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Deutsche Bank Deutsche Bank AG (literally "German Bank"; pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃə ˈbaŋk]) is a German global banking and financial services company with its headquarters in the Deutsche Bank Twin Towers in Frankfurt, Germany. It employs more than 100,000 people in over 70 countries, and has a large presence in Europe, the Americas, Asia-Pacific and the emerging markets. In 2009, Deutsche Bank was the largest foreign exchange dealer in the world with a market share of 21 percent.[3][4]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Deutsche Bank has offices in major financial centres including London, New York City, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Paris,Moscow, Sydney, Toronto, Istanbul, Madrid, Dublin, Amsterdam, Warsaw, Mumbai, Kuala Lumpur, São Paulo, Dubai, Riyadh,Bangkok, Karachi, Belgrade, Manila and George Town (Cayman Islands). Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The bank offers financial products and services for corporate and institutional clients along with private and business clients. Services include sales, trading, research and origination of debt and equity; mergers and acquisitions (M&A);risk management products, such as derivatives, corporate finance, wealth management, retail banking, fund management, and transaction banking.[5]SONY VAIO VGN-FS715F Laptop Keyboard Deutsche Bank's Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Group Executive Committee is Josef Ackermann since May 2002. He agreed at the end of 2009 to continue as chief executive for another three years until 2013.[6] On 26 July 2011, along with its second quarter earnings report, Deutsche Bank reported that Anshu Jain, head of investment banking and Juergen Fitschen, head of the German business, will replace Josef Ackermann as co-CEOs starting in 2012.[7] Fears that Deutsche Bank could neglect its German roots and expand risk-taking activities prompted key members of the supervisory board to opt for the dual CEO model.[8] Deutsche Bank is listed on both the Frankfurt (FWB) and New York stock exchanges (NYSE). HP Pavilion DV6-1128tx Laptop Keyboard Deutsche Bank was founded in Berlin in 1870 as a specialist bank for foreign trade.[9] The bank's statute was adopted on 22 January 1870, and on 10 March 1870 the Prussian government granted it a banking license. The statute laid great stress on foreign business: The object of the company is to transact banking business of all kinds, in particular to promote and facilitate trade relations between Germany, other European countries and overseas markets.[10]ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Two of the founders were G. Siemens whose father's cousin had founded Siemens and Halske, and L. Bamberger.[11] Previous to the founding of Deutsche Bank, German importers and exporters were dependent upon English and French banking institutions in the world markets—a serious handicap in that German bills were almost unknown in international commerce, generally disliked and subject to a higher rate of discount than English or French bills.[12]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The bank's first domestic branches, inaugurated in 1871 and 1872, were opened in Bremen[13] and Hamburg.[14] Its first foray overseas came shortly afterwards, in Shanghai (1872)[15] and London (1873) [16] followed sometime by South America (1874-1886).[11] The branch opening in London, after one failure and another partially successful attempt, was a prime necessity for the establishment of credit for the German trade in what was then the world's money center.[12]TOSHIBA Portege 7200 Laptop Keyboard Major projects in the early years of the bank included the Northern Pacific Railroad in the US[17] and the Baghdad Railway[18](1888). In Germany, the bank was instrumental in the financing of bond offerings of steel company Krupp (1879) and introduced the chemical company Bayer to the Berlin stock market. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The second half of the 1890s saw the beginning of a new period of expansion at Deutsche Bank. The bank formed alliances with large regional banks, giving itself an entrée into Germany's main industrial regions. Joint ventures were symptomatic of the concentration then under way in the German banking industry. For Deutsche Bank, domestic branches of its own were still something of a rarity at the time; the Frankfurt branch[19] dated from 1886 and the Munich branch from 1892, while further branches were established in Dresden and Leipzig[20] in 1901. TOSHIBA Portege 7200 Laptop Keyboard In addition, the bank rapidly perceived the value of specialist institutions for the promotion of foreign business. Gentle pressure from the Foreign Ministry played a part in the establishment of Deutsche Ueberseeische Bank[21] in 1886 and the stake taken in the newly established Deutsch-Asiatische Bank[22] three years later, but the success of those companies in showed that their existence made sound commercial sense. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard The immediate postwar period was a time of liquidations. Having already lost most of its foreign assets, Deutsche Bank was obliged to sell other holdings. A great deal of energy went into shoring up what had been achieved. But there was new business, too, some of which was to have an impact for a long time to come. The bank played a significant role in the establishment of the film production company, UFA, and the merger of Daimler and Benz. HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard The bank merged with other local banks in 1929 to create Deutsche Bank und DiscontoGesellschaft, at that point the biggest ever merger in German banking history. Increasing costs were one reason for the merger. Another was the trend towards concentration throughout the industry in the 1920s. The merger came at just the right time to help counteract the emerging world economic and banking crisis. In 1937, the company name changed back to Deutsche Bank. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard The crisis was, in terms of its political impact, the most disastrous economic event of the century. The shortage of liquidity that paralyzed the banks was fuelled by a combination of short-term foreign debt and borrowers no longer able to pay their debts, while the inflexibility of the state exacerbated the situation. For German banks, the crisis in the industry was a watershed. A return to circumstances that might in some ways have been considered reminiscent of the "golden age" before World War I was ruled out for many years. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard After Adolf Hitler came to power, instituting the Third Reich, Deutsche Bank dismissed its three Jewish board members in 1933. In subsequent years, Deutsche Bank took part in the aryanization of Jewish-owned businesses; according to its own historians, the bank was involved in 363 such confiscations by November 1938.[23] During the war, Deutsche Bank incorporated other banks that fell into German hands during the occupation of Eastern Europe. Deutsche provided banking facilities for the Gestapo and loaned the funds used to build the Auschwitz camp and the nearby IG Farben facilities. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5097 laptop keyboard Deutsche Bank revealed its involvement in Auschwitz in February 1999.[24] In December 1999 Deutsche, along with other major German companies, contributed to a US$5.2 billion compensation fund following lawsuits brought by Holocaust survivors.[25][26] The history of Deutsche Bank during the Second World War has been documented by independent historians commissioned by the Bank.[23]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5145 laptop keyboard During World War II, Deutsche Bank became responsible for managing the Bohemian Union Bank in Prague, with branches in the Protectorate and in Slovakia, the Bankverein in Yugoslavia (which has now been divided into two financial corporations, one in Serbia and one in Croatia), the Albert de Barry Bank in Amsterdam, the National Bank of Greece in Athens, the Creditanstalt-Bankverein in Austria and Hungary, the Deutsch-Bulgarische Kreditbank in Bulgaria, and Banca Commercial Romana in Bucharest. It also maintained a branch in Istanbul, Turkey. SONY VAIO VPC-F13 laptop keyboard Following Germany's defeat in World War II, the Allied authorities, in 1948, ordered Deutsche Bank's break-up into ten regional banks. These 10 regional banks were later consolidated into three major banks in 1952: Norddeutsche Bank AG; Süddeutsche Bank AG; and Rheinisch-Westfälische Bank AG. In 1957, these three banks merged to form Deutsche Bank AG with its headquarters in Frankfurt. SONY 148023121 laptop keyboard In 1959, the bank entered retail banking by introducing small personal loans. In the 1970s, the bank pushed ahead with international expansion, opening new offices in new locations, such as Milan (1977), Moscow, London, Paris and Tokyo. In the 1980s, this continued when the bank paid US$603 million in 1986 to acquire Banca d’America e d’Italia, the Italian subsidiary that Bank of America had established in 1922 when it acquired Banca dell'Italia Meridionale. The acquisition represented the first time Deutsche Bank had acquired a sizeable branch network in another European country.  TOSHIBA Satellite M35x Series laptop keyboard In 1989, the first steps towards creating a significant investment-banking presence were taken with the acquisition of Morgan Grenfell, a UK-based investment bank. By the mid-1990s, the build up of a capital-markets operation had got under way with the arrival of a number of high-profile figures from major competitors. Ten years after the acquisition of Morgan Grenfell, the U.S. firm Bankers Trust was added. DELL Studio 1749 laptop keyboard Deutsche continued to build up its presence in Italy with the acquisition in 1993 of Banca Popolare di Lecco from Banca Popolare di Novara for about US$476 million. In October 2001, Deutsche Bank was listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). This was the first NYSE listing after interruption due to 9/11. The following year, Deutsche Bank strengthened its U.S. presence when it purchased Scudder Investments. Meanwhile, in Europe, Deutsche Bank increased its private-banking business by acquiring Rued Blass & Cie (2002) and the Russian investment bank United Financial Group (2006). HP Pavilion dv6-3032tx laptop keyboard In Germany, further acquisitions of Norisbank, Berliner Bank and Postbank strengthened Deutsche Bank’s retail offering in its home market. This series of acquisitions was closely aligned with the bank’s strategy of bolt-on acquisitions in preference to so-called “transformational” mergers. These formed part of an overall growth strategy that also targeted a sustainable 25% return on equity, something the bank achieved in 2005. Compaq Presario CQ56-105EW Laptop Keyboard The company's headquarters, the Deutsche Bank Twin Towers building, was extensively renovated beginning in 2007. The renovation took approximately three years to complete. The renovated building was certified LEED Platinum and DGNB Gold. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard From as late as 2001 to at least 2007, the Bank engaged in covert espionage on its critics. The bank has admitted to episodes of spying in 2001 and 2007 directed by its corporate security department, although characterizing them as "isolated."[27] According to the Wall Street Journal's page one report, Deutsche Bank had prepared a list of names of 20 people who it wished investigated for criticism of the bank, including Michael Bohndorf (an activist investor in the bank) and Leo Kirch (a former media executive in litigation with bank).[27] TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard Also targeted was the Munich law firm of Bub Gauweiler & Partner, which represents Kirch. According to the Wall Street Journal, the bank's legal department was involved in the scheme along with its corporate security department.[27] The bank has since hired Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton, a New York law firm, to investigate the incidents on its behalf. The Cleary firm has concluded its investigation and submitted its report, which however has not been made public.  SONY VAIO VGN-SZ440 Laptop Keyboard The plan was allegedly cancelled after the intern was hired but before she started work.[27] Peter Gauweiler, a principal at the targeted law firm, was quoted as saying "I expect the appropriate authorities including state prosecutors and the bank's oversight agencies will conduct a full investigation."[27]HP Pavilion dv6-3167ca Laptop Keyboard In May 2009 Deutsche Bank informed the public that the executive management learned about possible violations which occurred in past years of the bank's internal procedures or legal requirements in connection with activities involving the bank's corporate security department. Deutsche Bank immediately retained the law firm Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton in Frankfurt to conduct an independent investigation[28] and informed the German Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin).  DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard The principal findings by the law firm, published in July 2009,[29] are as follows: Four incidents that raise legal issues such as data protection or privacy concerns have been identified. In all incidents, the activities arose out of certain mandates performed by external service providers on behalf of the Bank's Corporate Security Department. The incidents were isolated and no systemic misbehaviour has been found. And there is no indication that present members of the Management Board have been involved in any activity that raise legal issues or have had any knowledge of such activities.[29]  HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard This has been confirmed by the Public Prosecutor’s Office in Frankfurt in October 2009.[30] Deutsche Bank has informed all persons affected by the aforementioned activities and expressed its sincere regrets. BaFin found deficiencies in operations within Deutsche Bank’s security unit in Germany but found no systemic misconduct by the bank.[31] The Bank has initiated steps to strengthen controls for the mandating of external service providers by its Corporate Security Department and their activities.[29]ACER Aspire 5535 Laptop Keyboard Deutsche Bank was one of the major drivers of the collateralized debt obligation (CDO) market during the housing credit bubble from 2004–2008, creating ~$32,000,000,000 worth. The 2011 US Senate Permanent Select Committee on Investigations report on Wall Street and the Financial Crisis analyzed Deutsche Bank as a 'case study' of investment banking involvement in the mortgage bubble, CDO market, credit crunch, and recession. It concluded that even as the market was collapsing in 2007, and its top global CDO trader was deriding the CDO market and betting against some of the mortgage bonds in its CDOs, Deutsche bank continued to churn out bad CDO products to investors.[32]TOSHIBA Satellite L750D-ST5NX1 Laptop Keyboard The report focused on one CDO, Gemstone VII, made largely of mortgages from Long Beach, Fremont, and New Century, all notorious subprime lenders. Deutsche Bank put risky assets into the CDO, like ACE 2006-HE1 M10, which its own traders thought was a bad bond. It also put in some mortgage bonds that its own mortgage department had created but couldn't sell, from the DBALT 2006 series. The CDO was then aggressively marketed as a good product, with most of it being described as having A level ratings. By 2009 the entire CDO was almost worthless and the investors (including Deutsche Bank itself) had lost most of their money.[32]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Gregg Lippman, head of global CDO trading, was betting against the CDO market, with approval of management, even as Deutsche was continuing to churn out product. He was a large character in Michael Lewis' "The Big Short", which detailed his efforts to find 'shorts' to buy Credit Default Swaps for the construction of Synthetic CDOs. He was one of the first traders to foresee the bubble in the CDO market as well as the tremendous potential that CDS offered in this. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard As portrayed in the book "The Big Short" of Michael Lewis, Lipmann in the mid of the CDO and MBS frenzy was orchestrating presentations to investors, demonstrating his bearish view of the market, offering them the idea to start buying CDS, especially to AIG in order to profit from the forthcoming collapse. As regards the Gemstone VII deal, even as Deutsche was creating and selling it to investors, Lippman emailed colleagues that it 'blew', and he called parts of it 'crap' and 'pigs' and advised some of his clients to bet against the mortgage securities it was made of. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard Lippman called the CDO market a 'ponzi scheme', but also tried to conceal some of his views from certain other parties because the bank was trying to sell the products he was calling 'crap'. Lippman's group made money off of these bets, even as Deutsche overall lost money on the CDO market.[32]HP Mini 210-1100SB Laptop Keyboard Deutsche was also involved with Magnetar Capital in creating its first Orion CDO. Deutsche had its own group of bad CDOs called START. It worked with Elliot Advisers on one of them; Elliot bet against the CDO even as Deutsche sold parts of the CDO to investors as good investments. Deutsche also worked with John Paulson, of the Goldman Sachs Abacus CDO controversy, to create some START CDOs. Deutsche lost money on START, as it did on Gemstone.[32]HP AELX7U00410 Laptop Keyboard Former employees including Eric Ben-Artzi and Matthew Simpson have claimed that during the crisis Deutsche failed to recognise up to $12bn of paper losses on their $130bn portfolio of leveraged super senior trades, although the bank rejects the claims.[33] A company document of May 2009 described the trades as "the largest risk in the trading book",[34] and the whistleblowers allege that had the bank accounted properly for its positions its capital would have fallen to the extent that it might have needed a government bailout.[33] One of them claims that "If Lehman Brothers didn’t have to mark its books for six months it might still be in business, and if Deutsche had marked its books it might have been in the same position as Lehman."[34]HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard Deutsche had become the biggest operator in this market, which were a form of credit derivative designed to behave like the most senior tranche of a CDO.[34]Deutsche bought insurance against default by blue-chip companies from investors, mostly Canadian pension funds, who received a stream of insurance premiums as income in return for posting a small amount of collateral.[34] The bank then sold protection to US investors via the CDX credit index, the spread between the two was tiny but was worth $270m over the 7 years of the trade.[34] It was considered very unlikely that many blue chips would have problems at the same time, so Deutsche required collateral of just 10% of the contract value. HP G62-b18EO Laptop Keyboard The risk of Deutsche taking large losses if the collateral was wiped out in a crisis, was called the gap option.[34] Ben-Artzi claims that after modelling came up with "economically unfeasible" results, Deutsche accounted for the gap option first with a simple 15% "haircut" on the trades (described as inadequate by another employee in 2006) and then in 2008 by a $1–2bn reserve for the credit correlation desk designed to cover all risks, not just the gap option.[34]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard In October 2008 they stopped modelling the gap option and just bought S&P put options to guard against further market disruption, but one of the whistleblowers has described this as an inappropriate hedge.[34] A model from Ben-Artzi's previous job at Goldman Sachs suggested that the gap option was worth about 8% of the value of the trades, worth $10.4bn. Simpson claims that traders were not simply understating the gap option but actively mismarking the value of their trades.[34]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Deutsche Bank has a negligible exposure to Greece. Spain and Italy however account for a tenth of its European private and corporate banking business. According to the bank's own statistics the credit risks in these countries are about €18 billion (Italy) and €12 billion (Spain).[35]DELL Inspiron 8500 Laptop Keyboard For the 2008 financial year, Deutsche Bank reported its first annual loss in five decades.[citation needed], despite receiving billions of dollars from its insurance arrangements with AIG, including US$11.8 billion from funds provided by US taxpayers to bail out AIG.[36] Based on a preliminary estimation from the European Banking Authority (EBA) in October 2011, Deutsche Bank AG needed to raise capital of about €1.2 billion (US$1.7 billion) as part of a required 9 percent core Tier 1 ratio after sovereign debt writedown starting in mid-2012.[37]ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard The bank has been widely recognized[citation needed] for its transformation over the past five years[when?], moving from a German-centric organisation that was renowned for its retail and commercial presence to a global investment bank that is less reliant on its traditional markets for its profitability[citation needed]and was named International Financing Review's Bank of the Year twice in a three-year period, in 2003 and 2005. It also won the prize in 2010.[38] In 2012, for the second time in three years, Deutsche Bank was named Best Global Investment Bank in the annual Euromoney Awards for Excellence.[39]HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard In December 2012, International Financing Review (IFR) recognized Deutsche Bank as its Equity House of the Year and Bond House of the Year 2012. This is the first time the Bank has been named Equity House of the Year and the sixth time that it has won the top Bond award. Deutsche Bank is also the only European bank to have been awarded the top Equity and Bond awards in the same year. Highlighting the Bank’s success in equities, IFR said: “Deutsche led major IPOs, took on tough risk positions (especially in Europe) and became one of the preferred banks of the US Treasury.” IFR also praised the Bank’s “fortitude and skill” in bond markets, saying it combined “a steady hand with solid execution to get all kinds of deals done in just about every corner of the globe.HP Pavilion dv6-2030ec laptop keyboard Deutsche Bank won a further seven IFR awards: Asset management, broadly defined, refers to any system that monitors and maintains things of value to an entity or group. It may apply to both tangible assets such as buildings and to intangible concepts such as intellectual property and goodwill. Asset management is a systematic process of operating, maintaining, upgrading, and disposing of assets cost-effectively, (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials). Alternative views of asset management in the engineering environment are: SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/S laptop keyboard The practice of managing assets to achieve the greatest return (particularly useful for productive assets such as plant and equipment), and the process of monitoring and maintaining facilities systems, with the objective of providing the best possible service to users (appropriate for public infrastructure assets). TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S4777 laptop keyboard Public asset management (also referred to as corporate asset management) expands the definition of enterprise asset management (EAM) by incorporating the management of all things of value to a municipal jurisdiction and its citizens' expectations. TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1DR laptop keyboard An EAM requires an asset registry (inventory of assets and their attributes) combined with a computerized maintenance management system (CMMS). All public assets are interconnected and share proximity, and this connectivity is possible through the use of GIS. SONY VAIO VGN-CS11S/Q laptop keyboard GIS-centric public asset management standardizes data and allows interoperability, providing users the capability to reuse, coordinate, and share information in an efficient and effective manner by making the GIS geo-database the asset registry. A GIS-centric public asset management that standardizes data and allowsinteroperability, providing users the capability to reuse, coordinate, and share information in an efficient and effective manner. HP 640208-001 laptop keyboard In the United States the de facto GIS standard is the Esri GIS for utilities and municipalities. An Esri GIS platform combined with the overall public asset management umbrella of both physical "hard" assets and "soft" assets helps remove the traditional silos of structured municipal functions. While the hard assetsare the typical physical assets or infrastructure assets, the soft assets of a municipality includes permits, license, code enforcement, right-of-ways and other land-focused work activities. TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5363 laptop keyboard This definition of "public asset management" was coined and defined by Brian L. Haslam, President and CEO of an international GIS-centric Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) company that produces software certified by the National Association of GIS-Centric Solutions (NAGCS). GIS-centric public asset management is a system design approach for managing public assets that leverages the investment local governments continue to make in GIS and provides a common framework for sharing useful data from disparate systems. Permits, licenses, code enforcement, right-of-way, and other land-focused work activities are examples of land-focused public assets managed by local government. These public assets occupy location just as in-the-ground or above-ground public assets do. FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 laptop keyboard GIS is not a panacea; effective asset managers of physical assets such as buildings make informed-decisions about what to do and when to their assets in-order to maximize resource-return on their organizational goals. Sometimes, information displayed geospatially can help those decisions. Moreoften, however, deep understanding of markets, engineering systems, and human interaction enabled by analysis and synthesis of information lead to these effective decisions. The geospatial context may not be the most important one to make understand these facets. HP Pavilion dv6-2044ca laptop keyboard Land-use development and planning is interconnected to other local government assets and work activities. Public asset management is the term that encompasses this subset of land-focused asset management, considering the importance that public assets affect other public assets and work activities and are important sources of revenue and are various points of citizen interaction. HP AELX7U00410 laptop keyboard Toronto (/tɵˈrɒntoʊ/, locally /ˈtrɒnoʊ/) is the largest city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. Toronto is a relatively modern city. Its historybegins in the late 18th century, when the British Crown purchased its land from the Mississaugas of the New Credit. The British established a settlement there, called the Town of York, which its lieutenant governor, John Graves Simcoe, designated as the capital of Upper Canada. HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard It was damaged in two huge fires, in 1849 and 1904. Over the years, Toronto has several times expanded its borders through amalgamation with surrounding municipalities, most recently in 1998. HP Pavilion dv6-2147el laptop keyboard The city has 2.6 million residents, according to the 2011 Census. It is currently the fifth most populous city in North America. The census metropolitan area (CMA) had a population of 5,583,064,[2] and the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) had a population of 6,054,191 in the 2011 Census.[3] Toronto is at the heart of the Greater Toronto Area, and of the densely populated region in Southern Ontario known as the Golden Horseshoe. Its cosmopolitan and international population[4]reflects its role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada.[5] Toronto is one of the world's most diverse cities by percentage of non-native-born residents, with about 49% of the population born outside Canada.[4][5][6] As Canada's commercial capital, it is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange and some of the nation's largest banks.[7]SONY VAIO VGN NR385E/T Laptop Keyboard When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Huron tribes, who by then had displaced the Iroquois tribes that had occupied the region for centuries before c. 1500.[8] The name Torontois likely derived from the Iroquois word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water".[9] It refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. HP Pavilion dv6-2044ca Laptop Keyboard French traders founded Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it in 1759.[10] During theAmerican Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists fled for the unsettled lands north of Lake Ontario. In 1787, the British negotiated the Toronto Purchase with the Mississaugas ofNew Credit, thereby securing more than a quarter million acres (1000 km2) of land in the Toronto area.[11]FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the existing settlement, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe chose the town to replace Newark as the capital of Upper Canada,[12]believing the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the Americans.[13] Fort York was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street (in the Corktown–St. Lawrence area). TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by American forces.[14] The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of Fort York and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation. The sacking of York was a primary motivation for the Burning of Washington by British troops later in the war. York was incorporated as the City of Toronto on March 6, 1834, ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard reverting to its original native name. The population of only 9,000 included escaped African American slaves.[15] Slavery was banned outright in Upper Canada in 1834. Reformist politician William Lyon Mackenzie became the first Mayor of Toronto and led the unsuccessful Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 against the British colonial government. The city grew rapidly through the remainder of the 19th century, as a major destination for immigrants to Canada. The first significant population influx occurred when the Great Irish Famine brought a large number of Irish to the city, some of them transient and most of them Catholic. By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the largest single ethnic group in the city. Smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants were welcomed by the existing Scottish and English population, giving the Orange Order significant and long lasting influence over Toronto society. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Toronto was twice for brief periods the capital of the united Province of Canada: first from 1849 to 1852, following unrest in Montreal, and later 1856–1858 after which Quebec became capital until 1866 (one year before Confederation); since then, the capital of Canada has remained Ottawa.[16] As it had been for Upper Canada from 1793, Toronto became the capital of the province of Ontario after its official creation in 1867, the seat of government located at the Ontario Legislature located at Queen's Park. Because of its provincial capital status, the city was also the location of Government House, the residence of the vice-regal representative of the Crown in right of Ontario. TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard In the 19th century, an extensive sewage system was built, and streets became illuminated with gas lighting as a regular service. Long-distance railway lines were constructed, including a route completed in 1854 linking Toronto with the Upper Great Lakes. The Grand Trunk Railway and the Northern Railway of Canada joined in the building of the first Union Stationin downtown. The advent of the railway dramatically increased the numbers of immigrants arriving, commerce and industry, as had the Lake Ontario steamers and schooners entering port before which enabled Toronto to become a major gateway linking the world to the interior of the North American continent. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca Laptop Keyboard Toronto became the largest alcohol distillation (in particular spirits) centre in North America; the Gooderham and WortsDistillery operations became the world's largest whiskey factory by the 1860s. A preserved section of this once dominant local industry remains in the Distillery District, the harbour allowed for sure access of grain and sugar imports used in processing. Expanding port and rail facilities brought in Northern Timber for export and imported Pennsylvania coal, industry dominated the waterfront for the next 100 years. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Horse-drawn streetcars gave way to electric streetcars in 1891, when the city granted the operation of the transit franchise to the Toronto Railway Company. The public transit system passed into public ownership in 1921 as the Toronto Transportation Commission, later renamed the Toronto Transit Commission. The system now has the third-highest ridership of any city public transportation system in North America.[17]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The Great Toronto Fire of 1904 destroyed a large section of downtown Toronto, but the city was quickly rebuilt. The fire caused more than $10 million in damage, and resulted in more stringent fire safety laws and expansion of the city's fire department. ACER NSK-H361D Laptop Keyboard The city received new immigrant groups beginning in the late 19th century into early 20th century, particularly Germans, French, Italians, and Jews from various parts of Eastern Europe. They were soon followed by Chinese, Russians, Poles and immigrants from other Eastern European nations, as the Irish before them, many of these new migrants lived in overcrowded shanty type slums, such as "the Ward" which was centred on Bay Street, now the heart of the country's finances. Despite its fast paced growth, by the 1920s, Toronto's population and economic importance in Canada remained second to the much longer established Montreal. However, by 1934, the Toronto Stock Exchange had become the largest in the country. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Following the Second World War refugees from war-torn Europe and Chinese job-seekers arrived, as well as construction labourers, particularly from Italy and Portugal. Following elimination of racially based immigration policies by the late 1960s, immigration began from all parts of the world. Toronto's population grew to more than one million in 1951 when large-scale suburbanization began, and doubled to two million by 1971. By the 1980s, Toronto had surpassed Montreal as Canada's most populous city and the chief economic hub. During this time, in part owing to the political uncertainty raised by the resurgence of the Quebec sovereignty movement, many national and multinational corporations moved their head offices from Montreal to Toronto andWestern Canadian cities.[18]HP Envy 17-2077ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1954, the City of Toronto and 12 surrounding municipalities were federated into a regional government known asMetropolitan Toronto.[19] The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban development, and it was believed that a coordinated land use strategy and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the region. The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal boundaries, including highways, police services, water and public transit. In that year, a half-century after the Great Fire of 1904, disaster struck the city again when Hurricane Hazel brought intense winds and flash flooding. In the Toronto area, 81 people were killed, nearly 1,900 families were left homeless, and the hurricane caused more than $25 million in damage.[20]Compaq Presario C769US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1967, the seven smallest municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were merged into their larger neighbours, resulting in a six-municipality configuration that included the old City of Toronto and the surrounding municipalities of East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough and York. In 1998, the metropolitan government was dissolved by the Provincial Government in the face of vigorous opposition from the smaller component municipalities and all six municipalities were amalgamated into a single municipality, creating the current City of Toronto, with Mel Lastman as its first mayor (after being mayor of North York). David Miller was the second mayor and Rob Ford is the third and current mayor. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-110US laptop keyboard The city celebrated its 175th anniversary on March 6, 2009, since its inception as the City of Toronto in 1834. Toronto hosted the 4th G-20 summit during June 26–27, 2010, for which the largest security operation in Canadian history took place amidst large-scale protests. Toronto will host the Pan American Games in2015. TOSHIBA Satellite M305 laptop keyboard Toronto covers an area of 630 square kilometres (243 sq mi),[21] with a maximum north-south distance of 21 kilometres (13 mi) and a maximum east-west distance of 43 km (27 mi). It has a 46-kilometre (29 mi) long waterfront shoreline, on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. The Toronto Islands and Port Lands extend out into the lake, allowing for a somewhat sheltered Toronto Harbour south of the downtown core.[22] The city's borders are formed by Lake Ontario to the south,Etobicoke Creek and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue to the north and the Rouge River and the Scarborough-Pickering Townline to the east. Acer eMachines G730Z laptop keyboard Topography The city is intersected by three rivers and numerous tributaries: the Humber River in the west end and the Don River east of downtown at opposite ends of the Toronto Harbour, and the Rouge River at the city's eastern limits. The harbour was naturally created by sediment build-up from lake currents that created the Toronto Islands. The many creeks and rivers cutting from north toward the lake created large tracts of densely forested ravines, and provide ideal sites for parks and recreational trails. Lenovo 3000 G430 laptop keyboard However, the ravines also interfere with the city's grid plan, and this results in major thoroughfares such as Finch Avenue, Leslie Street, Lawrence Avenue, and St. Clair Avenue terminating on one side of ravines and continuing on the other side. Other thoroughfares such as the Prince Edward Viaduct are required to span above the ravines. These deep ravines prove useful for draining the city's storm sewer system during heavy rains, but some sections, particularly near the Don River are prone to sudden, heavy floods. SONY VAIO VGN-FS830 laptop keyboard During the last ice age, the lower part of Toronto was beneath Glacial Lake Iroquois. Today, a series of escarpments mark the lake's former boundary, known as the Iroquois Shoreline. The escarpments are most prominent from Victoria Park Avenue to the mouth of Highland Creek, where they form the Scarborough Bluffs. Other observable sections include the area near St. Clair Avenue West between Bathurst Street and the Don River, and north of Davenport Road from Caledonia toSpadina Road; HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard the Casa Loma grounds sit above this escarpment. Despite its deep ravines, Toronto is not remarkably hilly, but does increase in elevation steadily away from the lake. Elevation differences range from 75 metres (246 ft) above-sea-level at the Lake Ontario shore to 209 m (686 ft) ASL near the York University grounds in the city's north end at the intersection of Keele Street and Steeles Avenue.[23] There are occasional hilly areas, in particular midtown Toronto has a number of rolling hills. Lake Ontario remains occasionally visible from the peaks of these ridges as far north as Eglinton Avenue, 7 to 8 kilometres (4.3 to 5.0 mi) inland. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Much of the current lakeshore land area fronting the Toronto Harbour is artificial landfill filled during the late 19th century. Until then, the lakefront docks (then known as wharves) were set back further inland than today. Much of the adjacent Port Lands are also fill. The Toronto Islands were a natural landspit until a storm in 1858 severed their connection to the mainland, creating a channel later used by shipping interests to access the docks. ACER PK1306F0200 Laptop Keyboard Climate Toronto has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa/Dfb), with warm, humid summers and cold winters. The city experiences four distinct seasons, with considerable variance in day to day temperature, particularly during the colder weather season. Owing to urbanization and its proximity to water, Toronto has a fairly low diurnal temperature range (day-night temperature difference). The denser urban scape makes for warmer nights year around and is not as cold throughout the winter than surrounding areas (particularly north of the city); however, it can be noticeably cooler on many spring and early summer afternoons under the influence of a lake breeze. Other low-scale maritime effects on the climate include lake-effect snow, fog and delaying of spring- and fall-like conditions, known as seasonal lag. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Toronto winters sometimes feature cold snaps where maximum temperatures remain below −10 °C (14 °F), often made to feel colder by wind chill. Snowstorms, sometimes mixed with ice and rain can disrupt work and travel schedules, accumulating snow can fall any time from November until mid-April. However, mild stretches also occur in most winters melting accumulated snow. The summer months are characterized by long stretches of humid weather. Usually in the range from23 °C (73 °F) to 31 °C (88 °F), daytime temperatures occasionally surpass 35 °C (95 °F) accompanied by high humidity making it feel oppressive during these brief periods of hot weather. Spring and autumn are transitional seasons with generally mild or cool temperatures with alternating dry and wet periods. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but summer is usually the wettest season, the bulk falling during thunderstorms. There can be periods of dry weather, but drought-like conditions are rare. The average yearly precipitation is about 830 mm (32.7 in), with an average annual snowfall of about 133 cm (52 in). Toronto experiences an average of 2,038 sunshine hours, or 44% of daylight hours, varying between a low of 27% in December to 59% in July.[24]TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard Lawrence Richards, a member of the faculty of architecture at the University of Toronto, has said "Toronto is a new, brash, rag-tag place—a big mix of periods and styles."[26] Toronto buildings vary in design and age with many structures dating back to the mid-19th century, while other prominent buildings were just newly built in the first decade of the 21st century. SONY VAIO VGN-N11M Laptop Keyboard Completed in 1976 at a height of 553.33 metres (1,815 ft 5 in), it was the world's tallest[27] freestanding structure until 2007 when it was surpassed by Burj Khalifa. Toronto is a city of high-rises, having 1,800 buildings over 30 metres (98 ft).[28] Most of these buildings are residential, whereas the central business district contains commercial office towers. There has been recent attention given for the need to retrofit many of these buildings, which were constructed beginning in the 1950s as residential apartment blocks to accommodate a quickly growing population. As of December 2011, Toronto had 132 high-rise buildings under-construction.[29]TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard Through the 1960s and 1970s, significant pieces of Toronto's architectural heritage were demolished to make way for redevelopment or, simply, parking. In contrast, since the 2000s, Toronto is experiencing a period of architectural revival, with several buildings by world-renowned architects having opened in the last five years. Daniel Libeskind's Royal Ontario Museum addition, Frank Gehry's remake of the Art Gallery of Ontario, and Will Alsop's distinctive Ontario College of Art & Design expansion are among the city's new showpieces.[30] The historic Distillery District, located on the eastern edge of downtown has been redeveloped into a pedestrian-oriented arts, culture and entertainment neighbourhood.  HP Pavilion dv3-2157cl Laptop Keyboard The many residential communities of Toronto express a character distinct from that of the skyscrapers in the commercial core.Victorian and Edwardian-era residential buildings can be found in enclaves such as Rosedale, Cabbagetown, The Annex, andYorkville. Wychwood Park is historically significant for the architecture of its homes, and for being one of Toronto's earliest planned communities. The Wychwood Park neighbourhood was designated as an Ontario Heritage Conservation district in 1985. TheCasa Loma neighbourhood is named after Casa Loma, a storybook castle built in 1911 complete with gardens, turrets, stables, an elevator, secret passages, and a bowling alley. Spadina House is a 19th century manor that is now a museum. TOSHIBA NSK-TN0SV Laptop Keyboard The City of Toronto encompasses a geographical area formerly administered by six separate municipalities. These municipalities have each developed a distinct history and identity over the years, and their names remain in common use among Torontonians. Throughout the city there exist hundreds of small neighbourhoods and some larger neighbourhoods covering a few square kilometres. Former municipalities include East York, Etobicoke, North York, Old Toronto, Scarborough, and York. SONY VAIO VGN-FS620P/W Laptop Keyboard The Old City of Toronto covers the area generally known as downtown, but also older neighbourhoods to the east, west, and north of downtown. It includes the historic core of Toronto and remains the most densely populated part of the city. The Financial District contains the First Canadian Place, Toronto-Dominion Centre, Scotia Plaza, Royal Bank Plaza, Commerce Court and Brookfield Place. This area includes, among others, the neighbourhoods of St. James (not to be confused with St. James Town to the north), Garden District, St. Lawrence, Corktown, and Church and Wellesley. From that point, the Toronto skyline extends northward along Yonge Street. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Old Toronto is also home to many historically wealthy residential enclaves, such as Yorkville, Rosedale, The Annex, Forest Hill, Lawrence Park, Lytton Park,Deer Park, Moore Park, and Casa Loma, most stretching away from downtown to the north. East and west of Downtown, neighbourhoods such as Kensington Market, Chinatown, Leslieville, Cabbagetown and Riverdale are home to bustling commercial and cultural areas as well as communities of artists with studio lofts, with many middle and upper class professionals. Other neighbourhoods in the central city retain an ethnic identity, including twoChinatowns, the Greektown area, Little Italy, Portugal Village, and Little India, along with others. DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard Suburbs The inner suburbs are contained within the former municipalities of York and East York. These are mature and traditionally working class areas, primarily consisting of post–World War I small, single-family homes and small apartment blocks. Neighbourhoods such as Crescent Town, Thorncliffe Park, Weston, and Oakwood–Vaughan mainly consist of high-rise apartments, which are home to many new immigrant families. During the 2000s, many neighbourhoods have become ethnically diverse and have undergone gentrification, as a result of increasing population and a housing boom during the late 1990s and first decade of the 21st century. The first neighbourhoods affected were Leaside and North Toronto, gradually progressing into the western neighbourhoods in York. Some of the area's housing is in the process of being replaced or remodelled. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard The outer suburbs comprising the former municipalities of Etobicoke (west), Scarborough (east) and North York (north) largely retain the grid plan laid before post-war development. Sections were long established and quickly growing towns before the suburban housing boom began and the emergence of Metro Government, existing towns or villages such as Mimico, Islington and New Toronto in Etobicoke; Willowdale, Newtonbrook and Downsview in North York; Agincourt, Wexford andWest Hill in Scarborough where suburban development boomed around or between these and other towns beginning in the late 1940s. SONY VAIO VGN-FW180D laptop keyboard Upscale neighbourhoods were built such as the Bridle Path in North York, the area surrounding the Scarborough Bluffs in Guildwood, and most of central Etobicoke, such as Humber Valley Village, and The Kingsway. One of largest and earliest "planned communities" was Don Mills, parts of which were first built in the 1950s.[31] Phased development mixing single-detached housing with higher density apartment blocks became more popular as a suburban model of development. Over the late 20th century and early 21st century, North York City Centre, Etobicoke City Centre and Scarborough City Centre have emerged as secondary business districts outside Downtown Toronto. High-rise development in these areas have given the former municipalities distinguishable skylines of their own with high-density transit corridors serving them. ACER Aspire 5742Z

laptop keyboard In the earlier industrial era of Toronto, industry became concentrated along the Toronto Harbour and lower Don River mouth. The Distillery District contains the largest and best-preserved collection of Victorian industrial architecture in North America. Once an alcohol processing centre, related structures along the Harbour include the Canada Malting Co. grain processing towers and the Redpath Sugar Refinery. Although production of spirits has declined over the decades, Toronto still has a growing microbrewery industry. The District is a national heritage site, it was listed by National Geographic magazine as a "top pick" in Canada for travellers. Lenovo 45N2106 laptop keyboard Similar areas that still retain their post-industrial character, but are now largely residential are the Fashion District, Corktown, and parts of South Riverdale and Leslieville. Toronto still has some active older industrial areas, such as Brockton Village, Mimico and New Toronto. In the west end of Old Toronto and York, theWeston/Mount Dennis and Junction areas still contain factories, meat packing facilities and railyards close to medium density residential. TOSHIBA 9J.N99282.D01 laptop keyboard Beginning in the late 19th century as Toronto sprawled out, industrial areas were set up on the outskirts. Over time, pockets of industrial land mostly followed rail lines and later highway corridors as the city grew outwards. This trend continues to this day, the largest factories and distribution warehouses have mostly moved to the suburban environs of Peel and York Regions; but also within the current city: Etobicoke (concentrated aroundPearson Airport), North York, and Scarborough. Many of Toronto's former industrial sites close to (or in) Downtown have been redeveloped including parts of theToronto waterfront and Liberty Village, large-scale development is underway in the West Don Lands. HP Pavilion dv5-1130ef laptop keyboard The still mostly vacated Port Lands remain largely undeveloped, apart from a power plant, a shipping container facility and out-of-commission industrial facilities. There are future plans for development, including residential areas under the guidance of Waterfront Toronto. Acer eMachines G730ZG laptop keyboard Toronto has a diverse array of public spaces, from city squares to public parks overlooking ravines. A group called theToronto Public Space Committee was formed to protect the city's public spaces. Nathan Phillips Square is the city's main square in downtown, and forms the entrance to City Hall. Yonge-Dundas Square, a newer, privately owned square near to City Hall, has also gained attention in recent years as one of the busiest gathering spots in the city. Other squares includeHarbourfront Square, on the revitalized Toronto waterfront, and the civic squares at the former city halls of the defunct Metropolitan Toronto, most notably Mel Lastman Square in North York. TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 laptop keyboard There are many large downtown parks, which include Grange Park, Moss Park, Allan Gardens, Little Norway Park, Queen's Park,Riverdale Park, Trinity Bellwoods Park, Christie Pits, and the Leslie Street Spit, which mainly consists of Tommy Thompson Park and opens on weekends. The Toronto Islands have several acres of park space, accessible from downtown by ferry. Large parks in the outer areas include High Park, Humber Bay Park, Centennial Park, Downsview Park, Guildwood Park, and Rouge Park. An almost hidden park is the compact Cloud Gardens,[32] which has both open areas and a glassed-in greenhouse in downtown Toronto. ACER 9Z.N3K82.01D laptop keyboard Nathan Phillips Square, Harbourfront Centre, and Mel Lastman Square feature popular rinks for public ice-skating. Etobicoke's Colonel Sam Smith Trail opened in 2011 and is Toronto's first skating trail. Centennial Park and Earl Bales Park offer outdoor skiing and snowboarding slopes with a chair lift, rental facilities, and lessons. TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5363 laptop keyboard Nathan Phillips Square is undergoing a major redesign by PLANT Architect Inc., Shore Tilbe Irwin + Partners, Peter Lindsay Schaudt Landscape Architecture Inc., and Adrian Blackwell (winners of the international design competition in 2007). West 8, a Dutch architecture firm, won the Central Waterfront Innovative Design Competition in 2006 to redesign the central part of the Toronto waterfront.[33][34] In 1999, Downsview Park initiated an international design competition to realise its vision of creating Canada's first national urban park. In May 2000, the winning park design was announced: "TREE CITY", by the team of Bruce Mau Design, Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Oleson Worland Architect and Inside/Outside. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard Toronto theatre and performing arts scene has more than fifty ballet and dance companies, six opera companies, two symphony orchestras and a host of theatres. The city is home to the National Ballet of Canada, the Canadian Opera Company, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, the Canadian Electronic Ensemble, and the Canadian Stage Company. Notable performance venues include the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts, Roy Thomson Hall, the Princess of Wales Theatre, the Royal Alexandra Theatre, Massey Hall, the Toronto Centre for the Arts, the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres and the Sony Centre for the Performing Arts (originally the "O'Keefe Centre" and formerly the "Hummingbird Centre").HP Pavilion dv3-2155mx laptop keyboard Ontario Place features the world's first permanent IMAX movie theatre, the Cinesphere,[35] as well as the Molson Amphitheatre, an open-air venue for music concerts. In spring 2012, Ontario Place closed after a decrease in attendance over the years. Although the Molson Amphitheatre and harbour still operate, the park and Cinesphere are no longer in use. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Each summer, the Canadian Stage Company presents an outdoor Shakespeare production in Toronto's High Park called "Dream in High Park". Canada's Walk of Fame acknowledges the achievements of successful Canadians, with a series of stars on designated blocks of sidewalks along King Street and Simcoe Street. HP G62-b10SQ Laptop Keyboard The production of domestic and foreign film and television is a major local industry. Toronto as of 2011 ranks as the third largest production centre for film and television after Los Angeles and New York City,[36] sharing the nickname "Hollywood North" with Vancouver.[37][38][39] The Toronto International Film Festival is an annual event celebrating the international film industry. Another prestigious film festival is the Toronto Student Film Festival, that screens the works of students ages 12-18 from many different countries across the globe. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard Toronto's Scotiabank Caribbean Carnival (formerly known as Caribana) takes place from mid-July to early August of every summer.[40] Primarily based on theTrinidad and Tobago Carnival, the first Caribana took place in 1967 when the city's Caribbean community celebrated Canada's Centennial. More than forty years later, it has grown to attract one million people to Toronto's Lake Shore Boulevard annually. Tourism for the festival is in the hundred thousands, and each year, the event generates over $400 million in revenue into Ontario's economy.[41]HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard One of the largest events in the city, Pride Week takes place in late June, and is one of the largest LGBT festivals in the world. The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) is a museum of world culture and natural history. The Toronto Zoo,[43][44] is home to over 5,000 animals representing over 460 distinct species. The Art Gallery of Ontario contains a large collection of Canadian, European, African and contemporary artwork, and also plays host to exhibits from museums and galleries all over the world. The Gardiner Museum of ceramic art is the only museum in Canada entirely devoted to ceramics, and the Museum's collection contains more than 2,900 ceramic works from Asia, the Americas, DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard and Europe. The city also hosts the Ontario Science Centre, the Bata Shoe Museum, and Textile Museum of Canada. Other prominent art galleries and museums include Design Exchange, Museum of Inuit Art, TIFF Bell Lightbox, Museum of Contemporary Canadian Art, Institute for Contemporary Culture, Toronto Sculpture Garden, CBC Museum, Redpath Sugar Museum, University of Toronto Art Centre, Hart House, TD Gallery of Inuit Art and the future Aga Khan Museum. The city also runs its own museums, which includes the Spadina House. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard The Don Valley Brick Works is a former industrial site, which opened in 1889, and was partly restored as a park and heritage site in 1996, with further restoration and reuse being completed in stages since then. The Canadian National Exhibition is held annually atExhibition Place, and it is the oldest annual fair in the world. The ex has an average attendance of 1.25 million.[45] TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard City shopping area's include the Yorkville neighbourhood, Queen West, Harbourfront, the Entertainment District, the Financial District, and the St. Lawrence Market neighbourhood. The Eaton Centre is Toronto's most popular tourist attraction with over 52 million visitors annually.[46]SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard Greektown on the Danforth is home to the annual "Taste of the Danforth" festival which attracts over one million people in 2½ days.[47] Toronto is also home to Casa Loma, the former estate of Sir Henry Pellatt, a prominent Toronto financier, industrialist and military man. Other notable neighbourhoods and attractions include The Beaches, the Toronto Islands, Kensington Market, Fort York, and the Hockey Hall of Fame. HP Pavilion dm3t Laptop Keyboard DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard Toronto is the only Canadian city with representation in seven major league sports, with teams in the National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, Canadian Football League, Major League Soccer, Canadian Women's Hockey League andW-League. The National Football League's Buffalo Bills also play select home games in the city. The city's major sports venues include the Air Canada Centre, Rogers Centre (formerly SkyDome), Ricoh Coliseum, and BMO Field. TOSHIBA Satellite L355 laptop keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S4777 laptop keyboard Packard Bell Easynote LM85 laptop keyboard

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