Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
22 octobre 2013 2 22 /10 /octobre /2013 06:59

 Edward began the construction of the presentSt. George's Chapel in 1475, resulting in the dismantling of several of the older buildings in the Lower Ward.[105] By building the grand chapel Edward was seeking to show that his new dynasty were the permanent rulers of England, HP Pavilion dv7-6055sf CPU Fan

and may also have been attempting to deliberately rival the similar chapel that Henry VI had ordered to be constructed at nearby Eton College.[102] Richard III made only a brief use of Windsor Castle before his defeat at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, but had the body of Henry VI moved from Chertsey Abbey in Surrey to the castle to allow it to be visited by pilgrims more easily.[106] SONY VGN-CS108D  CPU Fan

Henry VII made more use of Windsor. In 1488, shortly after succeeding to the throne, he held a massive feast for the Order of the Garter at the castle.[107] He completed the roof of St George's Chapel, and set about converting the older eastern Lady Chapel into a proposed shrine to Henry VI, whose canonisation was then considered imminent.[107] DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

In the event, Henry VI was not canonised and the project was abandoned, although the shrine continued to attract a flood of pilgrims.[108] Henry VII appears to have remodelled the King's Chamber in the palace, and had the roof of the Great Kitchen rebuilt in 1489.[109HP Pavilion G72-b15SV CPU Fan

] He also built a three-storied tower on the west end of the palace, which he used for his personal apartments.[110] Windsor began to be used for international diplomatic events, including the grand visit of Philip I of Castile in 1506.[107] William de la Pole, one of the surviving Yorkist claimants to the throne, HP G62-120ES CPU Fan

was imprisoned at Windsor Castle during Henry's reign, before his execution in 1513.

Henry VIII enjoyed Windsor Castle, as a young man "exercising himself daily in shooting, singing, dancing, wrestling, casting of the bar, playing at the recorders, flute, virginals, in setting of songs and making of ballads".[112] HP Pavilion dv6-3034ss   CPU   Fan

The tradition of the Garter Feasts was maintained and became more extravagant; the size of the royal retinue visiting Windsor had to be restricted because of the growing numbers.[113] During the Pilgrimage of Grace, a huge uprising in the north of England against Henry's rule in 1536, HP Pavilion dv7-3165ef  CPU Fan

the king used Windsor as a secure base in the south from which to manage his military response.[114] Throughout the Tudor period, Windsor was also used as a safe retreat in the event of plagues occurring in London.[115]

Henry rebuilt the principal castle gateway in about 1510 and constructed a tennis court at the base of the motte in the Upper Ward.[116] HP X16-1000 Series CPU Fan

He also built a long terrace, called the North Wharf, along the outside wall of the Upper Ward; constructed of wood, it was designed to provide a commanding view of the River Thames below.[109] The design included an outside staircase into the king's apartments, which made the monarch's life more comfortable at the expense of considerably weakening the castle's defences.[117] IBM ThinkPad Z61m  CPU Fan

Early in his reign, Henry had given the eastern Lady Chapel to Cardinal Wolsey for Wolsey's future mausoleum.[118] Benedetto Grazzini converted much of this into an Italian Renaissance design, before Wolsey's fall from power brought an end to the project, with contemporaries estimating that around £60,000 (£295 million in 2008 terms) had been spent on the work.[119] ACER Aspire One D250 CPU Fan

 Henry continued the project, but it remained unfinished when he himself was buried in the chapel, in an elaborate funeral in 1547.

By contrast, the young Edward VI disliked Windsor Castle.[121] Edward's Protestant beliefs led him to simplify the Garter ceremonies, to discontinue the annual Feast of the Garter at Windsor and to remove any signs of Catholic practices with the Order.[122] ACER Ferrari 4000 CPU Fan

During the rebellions and political strife of 1549, Windsor was again used as a safe-haven for the king and the Duke of Somerset.[123] Edward famously commented whilst staying at Windsor Castle during this period that "Methink I am in a prison, here are no galleries, nor no gardens to walk in".[121HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

] Under both Edward and his sister, Mary I, some limited building work continued at the castle, in many cases using resources recovered from the English abbeys.[124] Water was piped into the Upper Ward to create a fountain.[109] Mary also expanded the buildings used by the Knights of Windsor in the Lower Ward, using stone from Reading Abbey.[109] Toshiba Satellite L350-146 CPU Fan

Elizabeth I spent much of her time at Windsor Castle and used it a safe haven in crises, "knowing it could stand a siege if need be".[125] Ten new brass cannons were purchased for the castle's defence.[126] It became one of her favourite locations and she spent more money on the property than on any of her other palaces.[127] HP Pavilion dv8335ea CPU Fan

She conducted some modest building works at Windsor, including a wide range of repairs to the existing structures.[128] She converted the North Wharf into a permanent, huge stone terrace, complete with statues, carvings and an octagonal, outdoor banqueting house, raising the western end of the terrace to provide more privacy.[129] Dell Vostro 3400 CPU Fan

The chapel was refitted with stalls, a gallery and a new ceiling.[130] A bridge was built over the ditch to the south of the castle to enable easier access to the park.[127] Elizabeth built a gallery range of buildings on the west end of the Upper Ward, alongside Henry VII's tower.[131] HP G62-374CA CPU Fan

Elizabeth increasingly used the castle for diplomatic engagements, but space continued to prove a challenge as the property was simply not as large as the more modern royal palaces.[132] This flow of foreign visitors was captured for the queen's entertainment in William Shakespeare's play, The Merry Wives of WindsorHP Pavilion dv5-1203eg CPU Fan

James I used Windsor Castle primarily as a base for hunting, one of his favourite pursuits, and for socialising with his friends.[134] Many of these occasions involved extensive drinking sessions, including one with Christian IV of Denmark in 1606 that became infamous across Europe for the resulting drunken behaviour of the two kings.[ HP Pavilion dv7-3131ez CPU Fan

The absence of space at Windsor continued to prove problematic, with James' English and Scottish retinues often quarrelling over rooms.[135]

Charles I was a connoisseur of art, and paid greater attention to the aesthetic aspects of Windsor Castle than his predecessors.[136] Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

Charles had the castle completely surveyed by a team including Inigo Jones in 1629, but little of the recommended work was carried out.[130] Nonetheless, Charles employed Nicholas Stoneto improve the chapel gallery in the Mannerist style and to construct a gateway in the North Terrace.[130] SONY Vaio VGN-CR23/N CPU Fan

Christian van Vianen, a noted Dutch goldsmith, was employed to produce a baroque gold service for the St George's Chapel altar. In the final years of peace, Charles demolished the fountain in the Upper Ward, intending to replace it with a classical statue.[137]

In 1642 the English Civil War broke out, dividing the country into the Royalist supporters of Charles, and the Parliamentarians.HP Pavilion dv6-3043tx CPU Fan

In the aftermath of the battle of Edgehill in October, Parliament became concerned that Charles might advance on London.[138] John Venn took control of Windsor Castle with twelve companies of foot soldiers to protect the route along the Thames river, becoming the governor of the castle for the duration of the war.[138] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

The contents of St George's Chapel were both valuable and, to many Parliamentary forces, inappropriately high church in style.[138] Looting began immediately: Edward IV's bejewelled coat of mail was stolen; the chapel's organs, windows and books destroyed; the Lady Chapel was emptied of valuables, HP Pavilion dv7-1003eo CPU Fan

including the component parts of Henry VIII's unfinished tomb.[139] By the end of the war, some 3580 oz (101 kg) of gold and silver plate had been looted.[138]

Prince Rupert of the Rhine, a prominent Royalist general, attempted to relieve Windsor Castle that November.[138Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

] Rupert's small force of cavalry was able to take the town of Windsor, but was unable to overcome the walls at Windsor Castle – in due course, Rupert was forced to retreat.[140] Over the winter of 1642–3, Windsor Castle was converted into the headquarters for the Earl of Essex, a senior Parliamentary general.[140]  HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

The Horseshoe Cloister was taken over as a prison for captured Royalists, and the resident canons were expelled from the castle.[140] The Lady Chapel was turned into a magazine.[141] Looting by the underpaid garrison continued to be a problem; 500 royal deer were killed across the Windsor Great Park during the winter, and fences were burned as firewood.[140] SONY Vaio VGN-CR23/N CPU Fan

In 1647 Charles, then a prisoner of Parliament, was brought to the castle for a period under arrest, before being moved to Hampton Court.[140] In 1648 there was a Royalist plan, never enacted, to seize Windsor Castle.[142] The Parliamentary Army Council moved into Windsor in November and decided to try Charles for treason.[142] HP Pavilion dv7-1129wm CPU Fan

Charles was held at Windsor again for the last three weeks of his reign; after his execution in January 1649, his body was taken back to Windsor that night through a snowstorm, to be interred without ceremony in the vault beneath St George's Chapel.

The Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 saw the first period of significant change to Windsor Castle for many years. HP Pavilion G72-b15EV CPU Fan

The civil war and the years of theInterregnum had caused extensive damage to the royal palaces in England.[144] At the same time the shifting "functional requirements, patterns of movement, modes of transport, aesthetic taste and standards of comfort" amongst royal circles was changing the qualities being sought in a successful palace.[144] Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX CPU Fan

Windsor was the only royal palace to be successfully fully modernised by Charles II in the Restoration years.During the Interregnum, however, squatters had occupied Windsor Castle. As a result, the "King's house was a wreck; the fanatic, the pilferer, and the squatter, having been at work ... Paupers had squatted in many of the towers and cabinets". HP Pavilion dv7-3080eg CPU Fan

 Shortly after returning to England, Charles appointed Prince Rupert, one of his few surviving close relatives, to be the Constable of Windsor Castle in 1668.[146] Rupert immediately began to reorder the castle's defences, repairing the Round Tower and reconstructing the real tennis court.[ HP Pavilion dv9233ca CPU Fan

Charles attempted to restock Windsor Great Park with deer brought over from Germany, but the herds never recovered their pre-war size.[140] Rupert created apartments for himself in the Round Tower, decorated with an "extraordinary" number of weapons and armour, with his inner chambers "hung with tapisserie, curious and effeminate pictures".HP Envy 14-1195la CPU Fan

Charles was heavily influenced by the works of Louis XIV of France, imitating French design at his palace at Winchester and the Royal Hospital at Chelsea.[149] At Windsor, Charles created "the most extravagantly Baroque interiors ever executed in England".[149] HP Pavilion dv6-2115sf CPU Fan

Much of the building work was paid for out of increased royal revenues from Ireland during the 1670s.[150] French court etiquette at the time required a substantial number of enfiladed rooms in order to satisfy court protocol; the demand for space forced May to expand out into the North Terrace, rebuilding and widening it in the process.[151] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

This new building was called the Star Building, because Charles II placed a huge gilt Garter star on the side of it.[151] May took down and rebuilt the walls of Edward III's hall and chapel, incorporating larger windows but retaining the height and dimensions of the medieval building.[151] HP Pavilion dv7-1129wm CPU Fan

Although Windsor Castle was now big enough to hold the entire court, it was not built with chambers for the King's Council, as would be found in Whitehall.[152] Instead Charles took advantage of the good road links emerging around Windsor to hold his council meetings at Hampton Court when he was staying at the castle.[152] HP Pavilion G72-b15EV CPU Fan

The result became an "exemplar" for royal buildings for the next twenty-five years.[153] The result of May's work showed a medievalist leaning; although sometimes criticised for its "dullness", May's reconstruction was both sympathetic to the existing castle and a deliberate attempt to create a slightly austere 17th-century version of a "neo-Norman" castle.[154] HP Pavilion dv6-2140se CPU Fan

William III commissioned Nicholas Hawksmoor and Sir Christopher Wren to conduct a large, final classical remodelling of the Upper Ward, but the king's early death caused the plan to be cancelled.[155SONY Vaio VGN-SZ6RXN/C CPU Fan

] Queen Anne was fond of the castle, and attempted to address the lack of a formal garden by instructing Henry Wise to begin work on the Maestricht Garden beneath the North Terrace, which was never completed.[155] Anne also created the racecourse at Ascot and began the tradition of the annual Royal Ascot procession from the castle. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

George I took little interest in Windsor Castle, preferring his other palaces at St James's, Hampton Court andKensington.[157] George II rarely used Windsor either, preferring Hampton Court.[158] Many of the apartments in the Upper Ward were given out as "grace and favour" privileges for the use of prominent widows or other friends of the Crown.[159] ACER eMachines G520 CPU Fan

The Duke of Cumberland made the most use of the property in his role as the Ranger of Windsor Great Park.[160] By the 1740s, Windsor Castle had become an early tourist attraction; wealthier visitors who could afford to pay the castle keeper could enter, see curiosities such as the castle's narwhal horn,  HP GB0507PGV1-A CPU Fan

and by the 1750s buy the first guidebooks to Windsor, produced by George Bickham in 1753 and Joseph Pote in 1755.[161] [nb 9] As the condition of the State Apartments continued to deteriorate, even the general public were able to regularly visit the property.[163]

George III reversed this trend when he came to the throne in 1760.[159] IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

George disliked Hampton Court, and was attracted by the park at Windsor Castle.[159] George wanted to move into the Ranger's House by the castle, but his brother, Henry was already living in it and refused to move out.[164] Instead, George had to move into the Upper Lodge, later called the Queen's Lodge, HP Pavilion dv6-3385la CPU Fan

and started the long process of renovating the castle and the surrounding parks.[164] Initially the atmosphere at the castle remained very informal, with local children playing games inside the Upper and Lower Wards, and the royal family frequently seen as they walked around the grounds.[163] HP Pavilion tx2510us  CPU  Fan

 As time went by, however, access for visitors became more limited.[157]

George's architectural taste shifted over the years.[165] As a young man, he favoured Classical, in particular Palladian styles, but the king came to favour a more Gothic style, both as a consequence of the Palladian style becoming overused and poorly implemented, HP G62-b55EV CPU Fan

and because the Gothic form had come to be seen as a more honest, national style of English design in the light of the French revolution.[166] Working with the architect James Wyatt, George attempted to "transform the exterior of the buildings in the Upper Ward into a Gothic palace, while retaining the character of the Hugh May state rooms".[HP Pavilion dv6-2145sf CPU Fan

The outside of the building was restyled with Gothic features, including new battlements and turrets.[167] Inside, conservation work was undertaken, and several new rooms constructed, including a new Gothic staircase to replace May's 17th-century version, complete with the Grand Vestibule ceiling above it.[ HP Pavilion dv7-1120ew CPU Fan

New paintings were purchased for the castle, and collections from other royal palaces moved there by the king.The cost of the work came to over £150,000 (£100 million in 2008 terms).The king undertook extensive work in the castle's Great Park as well, laying out the new Norfolk and Flemish farms, HP 538340-001 CPU Fan

creating two dairies and restoring the Virginia Water lake, grotto and follies.[172]

At the end of this period Windsor Castle became a place of royal confinement. In 1788 the king first became ill during a dinner at Windsor Castle; diagnosed as suffering from madness, he was removed for a period to Kew, where he temporarily recovered.[173HP 535766-001 CPU Fan

] After relapses in 1801 and 1804, his condition became enduring from 1810 onwards and he was confined in the State Apartments of Windsor Castle, with building work on the castle ceasing the following year.George IV came to the throne in 1820 intending to create a set of royal palaces that reflected his wealth and influence as the ruler of an increasingly powerful Britain. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

 George's previous houses, Carlton House and the Brighton Pavilion were too small for grand court events, even after expensive extensions.[175] George expanded the Royal Lodge in the castle park whilst he was Prince Regent, and then began a programme of work to modernise the castle itself once he became king.[175] HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

George persuaded Parliament to vote him £300,000 for restoration (£245 million in 2008 terms).Under the guidance of George's advisor, Charles Long, the architect Jeffry Wyattville was selected, and work commenced in 1824.Wyattville's own preference ran to Gothic architecture, but George, HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

who had led the reintroduction of the French Rococo style to England at Carlton House, preferred a blend of periods and styles, and applied this taste to Windsor.[177] The terraces were closed off to visitors for greater privacy and the exterior of the Upper Ward was completely remodelled into its current appearance.[178] HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

The Round Tower was raised in height to create a more dramatic appearance; many of the rooms in the State Apartments were rebuilt or remodelled; numerous new towers were created, much higher than the older versions.[179] The south range of the ward was rebuilt to provide private accommodation for the king, away from the state rooms.[ HP 533736-001 CPU Fan

The statue ofCharles II was moved from the centre of the Upper Ward to the base of the motte.[180] Sir Walter Scott captured contemporary views when he noted that the work showed "a great deal of taste and feeling for the Gothic architecture"; many modern commentators, including Prince Charles, IBM 13R2760 CPU Fan

have criticised Wyattville's work as representing an act of vandalism of May's earlier designs.[181] The work was unfinished at the time of George IV's death in 1830, but was broadly completed by Wyattville's death in 1840. The total expenditure on the castle had soared to the colossal sum of over one million pounds (£817 million in 2008 terms) by the end of the project. ACER LU.S040A.067 CPU Fan

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert made Windsor Castle their principal royal residence, despite Victoria complaining early in her reign that the castle was "dull and tiresome" and "prison-like", and preferring Osborne and Balmoral as holiday residences.[182] ACER LU.S050B.078 CPU Fan

The growth of the British Empire and Victoria's close dynastic ties to Europe made Windsor the hub for many diplomatic and state visits, assisted by the new railways and steamships of the period.[183] Indeed, it has been argued that Windsor reached its social peak during the Victorian era, DELL Studio 1535 CPU Fan

seeing the introduction of invitations to numerous prominent figures to "dine and sleep" at the castle.[184] Victoria took a close interest in the details of how Windsor Castle was run, including the minutiae of the social events.[185] Few visitors found these occasions comfortable, both due to the design of the castle and the excessive royal formality.[186] HP Pavilion dv6736nr CPU Fan

Prince Albert died in the Blue Room at Windsor Castle in 1861 and was buried in the Royal Mausoleum built at nearbyFrogmore, within the Home Park.[187] The prince's rooms were maintained exactly as they had been at the moment of his death and Victoria kept the castle in a state of mourning for many years, HP Envy 15-1050ca CPU Fan

becoming known as the "Widow of Windsor", a phrase popularised in the famous poem by Rudyard Kipling.[188] The Queen shunned the use of Buckingham Palace after Albert's death and instead used Windsor Castle as her residence when conducting official business near London.[189] HP Pavilion dv7-6100et CPU Fan

 Towards the end of her reign plays, operas and other entertainments slowly began to be held at the castle again, accommodating both the Queen's desire for entertainment and her reluctance to be seen in public.[190]

Several minor alterations were made to the Upper Ward under Victoria. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

Anthony Salvin rebuilt Wyattville's grand staircase, withEdward Blore constructing a new private chapel within the State Apartments.[191] Salvin also rebuilt the State Dining Room following a serious fire in 1853.[192] Ludwig Gruner assisted in the design of the Queen's Private Audience Chamber in the south range.[193] IBM 42W2403 CPU Fan

Blore and Salvin also did extensive work in the Lower Ward, under the direction of Prince Albert, including the Hundred Steps leading down into Windsor town, rebuilding the Garter, Curfew and Salisbury towers, the houses of the Military Knights and creating a new Guardhouse.[194] ACER Aspire 9304WSMi CPU Fan

George Gilbert Scott rebuilt the Horseshoe Cloister in the 1870s.[47] The Norman Gatehouse was turned into a private dwelling for Sir Henry Ponsonby.[195] Windsor Castle did not benefit from many of the minor improvements of the era, however, as Victoria disliked gaslight, preferring candles; HP 610773-001 CPU Fan

electric lighting was only installed in limited parts of the castle at the end of her reign.[186] Indeed, the castle was famously cold and draughty in Victoria's reign,[195] but it was connected to a nearby reservoir, with water reliably piped into the interior for the first time.[196] IBM ThinkPad R50p 1830 CPU Fan

Many of the changes under Victoria were to the surrounding parklands and buildings. The Royal Dairy at Frogmore was rebuilt in a Tudorbethan style in 1853; George III's Dairy rebuilt in a Renaissance style in 1859; the Georgian Flemish Farm rebuilt, and the Norfolk Farm renovated.[197] IBM ThinkPad T61 8898 CPU Fan

The Long Walk was planted with fresh trees to replace the diseased stock.[62] The Windsor Castle and Town Approaches Act, passed by Parliament in 1848, permitted the closing and re-routing of the old roads which previously ran through the park from Windsor to Datchet and Old Windsor.[198] IBM ThinkPad R50p 2889 CPU Fan

These changes allowed the Royal Family to undertake the enclosure of a large area of parkland to form the private "Home Park" with no public roads passing through it.[196] The Queen granted additional rights for public access to the remainder of the park as part of this arrangement. IBM ThinkPad R50p 1830 CPU Fan

Edward VII came to the throne in 1901 and immediately set about modernising Windsor Castle with "enthusiasm and zest".[199] Many of the rooms in the Upper Ward were de-cluttered and redecorated for the first time in many years, with Edward "peering into cabinets; IBM ThinkPad R50 1829 CPU Fan

ransacking drawers; clearing rooms formerly used by the Prince Consort and not touched since his death; dispatching case-loads of relics and ornaments to a special room in the Round Tower ... destroying statues and busts of John Brown ... throwing out hundreds of 'rubbishy old coloured photographs' ... [and] rearranging pictures".[IBM ThinkPad R50P CPU Fan

Electric lighting was added to more rooms, along with central heating; telephone lines were installed, along with garages for the newly invented automobiles.[201] The marathon was run from Windsor Castle at the 1908 Olympics, and in 1911 the pioneering aviator Thomas Sopwith landed an aircraft at the castle for the first time.[ IBM Thinkpad W500 CPU Fan

George V continued a process of more gradual modernisation, assisted by his wife, Mary of Teck, who had a strong interest in furniture and decoration.[203] Mary sought out and re-acquired items of furniture that had been lost or sold from the castle, including many dispersed by Edward VII, Compaq Presario CQ41-206TU CPU Fan

and also acquired many new works of art to furnish the state rooms.[204] Queen Mary was also a lover of all things miniature, and a famous dolls' house was created for her at Windsor Castle, designed by the architect Edwin Lutyens and furnished by leading craftsmen and designers of the 1930s.[205]  SONY Vaio VPC-EB4X1E/BQ CPU Fan

George V was committed to maintaining a high standard of court life at Windsor Castle, adopting the motto that everything was to be "of the best".[206] A large staff was still kept at the castle, with around 660 servants working in the property during the period.[205] HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

Meanwhile, during the First World War, anti-German feeling led the members of the Royal Family to change their dynastic name from the German House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; George decided to take the new name from the castle, and the Royal Family became theHouse of Windsor in 1917.[207] Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan

Edward VIII did not spend much of his reign at Windsor Castle.[207] He continued to spend most of his time at Fort Belvedere in the Great Park, where he had lived whilst Prince of Wales.[207] Edward created a small aerodrome at the castle on Smith's Lawn, now used as a golf-course.[207] Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan

Edward's reign was short-lived and he broadcast his abdication speech to the British Empire from the castle in December 1936, adopting the title of Duke of Windsor.[207] His successor, George VI also preferred his own original home, the Royal Lodge in the Great Park, but moved into Windsor Castle with his wife Elizabeth.[207] Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

As king, George revived the annual Garter Service at Windsor, drawing on the accounts of the 17th-century ceremonies recorded by Elias Ashmole, but moving the event to Ascot Week in June.[208]

On the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 the castle was readied for war-time conditions. Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan

Many of the staff from Buckingham Palace were moved to Windsor for safety, security was tightened and windows were blacked-out.[209] There was significant concern that the castle might be damaged or destroyed during the war; the more important art works were removed from the castle for safe-keeping, HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan

the valuable chandeliers were lowered to the floor in case of bomb damage and a sequence of paintings by John Piper were commissioned from 1942–4 to record the castle's appearance.[210] The king and queen and their children Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret lived for safety in the castle, with the roof above their rooms specially strengthened in case of attack.[211HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan

] The king and queen drove daily to London, returning to Windsor to sleep, although at the time this was a well-kept secret, as for propaganda and morale purposes it was reported that the king was still residing full-time at Buckingham Palace.[211] After the war the king revived the "dine and sleep" events at Windsor, Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan

following comments that the castle had become "almost like a vast, empty museum"; nonetheless, it took many years to restore Windsor Castle to its pre-war condition.[212]

In February 1952, Elizabeth II came to the throne and decided to make Windsor her principal weekend retreat.[213] HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan

The private apartments which had not been properly occupied since the era of Queen Mary were renovated and further modernised, and the Queen, Prince Philip and their two children took up residence.[213]By the early 1990s, however, there had been a marked deterioration in the quality of the Upper Ward, in particular the State Apartments.[214] HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan

Generations of repairs and replacements had resulted in a "diminution of the richness with which they had first been decorated", a "gradual attrition of the original vibrancy of effect, as each change repeated a more faded version of the last".[215] A programme of repair work to replace the heating and the wiring of the Upper Ward began in 1988.[216] HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan

Work was also undertaken to underpin the motte of the Round Tower after fresh subsidence was detected in 1988, threatening the collapse of the tower.

On 20 November 1992, a major fire occurred at Windsor Castle, lasting for fifteen hours and causing widespread damage to the Upper Ward.[218] SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan

The Private Chapel in the north-east corner of the State Apartments was being renovated as part of a long term programme of work within the castle, and it is believed that one of the spotlights being used in the work set fire to a curtain by the altar during the morning.[219] Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan

The fire spread quickly and destroyed nine of the principal state rooms, and severely damaged over a hundred more.[219] Fire-fighters applied water to contain the blaze, whilst castle staff attempted to rescue the precious artworks from the castle.[220] Many of the rooms closest to the fire had been emptied as part of the renovation work, Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan

and this contributed to the successful evacuation of most of the collection.[219] The fire spread through the roof voids and efforts continued through the night to contain the blaze, at great risk to the 200 fire-fighters involved.[221] It was not until late afternoon that the blaze began to come under control, HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

although the fire continued during the night before being officially declared over the next morning.[222] Along with the fire and smoke damage, one of the unintended effects of the fire-fighting was the considerable water damage to the castle, which in many ways caused more complex restoration problems than the fire.[223] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

Two major issues for Windsor Castle emerged following the fire. The first was a political debate in Britain as to who should pay for the repairs.[224] Traditionally, as the property of the Crown, Windsor Castle was maintained, and if necessary repaired, by the British government; furthermore, like other state buildings, it was not insured.[224] HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan

At the time of the fire, however, the British press strongly argued in favour of the Queen herself being required to pay for the repairs from her private income.[224] A solution was found in which the restoration work would be paid for by opening Buckingham Palace to the public at selected times of the year, and by introducing new charges for public access to the parkland surrounding Windsor.[225] Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan

The second major issue concerned how to repair the castle. Some suggested that the damaged rooms should be restored to their original appearance, but others favoured repairing the castle so as to incorporate modern designs.[226] DELL R859C CPU Fan

The decision was taken to largely follow the pre-fire architecture with some changes to reflect modern tastes and cost, but fresh questions emerged over whether the restoration should be undertaken to "authentic" or "equivalent" restoration standards.[21] Toshiba Satellite A105-S2101 CPU Fan

Modern methods were used at Windsor to reproduce the equivalent pre-fire appearance, partially due to the cost.[227] The restoration programme was not completed until 1997, at a total cost of £37 million (£50.2 million in 2009 terms).

Windsor Castle is owned by the Occupied Royal Palaces Estate on behalf of the nation but day to day management is by theRoyal Household.[229] SONY Vaio VGN-FW140E CPU Fan

In terms of population, Windsor Castle is the largest inhabited castle in the world and the longest-occupied palace in Europe, but it also remains a functioning royal home.[230] As of 2006, around five hundred people were living and working in the castle.[231] The Queen has increasingly used the castle as a royal palace as well as her weekend home and it is now as often used for state banquets and official entertaining as Buckingham Palace.[ ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

In recent years, Windsor Castle has hosted visits from President Mbeki of South Africa, King Abdullah II of Jordan and President Chirac of France.[233] The castle remains an important ceremonial location. The Waterloo ceremony is carried out in the presence of the Queen each year, SONY Vaio VPC-EB4S1E/WI CPU Fan

and the annual ceremony of the Order of the Garter takes place in St George's Chapel.[234] While the queen is in residence, the Guard Mounting ceremony occurs on a daily basis.[235] The Royal Ascot procession leaves the castle each year during the annual meeting.[236] HP Pavilion dv9580ed CPU Fan

During the Queen's tenure much has been done, not only to restore and maintain the fabric of the building, but also to transform it into a major British tourist attraction, containing a significant portion of the Royal Collection of art, which is managed from Windsor. Toshiba Satellite L305D-S5934 CPU Fan

Archaeological work has continued at the castle, following on from limited investigations in the 1970s, the work on the Round Tower from 1988–92 and the investigations following the 1992 fire.[237] During 2007, 993,000 tourists visited the castle.[238] This has had to be achieved in co-ordination with security issues and the castle's role as a working royal palace.[229]

HP Pavilion dv5-1210et CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv7-1190er CPU Fan

In late 2011 two water turbines were installed along the River Thames to provide hydroelectric power to the castle and the surrounding estate. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan,HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys
commenter cet article