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9 septembre 2013 1 09 /09 /septembre /2013 04:25

The Dominican Republic (i/dəˌmɪnɨkən rɨˈpʌblɪk/; Spanish: República Dominicana [reˈpuβlika ðominiˈkana]) is a nation on the island of Hispaniola, part of the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. The western third of the island is occupied by the nation of Haiti, making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands, along with Saint Martin, that are shared by two countries.  HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

Both by area and population, the Dominican Republic is the second largest Caribbean nation (after Cuba), with 48,445 square kilometres (18,705 sq mi) and an estimated 10 million people, one million of which in the capital city, Santo Domingo.[3][10]

Taínos inhabited what is now the Dominican Republic since the 7th century. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-106CA Laptop Keyboard

Christopher Columbus landed on it in 1492, and it became the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, namely Santo Domingo, the country's capital and Spain's first capital in the New World. After three centuries of Spanish rule, with French and Haitian interludes, the country became independent in 1821.  ACER Aspire 5810T-8929 Laptop Keyboard

The ruler, José Núñez de Cáceres, intended that the Dominican Republic be part of the nation of Gran Colombia, but he was quickly removed by the Haitian government and "Dominican" slave revolts. Victorious in the Dominican War of Independence in 1844, Dominicans experienced mostly internal strife, and also a brief return to Spanish rule, over the next 72 years. DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard

The United States occupation of 1916–1924, and a subsequent calm and prosperous six-year period under Horacio Vásquez Lajara, were followed by the dictatorship of Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina until 1961. The civil war of 1965, the country's last, was ended by a U.S.-led intervention, and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer,  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

1966–1978. Since then, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy,[1] and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time after 1996. Danilo Medina, Dominican Republic's current president, replaced former president Leonel Fernández holding 51% of the Electoral Vote over his opponent ex-president Hipolito Mejia in 2012.[11] COMPAQ NSK-H5401 Laptop Keyboard

The Dominican Republic has the ninth largest economy in Latin America and the second largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region.[12][13] Though long known for sugar production, the economy is now dominated by services.[1] The country's economic progress is exemplified by its advanced telecommunication system.[14] DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

Nevertheless, unemployment,[1] government corruption, and inconsistent electric service remain major Dominican problems. The country also has "marked income inequality".[1] International migration affects the Dominican Republic greatly, as it receives and sends large flows of migrants. SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboard

Haitian immigration and the integration of Dominicans of Haitian descent are major issues.[15] A large Dominican diaspora exists, most of it in the United States.[16] They aid national development as they send billions of dollars to their families, accounting for one-tenth of the Dominican GDP.[1][17] DELL 0PVDG3 laptop keyboard

The Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean. The country's year-round golf courses are among the top attractions on the island.[14] In this mountainous land is located the Caribbean's highest mountain,Pico Duarte, as is Lake Enriquillo, the Caribbean's largest lake and lowest elevation.[18HP Pavilion ze5170 laptop keyboard

It has an average temperature of 26 °C (78.8 °F) and great biological diversity.[14] Music and sport are of great importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music, and baseball as the favorite sport. Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard

For most of its history (up to independence) the colony was known as Santo Domingo,[19] the name of its present capital, and its patron saint, Saint Dominic. The residents were called "Dominicanos" (Dominicans), which is the adjective form of "Domingo", and the revolutionaries named their newly independent country "La República Dominicana".HP Pavilion dv6-3030sp laptop keyboard

At present, the Dominican Republic is one of two nations worldwide (along with the Central African Republic) with only a demonym-based name.[20] In the national anthem of the Dominican Republic (Himno Nacional) the term 'Dominican' never appears. The author of its lyrics Emilio Prud'Homme consistently uses the poetic term Quisqueyanos, that is, "Quisqueyans". HP Pavilion DV8310CA laptop keyboard

The word "Quisqueya" is a derivative from a native tongue of the Taino Indians which means, "Mother of all Lands." It is often used in songs as another name for the country.

The name of the country is regularly shortened to "the D.R."[21]

Some of the important symbols include the flag, the coat of arms, and the national anthem, titled Himno NacionalSONY VAIO VGN-CR21Z laptop keyboard

The flag has a large white cross that divides it into four quarters. Two quarters are red and two are blue. Red represents the blood shed by the liberators. Blue expresses God's protection over the nation. The white cross symbolizes the struggle of the liberators to bequeath future generations a free nation. HP Pavilion dv5-1114ez laptop keyboard

An alternate interpretation is that blue represents the ideals of progress and liberty, whereas white symbolizes peace and unity among Dominicans.[22] In the center of the cross is the Dominican coat of arms, in the same colors as the national flag. The coat of arms pictures a red, white and blue flag-draped shield with a Bible, a gold cross and arrows; HP Pavilion dv5-1033ez laptop keyboard

the shield is surrounded by an olive branch (on the left) and a palm branch (on the right). The Bible is said to represent the truth and the light. The Gold Cross symbolizes the redemption from slavery, and the arrows symbolize the noble soldiers and their proud military.  Lenovo 3000 C200 laptop keyboard

A blue ribbon above the shield reads, "Dios, Patria, Libertad" (meaning "God, Fatherland, Liberty"). A red ribbon under the shield reads, "República Dominicana" (meaning "Dominican Republic"). Out of all the flags in the world, the depiction of a Bible is unique to the Dominican flag. TOSHIBA Satellite m502 laptop keyboard

The national flower is the Bayahibe Rose and the national tree is the West Indian Mahogany.[23] The national bird is the Cigua Palmera or Palmchat ("Dulus dominicus").[24]

The Dominican Republic celebrates Dia de la Altagracia on January 21 in honor of its patroness, Duarte's Day on January 26 in honor of one of its founding fathers, TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

Independence Day on February 27, Restoration Day on August 16, Virgen de las Mercedes on September 24, and Constitution Day on November 6.

The Arawakan-speaking Taínos moved into Hispaniola from the north east region of what is now known as South America, displacing earlier inhabitants,[25] c. AD 650. They engaged in farming and fishing,[26] and hunting and gathering.[25] HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

 The fierce Caribs drove the Taínos to the northeastern Caribbean during much of the 15th century.[27] The estimates of Hispaniola's population in 1492 vary widely, including one hundred thousand,[28] three hundred thousand,[25] and four hundred thousand to two million.[29] ACER TravelMate 4050 Laptop Keyboard

Determining precisely how many people lived on the island in pre-Columbian times is next to impossible, as no accurate records exist.[30] By 1492 the island was divided into five Taíno chiefdoms.

The Spaniards arrived in 1492. After initially friendly relationships, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

the Taínos resisted the conquest, led by the female Chief Anacaona of Xaragua and her ex-husband Chief Caonabo of Maguana, as well as Chiefs Guacanagaríx, Guamá, Hatuey, and Enriquillo. The latter's successes gained his people an autonomous enclave for a time on the island. HP Mini 1001TU Laptop Keyboard

Nevertheless, within a few years after 1492 the population of Taínos had declined drastically, due to smallpox, genocide, execution and other diseases that arrived with the Europeans,[32] and from other causes discussed below. The last record of pure Taínos in the country was from 1864. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard

Still, Taíno biological heritage survived to an important extent, due to intermixing. Census records from 1514 reveal that 40% of Spanish men in the colony had Taíno wives,[33] and some present-day Dominicans have Taíno ancestry.[34][35] Tainos were stated to be extinct in Hispanola as a result of genocide by the Spaniards.[ Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard

"By 1535, say the leading scholars on this grim topic for all practical purposes, the native population was extinct."[37][unreliable source?] Remnants of the Taino culture include their cave paintings,[38] as well as pottery designs which are still used in the small artisan village of Higüerito, Moca. HP Pavilion G7-1167DX Laptop Keyboard

Christopher Columbus arrived on Hispaniola on December 5, 1492, during the first of his four voyages to America. He claimed the island for Spain and named it La Española. In 1496 Bartholomew Columbus, Christopher's brother, built the city of Santo Domingo, Europe's first permanent settlement in the "New World". SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

The Spaniards created a plantation economy on the island.[28] The colony was the springboard for the further Spanish conquest of America and for decades the headquarters of Spanish power in the hemisphere.

The Taínos nearly disappeared, above all, from European infectious diseases to which they had no immunity.[39] TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

Other causes were abuse, suicide, the breakup of family, starvation,[25] the encomienda system,[40] which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe,[41] war with the Spaniards, changes in lifestyle, and mixing with other peoples. Laws passed for the Indians' protection (beginning with the Laws of Burgos, 1512–1513)[42] were never truly enforced.

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Some scholars believe that las Casas exaggerated[43] the Indian population decline in an effort to persuade King Carlos to intervene, and thatencomenderos also exaggerated it, in order to receive permission to import more African slaves.[citation needed] Moreover, censuses of the time omitted the Indians who fled into remote communities,[34] TOSHIBA Satellite A215-S4807 Laptop Keyboard

where they often joined with runaway Africans (cimarrones), producing Zambos. Also, Mestizos who were culturally Spanish were counted as Spaniards, some Zambos as black, and some Indians as Mulattos.[citation needed]

Santo Domingo's population saw a spectacular increase during the 18th century, as it rose from some 6,000 in 1737 to about 125,000 in 1790. HP G72-b67CA Laptop Keyboard

Approximately, this was composed of 40,000 white landowners, 25,000 black or mulatto freedmen, and 60,000 slaves.[19]

After its conquest of the Aztecs and Incas, Spain neglected its Caribbean holdings. French buccaneers settled in western Hispaniola, and by the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

Spain ceded the (now Haitian) area to France. France created a wealthy colony Saint-Domingue there, with a population – at the end of the 18th century – 90% enslaved and overall four times as numerous (500,000 vs 125,000) as the Spanish area (now Dominican).[19] HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

France came to own the island in 1795, when by the Peace of Basel Spain ceded Santo Domingo as a consequence of the French Revolutionary Wars. At the time, Saint-Domingue's slaves, led by Toussaint Louverture, were in revolt against France. In 1801 they captured Santo Domingo, thus controlling the entire island; ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

but in 1802 an army sent by Napoleon captured Toussaint Louverture and sent him to France as prisoner. However, Toussaint Louverture's lieutenants, and yellow fever, succeeded in expelling the French again from Saint-Domingue, which in 1804 the rebels made independent as the Republic of Haiti. Eastwards, France continued to rule Spanish Santo Domingo. ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard

In 1805, Haitian troops of general Henri Christophe invaded Santo Domingo and sacked the towns of Santiago de los Caballeros and Moca, killing most of their residents and helping to lay the foundation for two centuries of animosity between the two countries.  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

In 1808, following Napoleon's invasion of Spain, the criollos of Santo Domingo revolted against French rule and, with the aid of Great Britain (Spain's ally) and Haiti,[44] returned Santo Domingo to Spanish control.

After a dozen years of discontent and failed independence plots by various groups,  DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

Santo Domingo's former Lieutenant-Governor (top administrator), José Núñez de Cáceres, declared the colony's independence as Spanish Haiti, on November 30, 1821. He requested the new state's admission to Simón Bolívar's republic of Gran Colombia, but Haitian forces, led by Jean-Pierre Boyer, invaded just nine weeks later, in February 1822.[46]  SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

As Toussaint Louverture had done two decades earlier, the Haitians abolished slavery. They also nationalized most private property, including all the property of landowners who had left in the wake of the invasion; much Church property; as well as all property belonging to the former rulers, the Spanish Crown. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Boyer also placed more emphasis on cash crops grown on large plantations, reformed the tax system, and allowed foreign trade. The new system was widely opposed by Dominican farmers, although it produced a boom in sugar and coffee production. All levels of education collapsed; SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard

the university was shut down, as it was starved both of resources and students, with young Dominican men from 16 to 25 years old being drafted into the Haitian army. Boyer's occupation troops, who were largely Dominicans, were unpaid, and had to "forage and sack" from Dominican civilians.HP Pavilion dv6-3217cl laptop keyboard

Haiti imposed a "heavy tribute" on the Dominican people.[47 Many whites fled Santo Domingo for Puerto Rico and Cuba (both still under Spanish rule), Venezuela, and elsewhere. In the end the economy faltered and taxation became more onerous. Rebellions occurred even by Dominican freedmen, while Dominicans and Haitians worked together to oust Boyer from power. SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/S laptop keyboard

Anti-Haitian movements of several kinds – pro-independence, pro-Spanish, pro-French, pro-British, pro-United States – gathered force following the overthrow of Boyer in 1843.

In 1838 Juan Pablo Duarte founded a secret society called La Trinitaria, which sought the complete independence of Santo Domingo without any foreign intervention.[ DELL PK130CW1A08 laptop keyboard

Matías Ramón Mella and Francisco del Rosario Sánchez, despite not being among the founding members of La Trinitaria, were decisive in the fight for independence. Duarte, Mella, and Sánchez are considered the three Founding Fathers of the Dominican Republic.[49] ASUS A6J laptop keyboard

On February 27, 1844, theTrinitarios (the members of La Trinitaria), declared the independence from Haiti. They were backed by Pedro Santana, a wealthy cattle rancher from El Seibo, who became general of the army of the nascent Republic. The Dominican Republic's firstConstitution was adopted on November 6, 1844, and was modeled after the United States Constitution.[26] SONY VAIO VGN-CR21SR laptop keyboard

The decades that followed were filled with tyranny, factionalism, economic difficulties, rapid changes of government, and exile for political opponents. Threatening the nation's independence were renewed Haitian invasions occurring in 1844, 1845–49, 1849–55, and 1855–56.[47]: ACER TravelMate 8210 laptop keyboard

Meanwhile, archrivals Santana and Buenaventura Báez held power most of the time, both ruling arbitrarily. They promoted competing plans to annex the new nation to another power: Santana favored Spain, and Báez the United States.

In 1861, after imprisoning, silencing, exiling, and executing many of his opponents and due to political and economic reasons, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7340 laptop keyboard

Santana signed a pact with the Spanish Crown and reverted the Dominican nation to colonial status, the only Latin American country to do so. His ostensible aim was to protect the nation from another Haitian annexation.[50] But opponents launched the War of Restoration in 1863, led by Santiago Rodríguez, SONY VAIO PCG-FR130 laptop keyboard

Benito Monción, and Gregorio Luperón, among others. Haiti, fearful of the re-establishment of Spain as colonial power on its border, gave refuge and supplies to the revolutionaries.[50] The United States, then fighting its own Civil War, vigorously protested the Spanish action. TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9520D laptop keyboard

After two years of fighting, Spain abandoned the island in 1865.[50]

Political strife again prevailed in the following years; warlords ruled, military revolts were extremely common, and the nation amassed debt. It was now Báez's turn to act on his plan of annexing the country to the United States, where two successive presidents were supportive.[26][46][51] ACER TravelMate 6292 laptop keyboard

U.S. President Grant desired a naval base at Samaná and also a place for resettling newly freed Blacks.[52] The treaty, which included U.S. payment of $1.5 million for Dominican debt repayment, was defeated in the United States Senate in 1870[46] on a vote of 28–28, two-thirds being required.  HP Pavilion DV7-3060us laptop keyboard

Báez was toppled in 1874, returned, and was toppled for good in 1878. A new generation was thence in charge, with the passing of Santana (he died in 1864) and Báez from the scene. Relative peace came to the country in the 1880s, which saw the coming to power of General Ulises Heureaux.[56]  HP G62-b12SL laptop keyboard

"Lilís", as the new president was nicknamed, enjoyed a period of popularity. He was, however, "a consummate dissembler", who put the nation deep into debt while using much of the proceeds for his personal use and to maintain his police state. Heureaux became rampantly despotic and unpopular.[56][57] TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

In 1899 he was assassinated. However, the relative calm over which he presided allowed improvement in the Dominican economy. The sugar industry was modernized,[58]:p10 and the country attracted foreign workers and immigrants.

From 1902 on, short-lived governments were again the norm, with their power usurped by caudillos in parts of the country. TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

Furthermore, the national government was bankrupt and, unable to pay Heureaux's debts, faced the threat of military intervention by France and other European creditor powers.[59]

U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt sought to prevent European intervention, largely to protect the routes to the future Panama Canal, as the canal was already under construction. Lenovo 0A62075 laptop keyboard

He made a small military intervention to ward off the European powers, proclaimed his famous Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, and in 1905 obtained Dominican agreement for U.S. administration of Dominican customs, then the chief source of income for the Dominican government. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

A 1906 agreement provided for the arrangement to last 50 years. The United States agreed to use part of the customs proceeds to reduce the immense foreign debt of the Dominican Republic, and assumed responsibility for said debt.[26][59]

After six years in power, President Ramón Cáceres (who had himself assassinated Heureaux)[56] was assassinated in 1911. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

The result was several years of great political instability and civil war. U.S. mediation by the William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson administrations achieved only a short respite each time. A political deadlock in 1914 was broken after an ultimatum by Wilson telling Dominicans to choose a president or see the U.S. impose one. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

A provisional president was chosen, and later the same year relatively free elections put former president (1899–1902) Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra back in power. To achieve a more broadly supported government, Jimenes named opposition individuals to his Cabinet. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

But this brought no peace and, with his former Secretary of War Desiderio Arias maneuvering to depose him and despite a U.S. offer of military aid against Arias, Jimenes resigned on May 7, 1916.

Wilson thus ordered the U.S. occupation of the Dominican Republic. U.S. Marines landed on May 16, 1916, and had control of the country two months later.  HP G72-a10SV Laptop Keyboard

The military government established by the U.S., led by Rear Admiral Harry Shepard Knapp, was widely repudiated by Dominicans. U.S. naval officers had to fill some cabinet posts, as Dominicans refused to serve in the administration. Censorship and limits on public speech were imposed. DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard

The guerrilla war against the U.S. forces was met with a vigorous, often brutal response.[60]

But the occupation regime, which kept most Dominican laws and institutions, largely pacified the country, revived the economy, reduced the Dominican debt, built a road network that at last interconnected all regions of the country, and created a professional National Guard to replace the warring partisan units.[60] SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard

Opposition to the occupation continued, however, and after World War I it increased in the U.S. as well. There, PresidentWarren G. Harding (1921–23), Wilson's successor, worked to end the occupation, as he had promised to do during his campaign. U.S. government ended in October 1922, and elections were held in March 1924.[60] SONY VAIO VGN-CR150F Laptop Keyboard

The victor was former president (1902–03) Horacio Vásquez Lajara, who had cooperated with the U.S. He was inaugurated on July 13, and the last U.S. forces left in September. Vásquez gave the country six years of good government, in which political and civil rights were respected and the economy grew strongly, in a peaceful atmosphere. DELL Inspiron 9300 Laptop Keyboard

n February 1930, when Vásquez attempted to win another term, opponents rebelled, in secret alliance with the commander of the National Army (the former National Guard), General Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina, by which the latter remained 'neutral' in face of the rebellion. Vásquez resigned. DELL Latitude D505 Laptop Keyboard

Trujillo then stood for election himself, and in May was elected president virtually unopposed, after a violent campaign against his opponents.[61]

There was considerable economic growth during Trujillo's long and iron-fisted regime, although a great deal of the wealth was taken by the dictator and other regime elements. HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

There was progress in healthcare, education, and transportation, with the building of hospitals and clinics, schools, and roads and harbors. Trujillo also carried out an important housing construction program and instituted a pension plan. He finally negotiated an undisputed border with Haiti in 1935, and achieved the end of the 50-year customs agreement in 1941, instead of 1956. Lenovo 0A62075 Laptop Keyboard

He made the country debt-free in 1947.[26]

This was accompanied by absolute repression and the copious use of murder, torture, and terrorist methods against the opposition. Trujillo renamed Santo Domingo to "Ciudad Trujillo" (Trujillo City),[26] the nation's – and the Caribbean's – highest mountain HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

La Pelona Grande (Spanish for: The Great Bald) to "Pico Trujillo" (Spanish for: Trujillo Peak), and many towns and a province. Some other places he renamed after members of his family. By the end of his first term in 1934 he was the country's wealthiest person,[48]:p360 and one of the wealthiest in the world by the early 1950s;[62] near the end of his regime his fortune was an estimated $800 million.[58]:p111SONY VAIO VGN-FZ19VN laptop keyboard

In 1937 Trujillo (who was himself one-quarter Haitian),[63] in an event known as the Parsley Massacre or, in the Dominican Republic, as El Corte (The Cutting),[64] ordered the Army to kill Haitians living on the Dominican side of the border. The Army killed an estimated 17,000 to 35,000 Haitians over six days, from the night of October 2, 1937 through October 8, 1937. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5077 laptop keyboard

To avoid leaving evidence of the Army's involvement, the soldiers usedmachetes rather than bullets.[46][63][65] The soldiers of Trujillo were said to have interrogated anyone with dark skin, using the shibboleth perejil (parsley) to tell Haitians from Dominicans when necessary; the 'r' of perejil was of difficult pronunciation for Haitians.[64]  Acer eMachines E730 laptop keyboard

As a result of the massacre, the Dominican Republic agreed to pay Haiti US$750,000, later reduced to US$525,000.[50][61]

On November 25, 1960 Trujillo killed three of the four Mirabal sisters, nicknamed Las Mariposas (The Butterflies). SONY Vaio PCG-K215S laptop keyboard

The victims were Patria Mercedes Mirabal (born on February 27, 1924), Argentina Minerva Mirabal (born on March 12, 1926), and Antonia María Teresa Mirabal (born on October 15, 1935). Minerva was an aspiring lawyer who was extremely opposed to Trujillo's dictatorship since Trujillo had begun to make rude sexual advances towards her. ACER Aspire 2003WLMi laptop keyboard

The sisters have received many honors posthumously, and have many memorials in various cities in the Dominican Republic. Salcedo, their home province, changed its name toProvincia Hermanas Mirabal (Mirabal Sisters Province). The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women is observed on the anniversary of their deaths. HP G72-b20SG laptop keyboard

For a long time, the US and the Dominican elite supported the Trujillo government. This support persisted despite the assassinations of political opposition, the massacre of Haitians, and Trujillo's plots against other countries. The US believed Trujillo was the lesser of two or more evils.[64] SONY KFRMBA151B laptop keyboard

The U.S. finally broke with Trujillo in 1960, after Trujillo's agents attempted to assassinate the Venezuelan president, Rómulo Betancourt, a fierce critic of Trujillo.[61][66]Trujillo was assassinated on May 30, 1961.[61]

In February 1963, a democratically elected government under leftist Juan Bosch took office but was overthrown in September. GATEWAY M-6333 laptop keyboard

In April 1965, after 19 months of military rule, a pro-Bosch revolt broke out.[67] Days later, U.S. President Lyndon Johnson, concerned that Communists might take over the revolt and create a "second Cuba", sent the Marines, followed immediately by the Army's 82nd Airborne Division and other elements of the XVIIIth Airborne Corps in Operation ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

Powerpack. "We don't propose to sit here in a rocking chair with our hands folded and let the Communist set up any government in the western hemisphere", Johnson said.[68] The forces were soon joined by comparatively small contingents from the Organization of American States. HP Pavilion dv6-2131so laptop keyboard

All these remained in the country for over a year and left after supervising elections in 1966 won by Joaquín Balaguer, who had been Trujillo's last puppet-president.[26][69]

Balaguer remained in power as president for 12 years. His tenure was a period of repression of human rights and civil liberties, ostensibly to keep pro-Castro or pro-communist parties out of power. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5077 laptop keyboard

His rule was further criticized for a growing disparity between rich and poor. It was, however, praised for an ambitious infrastructure program, which included large housing projects, sports complexes, theaters, museums, aqueducts, roads, highways, and the massive Columbus Lighthouse, completed in a subsequent tenure in 1992.  HP Pavilion dv6-2131so laptop keyboard

In 1978, Balaguer was succeeded in the presidency by opposition candidate Antonio Guzmán Fernández, of the Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD). Another PRD win in 1982 followed, under Salvador Jorge Blanco. Under the PRD presidents, the Dominican Republic experienced a period of relative freedom and basic human rights. SONY VAIO VGN-AR370E laptop keyboard

Balaguer regained the presidency in 1986, and was re-elected in 1990 and 1994, this last time just defeating PRD candidate José Francisco Peña Gómez, a former mayor of Santo Domingo. The 1994 elections were flawed, bringing on international pressure, to which Balaguer responded by scheduling another presidential contest in 1996.[1]  HP Pavilion DV6-1027nr laptop keyboard

This time Leonel Fernández achieved the first-ever win for the Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), which Bosch founded in 1973 after leaving the PRD (also founded by Bosch). Fernández oversaw a fast-growing economy, with growth averaging 7.7% per year, a drop in unemployment, and stable exchange and inflation rates. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

In 2000 the PRD's Hipólito Mejía won the election. This was a time of economic troubles,[70] and Mejía was defeated in his re-election effort in 2004 by Fernández, who won re-election in 2008.[17] Fernández and the PLD are credited with initiatives that have moved the country forward technologically, TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard

such as the construction of the Metro Railway ("El Metro"). On the other hand, his administrations have also been accused of corruption.[70] Danilo Medina of the same PLD party was elected president in 2012 under the promise of investing more on social programs and education and less on infrastructure. ASUS F9J laptop keyboard

The Dominican Republic is situated on the eastern part of the second-largest island in the Greater Antilles, Hispaniola. It shares the island roughly at a 2:1 ratio with Haiti. The country's area is reported variously as 48,442 km2 (18,704 sq mi) (by the embassy in the United States)[3] and 48,730 km2 (18,815 sq mi) (by the U.S. CIA),[1] ACER Aspire 4315 laptop keyboard

making it the second largest country in the Antilles, after Cuba. The country's capital and greatest metropolitan area, Santo Domingo, is located on the southern coast. The country lies between latitudes 17° and 20°N, and longitudes 68° and 72°W.

There are many small offshore islands and cays that are part of the Dominican territory. Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard

The two largest islands near shore are Saona, in the southeast, and Beata, in the southwest. To the north, at distances of 100–200 kilometres (62–124 mi), are three extensive, largely submerged banks, which geographically are a southeast continuation of the Bahamas: Navidad Bank,Silver Bank, and Mouchoir Bank. ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard

Navidad Bank and Silver Bank have been officially claimed by the Dominican Republic.

The country's mainland has four important mountain ranges. The most northerly is the Cordillera Septentrional ("Northern Mountain Range"), which extends from the northwestern coastal town of Monte Cristi, near the Haitian border, DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard

to the Samaná Peninsula in the east, running parallel to the Atlantic coast. The highest range in the Dominican Republic – indeed, in the whole of the West Indies – is the Cordillera Central ("Central Mountain Range"). It gradually bends southwards and finishes near the town of Azua, on the Caribbean coast.

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In the Cordillera Central are found the four highest peaks in the Caribbean: Pico Duarte (3,098 metres or 10,164 feet above sea level), La Pelona (3,094 metres or 10,151 feet), La Rucilla (3,049 metres or 10,003 feet) and Pico Yaque (2,760 metres or 9,055 feet).  Lenovo 0A62075 Laptop Keyboard

In the southwest corner of the country, south of the Cordillera Central, there are two other ranges. The more northerly of the two is the Sierra de Neiba, while in the south the Sierra de Bahoruco is a continuation of the Massif de la Selle in Haiti. There are other, minor mountain ranges, such as the Cordillera Oriental ("Eastern Mountain Range"), Sierra Martín GarcíaSierra de Yamasá and Sierra de SamanáHP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard

Between the Central and Northern mountain ranges lies the rich and fertile Cibao valley. This major valley is home to the city of Santiago and most of the farming areas in the nation. Rather less productive is the semi-arid San Juan Valley, south of the Central Cordillera. Still more arid is the Neiba Valley, SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

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tucked between the Sierra de Neiba and the Sierra de Bahoruco. Much of the land in the Enriquillo Basin is below sea level, with a hot, arid, desert-like environment. There are other smaller valleys in the mountains, such as the Constanza, Jarabacoa, Villa Altagracia, and Bonao valleys. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

The Llano Costero del Caribe ("Caribbean Coastal Plain") is the largest of the plains in the Dominican Republic. Stretching north and east of Santo Domingo, it contains many sugar plantations in the savannahs that are common there. West of Santo Domingo its width is reduced to 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) as it hugs the coast, FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard

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finishing at the mouth of the Ocoa River. Another large plain is the Plena de Azua ("Azua Plain"), a very dry region in Azua Province.

A few other small coastal plains are in the northern coast and in the Pedernales Peninsula.

Four major rivers drain the numerous mountains of the Dominican Republic. HP G42-362LA Laptop Keyboard

The Yaque del Norte is the longest and most important Dominican river. It carries excess water down from the Cibao Valley and empties into Monte Cristi Bay, in the northwest. Likewise, theYuna River serves the Vega Real and empties into Samaná Bay, in the northeast.  SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard

Drainage of the San Juan Valley is provided by the San Juan River, tributary of the Yaque del Sur, which empties into the Caribbean, in the south. The Artibonito is the longest river of Hispaniola and flows westward into Haiti.

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