Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
6 décembre 2013 5 06 /12 /décembre /2013 08:04

http://www.all-laptopfan.com/,http://www.all-keyboard.com/

The economy of Mexico is the 13th largest in the world in nominal terms and the 11th by purchasing power parity, according to the World Bank. Since the 1994 crisis, administrations have improved the country'smacroeconomic fundamentals. Mexico was not significantly influenced by the recent 2002 South American crisis, and maintained positive, although low, rates of growth after a brief period of stagnation in 2001. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

However, Mexico was one of the Latin American nations most affected by the 2008 recession with its Gross Domestic Product contracting by more than 6%. Moody's (in March 2000) and Fitch IBCA (in January 2002) issued investment-grade ratings for Mexico's sovereign debt. In spite of its unprecedented macroeconomic stability, which has reduced inflation and interest rates to record lows and has increased per capita income, DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

enormous gaps remain between the urban and the rural population, the northern and southern states, and the rich and the poor.[13] Some of the government's challenges include the upgrade of infrastructure, the modernization of the tax system and labor laws, and the reduction of income inequality.

The economy contains rapidly developing modern industrial and service sectors, with increasing private ownership. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Recent administrations have expanded competition in ports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution and airports, with the aim of upgrading infrastructure. As an export-oriented economy, more than 90% of Mexican trade is under free trade agreements (FTAs) with more than 40 countries, including the European Union, Japan, Israel, and much of Central and South America. FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

The most influential FTA is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which came into effect in 1994, and was signed in 1992 by the governments of the United States, Canada and Mexico. In 2006, trade with Mexico's two northern partners accounted for almost 90% of its exports and 55% of its imports.[14] Recently, the Congress of the Union approved important tax, pension and judicial reforms, and reform to the oil industry is currently being debated. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

According to the Forbes Global 2000 list of the world's largest companies in 2008, Mexico had 16 companies in the list.[15]

Mexico's labor force is 78 million. The OECD and WTO both rank Mexican workers as the hardest working in the world in terms of the amount of hours worked yearly, although profitability per man-hour remains low. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

Mexican president Porfirio Díaz brought unprecedented economic growth during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. This growth was accompanied by foreign investment and European immigration, the development of an efficient railroad network and the exploitation of the country's natural resources. Annual economic growth between 1876 and 1910 averaged 3.3%.[21] ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

Political repression and fraud, as well as huge income inequalities exacerbated by the land distribution system based on latifundios, in which large haciendas were owned by a few but worked bymillions of underpaid peasants living in precarious conditions, led to the Mexican Revolution (1910–1917), an armed conflict that drastically transformed Mexico's political, social, cultural, and economical structure during the twentieth century under a premise of social democracy. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The war itself, however, left a harsh toll in the economy and population, which decreased over the 11-year period between 1910 and 1921. The reconstruction of the country was to take place in the following decades.

The period from 1930 to 1970 was dubbed by economic historians as the "Mexican Miracle", a period of economic growth that followed the end of the Mexican Revolution and the resumption of capital accumulation during peacetime. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

During this period the nation adopted the economic model of import substitution industrialization (ISI) which protected and promoted the development of national industries. The country experienced an economic boom through which industries rapidly expanded their production.[22] Important changes in the economic structure included free land distribution to peasants under the concept of ejidoFUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

the nationalization of the oil and railroad companies, the introduction of social rights into the constitution, the birth of large and influential labor unions, and the upgrading of infrastructure. While population doubled from 1940 to 1970, GDP increased sixfold during the same period.[23]

Growth while under the ISI model had reached its peak in the late 1960s. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

During the 1970s, the administrations of Echeverría and López Portillo, tried to include social development in their policies, an effort that entailed more public spending. With the discovery of vast oil fields in a time in which oil prices were surging and international interest rates were low -and even negative- the government decided to borrow from international capital markets to invest in the state-owned oil company, Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

which in turn seemed to provide a long-run income source to promote social welfare. In fact, this method produced a remarkable growth in public expenditure,[22] and president López Portillo announced that the time had come to "manage prosperity"[24] as Mexico multiplied its oil production to become the world's fourth largest exporter. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

In the period of 1981–1982 the international panorama changed abruptly: oil prices plunged and interest rates rose. In 1982, president López Portillo, just before ending his administration, suspended payments of foreign debt, devalued thepeso and nationalized the banking system, along with many other industries that were severely affected by the crisis, among them the steel industry. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

While import substitution had been in use during an era of industrialization, by the 1980s it was evident that the protracted protection had produced an uncompetitive industrial sector with low productivity gains.[22]

President de la Madrid was the first of a series of presidents that began to implement neoliberal reforms. After the crisis of 1982, lenders were unwilling to return to Mexico and, in order to keep the current account in balance, DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

the government resorted to currency devaluations, which in turn sparked unprecedented inflation,[22] which reached a historic high in 1987 at 139.7%.[29]

The first step toward the liberalization of trade was Mexico's signature of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT) in 1986. During the Salinas administration many state-owned companies were privatized. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

In 1992, the North American Free Trade Agreement was signed between the United States, Canada and Mexico, and after the signature of two additional supplements on environments and labor standards, it came into effect on January 1, 1994. Salinas also introduced strict price controls and negotiated smaller minimum wage increments with labor unions with the aim of curbing inflation. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

While his strategy was successful in reducing inflation, growth averaged only 2.8 percent a year.[22] Moreover, by fixing the exchange rate, the peso became rapidly overvalued while consumer spending increased, causing the current account deficit to reach 7% of GDP in 1994. The deficit was financed through tesobonos a type of public debt instrument that reassured payment in dollars.[30] HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

The Chiapas uprising, and the assassinations of the ruling party's presidential candidate, Luis Donaldo Colosio and the Secretary-General of the party and brother of the Assistant-Attorney General José Francisco Ruiz Massieu in 1994, sent a disquieting message to investors. Public debt holders rapidly sold their tesobonos, depleting the Central Bank's reserves,[30]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

while portfolio investments, which had made up 90% of total investment flows, left the country as fast as they had come in.[22] This unsustainable situation eventually forced the entrant Zedillo administration to abandon the fixed exchange rate. The peso sharply devalued and the country entered into an economic crisis in December 1994. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

The boom in exports, as well as an international rescue package crafted by American president Bill Clinton, helped cushion the crisis. In less than 18 months, the economy was growing again, and annual rate growth averaged 5.1 percent between 1995 and 2000.[22]

President Zedillo and president Fox continued with trade liberalization and during his administrations several FTAs were signed with Latin American and European countries, SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

Japan and Israel, and both strove to maintain macroeconomic stability. Thus, Mexico became one of the most open countries in the world to trade, and the economy base shifted accordingly. Total trade with the United States and Canada tripled, and total exports and imports almost quadrupled between 1991 and 2003.[31] The nature of foreign investment also changed with a greater share of foreign-direct investment (FDI) over portfolio investment. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

Mexico's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) was estimated at US $1,748.908 billion in 2012, and $1,231.642 billion in nominal exchange rates.[14] As such, its standard of living, as measured in GDP in PPP per capita was US $15,782.897. The World Bank reported in 2009 that the country's Gross National Income in market exchange rates was the second highest in Latin America, HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

after Brazil at US $1,830.392 billion,[32] which lead to the highestincome per capita in the region at $14,400.[33] As such, Mexico is now firmly established as an upper middle-income country. After the slowdown of 2001 the country has recovered and has grown 4.2, 3.0 and 4.8 percent in 2004, 2005 and 2006,[34] even though it is considered to be well below Mexico's potential growth.[30] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The Mexican currency is the peso (ISO 4217: MXN; symbol: $). One peso is divided into 100 centavos (cents). MXN replaced MXP in 1993 at a rate of 1000 MXP per 1 MXN. The exchanged rate has remained stable since 1998, oscillating between 10.20 and 11=3.50 MXN per US$. Interest rates in 2007 were situated at around 7 percent,[35] HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

having reached a historic low in 2002 below 5 percent. Inflation rates are also at historic lows; the inflation rate in Mexico in 2006 was 4.1 percent, and 3 percent by the end of 2007. Unemployment rates are the lowest of all OECD member countries at 3.2 percent. However, underemployment is estimated at 25 percent.[14] Mexico's Human development index was reported at 0.829,[36] HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

(comprising a life expectancy index of 0.84, an education index of 0.86 and a GDP index of 0.77), ranking 52 in the world within the group of high-development.

Poverty and income disparity has been a persistent problem in Mexico, and while the recent exponential growth of the economy has caused an overall fall in the percentage of the population living in conditions of poverty, this fall has not been proportional to the general growth. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Currently 17% of the population lives below Mexico's own poverty line, making Mexico rank behind Kazakhstan, Bulgaria and Thailand. The overall poverty rate however is 44.2%, while a full 70% lack one of the 8 economic indicators used to define poverty by the Mexican government.[37] From the late 1990s, the majority of the population has been part of the growing middle class.[13] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

But from 2004 to 2008 the portion of the population who received less than half of the median income has risen from 17% to 21% and the absolute levels of poverty have risen considerably from 2006 to 2010, with a rise in persons living in extreme or moderate poverty rising from 35 to 46% (52 million persons).[38][39] This is also reflected by the fact that infant mortality in Mexico is three times higher than the OECD average, and literacy levels are in the median range of OECD nations. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

A single person in Mexico has a net worth equal to eight percent of GDP: Carlos Slim.[40]Additionally, only ten percent of Mexicans represent 25% of Mexican GDP. A smaller group, 3.5%, represent 12.5% of Mexican GDP.[41]

According to the OECD, Mexico is the country with the second highest degree of economic disparity between the extremely poor and extremely rich, after Chile - although this gap has been diminishing over the last decade. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

The bottom ten percent on the income rung disposes of 1.36% of the country's resources, whereas the upper 10% dispose of almost 36%. OECD also notes that Mexico's budgeted expenses for poverty alleviation and social development is only about a third of the OECD average - both in absolute and relative numbers.[38] According to the World Bank, in 2004, 17.6% of Mexico's population lived in extreme poverty, while 21% lived in moderated poverty. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Remittances, or contributions sent by Mexicans living abroad, mostly in the United States, to their families at home in Mexico, are a substantial and growing part of the Mexican economy; they comprised $18 billion in 2005.[43] In 2004, they became the tenth largest source of foreign income after oil, industrial exports, manufactured goods, electronics, heavy industry, automobiles, construction, food, and banking & financial services. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

Remittances are a larger part of the Mexican economy than tourism expenditures and represented 2.1 percent of the nation's Gross Domestic Product.[44] The growth of remittances has been remarkable: they have more than doubled since 1997, although they have since decreased somewhat [45] Recorded remittance transactions exceeded 41 million in 2003, of which 86 percent were made by electronic transfer.[46] ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

The Mexican government, cognizant of the economic viability of immigrant workers, began issuing an upgraded version of the Matrícula Consular de Alta Seguridad(MACS, High Security Consular Identification), an identity document issued at Mexican consulates abroad. This document is now accepted as a valid identity card in 32 US states, as well as thousands of police agencies, hundreds of cities and counties, as well as banking institutions.[46] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

The main receptors of remittances in 2004 were the states of Michoacán, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Mexico and Puebla, which jointly captured 45% of total remittances in that year.[44] Several state governments, with the support of the federal government, have implemented programs to use part of the remittances to finance public works. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

This program, called Dos por Uno (Two for every one) is designed in a way that for each peso contributed by migrants from their remittances, the state and the federal governments will invest two pesos in building infrastructure at their home communities.

Regional disparities and income inequality continue to be a problem in Mexico. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

While all constituent states of the federation have a Human Development Index (HDI) superior to 0.70 (medium to high development), northern and central states have higher levels of HDI than the southern states. Nuevo León, Campeche and the Federal District have HDI levels similar to European countries, whereas that of Oaxaca and Chiapas is similar to that of Syria or Egypt.[48] Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

At the municipal level, disparities are even greater: Delegacion Benito Juarez in Mexico City has an HDI similar to that of Germany or New Zealand, whereas, Metlatonoc in Guerrero, would have an HDI similar to that of Malawi. The majority of the federal entities with high development (superior to 0.80) are located in the northern region (with the exception ofColima, Jalisco, HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

Aguascalientes, the Federal District, Querétaro, as well as the southeastern states of Quintana Roo andCampeche). The less developed states (with medium development in terms of HDI, superior to 0.70) are located at the southern Pacific coast.

In terms of share in GDP per sector (in 2004), the largest contributors in agriculture are Jalisco (9.7%),Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Sinaloa(7.7%) and Veracruz (7.6%); the greatest contributors in industrial production are the Federal District (15.8%), State of México (11.8%) and Nuevo León (7.9%); the greatest contributors in the service sector are also the Federal District (25.3%), State of México (8.9%) and Nuevo León (7.5%).[49]

Since the 1980s, the economy has slowly become less centralized; TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

the annual rate of GDP growth of the Federal District from 2003–2004 was the smallest of all federal entities at a mere 0.23%, with drastic drops in the agriculture and industrial sectors. Nonetheless, it still accounts for 21.8% of the nation's GDP. The states with the highest GDP growth rates are Quintana Roo (9.04%), Baja California (8.89%), and San Luis Potosí (8.18%).[50] ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

In 2000, the federal entities with the highest GDP per capita in Mexico were the Federal District (US $26,320), Campeche (US $18,900) and Nuevo León (US $30,250); the states with the lowest GDP per capita were Chiapas (US $3,302), Oaxaca (US $4,100) and Guerrero (US $6,800).

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) in 2006 was estimated at US $1.134 trillion, Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

and GDP per capita in PPP at US $10,600.[14] The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 70.5%, followed by the industrial sector at 25.7% (2006 est.). Agriculture represents only 3.9% of GDP (2006 est.). Mexican labor force is estimated at 38 million of which 18% is occupied in agriculture, 24% in the industry sector and 58% in the service sector (2003 est.). HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

After the Mexican Revolution Mexico began an agrarian reform, based on the 27th article of the Mexican Constitution than included transfer of land and/or free land distribution to peasants and small farmers under the concept of the ejido.[53]This program was further extended during President Cárdenas' administration during the 1930s[54] and continued into the 1960s at varying rates.[55] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

The cooperative agrarian reform, which guaranteed small farmers a means of subsistence livelihood, also caused land fragmentation and lack of capital investment, since commonly held land could not be used as collateral. In an effort to raise rural productivity and living standards, this constitutional article was amended in 1992 to allow for the transfer of property rights of the communal lands to farmers cultivating it.[56] HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

With the ability to rent or sell it, a way was open for the creation of larger farms and the advantages of economies of scale. Large mechanized farms are now operating in some northwestern states (mainly in Sinaloa). However, privatization of ejidoscontinues to be very slow in the central and southern states where the great majority of peasants produce only for subsistence. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

Up until the 1990s, the government encouraged the production of basic crops (mainly corn and beans) by maintaining support prices and controlling imports through the National Company for Popular Subsistence (CONASUPO). With trade liberalization, however, CONASUPO was to be gradually dismantled and two new mechanisms were implemented: Alianza and Procampo. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

Alianza provides income payments and incentives for mechanization and advanced irrigation systems. Procampo is an income transfer subsidy to farmers. This support program provides 3.5 million farmers who produce basic commodities (mostly corn), and which represent 64% of all farmers, with a fixed income transfer payment per unit of area of cropland. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

This subsidy increased substantially during president Fox's administration, mainly to white corn producers in order to reduce the amount of imports from the United States. This program has been successful, and in 2004, roughly only 15% of corn imports are white corn –the one used for human consumption and the type that is mostly grown in Mexico– as opposed to 85% of yellow and crashed corn –the one use for feeding livestock, and which is barely produced in Mexico. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

Agriculture, as a percentage of GDP, has been steadily declining, and now resembles that of developed nations, in that it plays a smaller role in the economy. In 2006, agriculture accounted for only 3.9% of GDP,[14] down from 7% in 1980,[58]and 25% in 1970.[59] Nonetheless, given the historic structure of ejidos, it still employs a considerably high percentage of the work force: 18% in 2003,[14Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

] mostly of which grows basic crops for subsistence, compared to 2–5% in developed nations in which production is highly mechanized.

In spite of being a staple in the Mexican diet, Mexico's comparative advantage in agriculture is not in corn, but in horticulture, tropical fruits, and vegetables. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

Negotiators of NAFTA expected that through liberalization and mechanization of agriculture two-thirds of Mexican corn producers would naturally shift from corn production to horticultural and other labor-intensive crops such as fruits, nuts, vegetables, coffee and sugar cane.[60] While horticultural trade has drastically increased due to NAFTA, it has not absorbed displaced workers from corn production (estimated at around 600,000).[57] HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

Moreover, corn production has remained stable (at 20 million metric tons), arguably, as a result of income support to farmers, or a reluctance to abandon a millenarian tradition in Mexico: not only have peasants grown corn for millennia, corn originated in Mexico. Even today, Mexico is still the fourth largest corn producer in the world. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

The area dedicated to potatoes has changed little since 1980 and average yields have almost tripled since 1961. Production reached a record 1.7 million tonnes in 2003. Per capita consumption of potato in Mexico stands at 17 kg a year, very low compared to its maize intake of 400 kg.[61] On average, potato farms in Mexico are larger than those devoted to more basic food crops. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

Potato production in Mexico is mostly for commercial purposes; the production for household consumption is very small.Approximately 160,000 medium-sized farmers grow sugar cane in 15 Mexican states; currently there are 54 sugar mills around the country that produced 4.96 million tons of sugar in the 2010 crop, compared to 5.8 million tons in 2005.[63]SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

Mexico's sugar industry is characterized by high production costs and lack of investment. Mexico produces more sugar than it consumes.[64] Sugar cane is grown on 700,000 farms in Mexico with a yield of 72 metric tons per farm.

The industrial sector as a whole has benefited from trade liberalization; in 2000 it accounted for almost 90% of all export earnings. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

Among the most important industrial manufacturers in Mexico is the automotive industry, whose standards of quality are internationally recognized. The automobile sector in Mexico differs from that in other Latin American countries and developing nations in that it does not function as a mere assembly manufacturer. The industry produces technologically complex components and engages in some research and development activities, HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

an example of that is the new Volkswagen Jetta model with up to 70% of parts designed in Mexico.[31][66] The "Big Three" (General Motors, Ford andChrysler) have been operating in Mexico since the 1930s, while Volkswagen and Nissanbuilt their plants in the 1960s.[67] Later, Toyota, Honda, BMW, and Mercedes-Benzjoined in. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Given the high requirements of North American components in the industry, many European and Asian parts suppliers have also moved to Mexico: in Puebla alone, 70 industrial part-makers cluster around Volkswagen.[31] The relatively small domestic car industry still is represented by DINA Camiones S.A. de C.V., a manufacturer of trucks, busses and military vehicles, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

which through domestic production and purchases of foreign bus manufacturers has become the largest bus manufacturer in the world; Vehizero that builds hybrid trucks[68] and the new car companies Mastretta design that builds the Mastretta MXTsports car and Autobuses King that plans to build 10000 microbuses by 2015,[ HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

nevertheless new car companies are emerging among them CIMEX that has developed a sport utility truck, the Conin, and it is to be released in September 2010 in Mexico's national auto show,[72] And the new electric car maker Grupo Electrico Motorizado.

Some large industries of Mexico include Cemex, the worlds largest construction company and the third largest cement producer[74] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

the alcohol beverage industries, including world-renowned players like Grupo Modelo; conglomerates like FEMSA, which apart from being the largest single producer of alcoholic beverages and owning multiple commercial interests such OXXOconvenience store chain, is also the second-largest Coca-Cola bottler in the world; Gruma, the largest producer of corn flour and tortillas in the world; and Grupo Bimbo, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Telmex, Televisa, among many others. In 2005, according to the World Bank, high-tech industrial production represented 19.6% of total exports.[75]

Maquiladoras (Mexican factories which take in imported raw materials and produce goods for domestic consumption and export on behalf of foreign companies) have become the landmark of trade in Mexico. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

This sector has benefited from NAFTA, in that real income in the maquiladora sector has increased 15.5% since 1994, though from the non-maquiladora sector has grown much faster.[30] Contrary to popular belief, this should be no surprise since maquiladora's products could enter the US duty free since the 1960s industry agreement. Other sectors now benefit from the free trade agreement, and the share of exports from non-border states has increased in the last 5 years while the share of exports from maquiladora-border states has decreased. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

Currently Mexico is focusing in developing an aerospace industry and the assembly of helicopter and regional jet aircraft fuselages is taking place. Foreign firms such as MD Helicopters,[76] Bell,[77] Cessna[78] and Bombardier[79] build helicopter, aircraft and regional jets fuselages in Mexico. Although the Mexican aircraft industry is mostly foreign, as is its car industry, Mexican firms have been founded such as Aeromarmi,[80] Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

which builds light propeller airplanes, and Hydra Technologies, which builds Unmanned Aerial Vehicles such as the S4 Ehécatl, other important companies are Frisa Aerospace that manufactures jet engine parts for the new Mitsubishi Regional jet and supplies Prat&whittney and rolls Royce jet engine manufacturers of casings for jet engines[and Kuo Aerospace that builds parts for aircraft landing gear and Supplies bombardier plant in Querétaro[84] Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

As compared with the United States or countries in Western Europe a larger sector of Mexico's industrial economy is food manufacturing which includes several world class companies but the regional industry is undeveloped. There are national brands that have become international and local Mom and Pop producers but little manufacturing in between. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

The electronics industry of Mexico has grown enormously within the last decade. Mexico has the sixth largest electronics industry in the world after China, United States, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Mexico is the second largest exporter of electronics to the United States where it exported $71.4 billion worth of electronics in 2011.[85] The Mexican electronics industry is dominated by the manufacture and OEM design of televisions, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

displays, computers, mobile phones, circuit boards, semiconductors, electronic appliances, communications equipment and LCD modules. The Mexican electronics industry grew 20% between 2010 and 2011, up from its constant growth rate of 17% between 2003 and 2009.[85] Currently electronics represent 30% of Mexico's exports. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

The design and manufacture of flat panel plasma, LCD and LED televisions is the single largest sector of the Mexican electronics industry, representing 25% of Mexico's electronics export revenue.[85] In 2009 Mexico surpassed South Korea and China as the largest manufacturer of televisions,[86][87] with Sony,[88] Toshiba,[89] DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

Samsung,[90] Sharp (through Semex),[91][92]Zenith[93]LG,[94] Lanix,[95] TCL,[96] RCA,[97] Phillips,[98] Elcoteq,[99] Tatung,[100] Panasonic,[101] and Vizio[91][102] manufacturing CRT, LCD, LED and Plasma televisions in Mexico. Due to Mexico's position as the largest manufacturer of television it is known as the television capital of the world[91] in the electronics industry.HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

Mexico is the third largest manufacturer of computers in the world with both domestic companies such as Lanix,[103] Texa,[104] Meebox,[105] Spaceit,[106] Kyoto[107]and foreign companies such as Dell,[108][109] Sony, HP,[110] Acer[111] Compaq,[112] Samsung and Lenovo[113][114] manufacturing various types of computers across the country. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

Mexico is also home to a large number of OEM and ODM manufactures both foreign and domestic. Among them include Foxconn,[115]Celestica, Sanmina-SCI,[116][117] Jabil,[118] Elcoteq,[119][120] Falco,[121] Kimball International, Compal,[122] Benchmark Electronics,[123] Plexus, Lanix[124] and Flextronics.[125][126] ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

These companies assemble finished electronics or design and manufacture electronic components on behalf of larger companies such as Sony or Microsoft using locally sourced components, for example the ODM, Flextronics manufactures Xbox video games systems in Guadalajara, Mexico[127][128] for Microsoft using components such as power systems and printed circuit boards from a local company, Falco Electronics which acts as the OEM. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

The success and rapid growth of the Mexican electronics sector is driven primarily by the relatively low cost of manufacturing and design in Mexico; its strategic position as a major consumer electronics market coupled with its proximity to both the large North American and South American markets whom Mexico shares free trade agreements with; ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

government support in the form of low business taxes, simplified access to loans and capital for both foreign multinational and domestic startup tech based firms; and a very large pool of highly skilled, educated labor across all sectors of the tech industry. For example, German multinational engineering and electronics conglomerate Siemens has a significant Mexican base, which also serves as its business and strategy hub for Central American countries and the Caribbean region.[130] Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

There are almost half a million (451,000) students enrolled in electronics engineering programs[131] with an additional 114,000 electronics engineers entering the Mexican workforce each year[85] and Mexico had over half a million (580,000) certified electronic engineering professionals employed in 2007.[87] From the late 1990s, Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

the Mexican electronics industry began to shift away from simple line assembly to more advanced work such as research, design, and the manufacture of advanced electronics systems such as LCD panels, semiconductors, printed circuit boards, microelectronics, microprocessors, chipsets and heavy electronic industrial equipment and in 2006 the number of certified engineers being graduated annually in Mexico surpassed that of the United States.[132COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

] 

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys
commenter cet article

commentaires