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Djibouti

Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north,Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somalia in the southeast. The remainder of the border is formed by the Red Seaand the Gulf of Aden at the east. Djibouti occupies a total area of just 23,200 km2 (8,958 sq mi). Lenovo ThinkPad T510-4339 laptop keyboard

In antiquity, the territory was part of the Land of Punt. The Djibouti area, along with other localities in the Horn region, was later the seat of the medieval Adal and Ifat Sultanates. In the late 19th century, the colony ofFrench Somaliland was established following treaties signed by the ruling Somali and Afar Sultans with the French.[4][5][6] HP Pavilion dv6-2130ca laptop keyboard

It was subsequently renamed to the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas in 1967. A decade later, the Djiboutian people voted for independence. This officially marked the establishment of the Republic of Djibouti, named after its capital city. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Djibouti joined the United Nations the same year, on September 20, 1977.[7][8] In the early 1990s, tensions over government representation led to armed conflict, which ended in a power sharing agreement in 2000 between the ruling party and the opposition.[1] DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard

Djibouti is a multi-ethnic nation, with a population of over 790,000 inhabitants. The Somali and Afar make up the two largest ethnic groups. Both speak Afro-Asiatic languages, which serve as recognized national languages. Arabicand French constitute the country's two official languages. About 94% of residents adhere to Islam, a religion that has been predominant in the region for more than 1,000 years.[1] HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard

Djibouti is strategically located near the world's busiest shipping lanes, controlling access to the Red Sea andIndian Ocean. HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

It serves as a key refueling and transshipment center, and is the principal maritime port for imports to and exports from neighboring Ethiopia. A burgeoning commercial hub, the nation is the site of various foreign military bases, including Camp Lemonnier. The Intergovernmental Authority on Development regional body also has its headquarters in Djibouti City.[1]  DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

Together with northern Somalia, Eritrea and the Red Sea coast of Sudan, Djibouti is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt (or Ta Netjeru, meaning "God's Land"), SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

whose first mention dates to the 25th century BCE.[9] The Puntites were a nation of people who had close relations with Ancient Egypt during the times of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut.[10] According to the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, the Land of Punt was ruled at that time by King Parahu and Queen Ati.[11] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Through close contacts with the adjacent Arabian Peninsula for more than 1,000 years, the Somali and Afar ethnic groups in the region became among the first populations on the continent to embrace Islam.[12] HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

The Ifat Sultanate was a medieval kingdom in the Horn of Africa. Founded in 1285 by the Walashma dynasty, it was centered in Zeila.[13][14] Ifat established bases in Djibouti and northern Somalia, and from there expanded southward to the Ahmar Mountains. Its Sultan Umar W alashma (or his son Ali,  TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

according to another source) is recorded as having conquered the Sultanate of Shewa in 1285. Taddesse Tamrat explains Sultan Umar's military expedition as an effort to consolidate the Muslim territories in the Horn, TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop Keyboard

in much the same way as EmperorYekuno Amlak was attempting to unite the Christian territories in the highlands during the same period. These two states inevitably came into conflict over Shewa and territories further south. A lengthy war ensued, but the Muslim sultanates of the time were not strongly unified. Ifat was finally defeated by Emperor Amda Seyon I of Ethiopia in 1332, and withdrew from Shewa. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

From 1862 until 1894, the land to the north of the Gulf of Tadjoura was called Obock and was ruled by Somali and Afar Sultans, local authorities with whom France signed various treaties between 1883 and 1887 to first gain a foothold in the region.[4][6][15] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

In 1894, Léonce Lagarde established a permanent French administration in the city of Djibouti and named the region French Somaliland. It lasted from 1896 until 1967, when it was renamed the Territoire Français des Afars et des Issas(TFAI) ("French Territory of the Afars and the Issas").[16] DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

In 1958, on the eve of neighboring Somalia's independence in 1960, a referendum was held in Djibouti to decide whether to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, partly due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans.[17] Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

There was also widespread vote rigging, with the French expelling thousands of Somalis before the referendum reached the polls.[18] The majority of those who voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later.[17]  HP Pavilion zv6223ea Laptop Keyboard

In 1967, a second plebiscite was held to determine the fate of the territory. Initial results supported a continued but looser relationship with France. Voting was also divided along ethnic lines, with the resident Somalis generally voting for independence, with the goal of eventual union with Somalia,  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

and the Afars largely opting to remain associated with France.[6]However, the referendum was again marred by reports of vote rigging on the part of the French authorities.[19] Shortly after the referendum was held, the former Côte française des Somalis (French Somaliland) was renamed to Territoire français des Afars et des Issas.[20] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

In 1977, a third referendum took place. A landslide 98.8% of the electorate supported disengagement from France, officially marking Djibouti's independence.[21][22] Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a Somali politician who had campaigned for a yes vote in the referendum of 1958, eventually wound up as the nation's first president (1977–1999).[17] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5216 laptop keyboard

During its first year, Djibouti joined the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), the Arab League and United Nations. In 1986, the nascent republic was also among the founding members of the Intergovernmental Authority on Developmentregional development organization.  HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

In the early 1990s, tensions over government representation led to armed conflict between Djibouti's ruling People's Rally for Progress (RPP) party and theFront for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) opposition group. The impasse ended in a power sharing agreement in 2000.[1]  HP Pavilion dv6-3142se laptop keyboard

The President, currently Ismaïl Omar Guelleh, is the pre-eminent figure in Djiboutian politics; the head of state and commander-in-chief. The President shares executive power with his or her appointee, the Prime Minister, currently Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed. The Council of Ministers (cabinet) is responsible to the legislature and presided over by the President. TOSHIBA Satellite P300-ST3712 laptop keyboard

The judicial system consists of courts of first instance, a High Court of Appeal, and a Supreme Court. The legal system is a blend of French civil law, Sharia (Islamic law) and customary law (Xeer) of the Somali and Afar peoples.[23] HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

The National Assembly (formerly the Chamber of Deputies) is the country's legislature,[23] consisting of 65 members elected every five years.[24] Although unicameral, the Constitution provides for the creation of a Senate.[23] SONY VAIO VGN-FS620 laptop keyboard

The last election was held on 8 February 2008. Djibouti is a one party dominant state, with the People's Rally for Progress (RPP) controlling the legislature and the executive since its foundation in 1979 (the party currently rules as a part of the Union for a Presidential Majority, which holds all seats). HP Pavilion dv3-2155mx laptop keyboard

Opposition parties are allowed limited freedom, but the main opposition party, the Union for National Salvation, boycotted the 2005 and 2008 elections, citing government control of the media and repression of the opposition candidates.[24] TOSHIBA PK130BH2A00 laptop keyboard

The government is dominated by the Somali Issa Dir clan, who enjoy the support of the Somali clans, especially the Isaaq (the clan of the current president's wife and many ministers & government officials) and the Gadabuursi Dir (who are the third most prominent Somali clan in Djibouti politics). SONY VAIO VGN-CR123E laptop keyboard

The country emerged out of a decade-long civil war at the end of the 1990s, with the government and the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) signing a peace treaty in 2000. Two FRUD members subsequently joined the cabinet,[1] and beginning with the presidential elections of 1999, the FRUD has campaigned in support of the RPP. HP Mini 110-3180sv Laptop Keyboard

Djibouti's current president, Guelleh, succeeded Hassan Gouled Aptidon in office in 1999.[25] Guelleh was sworn in for his second six-year term after a one-man election on 8 April 2005. He took 100% of the votes in a 78.9% turnout.[25] In early 2011, the Djiboutian citizenry took part in a series of protests against the long-serving government, Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

which were associated with the largerArab Spring demonstrations. Guelleh was re-elected to a third term later that year, with 80.63% of the vote in a 75% turnout.[26][27]Although opposition groups boycotted the ballot over changes to the constitution permitting Guelleh to run again for office,[27] DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

international observers generally described the election as free and fair.[28][29]

On 31 March 2013, Guelleh replaced long-serving Prime Minister Dilleita Mohamed Dilleita with former president of the Union for a Presidential Majority (UMP)Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed.[30]  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

The first war which involved the Djiboutian armed forces, was the Djiboutian Civil War between the Djiboutian government, supported by France, and the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD). HP Pavilion dv6-2125ef laptop keyboard

The war lasted from 1991 to 2001, although most of the hostilities ended when the moderate factions of FRUD signed a peace treaty with the government after suffering an extensive military setback when the government forces captured most of the rebel-held territory. A radical group continued to fight the government, HP Pavilion dv6-2110ev laptop keyboard

but signed its own peace treaty in 2001. The war ended in a government victory, and FRUD became a political party.

Djibouti has fought in clashes against Eritrea over the Ras Doumeira peninsula, which both countries claim to be under their sovereignty. SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard

The first clash occurred in 1996 after a nearly two-months stand-off. In 1999, a political crisis occurred when both sides accused each other for supporting its enemies. In 2008, the countries clashed again when Djibouti refused to return Eritrean deserters and Eritrea responded by firing at the Djiboutian forces. ACER TravelMate 6252 laptop keyboard

As the headquarters of the IGAD regional body, Djibouti has been an active participant in the Somalian peace process, hosting the Arta conference in 2000.[31] Following the establishment of the Federal Government of Somalia in 2012,[32] a Djibouti delegation also attended the inauguration ceremony of Somalia's new president.[33] SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard

In 2001, the Djiboutian government leased the former French military base Camp Lemonnier to the United States Central Command for operations related to Combined Joint Task Force Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA). TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4NX1 laptop keyboard

In 2009, Central Command transitioned responsibilities in Africa to AFRICOM. France's 13th Demi-Brigade of the Foreign Legion is based in Djibouti, but not in Djibouti City.

There is not much seasonal variation in Djibouti's climate. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

Hot conditions prevail year-round along with winter rainfalls. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 32 to 41 °C (90 to 106 °F), except at high elevations, where the effects of a cold offshore current can be felt. In Djibouti city, Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

for instance, average afternoon highs range from 28 to 34 °C (82 to 93 °F) in April. Nationally, mean daily minimums usually vary from 15 to 30 °C (59 to 86 °F).[34] The greatest range in climate occurs in eastern Djibouti, where temperatures sometimes surpass 41 °C (106 °F) in July on the littoral plains and the freezing point during December in the highlands.[34] TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5107 laptop keyboard

In this region, relative humidity ranges from about 40% in the mid-afternoon to 85% at night, changing somewhat according to the season.

Djibouti's climate ranges from arid in the northeastern coastal regions to semiarid in the central, northern, western and southern parts of the country. On the eastern seaboard, annual rainfall is less than 5 inches (131 mm); HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

in the central highlands, it is about 8 to 11 inches (200 to 300 mm). Although the coastal regions are hot and humid throughout the year, the hinterland is typically hot and dry. The climate on the coast is mild, with wet winters and warm, sunny and rather dry summers. SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

The country's wildlife, consisting of flora and fauna, is in a harsh landscape with forest accounting for less than one percent of the total area of the country.[35] Wildlife is spread over three main regions namely, from the northern mountain region of the country to the volcanic plateaus in its southern and central part and culminating in the coastal region. HP Pavilion DV7-3067nr laptop keyboard

The flora and fauna species are mostly found in the northern part of the country, in the ecosystem of the Day Forest National Park. At an average altitude of 1,500 metres (4,900 ft), the area includes the Goda massif, with a peak of 1,783 metres (5,850 ft). It covers an area of 3.5 square kilometres (1.4 sq mi) of Juniperus procera forest, ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

with many of the trees rising to 20 metres (66 ft) height. This forest area is the main habitat of the endangered and endemic Djibouti Francolin (a bird), HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard

and another recently noted vertebrate, Platyceps afarensis (a colubrine snake). It also contains many species of woody and herbaceous plants, including boxwood and olive trees, which account for 60% of the total identified species in the country. SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard

According to the country profile related to biodiversity of wildlife in Djibouti, the country contains some 820 species of plants, 493 species of invertebrates, HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard

455 species of fish, 40 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 360 species of birds and 66 species of mammals.[35] Wildlife of Djibouti is also listed as part of Horn of Africa biodiversity hotspot and the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coral reef hotspot.[36]  TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard

Djibouti's economy is largely concentrated in the service sector. Commercial activities revolve around the country's free trade policies and strategic location as a Red Sea transit point. Due to limited rainfall, vegetables and fruits serve as the principal production crops, and other food items require importation. The GDP in 2012 was estimated at $2.377 billion, with a real growth rate of 4.8% annually. Per capita income was around $2,700.[1] HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

As of 2013, the container terminal at the Port of Djibouti handles the bulk of the nation's trade. About 70% of the seaport's activity consists of imports to and exports from neighboring Ethiopia, which depends on the harbour as its main maritime outlet. The port also serves as an international refueling center and transshipment hub.[1] GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard

In 2012, the Djiboutian government in collaboration with DP World started construction on the Doraleh Container Terminal,[37] a third major seaport intended to further develop the national transit capacity.[1] A $396 million project, it has the capacity to accommodate 1.5 million twenty foot container units annually.[37]  HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard

Djibouti was ranked the 177th safest investment destination in the world in the March 2011 Euromoney Country Risk rankings.[38] To improve the environment for direct foreign investment, the Djibouti authorities in conjunction with various non-profit organizations have launched a number of development projects aimed at highlighting the country's commercial potential.  ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

The government has also introduced new private sector policies targeting high interest and inflation rates, including relaxing the tax burden on enterprises and allowing for exemptions on consumption tax.[37] HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Additionally, efforts have been made to lower the estimated 60% urban unemployment rate by creating more job opportunities through investment in diversified sectors. Funds have especially gone toward building telecommunications infrastructure and increasing disposable income by supporting small businesses.  HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Owing to its growth potential, the fishing and agro-processing sector, which represents around 15% of GDP, has also enjoyed rising investment since 2008.[37] ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

The Djibouti firm Salt Investment (SIS) began a large-scale operation to industrialize the plentiful salt in Djibouti's Lake Assal region. Operating at an annual capacity of 4 million tons, the desalination project has lifted export revenues, created more job opportunities, and provided more fresh water for the area's residents.[1][37] APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

In 2012, the Djibouti government also enlisted the services of the China Harbor Engineering Company Ltd for the construction of an ore terminal in the area. Worth $64 million, the project is scheduled to be completed within two years and will enable Djibouti mineral officials to export a further 5 thousand tons of salt per year to markets in Southeast Asia.[39] ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

The Djiboutian franc is the currency of Djibouti. It is issued by the Central Bank of Djibouti, the country's monetary authority. Since the Djiboutian franc is pegged to the U.S. dollar, it is generally stable and inflation is not a problem. This has contributed to the growing interest in investment in the country.[37][40][41] HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

As of 2010, 10 conventional and Islamic banks operate in Djibouti. Most arrived within the past few years, including the Somali money transfer company Dahabshiil and BDCD, a subsidiary of Swiss Financial Investments. The banking system had heretofore been monopolized by two institutions, the Indo-Suez Bank and the Commercial and Industrial Bank (BCIMR).[40] ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

To assure a robust credit and deposit sector, the government requires commercial banks to maintain 30% of shares in the financial institution; a minimum of 300 million Djiboutian francs in up front capital is mandatory for international banks.  HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

 Lending has likewise been encouraged by the creation of a guarantee fund, which allows banks to issue loans to eligible small-and-medium sized businesses without first requiring a large deposit or other collateral.[37] HP HDX18-1100 CTO laptop keyboard

Saudi investors are also reportedly exploring the possibility of linking the Horn of Africa with the Arabian Peninsula via an 18-mile (29 km) long oversea bridge through Djibouti referred to as the Bridge of the Horns. The investor Tarek bin Laden has been linked to the project. SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

Somali clan component is mainly composed of the Issas, and Gadabuursi. Both are sub-clans of the larger Dir; the Issas form part of the Madoobe Dir, while the Gadabuursi are part of the Madaluug Dir. The remaining 5% of Djibouti's population primarily consists of Arabs, Ethiopians and Europeans (French and Italians). Approximately 76% of local residents are urban dwellers; the remainder are pastoralists.[1] HP Pavilion dv5-1118tx laptop keyboard

In addition, Djibouti is a multilingual nation, with a population of about 774,389 inhabitants.[1] According toEthnologue, the majority of the residents speak Somali (297,000 speakers) or Afar (99,200 speakers) as a first language, HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard

which are the mother tongues of the Somali and Afar ethnic groups, respectively. Both languages belong to the larger Afro-Asiatic family. There are two official languages in Djibouti: Arabic (Afro-Asiatic) andFrench (Indo-European). HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

Arabic is of social, cultural and religious importance. In formal settings, it consists of Modern Standard Arabic. Colloquially, about 36,000 local residents speak the Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic dialect, also known as Djibouti Arabic. SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard

French was inherited from the colonial period and is the primary language of instruction. About 10,200 Djiboutians speak it as a first language. Immigrant languages include Omani Arabic(38,900 speakers), Amharic (1,400 speakers), Greek (1,000 speakers) and Hindi (600 speakers).[42]  HP G72-b60SF laptop keyboard

The Djiboutian educational system was initially formulated to cater to a limited pupil base. As such, the schooling framework was largely elitist and drew considerably from the French colonial paradigm, which was ill-suited to local circumstances and needs.[43] HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

In the late 1990s, the Djiboutian authorities revised the national educational strategy and launched a broad-based consultative process involving administrative officials, teachers, parents, national assembly members and NGOs. LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

The initiative identified areas in need of attention and produced concrete recommendations on how to go about improving them. The government subsequently prepared a comprehensive reform plan aimed at modernizing the educational sector over the 2000–10 period. In August 2000, HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

it passed an official Education Planning Act and drafted a medium-term development plan for the next five years. The fundamental academic system was significantly restructured and made compulsory; it now consists of five years of primary school and four years of middle school. Secondary schools also require a Certificate of Fundamental Education for admission. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E125 laptop keyboard

In addition, the new law introduced secondary-level vocational instruction and established university facilities in the country.[43]

As a result of the Education Planning Act and the medium-term action strategy, substantial progress has been registered throughout the educational sector.[43] In particular, school enrollment, HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

attendance and retention rates have all steadily increased, with some regional variation. From 2004–05 to 2007–08, net enrollments of girls in primary school rose by 18.6%; for boys, it increased 8.0%. Net enrollments in middle school over the same period rose by 72.4% for girls and 52.2% for boys. At the secondary level, the rate of increase in net enrollments was 49.8% for girls and 56.1% for boys.[44] ACER K052030A1 laptop keyboard

The Djiboutian government has especially focused on developing and improving institutional infrastructure and teaching materials, including constructing new classrooms and supplying textbooks. At the post-secondary level, emphasis has also been placed on producing qualified instructors and encouraging out-of-school youngsters to pursue vocational training.[43]  DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

Institutions of higher learning in the country include the University of Djibouti.

In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on The State of the World's Midwifery. It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Djibouti is 300. This is compared with 461.6 in 2008 and 606.5 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 95 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 37. ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

 The aim of this report is to highlight ways in which the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, particularly Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality and Goal 5 – improve maternal death. In Djibouti the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 6 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women 1 in 93.[46] TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

According to a 2005 World Health Organization estimate, about 93.1% of Djibouti's women and girls have undergone female genital cutting,[47] a pre-marital custom mainly endemic to Northeast Africa and parts of the Near East that has its ultimate origins in Ancient Egypt.[48][49] Although legally proscribed in 1994, SONY VGN-FE670G Laptop Keyboard

the procedure is still widely practiced, as it is deeply ingrained in the local culture.[50] Encouraged and performed by women in the community, circumcision is primarily intended to deter promiscuity and to offer protection from assault.[50][51] About 94% of Djibouti's male population has also reportedly undergone male circumcision.[52] HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

The Constitution of Djibouti names Islam as the sole state religion, while also providing for the equality of citizens of all faiths (Article 1) and freedom of religious practice (Article 11).[23] According to the International Religious Freedom Report 2008,  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

while Muslim Djiboutians have the legal right to convert to or marry someone from another faith, converts may encounter negative reactions from their family and clan or from society at large, and they often face pressure to revert to Islam.[53] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

The Diocese of Djibouti serves the small local Catholic population, which it estimates numbered around 7,000 individuals in 2006.[54]

Djiboutian attire reflects the region's hot and arid climate. When not dressed in western clothing such as jeans and t-shirts, TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5141 laptop keyboard

men typically wear the macawiis, which is a sarong-like garment worn around the waist. Among nomads, many wear a loosely wrapped white cotton robe called a tobe that goes down to about the knee, with the end thrown over the shoulder (much like a Roman toga). HP Pavilion dv6-2160ep laptop keyboard

Women typically wear the dirac, which is a long, light, diaphanous voile dress made of cotton or polyester that is worn over a full-lengthhalf-slip and a bra. Married women tend to sport head-scarves referred to as shash, and also often cover their upper body with a shawlknown as garbasaar. Unmarried or young women, Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard

however, do not always cover their heads. Traditional Arabian garb such as the malejellabiya (jellabiyaad in Somali) and the female jilbāb is also commonly worn. For some occasions such as festivals, women may adorn themselves with specialized jewelry and head-dresses similar to those worn by the Berber tribes of the Maghreb.[55] HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard

A lot of Djibouti's original art is passed on and preserved orally, mainly through song. Many examples of Islamic, Ottoman, and French influences can also be noted in the local buildings, which contain plasterwork, carefully constructed motifs and calligraphy. DELL 0M711P laptop keyboard

From 1862 until 1894, the land to the north of the Gulf of Tadjoura was called Obock and ruled by Issa Somali andAfar Sultans, local authorities with whom France signed various treaties between 1883 and 1887 to first gain a foothold in the region.[1][2][3] SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B laptop keyboard

In 1894, Léonce Lagarde established a permanent French administration in the city of Djibouti and named the region Côte française des Somalis (French Somaliland), a name which continued until 1967. SONY 148701322 laptop keyboard

In 1958, on the eve of neighboring Somalia's independence in 1960, a referendum was held in the territory to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, partly due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans.[4]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

There was also widespread vote rigging, with the French expelling thousands of Somalis before the referendum reached the polls.[5] The majority of those who voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

 as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later.[4] Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard

In 1966, France rejected the United Nations' recommendation that it should grant French Somaliland independence. In August of the same year, an official visit to the territory by then French President, General Charles de Gaulle, was also met with demonstrations and rioting.[3][6] In response to the protests, de Gaulle ordered another referendum.[6] Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

On 19 March 1967, a second plebiscite was held to determine the fate of the territory. Initial results supported a continued but looser relationship with France. Voting was also divided along ethnic lines, with the resident Somalis generally voting for independence, with the goal of eventual reunion with Somalia, and the Afars largely opting to remain associated with France.[3] HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

However, the referendum was again marred by reports of vote rigging on the part of the French authorities,[7] with some 10,000 Somalis deported under the pretext that they did not have valid identity cards.[8] According to official figures, although the territory was at the time inhabited by 58,240 Somali and 48,270 Afar, Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

only 14,689 Somali were allowed to register to vote versus 22,004 Afar.[9] Somali representatives also charged that the French had simultaneously imported thousands of Afar nomads from neighboring Ethiopia to further tip the odds in their favor, SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard

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but the French authorities denied this, suggesting that Afars already greatly outnumbered Somalis on the voting lists.[8] Announcement of the plebiscite results sparked civil unrest, including several deaths. France also increased its military force along the frontier.[8][10]

In 1967, shortly after the referendum was held, Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard

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the former Côte française des Somalis (French Somaliland) was renamed to Territoire français des Afars et des Issas. This was both in acknowledgement of the large Afar constituency and to downplay the significance of the Somali composition (the Issa being a Somali sub-clan).[10] Lenovo IdeaPad Y710 Laptop Keyboard

The French Territory of Afars and Issas also differed from French Somaliland in terms of government structure, as the position of Governor General changed to that of High Commissioner. A nine member council of government was also implemented[citation needed]. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

With a steadily enlarging Somali population, the likelihood of a third referendum appearing successful had grown even more dim. The prohibitive cost of maintaining the colony, France's last outpost on the continent, was another factor that compelled observers to doubt that the French would attempt to hold on to the territory.[6] TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard

On June 27, 1977, a third vote took place. A landslide 98.8% of the electorate supported disengagement from France, officially marking Djibouti's independence.[6][11] Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a Somali politician who had campaigned for a yes vote in the referendum of 1958, eventually wound up as the nation's first president (1977–1999).[4] GATEWAY M-6319 Laptop Keyboard

Djibouti (Arabic: جيبوتي‎, French: Ville de Djibouti, Somali: Magaalada Jabuuti, Afar: Gabuuti) is the capital of and most populous settlement in the Republic of Djibouti, which is named after it. It is located in the coastal Djibouti Region on the Gulf of Tadjoura. Home to around 600,000 inhabitants, the city contains over 60% of the nation's population. HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard

The settlement was founded in 1888 by the French, on land leased from the ruling Somali and Afar Sultans. During the ensuing period, it served as the capital of French Somaliland and its successor the French Territory of the Afars and Issas. The city acts as a gateway between the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 Laptop Keyboard

and is a regional and national administrative, cultural, educational and financial hub. Djibouti-Ambouli International Airport is the main airport in Djibouti city, connecting the capital to all major international destinations. It is known as Pearl of the Gulf of Tadjoura due to its location.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

From 1862 until 1894, the land to the north of the Gulf of Tadjoura was calledObock. It was ruled by Somali and Afar Sultans, local authorities with whom Francesigned various treaties between 1883 and 1887 to first gain a foothold in the region.[1][2][3] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

The French subsequently founded Djibouti city in 1888, with the area at the time uninhabited. A few years later, in 1896, the settlement was made the capital ofFrench Somaliland.[4] It then served as the headquarters of the succeeding French Territory of the Afars and Issas. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard

When Germany invaded France in 1940, Djibouti became the Vichy French control. In response, the United Kingdom closed the port, but it could not prevent local French from providing information on the passing ship convoys. In December 1942, about 4,000 British troops occupied the town. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard

Since independence in 1977, the city has served as the administrative and commercial capital of the Republic of Djibouti.

Djibouti is generally very hot and dry throughout the course of the year. Featuring an arid climate (Köppen: BWh), the city sees on average 131 mm (5.16 in) of rainfall per year. Temperatures range from very warm during the months of December, IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard

January and February, to extremely hot in July. In the summer months, temperatures routinely exceed 40 °C (104 °F), with oppressive humidity adding to the uncomfortable conditions. Sunshine is abundant in the city, averaging eight to ten hours a day year-round. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

It is lowest during the wet season, when there is some coastal fog and greater cloud coverage as warm air passes over the cool sea surface. This climate zone has warm summers reaching a maximum temperature of 42 °C (107 °F) and summer lows of 32 °C (89 °F).Winters are warm reaching a maximum low of 21 °C (70 °F) GATEWAY MT3707 laptop keyboard

and a maximum high of 28 °C (83 °F). There are barely any days in the year without sunshine, and even during the winter there are many clear days. The local Djibouti-Ambouli International Airport offers flights to numerous global destinations. As of 2012, the largest services using the airport include Yemenia, HP Pavilion dv6-3050tx laptop keyboard

Air France, Flydubai, Ethiopian Airlines, Turkish Airlines and Kenya Airways. It is the largest airport in Djibouti and serves as a major gateway for travellers to the Horn of Africa and the world. Located approximately 6 kilometres (5 mi) from the city centre, the airport was opened in 1948. Originally a modest-sized facility, SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

the airport grew considerably in size in the post-independence period after numerous successive renovation projects. Outbound international travel from the Djibouti-Ambouli International Airport accounts for the majority of all air passengers traveling to and from Djibouti. Due to its strategic location,  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

the facility acts as a civil aviation hub for the rest of the country. This makes for a large number of departures and arrivals, and it is not unusual for flights to be delayed in the holding pattern before landing. Compaq Presario CQ71-403SA laptop keyboard

Djibouti city is improving its international connections, and numerous non-stop flights provided by various airlines connect the area with other global destinations. Djibouti-Ambouli International Airport currently ranks as the 829th busiest airport on the continent. Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic),[1] is a large language family, including 300 or so living languages.[3] HP Pavilion dv6-2150us laptop keyboard

Afroasiatic languages are spoken predominantly in the Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and parts of the Sahel. More than 300 million people speak an Afroasiatic language.[1]

The most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic (including literary Arabic and the spoken colloquial varieties), with about 200 to 230 million native speakers, HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

spoken mostly in the Middle East and parts of North Africa.[4] Berber (including all its varieties) is spoken in Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, northern Mali, and northern Niger by about 25 to 35 million people. Other widely spoken Afroasiatic languages are Hausa, the dominant language of northern Nigeria and southern Niger, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard

spoken as a first language by 25 million people and used as alingua franca by another 20 million across West Africa and the Sahel;[5][6] Oromo of Ethiopia and Kenya, with about 33 million speakers; Amharic of Ethiopia, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

with over 25 million native speakers, not including the millions of other Ethiopians speaking it as a secondary language; Somali, spoken by 15.5 million people in Greater Somalia; and Modern Hebrew, spoken by about seven million people worldwide. In addition to languages spoken today, Afroasiatic includes several important ancient languages, such as Ancient Egyptian, Akkadian, Biblical Hebrew, andAramaic. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

name was later popularized by Friedrich Müller in his Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft (Wien 1876-88).[8]

The term "Afroasiatic" (often now spelled as "Afro-Asiatic") was later coined by Maurice Delafosse (1914). HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

However, it did not come into general use untilJoseph Greenberg (1963) formally proposed its adoption. In doing so, Greenberg sought to emphasize the fact that Afroasiatic was the only language family that was represented transcontinentally, in both Africa and Asia.[8] ACER Aspire 5738ZG laptop keyboard

Individual scholars have also called the family "Erythraean" (Tucker 1966) and "Lisramic" (Hodge 1972). In lieu of "Hamito-Semitic", the Russian linguist Igor Diakonoff later suggested the term "Afrasian", meaning "half African, half Asiatic", in reference to the geographic distribution of the phylum's constituent languages.[7] ACER Aspire 4810T-8480 laptop keyboard

In the 9th century, the Hebrew grammarian Judah ibn Quraysh of Tiaret in Algeria was the first to link two branches of Afroasiatic together; he perceived a relationship between Berber and Semitic. He knew of Semitic through his study of Arabic, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ASUS F3Sr laptop keyboard

In the course of the 19th century, Europeans also began suggesting such relationships. In 1844, Theodor Benfey suggested a language family consisting of Semitic, Berber, and Cushitic (calling the latter "Ethiopic"). In the same year, T.N. Newman suggested a relationship between Semitic and Hausa, but this would long remain a topic of dispute and uncertainty. TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

Friedrich Müller named the traditional "Hamito-Semitic" family in 1876 in his Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft. He defined it as consisting of a Semitic group plus a "Hamitic" group containing Egyptian, Berber, and Cushitic; he excluded the Chadic group. These classifications relied in part on non-linguistic anthropological and racial arguments that have largely been discredited (see Hamitic hypothesis). TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard

Leo Reinisch (1909) proposed linking Cushitic and Chadic, while urging a more distant affinity to Egyptian and Semitic, thus foreshadowing Greenberg, but his suggestion found little resonance.

Marcel Cohen (1924) rejected the idea of a distinct Hamitic subgroup and included Hausa (a Chadic language) in his comparative Hamito-Semitic vocabulary. HP Mini 1010LA laptop keyboard

Joseph Greenberg (1950) strongly confirmed Cohen's rejection of "Hamitic", added (and sub-classified) the Chadic branch, and proposed the new name "Afroasiatic" for the family. Nearly all scholars have accepted Greenberg's classification. TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5993 laptop keyboard

In 1969, Harold Fleming proposed that what had previously been known as Western Cushitic is an independent branch of Afroasiatic, suggesting for it the new nameOmotic. This proposal and name have met with widespread acceptance. SONY VAIO VGN-CS160J/W laptop keyboard

Several scholars, including Harold Fleming and Robert Hetzron, have since questioned the traditional inclusion of Beja in Cushitic.

The earliest written evidence of an Afroasiatic language is an Ancient Egyptian inscription of c. 3400 BC (5,400 years ago).[11] Symbols on Gerzean pottery resembling Egyptian hieroglyphs date back to c. 4000 BC, suggesting a still earlier possible date. SONY Vaio VGN-FW139E laptop keyboard

This gives us a minimum date for the age of Afroasiatic. However, Ancient Egyptian is highly divergent from Proto-Afroasiatic (Trombetti 1905: 1–2), and considerable time must have elapsed in between them. Estimates of the date at which the Proto-Afroasiatic language was spoken vary widely.  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ52B laptop keyboard

They fall within a range between approximately 7500 BC (9,500 years ago) and approximately 16,000 BC (18,000 years ago). According to Igor M. Diakonoff (1988: 33n), Proto-Afroasiatic was spoken c. 10,000 BC. According to Christopher Ehret (2002: 35–36), Proto-Afroasiatic was spoken c. 11,000 BC at the latest and possibly as early as c. 16,000 BC. ACER Aspire 3022WLMi laptop keyboard

These dates are older than dates associated with most other proto-languages. Red Sea is a direct translation of the Greek Erythra Thalassa (Ερυθρὰ Θάλασσα) and Latin Mare Rubrum(alternatively Sinus Arabicus, literally "Arabian Gulf"), TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST5N02 laptop keyboard

Arabic Al-Baḥr Al-Aḥmar (البحر الأحمر) or Baḥr Al-Qalzam(بحر القلزم),Somali Badda Cas and Tigrinya Qeyyiḥ bāḥrī (ቀይሕ ባሕሪ). The name of the sea may signify the seasonal blooms of the red-coloured Trichodesmium erythraeum near the water's surface.[4] HP Pavilion DV6-1160ed laptop keyboard

A theory favored by some modern scholars[who?] is that the namered is referring to the direction South, just as the Black Sea's name may refer to North. The basis of this theory is that some Asiatic languages used color words to refer to the cardinal directions.[5] Herodotus on one occasion uses Red Sea and Southern Sea interchangeably.[6] SONY VAIO VGN-FS195VP laptop keyboard

Some ancient geographers called the Red Sea the Arabian Gulf[7] or Gulf of Arabia.[8][9]

The association of the Red Sea with the Biblical account of the Israelite Crossing the Red Sea is ancient, SONY VAIO VGN-FS195VP laptop keyboard

and was made explicit in the Septuagint translation of the Book of Exodus from Hebrew to Koine Greek in approximately the third century B.C. In that version, the Hebrew Yam Suph (ים סוף) is translated as Erythra Thalassa (Red Sea).  ACER TravelMate 3232WXMi Laptop Keyboard

(See also the more recent suggestion that the Yam Suph of the Exodus refers to a Sea of Reeds). The Red Sea is one of four seas named in English after common color terms — the others being the Black Sea, HP G42-245BR laptop keyboard

the White Sea and the Yellow Sea. The direct rendition of the Greek Erythra thalassa in Latin as Mare Erythraeum refers to the north-western part of the Indian Ocean, and also to a region on Mars. ASUS F6A Laptop Keyboard

commercial routes to Punt. One such expedition took place around 2500 BC, and another around 1500 BC ( by Hatshepsut ). Both involved long voyages down the Red Sea.[10] The Biblical Book of Exodus tells the story of the Israelites' miraculous crossing of a body of water, which the Hebrew text calls Yam Suph. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

Yam Suph is traditionally identified as the Red Sea. The account is part of the Israelites' escape from slavery in Egypt. Yam Suph can also been translated asSea of Reeds.

In the 6th century BC,  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X2

01 Laptop Keyboard

Darius the Great of Persia sent reconnaissance missions to the Red Sea, improving and extending navigation by locating many hazardous rocks and currents. A canal was built between the Nile and the northern end of the Red Sea at Suez. In the late 4th century BC, COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

Alexander the Great sent Greek naval expeditions down the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean. Greek navigators continued to explore and compile data on the Red Sea. Agatharchides collected information about the sea in the 2nd century BC. HP Pavilion dv5-1211tx Laptop Keyboard

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea ("Periplus of the Red Sea"), a Greek periplus written by an unknown author around the 1st century AD, contain a detailed description of the Red Sea's ports and sea routes.[11] The Periplus also describes how Hippalus first discovered the direct route from the Red Sea to India. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

The Red Sea was favored for Roman trade with India starting with the reign of Augustus, when the Roman Empire gained control over the Mediterranean, Egypt, and the northern Red Sea. The route had been used by previous states but grew in the volume of traffic under the Romans. SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

From Indian ports goods from China were introduced to the Roman world. Contact between Rome and China depended on the Red Sea, but the route was broken by the Aksumite Empire around the 3rd century AD.[12]  HP Mini 1010LA Laptop Keyboard

During the Middle Ages, the Red Sea was an important part of the Spice trade route. In 1513, trying to secure that channel to Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque laid siege to Aden.[13] but was forced to retreat. They cruised the Red Sea inside the Bab al-Mandab, as the first European fleet to have sailed these waters. SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

In 1798, France ordered General Bonaparte to invade Egypt and take control of the Red Sea. Although he failed in his mission, the engineer Jean-Baptiste Lepère, who took part in it, revitalised the plan for a canal which had been envisaged during the reign of the Pharaohs.  HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard

Several canals were built in ancient times from the Nile to the Red Sea along or near the line of the present Sweet Water Canal, but none lasted for long. The Suez Canal was opened in November 1869. At the time, the British, ACER Aspire 3022WLMi Laptop Keyboard

French, and Italians shared the trading posts. The posts were gradually dismantled following the First World War. After theSecond World War, the Americans and Soviets exerted their influence whilst the volume of oil tanker traffic intensified. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

However, the Six Day War culminated in the closure of the Suez Canal from 1967 to 1975. Today, in spite of patrols by the major maritime fleets in the waters of the Red Sea, the Suez Canal has never recovered its supremacy over the Cape route, which is believed to be less vulnerable. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

The Red Sea lies between arid land, desert and semi-desert. The main reasons for the better development of reef systems along the Red Sea is because of its greater depths and an efficient water circulation pattern, The Red Sea water mass exchanges its water with the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean via the Gulf of Aden. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

These physical factors reduce the effect of high salinity caused by evaporation water in the north and relatively hot water in the south.

The climate of the Red Sea is the result of two distinct monsoon seasons; a northeasterly monsoon and a southwesterly monsoon. Monsoon winds occur because of the differential heating between the land surface and sea. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

Very high surface temperatures coupled with high salinities makes this one of the warmest and saltiest bodies of seawater in the world.

Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

The average surface water temperature of the Red Sea during the summer is about 26 °C(79 °F) in the north and 30 °C (86 °F) in the south, with only about 2 °C (3.6 °F) variation during the winter months. The overall average water temperature is 22 °C (72 °F). Today surface water temperatures remain relatively constant at 21–25 °C (70–77 °F). SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

Temperature and visibility remain good to around 200 m (656 ft). The sea is known for its strong winds and unpredictable local currents.

The rainfall over the Red Sea and its coasts is extremely low, averaging 0.06 m (2.36 in) per year. The rain is mostly in the form of showers of short spells,  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

often associated with thunderstorms and occasionally with duststorms. The scarcity of rainfall and no major source of fresh water to the Red Sea result in the excess evaporation as high as 205 cm (81 in) SONY Vaio PCG-K35 Laptop Keyboard

per year and high salinity with minimal seasonal variation. A recent underwater expedition to the Red Sea offshore from Sudan and Eritrea[14] found surface water temperatures 28 °C in winter and up to 34 °C in the summer, TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

but despite that extreme heat the coral was healthy with much fish life with very little sign of coral bleaching, with only 9% infected by thalassomonas loyana, the 'white plague' agent. Favia favus coral there harbours a virus, SONY VGN-FE770G Laptop Keyboard

BA3, which kills T.loyana.[15] Plans are afoot to use samples of these corals' apparently heat-adapted commensal algae to salvage bleached coral elsewhere.

In general tide ranges between 0.6 m (2.0 ft) in the north, near the mouth of the Gulf of Suez and 0.9 m (3.0 ft) in the south near the Gulf of Aden but it fluctuates between 0.20 m (0.66 ft) TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

and 0.30 m (0.98 ft) away from the nodal point. The central Red Sea (Jeddah area) is therefore almost tideless, and as such the annual water level changes are more significant. Because of the small tidal range the water during high tide inundates the coastal sabkhas as a thin sheet of water up to a few hundred metres rather than inundating the sabkhas through a network of channels. DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

However, south of Jeddah in the Shoiaba area the water from the lagoon may cover the adjoining sabkhas as far as 3 km (2 mi) whereas, north of Jeddah in the Al-kharrar area the sabkhas are covered by a thin sheet of water as far as 2 km (1.2 mi). The prevailing north and northeastern winds influence the movement of water in the coastal inlets to the adjacent sabkhas, Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

especially during storms. Winter mean sea level is 0.5 m (1.6 ft) higher than in summer. Tidal velocities passing through constrictions caused by reefs, sand bars and low islands commonly exceed 1–2 m/s (3–6.5 ft/s). Coral reefs in the Red Sea are near Egypt, Eritrea, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan.  HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl Laptop Keyboard

In the Red Sea detailed current data is lacking, partially because they are weak and variable both spatially and temporally. Temporal and spatial currents variation is as low as 0.5 m (1.6 ft) and are governed all by wind. During the summer, IBM Thinkpad T60 Laptop Keyboard

NW winds drive surface water south for about four months at a velocity of 15–20 cm/s (6–8 in/s), whereas in winter the flow is reversed resulting in the inflow of water from the Gulf of Aden into the Red Sea. The net value of the latter predominates, HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

resulting in an overall drift to the northern end of the Red Sea. Generally, the velocity of the tidal current is between 50–60 cm/s (20–23.6 in/s) with a maximum of 1 m/s (3.3 ft) at the mouth of the al-Kharrar Lagoon. However, the range of the north-northeast current along the Saudi coast is 8–29 cm/s (3–11.4 in/s). HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

Wind regime

With the exception of the northern part of the Red Sea, which is dominated by persistent north-west winds, with speeds ranging between 7 km/h (4.3 mph) and 12 km/h (7.5 mph), the rest of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden are subjected to the influence of regular and seasonally reversible winds.  ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

The wind regime is characterized by both seasonal and regional variations in speed and direction with average speed generally increasing northward.

Wind is the driving force in the Red Sea for transporting the material either as suspension or as bedload. ACER AEZG5R00010 Laptop Keyboard

Wind induced currents play an important role in the Red Sea in initiating the process of resuspension of bottom sediments and transfer of materials from sites of dumping to sites of burial in quiescent environment of deposition. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

 Wind generated current measurement is therefore important in order to determine the sediment dispersal pattern and its role in the erosion and accretion of the coastal rock exposure and the submerged coral beds. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

The Red Sea was formed by Arabia being split from Africa by movement of the Red Sea Rift. This split started in the Eoceneand accelerated during the Oligocene. The sea is still widening, and it is considered that it will become an ocean in time (as proposed in the model of John Tuzo Wilson). In 1949,  SONY VAIO VGN NR298E laptop keyboard

a deep water survey reported anomalously hot brines in the central portion of the Red Sea. Later work in the 1960s confirmed the presence of hot, 60 °C (140 °F), saline brines and associated metalliferous muds. The hot solutions were emanating from an active subseafloor rift. The high salinity of the waters was not hospitable to living organisms.[16] SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

Sometimes during the Tertiary period the Bab el Mandeb closed and the Red Sea evaporated to an empty, hot, dry salt-floored sink. Effects causing this would have been:

The Red Sea is a rich and diverse ecosystem. More than 1200 species of fish[18] have been recorded in the Red Sea, and around 10% of these are found nowhere else.[19] This also includes 42 species of deepwater fish.[18] SONY VAIO PCG-FR415S laptop keyboard

The rich diversity is in part due to the 2,000 km (1,240 mi) of coral reef extending along its coastline; these fringing reefs are 5000–7000 years old and are largely formed of stony acropora and porites corals.  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders (such as the Blue Hole (Red Sea) at Dahab). These coastal reefs are also visited by pelagic species of red sea fish, including some of the 44 species of shark. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X200 laptop keyboard

The Red Sea also contains many offshore reefs including several true atolls. Many of the unusual offshore reef formations defy classic (i.e., Darwinian) coral reef classification schemes, and are generally attributed to the high levels of tectonic activity that characterize the area. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

The special biodiversity of the area is recognized by the Egyptian government, who set up the Ras Mohammed National Park in 1983. The rules and regulations governing this area protect local marine life, which has become a major draw for divingenthusiasts. HP G72-227WM laptop keyboard

Divers and snorkellers should be aware that although most Red Sea species are innocuous, a few are hazardous to humans: seeRed Sea species hazardous to humans.[20]

The United Nations (UN; French: Organisation des Nations Unies, ONU) is an international organizationwhose stated aims include promoting and facilitating cooperation in international law, international security,  TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5097 Laptop Keyboard

economic development, social progress, human rights, civil rights, civil liberties, political freedoms, democracy, and the achievement of lasting world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, HP AEAT8TPU017 Laptop Keyboard

to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.

At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. From its offices around the world,  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the year. The organization has six principal organs: the General Assembly (the maindeliberative assembly); Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

the Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, SONY Vaio PCG-K35 Laptop Keyboard

and facilities needed by the UN); the International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ); and the United Nations Trusteeship Council (which is currently inactive). Other prominent UN System agencies include the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). HP G42T-200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

The UN's most prominent position is that of the office of Secretary-General which has been held by Ban Ki-moonof South Korea since 2007. NGOs may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work. HP G71-343US Laptop Keyboard

The United Nations Headquarters resides in international territory in New York City, with further main offices at Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, and has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.[3] HP Pavilion G7-1150US Laptop Keyboard

After the League of Nations failed to prevent World War II (1939–1945), there was widespread recognition that humankindcould not afford a third world war. Therefore, the United Nations was established to replace the flawed League of Nations in 1945 in order to maintain international peace and promote cooperation in solving international economic, HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

social, and humanitarian problems. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization was begun under the aegis of the U.S. State Department in 1939. Franklin D. Roosevelt first coined the term 'United Nations' as a term to describe the Allied countries.[4] The term was first officially used on 1 January 1942 HP G62-a20SQ laptop keyboard

, when 26 governments signed the Atlantic Charter, pledging to continue the war effort.[5] On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the United Nations Charter. TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1BZ laptop keyboard

The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the five then-permanent members of the Security Council—France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States—and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ19VN laptop keyboard

The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, and the Security Council, took place in Methodist Central Hall Westminster in London beginning 6 January 1946.[6] SONY VAIO VGN-FS115ZR laptop keyboard

The organization was based at the Sperry Gyroscope Corporation's facility in Lake Success, New York, from 1946–1952, before moving to the United Nations Headquarters building in Manhattan upon its completion. Packard Bell Easynote LM82 laptop keyboard

Since its creation, there has been controversy and criticism of the United Nations. In the United States, an early opponent of the UN was the John Birch Society, which began a "get US out of the UN" campaign in 1959, HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

charging that the UN's aim was to establish a "One World Government". After the Second World War, the French Committee of National Liberation was late to be recognized by the US as the government of France, and so the country was initially excluded from the conferences that aimed at creating the new organization. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-210US laptop keyboard

Charles de Gaulle criticized the UN, famously calling it a machin ("contraption"), and was not convinced that a global security alliance would help maintain world peace, preferring direct defence treaties between countries.[7] HP 590527-001 laptop keyboard

The United Nations' system is based on five principal organs (formerly six – the Trusteeship Council suspended operations in 1994, upon the independence ofPalau, the last remaining UN trustee territory);[11] the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-12L laptop keyboard

Four of the five principal organs are located at the main United Nations Headquarters located on international territory in New York City.[12] The International Court of Justice is located in The Hague, while other major agencies are based in the UN offices at Geneva,[13] Vienna,[14] and Nairobi.[15] Other UN institutions are located throughout the world. ASUS K030662M2 laptop keyboard

The six official languages of the United Nations, used in intergovernmental meetings and documents, are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.[3] The Secretariat uses two working languages, English and French. Four of the official languages are the national languages of the permanent members of the Security Council (the United Kingdom and the United States share English as a de facto official language); HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx laptop keyboard

Spanish and Arabic are the languages of the two largest blocs of official languages outside of the permanent members (Spanish being official in 20 countries, Arabic in 26). Five of the official languages were chosen when the UN was founded;  HP Pavilion dv6-3015tx laptop keyboard

Arabic was added in 1973. The United Nations Editorial Manual states that the standard for English language documents is British usage and Oxford spelling, and the Chinese writing standard is Simplified Chinese. ACER TravelMate 8215WLMi laptop keyboard

This replaced Traditional Chinese in 1971 when the UN representation of China was changed from the Republic of China to the People's Republic of China (see China and the United Nations for details).  HP Pavilion dv6-2165tx laptop keyboard

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