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Entertainment Merchants Association Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association (formerly titled as Schwarzenegger v. Entertainment Merchants Association)[2] is a landmark Supreme Court of the United States case that struck down a California law enacted in 2005 that bans the sale of certain violent video games to children without parental supervision.[3] In a 7-2 decision, the Court upheld the lower court decisions and revoked the law, ruling that video games were protected speech under the First Amendment as other forms of media.[1]HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard California Senator Leland Yee introduced the original law in 2005, believing a connection between violent video games and aggressive behavior in children, and sought to regulate the voluntary video game industry ratings review system, theEntertainment Software Rating Board. Though similar laws were passed in other States, HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard they were challenged by video game industry groups like the Entertainment Software Association, and defeated in lower courts. The California law was similarly blocked and ruled unconstitutional in lower courts, but then-California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger continued to take the case to the Supreme Court in 2009, which the Court accepted. Oral arguments were heard in November 2010, with the decision announced in June 2011. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Though the ruling was seen as a victory for the video game industry to classify their products as protected works as with films, books, and television, both concurring and dissenting opinions from the Court suggested that the issue may need to be re-examined in future case law, considering the disparate community standards treatment of violence compared to pornography, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard and the changing nature of video games with continually improving technology. Some video game analysts have seen the Court's decision as a wake-up call for the industry to mature in light of the Court's opinions. Senator Yee and other state lawmakers have stated they will continue to seek a means to regulate video game sales to minors within the context of the Court's decision. TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard Many video games, as early as 1976's Death Race,[4] incorporate some aspect of violence into the gameplay mechanic, such as killing an enemy with a weapon, using explosives to destroy a structure, or engaging in dangerous vehicle races. With modern technology, representations of such violence have become more realistic. HP G42-459TX Laptop Keyboard This has led to concerns that minors that play such video games will become influenced by the violence, altering their real-life behavior. Academic studies have attempted to find a connection between violent video games and the rate of violence and crimes from those that play them; some have stated a connection exists,[5][6][7] Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard while others find no link between the matters.[8][9][10] Incidents such as theColumbine High School massacre in 1999 have heightened concerns of a potential connection between video games and violent actions.[11][12] As such, many concerned groups including politicians and parents have sought to enact regulatory controls of video games to prevent their sales to youth.[4] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Prior and during the Brown v. case, parties like the Entertainment Software Association (ESA) sought to overturn similar state laws that placed limits on the sales of violent video games to minors in Michigan[13] and Illinois.[14] The ESA won these cases, with the laws being found unconstitutional and overly restrictive of protected speech.[13][14] DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard These states did not further challenge the court rulings.[15] The ESA similarly defeated a Louisiana bill in the 2006 Entertainment Software Association v. Foti case that would have attempted to ban sales of violent video games from minors.  HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard To counteract these increasing complaints and attempts at legislation, the video game industry in the United States created theEntertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) in 1994.[16]  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The ESRB, like the Motion Picture Association of America's rating system, is a voluntary and self-regulated body that examines the content of video games as provided by the publisher before distribution, and given a rating describing the content within, generally classified from being all ages-appropriate to adult audiences only. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Video game distributors are similar bound by voluntary compliance to check the age of the purchaser against the rating of the game to prevent the sale of mature titles to younger players. Most stores prevent the sale of unrated games, and as such, virtually every video game sold at retail in the United States is rated by the ESRB.[17]  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Attempts have been made to mandate the ratings system; the Family Entertainment Protection Act, a 2005 bill introduced into the U.S. Congress by SenatorsHillary Clinton, Joseph Lieberman, and Evan Bayh, would have made ESRB participation mandatory with oversight by the Federal Trade Commission, and introduced fines for selling Mature or Adult-Only content to minors. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard The bill, however, did not clear the Senate. Though the ESRB met criticism in 2000-2005 for the ease of access of mature-rated games to minors, the Board has improved its efforts to enforce the ratings system at retailers. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard A 2011 report issued by the Federal Trade Commission found that the voluntary controls by the ESRB had the highest success rate of any other media industry, preventing sales of mature titles to minors 87% of the time.[18] Similar content rating systems exist in other countries, including the British Board of Film Classification, the Australian Classification Board, and Japan's Computer Entertainment Rating Organization. DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard

The California law

In 2005, the California State Legislature passed AB 1179, sponsored by California State Senator Leland Yee, which banned the sale of violent video games to anyone under age 18 and required clear labeling beyond the existing ESRB rating system. The law would have a maximum $1000 fine for each infraction. The definition of "violent video game" used a variation of the Miller test, HP G62-a33EO Laptop Keyboard a three-pronged test used previously by the United States Supreme Court to define when speech is not protected under the First Amendment.[19] The bill was signed into law by Gov. Schwarzenegger in October 2005.[20] The law would have gone into effect in January 2006.[21]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The law was a second attempt by Senator Yee to enact restrictions for video game sales to minors. Yee's background as a child psychologist led him to assert there was a connection between video games and violence and believed that the government had strong interest in restricting video game sales to minors as was already done for pornographic works.[22] ACER Aspire 7720 Laptop Keyboard In 2004, Yee had drafted a law that would have required mature-rated video games to be stocked separately from other titles. Though the bill ultimately passed asCA Law AB 1793, the bill's language was diluted at its passage, only requiring stores to display the ESRB ratings system and provide information to parents about it.[23]ACER 002-07A23L-A01 Laptop Keyboard

he District Court Opinion

Even before the California bill was signed into law, the ESA and the Video Software Dealers Association (VSDA), now known as theEntertainment Merchants Association (EMA), were preparing a lawsuit to overturn the law, fearing that the "violent video game" definition would affect many titles that the ESRB has otherwise labeled appropriate for younger players, SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard and threaten to harm the video game industry.[21] The VSDA filed suit in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California and was later joined by the ESA. The two groups succeeded in obtaining a preliminary injunction in December 2005 to block enforcement of the law during the case; U.S. District Judge Ronald M. Compaq Presario CQ42-285TU Laptop Keyboard Whyte cited in his preliminary decision: "The plaintiffs have shown at least that serious questions are raised concerning the States' ability to restrict minors' First Amendment rights in connection with exposure to violent video games, including the question of whether there is a causal connection between access to such games and psychological or other harm to children."[15ACER Aspire 5745P Laptop Keyboard ] In August 2007, Whyte ultimately ruled for the plaintiffs, holding that the law violated the First Amendment, and that there was an insufficient showing of proof that either video games differed from other media or that there was established causality between violent video games and violent behavior.[24]DELL AEUM8U00010 Laptop Keyboard The court first addressed the VSDA's argument that the entire Act should be invalidated based on the defendant's concession on appeal that the definition of "violent video game" in the statute is unconstitutionally broad. However, the statute has a severability clause[25] so the court runs through the test for severability set forth in Hotel Employees & Rest. Employees Int'l Union v. Davis.[26] SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard The court held that definition for "violent video game" is grammatically and functionally separable because, as an alternative definition of "violent video game," SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Laptop Keyboard it can be removed from the Act without affecting the wording or function of the Act's other provisions.[27] Further, the definitions are volitionally separable because those sections were not of critical importance to passage of the act and the legislative body would have adopted the act had it foreseen the partial invalidation of the statute.[28] These definition sections were only included to try and avoid the a court ruling them unconstitutionally vague so the legislature would still have enacted the statutes without the definition section.[27] DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The court next went on to determine what level of scrutiny should be applied in reviewing the Act's Prohibitions. The defendants insisted that the "variable obscenity" standard from Ginsberg v. New York should be used.[29] However, the court held that the "variable obscenity" standard does not apply to violence. The Court in Ginsberg was careful to place substantive limits on its holding, ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard and concern in Ginsberg is only "sex material" not violence. The court declined to extend the application of the "variable obscenity" standard to violence, so strict scrutiny will be applied.[27]SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard In applying strict scrutiny the court recognized that "content-based regulations are presumptively invalid,"[30] and to survive the Act requires: The court invalidated the statute on both accounts. First, it said they limited the purpose of the Act to the actual harm to the brain of a child playing a violent video game. The state was required to show that "the recited harms are real, not merely conjectural, and that the regulation will in fact alleviate those harms as direct and material way."[32] ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard Here, the defendants have failed to do so because all of the reports the relied on in making these were admittedly flawed.[33][34][35] The state is allowed to protect minors from actual psychological or neurological harm, but not control minors' thoughts. Second, the court also held that the defendants have not demonstrated the absence of less restrictive alternative means.  SONY 99.N1782.001 Laptop Keyboard In fact, Video games already comply with a voluntary rating system that rates video games based on their topics and age appropriateness.[36] This is a clear example of a less restrictive means. Least restrictive means is not the same as most effective means.[27]HP Pavilion dv6-2190ev Laptop Keyboard The court also evaluated the constitutionality of the Act's labeling provision, which requires that a label be affixed to the front of every package the state deems to be a "violent video game." Generally, "freedom of speech prohibits the government from telling people what they must say."[37] However, the court has upheld compelled commercial speech where it is the inclusion of "purely factual and uncontroversial information" in advertising.[38]HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard But, the labeling requirement of "violent video game" is not factual information. The Act has not clearly and legally provided a way to determine if a video game is violent so the sticker does not convey factual information. Consequently the statute is unconstitutional.[27] TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger appealed the ruling in September 2007, stating that he would "vigorously defend this law" and that he and the people of California have "a responsibility to our kids and our communities to protect against the effects of games that depict ultra-violent actions."[39] The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed Whyte's decision in 2009.[40]HP 431416-001 Laptop Keyboard The Ninth Circuit considered the constitutionality of the law; given the timeframe of the law's passing relative to litigation, it was referred to as the "Act" in the court's opinion. The Ninth Circuit affirmed the District Court's Summary Judgment for the VSDA by holding: HP 367778-001 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard The court first addressed the VSDA's argument that the entire Act should be invalidated based on the defendant's concession on appeal that the definition of "violent video game" in the Act is unconstitutionally broad. However, the statute had a severability clause[25] so the court went through the severability test set forth in Hotel Employees & Rest. Employees Int'l Union v. Davis.[26]HP pavilion DV7-1055ea Laptop Keyboard  Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard The court held that the definition for "violent video game" is grammatically and functionally separable because, as an alternative definition of "violent video game," it can be removed from the Act without affecting the wording or function of the Act's other provisions.[27] Further, the definitions are volitionally separable because those sections were not of critical importance to the passage of the Act and the legislative body would have adopted the Act had it foreseen the partial invalidation of the statute.[28] HP G62-a34SO Laptop Keyboard hese definition sections were only included to avoid the possibility that a court would rule the terms unconstitutionally vague; the court found that the legislature would still have enacted the statute without this definition section.[27]Compaq Presario CQ56-102SA Laptop Keyboard The court next went on to determine what level of scrutiny should be applied in reviewing the Act's prohibitions. The defendants insisted that the "variable obscenity" standard from Ginsberg v. New York should be used.[29]DELL Inspiron 9300 Laptop Keyboard However, the court held that the "variable obscenity" standard does not apply to violence. The Court in Ginsberg was careful to place substantive limits on its holding, and concern in Ginsberg regarded only "sex material," not violence. The court declined to extend the application of the "variable obscenity" standard to violence, so strict scrutiny was applied instead.[27]DELL Vostro 3700 Laptop Keyboard In applying the strict scrutiny standard, the court recognized that "content-based regulations are presumptively invalid,"[30] and to survive invalidation, the Act had to fulfill two qualifications: SONY VAIO VGN-CS21S/R Laptop Keyboard The court invalidated the statute on both accounts. First, the court said that in considering its decision, the court limited the purpose of the Act to the actual harm to the brain of a child playing a violent video game. As a result, the state was required to show that "the recited harms are real, not merely conjectural, and that the regulation will in fact alleviate these harms in a direct and material way."[32]Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard Here, the defendants failed to do so because all of the reports they relied on in making these claims were admittedly flawed.[33][34][35] While the state is allowed to protect minors from actual psychological or neurological harm, it is not permitted to control minors' thoughts. SONY VAIO PCG-FR215S Laptop Keyboard Second, the court held that the defendants did not demonstrate the absence of less restrictive alternative means. In fact, video games already comply with a voluntary rating system that rates video games based on their topics and age appropriateness.[41] This is a clear example of a less restrictive means. The court noted that the least restrictive means is not the same as the most effective means.[27]TOSHIBA Satellite A500 Series Laptop Keyboard The court also evaluated the constitutionality of the Act's labeling provision, which requires that a label be affixed to the front of every package the state deems to be a "violent video game." Generally, "freedom of speech prohibits the government from telling people what they must say."[42] However, the court has upheld compelled commercial speech where it is the inclusion of "purely factual and uncontroversial information" in advertising.[38]  SONY VAIO VGN-NR32M/S Laptop Keyboard However, the labeling requirement of "violent video game" is not factual information. The Act has not clearly and legally provided a way to determine if a video game is violent so the sticker does not convey factual information. Consequently the court found that the Act is unconstitutional.[27] ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard Supreme Court appeal Gov. Schwarzenegger again appealed to the Supreme Court, looking to overturn the Ninth Circuit's ruling, filing a writ of certiorarito the Court in May 2009. The Supreme Court agreed to hear the case.[43] The fact that the Court accepted this case was considered surprising, based on the previous case record for such violent video game laws that were unanimously overturned in other states.[19][44] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Analysts believe that because the Court agreed to hear this case, there are unanswered questions between the protection of free speech from the First Amendment, and the legal enforcement of protecting minors from unprotected free speech such as through restrictions on the sales of pornography to minors.[19][45] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard Just a week prior to the acceptance of the centiorari, inUnited States v. Stevens the Court overturned another law that sought restrictions on depictions of animal cruelty, which some analysts felt would reflect the Court's position to likely overturn the violent video game law.[44][45] HP G61-445SI Laptop Keyboard The Entertainment Consumers Association (ECA) launched an online petition along with their amicus brief to provide the Supreme Court additional information.[46] The Progress & Freedom Foundation and the Electronic Frontier Foundation together submitted anamicus brief citing social research that declared Super Mario Bros. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard to be a violent video game. It was compared to Mighty Mouse andRoad Runner, cartoons that depict a similar form of violence with little negative reaction from the public.[20][47] Video game developers Microsoft and Activision Blizzard supported the ESA effort.[48] Industry associations for musical works, movies, and publishing, including the National Association of Broadcasters, HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard the Motion Picture Association of America, Recording Industry Association of America, National Cable & Telecommunications Association, and the Future of Music Coalition, also submitted briefs to the court in favor of striking down the law, fearing that should the law found to be constitutional, their industries would also be affected.[49][50] TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard Associations for the protection of civil rights, including the American Civil Liberties Union, the National Coalition Against Censorship, and the National Youth Rights Association, submitted amicus briefs.[48][51] Also filing amicus briefs against the State of California was a coalition of other states including Rhode Island, Arkansas, Georgia, Nebraska, SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Utah and Washington, as well as Puerto Rico, which stated the law was unnecessary as no evidence linked video games to youth violence and the voluntary ESRB system was working well.[52] Also submitting an amicus brief opposing the law was a coalition of 82 psychologists, criminologists, medical scientists and media researchers concerned that the State of California had misrepresented the science on video games.[53]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard The State of California was joined by eleven other States, including those that had passed laws later declared unconstitutional; the States, in an amicus brief, stated that they are "vitally interested in protecting the welfare of children and in helping parents raise them" but the District Court's decision restricts their authority to do so.[54] Further supporting the State of California were the American Academy of Pediatrics, the California Psychological Association,Common Sense Media, and the Eagle Forum.[48]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Oral arguments were held on November 2, 2010. To California's attorney, the Justices voiced concern on the distinction between video games and other commercial works such as films and comic books. Justice Antonin Scalia wondered if the law with its vague definition of "violence" could also be applied to Grimm's Fairy Tales.[49]  HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard To the ESA and other trade groups, the Justices suggested that California and other states do have precedence to protect minors from certain forms of violence, though under narrower terms than the California law.[49] Justice John G. Roberts Jr. argued that while companies can provide parental filters on such violent games, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard "any 13-year-old can bypass [them] in about five minutes."[44] Several questions centered on the controversial game Postal 2, where the player can urinate on non-player characters and set them ablaze, among other violent acts.[55] The Justices, in general, agreed that upholding California's law would require a "novel extension of First Amendment principles to expressions concerning violence."[44]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard On June 27, 2011, the Supreme Court issued a 7-2 opinion striking the California law as unconstitutional on the basis of the First and Fourteenth Amendments. The majority opinion was authored by Justice Antonin Scalia and joined by Justices Ginsburg, Kennedy, Sotomayor, and Kagan. It first held that "video games qualify for First Amendment protection":FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard Justice Scalia then affirmed that, while states may pass laws to block obscene material from minors as previously decided in the 1968 Ginsberg v. New York case, "speech about violence is not obscene," and California's statute was unlawful.[56] The decision pointed to fairy tales like those of the Brothers Grimm, which are regularly given to children to read, "HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard contain no shortage of gore" that are also present in video games.[57] The decision further compared video games to classical works like The Divine Comedy, stating that "Even if we can see in them nothing of any possible value to society[...],IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard they are as much entitled to the protection of free speech as the best of literature."[58] Scalia's decision also stated that the current self-moderated industry standards like the ESRB are operated effectively to regulate the sale of more mature games to minors, and that "filling the remaining modest gap in concerned-parents' control can hardly be a compelling state interest" requiring a law to enforce.[59] GATEWAY PK1306R3A32 Laptop Keyboard The Court's decision also determined that from the evidence, there was no "compelling" link between violent video games and its effects on children.[60] The decision cited one medical report that asserted that cartoons like Looney Tunes generate the same effects in children as in games like Sonic the Hedgehog or imagery of guns.[57]ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard

Alito's concurrence

Justice Samuel Alito wrote a separate concurrence supporting the majority decision, and was joined by Chief Justice John G. Roberts. Though Alito agreed with the constitutional application to the California law, believing that its "threshold requirement" that guides what material would be covered by the law was too broad, DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard he questioned the potential double standard that existed between violence and sexual content in regards to this threshold.[61] Alito wrote that he was unsure that there was no connection between violent video games and effects on children, stating that "There are reasons to suspect that the experience of playing violent video games just might be very different from reading a book, ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard listening to the radio, or watching a movie or a television show," referencing the book Infinite Reality which highlights the psychological effects of virtual reality, and argued that the decision "would not squelch legislative efforts to deal with what is perceived by some to be a significant and developing social problem."[62] HP Pavilion G7-1150US Laptop Keyboard Justices Clarence Thomas and Stephen Breyer dissented, each authoring a separate dissent. Justice Thomas, in his dissent, considered that historically, the Founding Fathers "believed parents to have complete authority over their minor children and expected parents to direct the development of those children," and that the intent of the First Amendment "does not include a right to speak to minors (or a right of minors to access speech) without going through the minors' parents or guardians."[63][64]ASUS W3000 Laptop Keyboard Breyer wrote separately, concerned that the majority's decision conflicts with previous rulings from Ginsberg and Miller. He contrasted the previous findings regulating sales of publications containing nudity to those of violent video games: "But what sense does it make to forbid selling to a 13-year-old boy a magazine with an image of a nude woman,  TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard while protecting a sale to that 13­ year-old of an interactive video game in which he actively, but virtually, binds and gags the woman, then tortures and kills her?"[63] Breyer further argued that "This case is ultimately less about censorship than it is about education," believing that the Government has a vested interest in allowing parents to make decisions for their child as to "raise future generations committed cooperatively to making our system of government work," FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard and that "California's law imposes no more than a modest restriction on expression."[63][64] Breyer also expressed concern that the self-regulation of the industry still allowed for 20% of minors to purchase mature video games on a national average, and as high as 50% in the case of one nationwide chain, based on the aforementioned 2011 Federal Trade Commission study.[63]SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Laptop Keyboard

Reactions

The ruling was praised by the video game industry, who had expected the law to be ruled unconstitutional, but sought affirmation by the Court. ESA's CEO, Michael Gallagher, responded that "The Court declared forcefully that content-based restrictions on games are unconstitutional; and that parents, not government bureaucrats, have the right to decide what is appropriate for their children."[65] Bo Anderson of the EMA stated that "there now can be no argument whether video games are entitled to the same protection as books,  ACER Aspire 7336 Laptop Keyboard movies, music, and other expressive entertainment," while Electronic Arts' CEO John Riccitiello asserted that the decision "affirmed the constitutional rights of game developers."[66] SONY VGN-FE41S Laptop Keyboard Other entertainment industries, such as the Motion Picture Association of America, also showed support for the Court's decision. Former U.S. Senator and current head of the Association Chris Dodd recognized that the motion picture industry has seen similar attempts to limit its freedom of expression, and that "We applaud the Supreme Court for recognizing the far-reaching First-Amendment implications posed by the California law."[67] IBM Thinkpad X60S Laptop Keyboard Groups that supported the California law were critical of the decision. California State Senator Leland Yee was very critical of the decision, claiming that "It is simply wrong that the video game industry can be allowed to put their profit margins over the rights of parents and the well-being of children."[68] Yee stated he would review the opinions and attempt to reintroduce a new bill within the constitutionality of the decision, and claimed it was "HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard disappointing the court didn't understand just how violent these games are."[57] James Steyer of Common Sense Media also criticized the decision, citing that "If parents decide a violent game is okay for their kid, that's one thing, but millions of kids are not able to judge the impact of ultra-violence on their own."[69]  HP G62-b30SQ Laptop Keyboard Andy Schlafly, who had submitted a brief to the court on behalf of the Eagle Forum and Legal Defense Fund, heavily criticized the majority opinion, believing that "the court's latest disregard of parental rights is on a crash course with technological advances."[70] Tim Winter of the Parents Television Council asserted that the Court's decision "replaces the authority of parents with the economic interests of the video game industry."[67] SONY Vaio VGN-AW220J Laptop Keyboard The Washington Post opined that the California law "did nothing to infringe on the rights of adults" while dealing with "reasonable limitations on minors’ access to extremely violent games that even the video game industry acknowledges are inappropriate," and that with the high bar for any future legislation, the onus is on the video game industry to maintain its self-policing of video game sales.[71]TOSHIBA Satellite L45-S2416 Laptop Keyboard SONY Vaio PCG-K315B Laptop Keyboard Analysts believed that while this was a major victory for the video game industry, the challenge is not yet over. Dan Offner, a partner for the video game industry analysis firm Loeb & Loeb believed that similar laws and regulations will be sought by State and Federal governments, as "the regulation of mature content with respect to minors as a hot button issue for the Federal Trade Commission and the various state governments."[69] TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard Other analysts cited that as more game content becomes available online as opposed to retail channels, the focus may shift more towards "privacy and security" of children and preventing children from amassing large fees from pay-to-use gaming services, pointing to a $3 million settlement that Playdom had to pay for violating privacy of its younger users.[69]Packard Bell EasyNote W3322 Laptop Keyboard Sean Bersell of the EMA noted that future debates over violent video games may involve public opinion in addition to new legislation, noting that "Retailers along with publishers and parents all have a role in keeping kids away from these games."[72] Seth Schiesel of the New York Times proposed that the Court's decision should be a challenge to the industry to show that they can mature on the decision that video games are a form of art, SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop Keyboard questioning the industry "Will you use it as cover to pump out schlock or will you rise to the opportunity and respectability that has been afforded you?"[73] Schiesel also considered that games that are more interactive may help players to become more aware of the consequences of their actions.[73]HP Pavilion dv5-1247la Laptop Keyboard In January 2012, the state of California agreed to pay the ESA $950,000 for reimbursing the ESA's legal fees during the Supreme Court trial, atop approximately $350,000 in fees from the previous trias at lower courts. The ESA stated that it will use an unspecified portion of this money to help create after-school programs in "underserved" communities in the Oakland and Sacramento areas to help teach students job skills.[74] The total cost of defending the case is estimated around $1.8 million, including the State's own legal costs.[75]SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard A national telephone poll conducted in the second quarter of 2011 by Fairleigh Dickinson University’s PublicMind showed that a majority of American voters (57%) agreed that the states should have the “right to regulate the sale of video games [that are violent] in order to protect minors; the same way states regulate tobacco, alcohol and pornography.” SONY VGN-FE41S Laptop Keyboard On the other hand, 39% of voters agreed with the Court’s majority that “parents should make the decision” about what video games they purchase for their children, and what constitutes “too violent.” These voters agreed with the statement “states do not have the right to decide that some video games are too violent for [minors], any more than they have the right to decide what literature or fairy tales are too violent.” The poll was conducted before the Court released its decision on June 27, 2011.[76]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Demographic breakouts demonstrated that men were more likely than women to agree that the supervision of minors’ video purchases should be left to parents, and not be regulated by the states. In addition, younger voters were far more likely than older voters to say the states should not have the right to decide what is “too violent for kids.” [76]DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard Bruce Peabody, professor of political science at Fairleigh Dickinson University and editor of the book The Politics of Judicial Independence: Courts, Politics, and the Public.,[77] responded to the poll results and the Court’s decision by noting that "under Chief Justice Roberts, the Court has been especially protective of the First Amendment" but he also said "these results put the Court on a potential collision course with the public."[76]SAMSUNG R518 Laptop Keyboard American former professional bodybuilder, actor, businessman, investor, and politician. Schwarzenegger served as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011. Schwarzenegger began weight training at the age of 15 years old. He won theMr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent presence in bodybuilding and has written many books and articles on the sport. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon. He was nicknamed the "Austrian Oak" and the "Styrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" during his acting career and more recently "The Governator" (a portmanteau of "Governor" and "The Terminator" - one of his most well-known movie roles).[2] IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard As a Republican, he was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis. Schwarzenegger was sworn in on November 17, 2003, to serve the remainder of Davis's term. Schwarzenegger was then re-elected on November 7, 2006, in California's 2006 gubernatorial election, to serve a full term as governor, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard defeatingDemocrat Phil Angelides, who was California State Treasurer at the time. Schwarzenegger was sworn in for his second term on January 5, 2007.[3] In 2011, Schwarzenegger completed his second term as governor, and it was announced that he had separated from Maria Shriver , his wife for the last 25 years. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger was born in Thal, Austria, a small village bordering the Styrian capital Graz, and was christened Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger.[4] His parents were the local police chief, Gustav Schwarzenegger (1907–72), and Aurelia (née Jadrny; 1922–1998). Gustav served in World War II, after he voluntarily applied to join the Nazi Party in 1938.[5] ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Gustav served with the German Army as a Hauptfeldwebel of the Feldgendarmerie and was discharged in 1943 after contracting malaria. They were married on October 20, 1945 – Gustav was 38, and Aurelia was a 23-year-old widow with a son, Meinhard. According to Schwarzenegger, both of his parents were very strict: "Back then in Austria it was a very different world, if we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared."[6] He grew up in a Roman Catholic family who attended Mass every Sunday.[7][8]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Gustav had a preference for his stepson Meinhard, over his son, Arnold.[9] His favoritism was "strong and blatant," which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child.[10] Schwarzenegger has said his father had "no patience for listening or understanding your problems."[7]  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger had a good relationship with his mother and kept in touch with her until her death.[11] In later life, Schwarzenegger commissioned the Simon Wiesenthal Center to research his father's wartime record, which came up with no evidence of atrocities despite Gustav's membership in the Nazi Party and SA.[9] HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger's father's background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign.[12] At school, Schwarzenegger was apparently in the middle but stood out for his "cheerful, good-humored and exuberant" character.[7] Money was a problem in their household; Schwarzenegger recalled that one of the highlights of his youth was when the family bought a refrigerator.[10]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard As a boy, Schwarzenegger played several sports, heavily influenced by his father.[7] He picked up his first barbell in 1960, when his football (soccer) coach took his team to a local gym.[4] At the age of 14, he chose bodybuilding over football as a career.[13][14] Schwarzenegger has responded to a question asking if he was 13 when he started weightlifting: DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard "I actually started weight training when I was 15, but I'd been participating in sports, like soccer, for years, so I felt that although I was slim, I was well-developed, at least enough so that I could start going to the gym and start Olympic lifting."[6] However, his official website biography claims: "At 14, he started an intensive training program with Dan Farmer, studied psychology at 15 (to learn more about the power of mind over body) and at 17, Compaq Presario CQ42-296TX Laptop Keyboard officially started his competitive career."[15] During a speech in 2001, he said, "My own plan formed when I was 14 years old. My father had wanted me to be a police officer like he was. My mother wanted me to go to trade school."[16] Schwarzenegger took to visiting a gym in Graz, where he also frequented the local movie theaters to see bodybuilding idols such as Reg Park, HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Steve Reeves and Johnny Weissmuller on the big screen. "I was inspired by individuals like Reg Park and Steve Reeves."[6] When Reeves died in 2000, Schwarzenegger fondly remembered him: "As a teenager, I grew up with Steve Reeves. His remarkable accomplishments allowed me a sense of what was possible, when others around me didn't always understand my dreams ... Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Steve Reeves has been part of everything I've ever been fortunate enough to achieve." In 1961, Schwarzenegger met former Mr. Austria Kurt Marnul, who invited him to train at the gym in Graz.[4] He was so dedicated as a youngster that he broke into the local gym on weekends, when it was usually closed, so that he could train. "It would make me sick to miss a workout ... HP AESP7U00110 Laptop Keyboard I knew I couldn't look at myself in the mirror the next morning if I didn't do it."[6] When Schwarzenegger was asked about his first movie experience as a boy, he replied, "I was very young, but I remember my father taking me to the Austrian theaters and seeing some newsreels. The first real movie I saw, that I distinctly remember, was a John Wayne movie."[6]TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Laptop Keyboard In 1971, his brother Meinhard died in a car accident.[4] Meinhard had been drinking and was killed instantly. Schwarzenegger did not attend his funeral.[10]Meinhard was due to marry Erika Knapp, and the couple had a three-year-old son, Patrick. Schwarzenegger would pay for Patrick's education and help him to immigrate to the United States.[10]  Lenovo ThinkPad T410-2522 Laptop Keyboard Gustav died the following year from a stroke.[4] In Pumping Iron, Schwarzenegger claimed that he did not attend his father's funeral because he was training for a bodybuilding contest. Later, HP Mini 110-3100sg Laptop Keyboard he and the film's producer said this story was taken from another bodybuilder for the purpose of showing the extremes that some would go to for their sport and to make Schwarzenegger's image more cold and machine-like in order to fan controversy for the film.[17] Barbara Baker, his first serious girlfriend, has said he informed her of his father's death without emotion and that he never spoke of his brother.[18]Over time, he has given at least three versions of why he was absent from his father's funeral.[10]DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard In an interview with Fortune in 2004, Schwarzenegger told how he suffered what "would now be called child abuse" at the hands of his father:[5][19] My hair was pulled. I was hit with belts. So was the kid next door. It was just the way it was. Many of the children I've seen were broken by their parents, which was the German-Austrian mentality. FUJITSU Lifebook T4220 Laptop Keyboard They didn't want to create an individual. It was all about conforming. I was one who did not conform, and whose will could not be broken. Therefore, I became a rebel. Every time I got hit, and every time someone said, 'you can't do this,' I said, 'this is not going to be for much longer, because I'm going to move out of here. I want to be rich. I want to be somebody.'COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

Early adulthood

Schwarzenegger served in the Austrian Army in 1965 to fulfill the one year of service required at the time of all 18-year-old Austrian males.[4][15] During his army service, he won the Junior Mr. Europe contest.[14] He went AWOL during basic training so he could take part in the competition and spent a week in military prison: HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard "Participating in the competition meant so much to me that I didn't carefully think through the consequences." He won another bodybuilding contest in Graz, at Steirer Hof Hotel (where he had placed second). He was voted best built man of Europe, which made him famous.  IBM ThinkPad T40-2373 Laptop Keyboard "The Mr. Universe title was my ticket to America – the land of opportunity, where I could become a star and get rich."[16] Schwarzenegger made his first plane trip in 1966, attending the NABBA Mr. Universe competition in London.[15] He would come in second in the Mr. Universe competition, not having the muscle definition of American winner Chester Yorton.[15]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Charles "Wag" Bennett, one of the judges at the 1966 competition, was impressed with Schwarzenegger and he offered to coach him. As Schwarzenegger had little money, Bennett invited him to stay in his crowded family home above one of his two gyms in Forest Gate, London, England. Yorton's leg definition had been judged superior, and Schwarzenegger, ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard under a training program devised by Bennett, concentrated on improving the muscle definition and power in his legs. Staying in theEast End of London helped Schwarzenegger improve his rudimentary grasp of the English language.[20][21] Also in 1966, Schwarzenegger had the opportunity to meet childhood idol Reg Park, who became his friend and mentor.[22] HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard The training paid off and, in 1967, Schwarzenegger won the title for the first time, becoming the youngest ever Mr. Universe at the age of 20.[15] He would go on to win the title a further three times.[14] Schwarzenegger then flew back to Munich, training for four to six hours daily, attending business school and working in a health club (Rolf Putzinger's gym where he worked and trained from 1966–1968), SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard returning in 1968 to London to win his next Mr. Universe title.[15] He frequently told Roger C. Field, a friend in Munich at that time, "I'm going to become the greatest actor!" Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

Move to the U.S.

Schwarzenegger, who dreamed of moving to the U.S. since the age of 10, and saw bodybuilding as the avenue through which to do so,[23]realized his dream by moving to the United States in September 1968 at the age of 21, speaking little English.[4][14] "Naturally, when I came to this country, my accent was very bad, and my accent was also very strong, which was an obstacle as I began to pursue acting."[6]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5168 Laptop Keyboard There he trained at Gold's Gym in Venice, Los Angeles, California, under Joe Weider. From 1970 to 1974, one of Schwarzenegger's weight training partners was Ric Drasin, a professional wrestler who designed the original Gold's Gym logo in 1973.[24] Schwarzenegger also became good friends with professional wrestler "Superstar" Billy Graham. In 1970, at age 23, he captured his first Mr. Olympia title in New York, and would go on to win the title a total of seven times.[15] HP Envy 17-2110tx Laptop Keyboard Immigration law firm Siskind & Susser have stated that Schwarzenegger may have been an illegal immigrant at some point in the late 1960s or early 1970s because of violations in the terms of his visa.[25] LA Weekly would later say in 2002 that Schwarzenegger is the most famous immigrant in America, who "overcame a thick Austrian accent and transcended the unlikely background of bodybuilding to become the biggest movie star in the world in the 1990s".[23] HP 592871-031 Laptop Keyboard In 1977, Schwarzenegger's autobiography/weight-training guide Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder was published and became a huge success.[4] After taking English classes at Santa Monica College in California, he earned a BA by correspondence from the University of Wisconsin–Superior, where he graduated with a degree in international marketing of fitness and business administration in 1979.[26]<

/sup>TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5245 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger is considered among the most important figures in the history of bodybuilding, and his legacy is commemorated in the Arnold Classic annual bodybuilding competition. Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent face in the bodybuilding sport long after his retirement, in part because of his ownership of gyms and fitness magazines. He has presided over numerous contests and awards shows. HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard For many years, he wrote a monthly column for the bodybuilding magazines Muscle & Fitness and Flex. Shortly after being elected Governor, he was appointed executive editor of both magazines, in a largely symbolic capacity. The magazines agreed to donate $250,000 a year to the Governor's various physical fitness initiatives. The magazine MuscleMag International has a monthly two-page article on him, and refers to him as "The King". HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard One of the first competitions he won was the Junior Mr. Europe contest in 1965.[4] He won Mr. Europe the following year, at age 19.[4][15] He would go on to compete in, and win, many bodybuilding contests. His bodybulding victories included five Mr. Universe (4 – NABBA [England], 1 – IFBB [USA]) wins, and seven Mr. Olympia wins, a record which would stand until Lee Haney won his eighth consecutive Mr. Olympia title in 1991. SONY 9Z.N3S82.001 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger's goal was to become the greatest bodybuilder in the world, which meant becoming Mr. Olympia.[4][15] His first attempt was in 1969, when he lost to three-time champion Sergio Oliva. However, Schwarzenegger came back in 1970 and won the competition, making him the youngest ever Mr. Olympia at the age of 23, a record he still holds to this day.[15]TOSHIBA Portege M200 Laptop Keyboard He continued his winning streak in the 1971–74 competitions.[15] In 1975, Schwarzenegger was once again in top form, and won the title for the sixth consecutive time,[15] beating Franco Columbu. After the 1975 Mr. Olympia contest, Schwarzenegger announced his retirement from professional bodybuilding.[15]SONY VAIO VGN-CS11Z/T Laptop Keyboard Months before the 1975 Mr. Olympia contest, filmmakers George Butler and Robert Fiore persuaded Schwarzenegger to compete, in order to film his training in the bodybuilding documentary called Pumping Iron. Schwarzenegger had only three months to prepare for the competition, after losing significant weight to appear in the film Stay Hungrywith Jeff Bridges. Lou Ferrigno proved not to be a threat, and a lighter-than-usual Schwarzenegger convincingly won the 1975 Mr. Olympia.  SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger came out of retirement, however, to compete in the 1980 Mr. Olympia.[4]Schwarzenegger was training for his role in Conan, and he got into such good shape because of the running, horseback riding and sword training, that he decided he wanted to win the Mr. Olympia contest one last time. He kept this plan a secret,  DELL Inspiron 1545 Laptop Keyboard in the event that a training accident would prevent his entry and cause him to lose face. Schwarzenegger had been hired to provide color commentary for network television, when he announced at the eleventh hour that while he was there: "Why not compete?" Schwarzenegger ended up winning the event with only seven weeks of preparation. After being declared Mr. Olympia for a seventh time, Schwarzenegger then officially retired from competition. SONY VAIO VGN-CR35M Laptop Keyboard Steroid use Schwarzenegger has admitted to using performance-enhancing anabolic steroids while they were legal, writing in 1977 that "steroids were helpful to me in maintaining muscle size while on a strict diet in preparation for a contest. I did not use them for muscle growth, but rather for muscle maintenance when cutting up."[30] He has called the drugs "tissue building."[31]  TOSHIBA Satellite L450D Laptop Keyboard In 1999, Schwarzenegger sued Dr. Willi Heepe, a German doctor who publicly predicted his early death on the basis of a link between his steroid use and hislater heart problems. As the doctor had never examined him personally, Schwarzenegger collected a US$10,000 libel judgment against him in a German court.[32] In 1999, Schwarzenegger also sued and settled with The Globe, a U.S. tabloid which had made similar predictions about the bodybuilder's future health.[33]COMPAQ Presario C710EL Laptop Keyboard

Height

His official height of 6'2" (1.88 m) has been brought into question by several articles. In his bodybuilding days in the late 1960s, he was measured to be 6'1.5" (1.87 m), a height confirmed by his fellow bodybuilders.[34][35] However, in 1988 both the Daily Mail and Time Out magazine mentioned that Schwarzenegger appeared noticeably shorter.[36] HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard Prior to running for Governor, Schwarzenegger's height was once again questioned in an article by the Chicago Reader.[37] As Governor, Schwarzenegger engaged in a light-hearted exchange with Assemblyman Herb Wesson over their heights. At one point Wesson made an unsuccessful attempt to, in his own words, "[s]ettle this once and for all and find out how tall he is"[38] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard by using a tailor's tape measure on the Governor. Schwarzenegger retaliated by placing a pillow stitched with the words "Need a lift?" on the five-foot-five inch (165 cm) Wesson's chair before a negotiating session in his office.[39] HP Pavilion dm3-1020CA Laptop Keyboard Bob Mulholland also claimed Arnold was 5'10" (1.78 m) and that he wore risers in his boots.[40] The debate on Schwarzenegger's height has spawned a website solely dedicated to the issue,[41] and his page remains one of the most active on CelebHeights.com, a website which discusses the heights of celebrities.[34] Men's Health magazine has estimated his height at 5'10".[27]SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger wanted to move from bodybuilding into acting, finally achieving it when he was chosen to play the role of Hercules in 1970's Hercules in New York. Credited under the name "Arnold Strong," his accent in the film was so thick that his lines were dubbed after production.[14] His second film appearance was as a deaf mute hit-man for the mob in directorRobert Altman's The Long Goodbye (1973), SONY VAIO VGN-AW25GJ Laptop Keyboard  Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard which was followed by a much more significant part in the film Stay Hungry (1976), for which he was awarded a Golden Globe for New Male Star of the Year. Schwarzenegger has discussed his early struggles in developing his acting career. "It was very difficult for me in the beginning – I was told by agents and casting people that my body was 'too weird', that I had a funny accent, and that my name was too long. You name it, and they told me I had to change it. Basically, everywhere I turned, I was told that I had no chance."[6]SONY Vaio PCG-K315B Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger drew attention and boosted his profile in the bodybuilding film Pumping Iron (1977),[13][14] elements of which were dramatized. In 1991, Schwarzenegger purchased the rights to the film, its outtakes, and associated still photography.[42] Schwarzenegger auditioned for the title role of The Incredible Hulk, but did not win the role because of his height. SONY VAIO VGN-AW25GJ Laptop Keyboard Later, Lou Ferrigno got the part of Dr. David Banner's alter ego. Schwarzenegger appeared with Kirk Douglas andAnn-Margret in the 1979 comedy The Villain. In 1980 he starred in a biographical film of the 1950s actress Jayne Mansfieldas Mansfield's husband, Mickey Hargitay. HP 6730S Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger's breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, which was a box-office hit.[13] This was followed by a sequel, Conan the Destroyer in 1984, although it was not as successful as its predecessor.[43] In 1983, Schwarzenegger starred in the promotional video "Carnival in Rio".HP Mini 210-2060nr Laptop Keyboard In 1984, he made the first of three appearances as the eponymous character and what some would say was the signature role in his acting career in director James Cameron's science fiction thriller film The Terminator.[13][14][44] Following The Terminator, Schwarzenegger made Red Sonja in 1985.[43]ASUS F5M Laptop Keyboard During the 1980s, audiences had an appetite for action films, with both Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone becoming international stars.[14] Schwarzenegger's roles reflected his sense of humor, separating his roles from more serious action hero fare. His alternative-universe comedy/thriller Last Action Hero featured a poster of the movie Terminator 2: Judgment Day which, in the fictional alternate universe, had Sylvester Stallone as its star.  HP G62-b11ET Laptop Keyboard He made a number of successful films: Commando (1985), Raw Deal (1986), The Running Man (1987), and Red Heat (1988). In Predator (1987), another successful film, Schwarzenegger led a cast which included future Minnesota Governor Jesse Ventura (Ventura also appeared in The Running Man and Batman & Robin with Schwarzenegger) and future candidate for governor of Kentucky Sonny Landham. ACER 9J.N5982.61D Laptop Keyboard Twins (1988), a comedy with Danny DeVito also proved successful. Total Recall (1990) netted Schwarzenegger $10 million and 15% of the gross, and was a science fiction script directed by Paul Verhoeven, based on the Philip K. Dick short story, "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale". Kindergarten Cop (1990) reunited him with director Ivan Reitman, who directed him inTwins. HP Pavilion dv5-1230et Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger had a brief foray into directing, first with a 1990 episode of the TV series Tales from the Crypt, entitled "The Switch", and then with the 1992 telemovie Christmas in Connecticut. He has not directed since. Compaq Presario CQ71-402SA Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger's commercial peak was his return as the title character in 1991's Terminator 2: Judgment Day, which was the highest-grossing film of 1991. In 1993,  FUJITSU Lifebook T4210 Laptop Keyboard the National Association of Theatre Owners named him the "International Star of the Decade."[4] His next film project, the 1993 self-aware action comedy spoof Last Action Hero was released opposite Jurassic Park, and did not do well at the box office. His next film, the comedy drama True Lies (1994) was a popular spy film, and saw Schwarzenegger, reunited with James Cameron, appearing opposite Jamie Lee Curtis. Lenovo Thinkpad T420 Laptop Keyboard That same year the comedy Junior (1994) was released, the last of his three collaborations with Ivan Reitman and again co-starring Danny DeVito and also for the second time featuring Pamela Reed. This film brought Schwarzenegger his second Golden Globe nomination, this time for Best Actor – Musical or Comedy. It was followed by the action thriller Eraser (1996), HP 550 Laptop Keyboard the Christmas comedy Jingle All The Way(1996) with Arnold playing the main character, Howard Langston, and the comic book-based Batman & Robin (1997), where he played the villain Mr. Freeze. This was his final film before taking time to recuperate from a back injury. Following the critical failure of Batman & Robin, Schwarzenegger's film career and box office prominence went into decline.  TOSHIBA Satellite 1800-921 Laptop Keyboard He returned with the supernatural thriller End of Days (1999), later followed by the action films The 6th Day (2000) and Collateral Damage (2002) all of which failed to do well at the box office. In 2003, he made his third appearance as the title character in Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, which went on to earn over $150 million domestically.[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard In tribute to Schwarzenegger in 2002, Forum Stadtpark, a local cultural association, proposed plans to build a 25-meter (82 ft) tall Terminator statue in a park in central Graz. Schwarzenegger reportedly said he was flattered, but thought the money would be better spent on social projects and the Special Olympics.[45]HP Pavilion dv6-2132sf Laptop Keyboard His film appearances after becoming Governor of California include a 3-second cameo appearance in The Rundown (a.k.a.,Welcome to the Jungle) with The Rock, and the 2004 remake of Around the World in 80 Days, where he appeared onscreen with action star Jackie Chan for the first time. In 2005, he appeared as himself in the film The Kid & I. Schwarzenegger voicedBaron von Steuben in Episode 24 ("Valley Forge") of Liberty's Kids. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger had been rumored to be appearing in Terminator Salvation as the original T-800 model, alongside Roland Kickinger. Schwarzenegger denied his involvement,[46]HP G61-440SG Laptop Keyboard but it was later revealed that although he would appear briefly he would not be shooting new footage, and his image would be inserted into the movie from stock footage of the first Terminator movie.[47][48] Schwarzenegger appeared in Sylvester Stallone's The Expendables, where he made a cameo appearance, in a scene alongside Stallone and Bruce Willis. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard

Return to acting

In January 2011, just weeks after leaving office in California, Schwarzenegger announced that he was reading several new scripts for future films, one of them being the World War II action drama With Wings as Eagles, written by Randall Wallace, based on a true story.[49][50] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard  ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard On March 6, 2011, at the Arnold Seminar of the Arnold Classic, Schwarzenegger revealed that he was being courted for several films, including sequels to The Terminator and remakes of Predator and The Running Man, and that he was "packaging" a comic book character.[51] The character was later revealed to be the Governator, star of the comic book and animated series of the same name. Schwarzenegger inspired the character and co-developed it with Stan Lee, who would have produced the series. Schwarzenegger would have voiced the Governator.[52][53][54][55]DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard On May 20, 2011, Schwarzenegger's entertainment counsel announced that all movie projects currently in development were being halted. "Governor Schwarzenegger is focusing on personal matters and is not willing to commit to any production schedules or timelines."[56] However, the Daily Star reported on May 29 that Schwarzenegger had been offered $40 million to star in twoTerminator films.[57] Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

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