also headquartered in Denmark, such as: A. P. Moller-Maersk Group (shipping), HP Pavilion dv6-3045eo Keyboard

Vestas (wind turbines), Carlsberg (brewery), Danske Bank (banking), DONG Energy (power and natural gas), ECCO (shoes), H. Lundbeck(pharmaceuticals), Novo Nordisk (pharmaceuticals), Coloplast (pharmaceuticals), Pandora (jewellery), Danfoss (industrial services),Grundfos (pump manufacturer) and Lego Group (toys).  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Keyboard

Support for free trade is high – in a 2007 poll 76% responded that globalisation is a good thing.[93] 70% of trade flows are inside the European Union. Denmark has the 9th highest export per capita in the world. Denmark's main exports are: industrial production/manufactured goods 73.3% (of which machinery and instruments were 21.4%, and fuels (oil, natural gas), chemicals, etc. 26%);DELL 0PVDG3 Keyboard

agricultural products and others for consumption 18.7% (in 2009 meat and meat products were 5.5% of total export; fish and fish products 2.9%).[46] Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and has for a number of years had a balance of paymentssurplus while battling an equivalent of approximately 39% of GNP foreign debt or more than 300 billion DKK.[94] TOSHIBA PK130260100 Keyboard

StatBank is the name of a large statistical database maintained by the central authority of statistics in Denmark. Online distribution of statistics has been a part of the dissemination strategy in Denmark since 1985. By this service, Denmark is a leading country in the world regarding electronic dissemination of statistics. There are about 2 million hits every year. ACER Aspire 2920-5A2G25Mi Keyboard

Denmark has considerably large deposits of oil and natural gas in the North Sea and ranks as number 32 in the world among net exporters of crude oil[95] and was producing 259,980 barrels of crude oil a day in 2009.[96] Most electricity is produced from coal, but 25–28% of electricity demand is supplied through wind turbines.[97] Denmark is a long-time leader in wind energy,ACER AEZU2R00010 Keyboard

and in May 2011 Denmark derived 3.1% of its gross domestic product from renewable (clean) energy technology and energy efficiency, or around €6.5 billion ($9.4 billion).[98] Denmark is connected by electric transmission lines to other European countries. On 6 September 2012, Denmark launched the biggest wind turbine in the world, and will add four more over the next four years. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-215DX Keyboard

Denmark's electricity sector has integrated energy sources such as wind power into the national grid. Denmark now aims to focus on intelligent battery systems (V2G) and plug-in vehicles in the transport sector.

Significant investment has been made in building road and rail links between regions in Denmark, most notably the Great Belt Fixed Link, which connects Zealand and Funen.  TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4050 Keyboard

It is now possible to drive from Frederikshavn in northern Jutland to Copenhagen on eastern Zealand without leaving the motorway. The main railway operator is DSB for passenger services and DB Schenker Rail for freight trains. The railway tracks are maintained by Banedanmark. The North Sea and the Baltic Sea are intertwined by various, international ferry links. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Keyboard

Construction of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link, connecting Denmark and Germany with a second link, will start in 2015.

Copenhagen has a Metro system, the Copenhagen Metro, and the Greater Copenhagen area has an extensive electrified suburban railway network, the S-train. In the four biggest cities - Copenhagen, Århus, Odense, Aalborg - light rail systems are planned to be in operation around 2020.  ASUS F6VE Keyboard

The light rail in Greater Copenhagen will traverse 11 municipalities, providing a much needed corridor fromLyngby in the north to Ishøj in the south .[102] With Norway and Sweden, Denmark is part of the Scandinavian Airlines, andCopenhagen Airport forms the largest hub in Scandinavia. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Keyboard

Cycling in Denmark is a common form of transport, particularly for the young and for city dwellers. With a network of bicycle routes extending more than 12,000 km[103] and an estimated 7,000 km[104] of segregated dedicated bicycle paths and lanes, Denmark has a solid bicycle infrastructure.

Private vehicles are increasingly used as a means of transport. Because of the high registration tax (180%), SONY VAIO VGN NR298E Keyboard

VAT (25%), and one of the world's highest income tax rates, new cars are very expensive. The purpose of the tax is to discourage car ownership. The car fleet has increased by 45% over the last 30 years. In 2007, an attempt was made by the government to favour environmentally friendly cars by slightly reducing taxes on high mileage vehicles. HP Mini 210 Keyboard

However, this has had little effect, and in 2008 Denmark experienced an increase in the import of fuel inefficient old cars[105] primarily from Germany, as the cost for older cars—including taxes—keeps them within the budget of many Danes. The average car age (year 2011) is 9.2 years.

In the 20th century, Danes have also been innovative in several fields of the technology sector. Acer eMachines E732 Keyboard

Danish companies have been influential in the shipping industry with the design of the largest and most energy efficient container ships in the world, and Danish engineers have contributed to the design of MAN Diesel engines. In the software and electronic field, Denmark contributed to design and manufacturing of Nordic Mobile Telephones, and the now-defunct Danish company DanCall was among the first to develop GSM mobile phones.[10HP Pavilion DV7-3188cl Keyboard


Danish engineers are world-leading in providing diabetes care equipment and medication products from Novo Nordisk and, since 2000, the Danish biotech companyNovozymes, the world market leader in enzymes for first generation starch based bioethanol, has pioneered development of enzymes for converting waste to cellulosic ethanol.[108] TOSHIBA NSK-T4D01 Keyboard

Medicon Valley, spanning the Øresund Region between Zealand and Sweden, is one of Europe's largest life science clusters, containing a large number of life science companies and research institutions located within a very small geographical area. Danish software engineers have taken leading roles in some of the world's important programming languages: Anders Hejlsberg, (Turbo Pascal, Delphi, C#); HP 405963-001 Keyboard

Rasmus Lerdorf, (PHP); Bjarne Stroustrup, (C++); David Heinemeier Hansson, (Ruby on Rails); Lars Bak, a pioneer in virtual machines (V8, Java VM, Dart); Lene Vestergaard Hau (physicist), the first person to stop light, leading to advances in quantum computing, nanoscale engineering and linear optics.

After deregulating the labour market in the 1990s, Denmark has one of the most free labour markets among the European countries. SAMSUNG Q35 Keyboard

According to World Bank labour market rankings, the labour market flexibility is at the same levels as the United States. Around 80% of employees belong to unions and the unemployment funds that are attached to them. Labour market policies are mainly determined by negotiations between the workers' unions and employers' unions, and the government only interferes if labour strikes extend for too long.[ HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee Keyboard

Despite the success of the trade unions, a growing number of people make contracts individually rather than collectively, and many (four out of ten employees) are contemplating dropping especially unemployment fund but occasionally even union membership altogether. The average employee receives a benefit at 47% of their wage level if they have to claim benefits when unemployed. SONY VAIO VGN NR185E Keyboard

With low unemployment, very few expect to be claiming benefits at all. The only reason then to pay the earmarked money to the unemployment fund would be to retire early and receive early retirement pay (efterløn), which is possible from the age of 60 provided an additional earmarked contribution is paid to the unemployment fund.[110] ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Keyboard

The unemployment rate for December 2007 was 2.7%, for a total of 74,900 persons, a reduction by 112,800 persons—2,400 per month—or 60% since December 2003.[111] The Eurostat unemployment number for August 2008 is 2.9%. Another measure of the situation on the labour market is the employment rate, that is the percentage of people aged 15 to 64 in employment out of the total number of people aged 15 to 64. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

The employment rate for Denmark in 2007 was 77.1% according to Eurostat. Of all countries in the world, only Switzerland with 78.% and Iceland with 85.1% had a higher employment rate. Of the employed more than 38% (800,000 people)[112] of the total workforce work in public sector jobs.

The number of unemployed is forecast to be 65,000 in 2015. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

The number of people in the working age group, less disability pensioners etc., will grow by 10,000 to 2,860,000, and jobs by 70,000 to 2,790,000;[113] part-time jobs are included.[114] Because of the present high demand and short supply of skilled labour, for instance for factory and service jobs, including hospital nurses and physicians, the annual average working hours have risen, especially compared with the recession1987–1993.[115] HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx CPU Fan

Increasingly, service workers of all kinds are in demand, i.e. in the postal services and as bus drivers, and academics.[116] In the fall of 2007, more than 250,000 foreigners are working in the country, of which 23,000 still reside in Germany or Sweden.[117] According to a sampling survey of over 14,000 enterprises from December 2007 to April 2008 39,000 jobs were not filled, a number much lower than earlier surveys, confirming a downturn in the economic cycle.[118] HP 606013-001 CPU Fan

The level of unemployment benefits is dependent on former employment (the maximum benefit is at 90% of the wage) and at times also on membership of an unemployment fund, which is almost always—but need not be—administered by a trade union, and the previous payment of contributions. However, the largest share of the financing is still carried by the central government and is financed by general taxation, and only to a minor degree from earmarked contributions. HP COMPAQ KSB05105HA CPU Fan

There is no taxation, however, on proceeds gained from selling one's home (provided there was any home equity (friværdi)), as the marginal tax rate on capital income from housing savings is around 0%.[119] In 2011, 13.4% of Denmark's population was reported to live below the poverty line.[120] When adjusted for taxes and transfers, the poverty rate drops from 24% to 6%, one of the lowest of all OECD nations.[121][122] HP 538340-001 CPU Fan

Denmark follows the Nordic model of a mixed economy, characterised by a large welfare state, a high level of public expenditure and a universal social system (including health care), financed by taxes and not by social contributions. The welfare model is accompanied by a taxation system that is both broad based (25% VAT, not including excise, duty and tax) and with a progressive income tax model, HP Pavilion dv6-2150us CPU Fan

meaning the more money that is earned, the higher income tax percentage that gets paid (minimum tax rate for adults is 42% scaling to over 60%, except for the residents of Ertholmene that escape the otherwise ubiquitous 8% healthcare tax fraction of the income taxes[123][124]). Other taxes include the registration tax on private vehicles, at a rate of 180%, DELL MD538 CPU Fan

on top of VAT. Lately (July 2007) this has been changed slightly in an attempt to favour more fuel efficient cars but maintaining the average taxation level more or less unchanged.

According to 2012 figures from Statistics Denmark, 89.6% of Denmark's population of over 5,580,516 is of Danish descent (defined as having at least one parent who was born in Denmark and has Danish citizenship).[12HP Pavilion dv7-6187cl CPU Fan

6] Many of the remaining 10.4% are immigrants—or descendants of recent immigrants—that came mainly from Turkey, Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, South Asia and the Middle East. Of the 10.4%, approximately 200,000 (34%) are of a Western background, and approx. 390,000 (66%) have a non-Western background.[127]

The median age is 41.4 years, with 0.97 males per female. 99% of the population (age 15 and up) is literate. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The fertility rate is 1.73 children born per woman (2013 est.). Despite the low birth rate, the population is still growing at an average annual rate of 0.23%.[46]

Danish, Faroese, and Greenlandic are the official languages of metropolitan Denmark, the Faroes, and Greenland, respectively; German is an official minority language in the former South Jutland County near the German border.  HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx CPU Fan

Danish is spoken throughout the kingdom and is the national language of Denmark. English and German are the most widely spoken foreign languages.[128]

Denmark is frequently ranked as the happiest country in the world in cross-national studies of happiness.[15][129][16] This has been attributed to the country's highly-regarded education and health care systems,[130] and its high level of income equality. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

In January 2014, 78.4%[131] of the population of Denmark were members of the Church of Denmark (Den danske folkekirke), the officially established church, which is Lutheran in tradition.[132] This is down 0.7% compared to the year earlier and 1.3% down compared to two years earlier. Despite the high membership figures, only 3% of the population regularly attend Sunday services.[133][134] HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The Constitution states that a member of the Royal Family must be a part of the Church of Denmark, though the rest of the population is free to adhere to other faiths.[135][136][137] In 1682 the state granted limited recognition to three religious groups dissenting from the Established Church: Roman Catholicism, the Reformed Church and Judaism,[137] although conversion to these groups from the Church of Denmark remained illegal initially. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

Until the 1970s, the state formally recognised "religious societies" byroyal decree. Today, religious groups do not need official government recognition in Denmark, they can be granted the right to perform weddings and other ceremonies without this recognition.[137]

Denmark's Muslims make up approximately 3% of the population and form the country's second largest religious community and largest minority religion.[133][ HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

138] As of 2009 there are nineteen recognised Muslim communities in Denmark.[138][139] As per an overview of various religions and denominations by the Danish Foreign Ministry, other religious groups comprise less than 1% of the population individually and approximately 2% when taken all together.[140]

A new religious group, Forn Siðr, describes itself as a revival of the Norse paganism prevalent in Denmark before Christianisation. It gained state recognition in November 2003.[141] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1S0E/BJ CPU Fan

According to a 2010 Eurobarometer Poll,[142] 28% of Danish citizens polled responded that they "believe there is a God", 47% responded that they "believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 24% responded that they "do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force". Another poll, carried out in 2009, found that 25% of Danes believe Jesus is the son of God, and 18% believe he is the saviour of the world. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The Danish education system provides access to primary school, secondary school and higher education. All college and university education in Denmark is free of charges; there are no tuition fees to enroll in courses. Students in secondary school or higher and aged 18 or above may apply for state educational support grants, known as Statens Uddannelsesstøtte (SU) which provides fixed financial support, disbursed monthly. SONY Vaio VGN-BX760PS5 CPU Fan

The Education Index lists Denmark 16th in 2011 based on mean years of schooling (of adults) and expected years of schooling (of children).[144]

Primary school is known as the folkeskole. Attendance at primary school is not compulsory, but most Danish children go to primary school for 10 years, from the age of 6 to 16. Whilst attending a primary school is not compulsory, receiving education at primary school-level is and must be provided for nine years. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

There are no final exams, but pupils in primary schools can choose to go to a test when finishing ninth grade. The test is obligatory if further education is to be attended. Pupils can alternatively attend a private independent school (friskole), or a private school (privatskole) – schools that are not under the administration of the municipalities, such as Christian schools or Waldorf schools. HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx CPU Fan

Following graduation from primary school, there are several educational opportunities; the Gymnasium (STX) attaches importance in teaching a mix of humanities and science, Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX) focuses on scientific subjects and the Higher Commercial Examination Programme emphasizes on subjects in economics.  HP 550 CPU Fan

Higher Preparatory Examination (HF) is similar to Gymnasium (STX), but is one year shorter. For specific professions, there is the vocational education, training young people for work in specific tradesby a combination of teaching and apprenticeship.Danish universities and other higher education institutions offer international students a range of opportunities for obtaining an internationally recognised qualification in Denmark. HP Pavilion dv7-3170ep CPU Fan

Many programmes may be taught in the English language, the academic lingua franca, in bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, Ph.D.s andstudent exchange programmes.

Along with Sweden and Norway, Denmark has a universal health care system, financed by taxes and not by social contributions. This system is largely financed through local, municipal taxation with integrated funding and provision of health care at the regional level. IBM 26R8197 CPU Fan

It is the most important area of responsibility for the local regions. Unlike the former counties, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes, and the health service is primarily financed by a national health care contribution of 8 percent (Danish: sundhedsbidrag) combined with funds from both government and municipalities.[71] Denmark spends 9.8 percent of GDP on healthcare. HP Pavilion dv7-6187cl CPU Fan

The life expectancy in Denmark is 78.6 years, and there is one doctor for every 294 persons in Denmark.

Denmark, like its Scandinavian neighbours, has historically been one of the most socially progressive cultures in the world. In 1969, Denmark was the first country to legalise pornography,[147] and in 2012, Denmark replaced its "registered partnership" laws, which it had been the first country to introduce in 1989,[14Toshiba Satellite A205-S5831 CPU Fan

8][149]with gender-neutral marriage.[150][151] Modesty, punctuality but above all equality are important aspects of the Danish way of life.

The astronomical discoveries of Tycho Brahe (1546–1601), Ludwig A. Colding's (1815–88) neglected articulation of the principle ofconservation of energy, and the contributions to atomic physics of Niels Bohr (1885–1962) indicate the range of Danish scientific achievement.  IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

The fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875), the philosophical essays of Søren Kierkegaard (1813–55), the short stories of Karen Blixen (penname Isak Dinesen), (1885–1962), the plays of Ludvig Holberg (1684–1754), and the dense, aphoristic poetry ofPiet Hein (1905–96), have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of Carl Nielsen (1865–1931). APPLE 661-4952 CPU Fan

From the mid-1990s, Danish films have attracted international attention, especially those associated with Dogme 95 like those of Lars von Trier.

There are three Danish heritage sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list in Northern Europe: Roskilde Cathedral, the main burial site for Danish monarchs since the 15th century;  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

Kronborg castle, immortalized in the play Hamlet; and the Jelling stones, carvedrunestones, often called Denmark's "baptismal certificate."

Danish cinema dates back to 1897 and since the 1980s has maintained a steady stream of product due largely to funding by the state-supportedDanish Film Institute. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

There have been three big internationally important waves of Danish cinema: erotic melodrama of the silent era; the increasingly explicit sex films of the 1960s and 1970s; and lastly, the Dogme 95 movement of the late 1990s, where directors often used hand-held cameras to dynamic effect in a conscious reaction against big-budget studeos. Danish films have been noted for their realism, religious and moral themes, sexual frankness and technical innovation. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The Danish filmmaker Carl Th. Dreyer (1889–1968) is considered one of the greatest directors of early cinema.

Other Danish filmmakers of note include Erik Balling, the creator of the popular Olsen-banden films; Gabriel Axel, an Oscar-winner forBabette's Feast in 1987; and Bille August, the Oscar-, Palme d'Or- and Golden Globe-winner for Pelle the Conqueror in 1988. HP Pavilion dv9230us CPU Fan

In the modern era, notable filmmakers in Denmark include Lars von Trier, who co-created the Dogme movement, and multiple award-winners Susanne Bier andNicolas Winding Refn. Mads Mikkelsen is a world-renowned Danish actor, having starred in films such as King ArthurCasino Royale, the Danish film The Hunt, and currently in the American TV series HannibalIBM Lenovo Thinkpad X200 Series CPU Fan

Danish mass media and news programming are dominated by a few large corporations. In printed media JP/Politikens Hus and Berlingske Media, between them, control the largest newspapers PolitikenBerlingske Tidende and Jyllands-Posten and major tabloids B.T. and Ekstra Bladet. In television, publicly owned stations DR and TV 2 have large shares of the viewers.[15HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

5] Especially DR is famous for its high quality TV-series often sold to foreign broadcast and often with strong leading female characters like internationally known actresses Sidse Babett Knudsenand Sofie Gråbøl. In radio, DR has a near monopoly, currently broadcasting on all four nationally available FM channels, competing only with local stations.

Copenhagen and its multiple outlying islands have a wide range of folk traditions. IBM ThinkPad T60 2637 CPU Fan

The Royal Danish Orchestra is among the world's oldest orchestras.[157] Denmark's most famous classical composer is Carl Nielsen, especially remembered for his six symphonies and his Wind Quintet, while the Royal Danish Ballet specializes in the work of the Danish choreographer August Bournonville. Danes have distinguished themselves as jazz musicians, and the Copenhagen Jazz Festival has acquired an international reputation. APPLE MG62090V1-Q020-S99 CPU Fan

The modern pop and rock scene has produced a few names of note, including Aqua, D-A-D, The Raveonettes, Michael Learns to Rock, Alphabeat, Kashmir and Mew, among others. All together, Lars Ulrich, the drummer of the band Metallica, has become the first Danish musician to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

More recently, in 2013 Denmark entered the Eurovision Song Contest and won with Emmelie de Forest's song "Only Teardrops". The 2014 contest was hosted in Copenhagen. HP 535766-001 CPU Fan

Denmark's architecture became firmly established in the Middle Ages when first Romanesque, then Gothic churches and cathedrals sprang up throughout the country. From the 16th century, Dutch and Flemish designers were brought to Denmark, initially to improve the country's fortifications, but increasingly to build magnificent royal castles and palaces in the Renaissance style. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

During the 17th century, many impressive buildings were built in the Baroque style, both in the capital and the provinces. Neoclassicism from France was slowly adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of Historicism ultimately merged into the 19th-century National Romantic style.[159] Dell Vostro 3350 CPU Fan

The 20th century brought along new architectural styles; including expressionism, best exemplified by the designs of architect Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint, which relied heavily on Scandinavian brick Gothic traditions; and Nordic Classicism, which enjoyed brief popularity in the early decades of the century. It was in the 1960s that Danish architects such as Arne Jacobsen entered the world scene with their highly successful Functionalist architecture. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Keyboard

This, in turn, has evolved into more recent world-class masterpieces including Jørn Utzon's Sydney Opera House and Johan Otto von Spreckelsen's Grande Arche de la Défense in Paris, paving the way for a number of contemporary Danish designers such as Bjarke Ingels to be rewarded for excellence both at home and abroad.[160] TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Keyboard

Danish design is a term often used to describe a style of functionalistic design and architecture that was developed in mid-20th century, originating in Denmark. Danish design is typically applied to industrial design, furniture and household objects, which have won many international awards.

The Danish Porcelain Factory ("Royal Copenhagen") is famous for the quality of its ceramics and export products worldwide. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Keyboard

Danish design is also a well-known brand, often associated with world-famous, 20th-century designers and architects such as Børge Mogensen, Finn Juhl, Hans Wegner, Arne Jacobsen,Poul Henningsen and Verner Panton.[161]

Other designers of note include Kristian Solmer Vedel (1923–2003) in the area of industrial design, Jens Harald Quistgaard (1919–2008) for kitchen furniture and implements and Ole Wanscher (1903–1985) who had a classical approach to furniture design.Lenovo 45N2106 Keyboard

The first known Danish literature is myths and folklore from the 10th and 11th century. Saxo Grammaticus, normally considered the first Danish writer, worked for bishop Absalon on a chronicle of Danish history (Gesta Danorum). Very little is known of other Danish literature from the Middle Ages. With the Age of Enlightenment came Ludvig Holberg whose comedy plays are still being performed. HP AEUT5U00010 Keyboard

In the late 19th century, literature was seen as a way to influence society. Known as the Modern Breakthrough, this movement was championed by Georg Brandes, Henrik Pontoppidan (awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature) and J. P. Jacobsen. Romanticism influenced the renowned writer and poet Hans Christian Andersen, known for his stories and fairy tales, e.g. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Keyboard

The Ugly DucklingThe Little Mermaid and The Snow Queen. In recent history Johannes Vilhelm Jensen was also awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Karen Blixen is famous for her novels and short stories. Other Danish writers of importance are Herman Bang, Gustav Wied, William Heinesen, Martin Andersen Nexø, Piet Hein, Hans Scherfig,Klaus Rifbjerg, Dan Turèll, Tove Ditlevsen, Inger Christensen and Peter Høeg. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E525 Keyboard

Danish philosophy has a long tradition as part of Western philosophy. Perhaps the most influential Danish philosopher was Søren Kierkegaard, the creator of Christian existentialism. Kierkegaard had a few Danish followers, including Harald Høffding, who later in his life moved on to join the movement of positivism. Among Kierkegaard's other followers include Jean-Paul Sartre who was impressed with Kierkegaard's views on the individual, SONY VAIO VGN-FS295XP Keyboard

and Rollo May, who helped create humanistic psychology. Another Danish philosopher of note is Grundtvig, whose philosophy gave rise to a new form of non-aggressive nationalism in Denmark, and who is also influential for his theological and historical works.

While Danish art was influenced over the centuries by trends in Germany and the Netherlands, IBM 42T3671 Keyboard

the 15th- and 16th-century church frescos, which can be seen in many of the country's older churches, are of particular interest as they were painted in a style typical of native Danish painters.[162]

The Danish Golden Age, which began in the first half of the 19th century, was inspired by a new feeling of nationalism and romanticism. HP 519265-001 Keyboard

Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg was not only a productive artist in his own right but taught at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts where his students included notable painters such as Wilhelm Bendz, Christen Købke, Martinus Rørbye, Constantin Hansen, and Wilhelm Marstrand. The sculpture of Bertel Thorvaldsen was also significant during this period.[163] SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W Keyboard

In 1871, Holger Drachmann and Karl Madsen visited Skagen in the far north of Jutland where they quickly built up one of Scandinavia's most successful artists' colonies specializing in Naturalism and Realism rather than in the traditional approach favoured by the Academy. Hosted by Michael and his wife Anna, they were soon joined by P.S. Krøyer, Carl Locher and Laurits Tuxen. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Keyboard

All participated in painting the natural surroundings and local people.[164] Similar trends developed on Funen with the Fynboerne who included Johannes Larsen, Fritz Sybergand Peter Hansen,[165] and on the island of Bornholm with the Bornholm school of painters including Niels Lergaard, Kræsten Iversen andOluf Høst.[166] HP Envy 15 Keyboard

Danish photography has developed from strong participation and interest in the very beginnings of the art in 1839 to the success of a considerable number of Danes in the world of photography today. Pioneers such as Mads Alstrup and Georg Emil Hansen paved the way for a rapidly growing profession during the last half of the 19th century while both artistic and press photographers made internationally recognised contributions. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard

Today Danish photographers such as Astrid Kruse Jensen and Jacob Aue Sobol are active both at home and abroad, participating in key exhibitions around the world.[167]Collections of modern art enjoy unusually attractive settings at the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art north of Copenhagen and at the North Jutland Art Museum inAalborg. Notable artists include the Neo-Expressionist Per Kirkeby, Tal R with his wild and colorful paintings,[16SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard

8] Olafur Eliasson's space exhibitions[169] andJeppe Hein's installations.

The cuisine of Denmark, like that of the other Nordic countries and of Northern Germany, consists mainly of meat and fish. This stems from the country's agricultural past, its geography, and its climate of long, cold winters. With 145.9 kg (321.7 lb) of meat per person consumed in 2002, ACER TravelMate 6292 Keyboard

Denmark has the highest consumption of meat per person of any country in the world.[171]

The open sandwiches, known as smørrebrød, which in their basic form are the usual fare for lunch, can be considered a national speciality when prepared and decorated with a variety of fine ingredients. Hot meals traditionally consist of ground meats, such as frikadeller (meat balls), HP 519265-001 Keyboard

or of more substantial meat and fish dishes such as flæskesteg (roast pork with crackling) or kogt torsk (poached cod) with mustard sauce and trimmings. Denmark is known for its Carlsberg and Tuborg beers and for its akvavit and bitters although imported wine is now gaining popularity.

Danish chefs, inspired by continental practices, have in recent years developed an innovative series of gourmet dishes based on high-quality local produce.  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Keyboard

As a result, Copenhagen and the provinces now have a considerable number of highly acclaimed restaurants of which several have been awarded Michelin stars.

Sports are popular in Denmark, and its citizens participate in and watch a wide variety. The national sport is football (soccer). Denmark qualified six times in a row between 1984 and 2004 for the European Championships, and won the Championship in 1992.  DELL FM8 Keyboard

Other significant achievements include winning the Confederations Cup in 1995 and reaching the quarter-final of the 1998 World Championships. Notable Danish footballers include Peter Schmeichel, named the "World's Best Goalkeeper" in 1992 and 1993, and Michael Laudrup, named the best Danish player of all time by the Danish Football Association.[172] DELL 0PVDG3 Keyboard

In recent years, Denmark has made a mark as a strong cycling nation, with Bjarne Riis winning Tour de France in 1996 and Michael Rasmussenreaching King of the Mountains status in the Tour in 2005 and 2006. In speedway racing Denmark has won several world championships, including the Speedway World Cup in 2006 and 2008.

There is much focus on handball, too. TOSHIBA PK130260100 Keyboard

The women's national team celebrated great successes during the 1990s. On the men's side, they have won five medals—two gold (in 2008 and 2012) and three bronze (in 2002, 2004 and 2006)—the most that have been won by any team in European Handball Championship history.[173]

Other popular sports include golf—which is mostly popular among those in the older demographic;[174SONY VAIO VGN-CR42S Keyboard

] tennis—in which Denmark is successful on a professional level; rugby—the Danish Rugby Union dates back to 1950;[175] rowing—Denmark specialize in light-weight rowing and are particularly known for their light-weight coxless four, having won six gold and two silver World Championship medals and three gold and two bronze Olympic medals;  HP 533549-001 Keyboard

and several indoor sports—especially badminton, table tennis and gymnastics, in each of which Denmark holds World Championships and Olympic medals. Denmark's numerous beaches and resorts are popular locations for fishing, canoeing, kayaking, and many other water-themed sports. HP Pavilion dv6-1045ee CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6t-3200 CTO CPU Fan

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys
commenter cet article