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The Australian environment ranges from virtually pristine Antarctic territory and rainforests to degraded industrial areas of major cities. 40 distinct ecoregions have been identified across the Australian mainland and islands.

Central Australia is very dry due to a dry climate. HP 3MLX8TATP40 CPU Fan

The interior has a number of deserts while most of the coastal areas are populated. Northern Australia experiences tropical cyclones while much of the country is prone to periodic drought.

Agriculture and mining are the predominate land uses which affect the Australian environment. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

The management of the impact on the Australian environment from the mining industry, the protection of the Great Barrier Reef, forests and native animals are recurring issues of conservation.

Major environmental issues in Australia include whaling, logging of old growth forest, irrigation and its impact on theMurray River,  DELL yy529 CPU Fan 

Darling River and Macquarie Marshes, acid sulfate soils, soil salinity, land clearing, soil erosion, uranium mining and nuclear waste, creation of marine reserves [1], air quality in major cities and around polluting industries and infrastructure, pesticide and herbicide impacts and growing of genetically modified food. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

Increased coal mining in Australia is contentious because of the effects of global warming on Australia, emissions to air from coal burning power stations, dust, subsidence, impact on rivers like the Hunter River and other water users, failure to adequately restore mined areas, and lack of sustainability. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

As an example, in 1999 Australia's energy consumption of coal and coal products were 47,364 [2](measured in thousand metric tons oil equivalent), compared to that of the world's energy consumption of coal and coal products which totaled 2,278,524 (also measured in thousand metric tons oil equivalent). HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

Climate change and global warming are of particular concern because of the likely effects of global warming on agriculture, the Great Barrier Reef and tourism industry, human health through mosquito borne crydiologicyticlogy [3]. Sea level rise could also have a profound impact on under leveled and poorer communities and waterfront suburbs. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The range of rises forecast by the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report would be sufficient to have impacts in many areas, and if the Greenland ice cap melts faster than forecast, it could have a disastrous impact.

In urban areas noise and odour are major sources of complaints to environmental protection authorities. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Environmental issues in Australia describes a number of environmental issues which affect theenvironment of Australia. There are a range of such issues, some of them relating to conservation in Australia while others, for example the deteriorating state of Murray-Darling Basin, have a direct and serious effect on human land use and the economy. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

Many human activities including the use of natural resources have a direct impact on the Australianenvironment.Climate change is now a major political talking point in Australia in the last two decades. Persistent drought and resulting water restrictions during the first decade of the twenty-first century are an example of natural events attributed by the mainstream media to climate change.[ HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

Australia ranks within the top ten countries globally with respect to greenhouse gas emissions per capita.[5]

The current federal and state governments have all publicly stated their belief that climate change is being caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Vocal minority groups within the population campaign against mining and coal-fired power stations in Australia, and such demonstrations are widely reported by the mainstream media. Similarly, vocal minority groups concurrently oppose wind energy schemes, despite being 'carbon neutral', HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

on the grounds of local visual and noise impact and concern for the currently high cost and low reliability of wind energy.Despite the publication of the Garnaut report and the Green Paper on the proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, public belief in anthropogenic climate change has noticeably eroded following the leaking of e-mails from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit.[9][10] HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan\

There is claimed to be a net benefit to Australia in stabilising greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at 450ppm CO2 eq[11] in line with the prevailing political stance. Public disagreement with this opinion is generally dismissed as expression of vested interests, for example from the coal industry. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

Australia is a major exporter and consumer of coal, the combustion of which liberates CO2. Consequently, in 2003 Australia was the eighth highest emitter of CO2gases per capita in the world liberating 16.5 tonnes per capita.[12] Australia is claimed to be one of the countries most at risk from climate change according to the Stern report. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Most of Australia's demand for electricity depends upon coal-fired thermal generation,[13] owing to the plentiful indigenous coal supply, limited potential for hydro-electric generation and political unwillingness to exploit indigenous uranium resources (although Australia accounted for the world's second highest production of uranium in 2005 [14]) Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

to fuel a 'carbon neutral' domestic nuclear energy program.

Conservation in Australia is an issue of state and federal policy. Australia is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world, with a large portion of species endemic to Australia. Preserving this wealth of biodiversity is important for future generations. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

A key conservation issue is the preservation of biodiversity, especially by protecting the remaining rainforests. The destruction of habitat by human activities, including land clearing, remains the major cause of biodiversity loss in Australia. The importance of the Australian rainforests to the conservation movement is very high. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

Australia is the only western country to have large areas of rainforest intact. Forests provide timber, drugs, and food and should be managed to maximize the possible uses. Currently, there are a number of environmental movements and campaigners advocating for action on saving the environment, one such campaign is the Big Switch and I Love Earth. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Land management issues including clearance of native vegetation, reafforestation of once-cleared areas, control of exotic weeds and pests, expansion of dryland salinity, and changed fire regimes. Intensification of resource use in sectors such as forestry, fisheries, and agriculture are widely reported to contribute to biodiversity loss in Australia. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

Coastal and marine environments also have reduced biodiversity from reduced water quality caused by pollution and sediments arising from human settlements and agriculture. In central New South Wales where there are large plains of grassland, problems have risen from—unusual to say—lack of land clearing. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

The Daintree Rainforest, a tropical rainforest near Daintree, Queensland covering around 1200 square kilometres, is threatened by logging, development, mining and the effects of the high tourist numbers.

Over a hundred species of fauna are currently under serious threat of extinction. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

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The plight of some of these species receives more attention than others and recently the focus of many conservation organisations has been the critically endangered Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat, the endangered Tasmanian Devil,[16] Northern Tiger Quoll, South Eastern Red-tailed Black Cockatoo, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

Southern Cassowary, Tasmanian Wedge-tailed Eagle, Leadbeater's Possum and Southern Corroboree frog.

Australia has a poor record of conservation of native fauna. The extinction of Australian megafauna is attributed to the arrival of humans and since European settlement, 23 birds, 4 frogs, and 27 mammal species are also known to have become extinct. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

One of the notable issues with marine conservation in Australia is the protection of the Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef's environmental pressures include water quality from runoff, climate change and mass coral bleaching, cyclic outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish, overfishing, and shipping accidents. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

Whaling in Australia took place from colonisation in 1788. In 1979 Australia terminated whaling and committed to whale protection. The main varieties hunted were Humpback, Blue, Right and Sperm Whales.

While there have been no oil spill environmental disasters of the scale of the Exxon Valdez in the country, HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

Australia has a large oil industry and there have been several large oil spills [1]. Spills remain a serious threat to the marine environment and Australian coastline. The largest spill to date was the Kirki tanker in 1991 which dropped 17,280 tonnes of oil off the coast of Western Australia. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

In March 2009, the 2009 southeast Queensland oil spill occurred, where 200,000 litres were spilled from the MV Pacific Adventurer spilling more than 250 tonnes of oil, 30 tonnes of fuel and other toxic chemicals on Brisbane's suburban beaches. Premier Anna Bligh described the spill as "worst environmental disaster Queensland has ever seen".HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

A serious issue to the Australian marine environment is the dumping of rubbish from ships. There have been a number of cases,[19] particularly involving the navy of Australian and other countries polluting Australian waters including the dumping of chemical warfare agents. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

Recently documented cases include the aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan in 2006 which was found to be dumping rubbish off the shores of Moreton Island.[20] In Victoria, a large number of toxic drums containing 1,2-Dichlorobenzene xylenol, a substance very toxic to aquatic creatures washed up on beaches during May 2009 presumably fallen off a passing container ship. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

Australia's geographical isolation has resulted in the evolution of many delicate ecological relationships that are sensitive to foreign invaders and in many instances provided no natural predators for many of the species subsequently introduced. Introduced plants that have caused widespread problems are lantana and the prickly pear bush. The introduction and spread of animals such as the cane toad or rabbit can disrupt the existing balances between populations and develop into environmental problems. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

The introduction of cattle into Australia and to a lesser extent the dingo, are other examples of species that have changed the landscape. In some cases the introduction of new species can lead to plagues and the extinction of endemic species. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

The introduced species red fox has single-handedly caused the extinction of several species. Tasmania takes the threat of red fox introduction so seriously that it has a government sponsored taskforce to prevent fox populations from taking hold on the island. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

In the prehistory of Australia the indigenous Australians used fire-stick farming which was an early form of land clearing which caused long term changes to the ecology. With European colonisation land clearing continued on a larger scale for agriculture - particularly for cattle, cotton and wheat production. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

Since European settlement a total of 13% of native vegetation cover has been lost. The extinction of 20 different mammals, 9 bird and 97 plant species have been partially attributed to land clearing. Land clearing is a major source of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions, and contributed to approximately 12 percent of Australia’s total emissions in 1998. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

The consequences of land clearing include dryland salinity and soil erosion. These are a major concern to the landcare movement in Australia.

The clearing of native vegetation is controlled by Federal laws (indirectly), State law and local planning instruments. The precise details of regulation of vegetation clearing differ according to the location where clearing is proposed. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

Australia is one of the most urbanized countries in the world. Many Australian cities have large urban footprints and are characterised by an unsustainable low density urban sprawl. This places demand on infrastructure and services which contributes to the problems of land clearing, pollution, HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

transport related emissions, energy consumption, invasive species,automobile dependency and urban heat islands.

The urban sprawl continues to increase at a rapid rate in most Australian cities, particularly the state capital cities, all of which (with the exception of Hobart) are metropoleis. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

In some centres, such as Sydney and Greater Western Sydney,[22]Greater Melbourne[23] and South East Queensland[24] large metropolitan conurbations threaten to extend for hundreds of kilometres and based on current population growth rates are expected to become megacities in the 21st century. Most Australian cities population growth is a result of migration in contrast to the Birth rate and fertility rate in Australia, which is contributing to the ongoing trend of urbanisation. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

In recent years, some cities have implemented transit-oriented development strategies to curb the urban sprawl. Notable examples include Melbourne 2030,[25] South East Queensland Regional Plan and the Sydney Metropolitan Strategy.

There are also population decentralisation programs at state and federal levels aimed at HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

shifting populations out of the major centres and stemming the drivers to rapid urbanisation. Albury-Wodonga was part of the federal government's program of decentralisation begun in the 1970s, which has at times had relocation policies for immigration. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The Victorian government has run a decentralisation program since the 1960s, having had a ministerial position appointed and ongoing promotional and investment programs for stimulating growth in Regional Victoria. However policy has swung over the decades, primarily due to local development priorities and agendas and a lack of federal co-ordination to the problem. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The protection of waterways in Australia is a major concern for various reasons including habitat and biodiversity, but also due to use of the waterways by humans.

The Murray-Darling Basin is under threat due to irrigation in Australia, causing high levels of salinity which affect agriculture and biodiversity in New South Wales, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Victoria and South Australia. These rivers are also affected by pesticide run-off and drought.

Climate change has become a major issue in Australia due to drastic climate events since the turn of the 21st century that have focused government and public attention.[1] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

Rainfall in Australia has increased slightly over the past century, although there is little or no trend in rainfall in the Western Plateau and the Central Lowlands of Australia.[2] Water sources in the southeastern areas of Australia have depleted due to increasing population in urban areas (rising demand) coupled with climate change factors such as persistent prolonged drought (diminishing supply). HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

At the same time, Australia continues to have the highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions.The federal government and all state governments (New South Wales,[4] Victoria,[5] Queensland,[6] South Australia,[7] Western Australia,[8] ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

Tasmania,[9] Northern Territories[10] and Australian Capital Territory[11]) have explicitly recognised that climate change is being caused by greenhouse gas emissions, in conformity with the scientific opinion on climate change. Sectors of the population are actively campaigning against new coal mines and coal fired power stations because of their concern about the effects of global warming on Australia.[12][13][ HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

14] There is expected to be a net benefit to Australia of stabilising greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at 450ppm CO2 eq.

Paleoclimatic records indicate that during glacial maxima Australia was extremely arid,[16] with plant pollen fossils showing deserts extending as far as northern Tasmania Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

and a vast area of less than 2 percent vegetation cover over all of South Australia and adjacent regions of other states. Forest cover was largely limited to sheltered areas of the east coast and the extreme southwest of Western Australia.

During these glacial maxima the climate was also much colder and windier than today.[17] Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

Minimum temperatures in winter in the centre of the continent were as much as 9°C (16°F) lower than they are today. Hydrological evidence for dryness during glacial maxima can also be seen at major lakes in Victoria's Western District, which dried up between around 20,000 and 15,000 years ago and re-filled from around 12,000 years ago.[18] HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

As one moves into the Holocene, evidence for climate change declines. During the early Holocene, there is evidence from Lake Frome in South Australia and Lake Woods near Tennant Creek that the climate between 8,000 and 9,500 years ago and again from Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

7,000 to 4,200 years ago was considerably wetter than over the period of instrumental recording since about 1885.[19] The research that gave these records also suggested that the rainfall flooding Frome was definitely summer-dominant rainfall because of pollen counts from grass species. DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

Other sources[20] suggest that the Southern Oscillation may have been weaker during the early Holocene and rainfall over northern Australia less variable as well as higher. The onset of modern conditions with periodic wet season failure is dated ar around 4,000 years before the present. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

In southern Victoria, there is evidence for generally wet conditions except for a much drier spell between about 3,000 and 2,100 years before the present,[21]when it is believed Lake Corangamite fell to levels well below those observed between European settlement and the 1990s. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

After this dry period, Western District lakes returned to their previous levels fairly quickly and by 1800 they were at their highest levels in the forty thousand years of record available.

Elsewhere, data for most of the Holocene are deficient, ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

largely because methods used elsewhere to determine past climates (like tree-ring data) cannot be used in Australia owing to the character of its soils and climate. Recently, however, coral cores have been used to examine rainfall over those areas of Queenslanddraining to the Great Barrier Reef.[22] Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

The results do not provide conclusive evidence of man-made climate change, but do suggest the following:

There has been a marked increase in the frequency of very wet years in Queensland since the end of the Little Ice Age, a theory supported by there being no evidence for any large Lake Eyre filling during the LIA. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

The dry era of the 1920s and 1930s may well have been the driest period in Australia over the past four centuries.

A similar study, not yet published, is planned for coral reefs in Western Australia.

There exist records of floods in a number of rivers, such as the Hawkesbury, from the time of first settlement. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

These suggest that, for the period beginning with the first European settlement, the first thirty-five years or so were wet and were followed by a much drier period up to the mid-1860s,[23] when usable instrumental records start.

Although rain gauges were installed privately by some of the earliest settlers, Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

the first instrumental climate records in Australia were not compiled until 1840 at Port Macquarie. Rain gauges were gradually installed at other major centres across the continent, with the present gauges in Melbourne and Sydney dating from 1858 and 1859 respectively. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

In eastern Australia, where the continent's first large-scale agriculture began, a large number of rain gauges were installed during the 1860s and by 1875 a comprehensive network had been developed in the "settled" areas of that state.[24] With the spread of the pastoral industry to the north of the continent during this period, HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

rain gauges were established extensively in newly settled areas, reaching Darwin by 1869, Alice Springs by 1874, and the Kimberley, Channel Countryand Gulf Savannah by 1880.By 1885,[25] most of Australia had a network of rainfall reporting stations adequate to give a good picture of climatic variability over the continent. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The exceptions were remote areas of western Tasmania, the extreme southwest of Western Australia, Cape York Peninsula,[26] the northern Kimberley and the deserts of northwestern South Australia and southeastern Western Australia. In these areas good-quality climatic data were not available for quite some time after that. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

Temperature measurements, although made at major population centres from days of the earliest rain gauges, were generally not established when rain gauges spread to more remote locations during the 1870s and 1880s. Although they gradually caught up in number with rain gauges, SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

many places which have had rainfall data for over 125 years have only a few decades of temperature records.

Australia's instrumental record from 1885 to the present shows the following broad picture: Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

Conditions from 1885 to 1898 were generally fairly wet, though less so than in the period since 1968. The only noticeably dry years in this era were 1888 and 1897. Although some coral core data[27] suggest that 1887 and 1890 were, with 1974, the wettest years across the continent since settlement, rainfall data for Alice Springs,  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

then the only major station covering the interior of the Northern Territory and Western Australia, strongly suggest that 1887 and 1890 were overall not as wet as 1974 or even 2000. In New South Wales and Queensland, however, the years 1886-1887 and 1889-1894 were indeed exceptionally wet. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

The heavy rainfall over this period has been linked with a major expansion of the sheep population[28] and February 1893 saw the disastrous 1893 Brisbane flood.

A drying of the climate took place from 1899 to 1921, though with some interruptions from wet El Niño years, especially between 1915 and early 1918 and in 1920-1921, HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

when the wheat belt of the southern interior was drenched by its heaviest winter rains on record. Two majorEl Niño events in 1902 and 1905 produced the two driest years across the whole continent, whilst 1919 was similarly dry in the eastern States apart from the Gippsland. HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

The period from 1922 to 1938 was exceptionally dry, with only 1930 having Australia-wide rainfall above the long-term mean and the Australia-wide average rainfall for these seventeen years being 15 to 20 percent below that for other periods since 1885. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

This dry period is attributed in some sources to a weakening of the Southern Oscillation[29] and in others to reduced sea surface temperatures.[30] Temperatures in these three periods were generally cooler than they are currently, with 1925 having the coolest minima of any year since 1910. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

However, the dry years of the 1920s and 1930s were also often quite warm, with 1928 and 1938 having particularly high maxima.

The period from 1939 to 1967 began with an increase in rainfall: 1939, 1941 and 1942 were the first close-together group of relatively wet years since 1921. HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

From 1943 to 1946, generally dry conditions returned, and the two decades from 1947 saw fluctuating rainfall. 1950, 1955 and 1956 were exceptionally wet except 1950 and 1956 over arid and wheatbelt regions of Western Australia. 1950 saw extraordinary rains in central New South Wales and most of Queensland: SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

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Dubbo's 1950 rainfall of 1,329 mm (52 inches) can be estimated to have a return period of between 350 and 400 years, whilst Lake Eyre filled for the first time in thirty years. In contrast, 1951, 1961 and 1965 were very dry, with complete monsoon failure in 1951/1952 and extreme drought in the interior during 1961 and 1965. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

Temperatures over this period initially fell to their lowest levels of the 20th century, with 1949 and 1956 being particularly cool, but then began a rising trend that has continued with few interruptions to the present.

Since 1968, Australia's rainfall has been 15 percent higher than between 1885 and 1967. SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

The wettest periods have been from 1973 to 1975 and 1998 to 2001, which comprise seven of the thirteen wettest years over the continent since 1885. Overnight minimum temperatures, especially in winter, have been markedly higher than before the 1960s, with 1973, 1980, 1988, 1991, 1998 and 2005 outstanding in this respect. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

There has been a marked and beneficial decrease in the frequency of frost[31] across Australia

According to the Bureau of Meteorology, Australia’s annual mean temperature for 2009 was 0.90°C above the 1961-90 average, making it the nation’s second warmest year since high-quality records began in 1910. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

Within Australia, patterns of precipitation show regional variation. Because of the general spatial coherence of rainfall over most of Australia, these variations have tended to affect small areas, but because these are generally the most populated parts of the continent, they are still of considerable importance. Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

In the South-West Land Division, rainfall during the May to August rainy season has declined by 20 percent since 1968, after being at its highest from 1915 to 1947.[33] Floods that were once common have virtually disappeared. Aided by increased winter temperatures and evaporation, runoff has declined over the past forty years by as much as sixty percent.[ ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

In southern Victoria, rainfall since 1997 has declined by as much as 30 percent, with Melbourne having not once exceeded its 1885 to 1996 average since 1997.

In contrast, the 1950s in southern Victoria were consistently wet, with Western District lakes returning during the decade to levels seen before the 1850s and Corangamite almost overflowing, as it is believed to have done during the Little Ice Age.[ IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

The eastern part of Tasmania has also seen a major decline in rainfall since the middle 1970s. In Hobart, the annual rainfall has declined by about one-sixth since that time, and not one of the nineteen wettest years since 1882 has occurred since 1976.[ IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

In Gippsland, the coastal areas of New South Wales, and southern Queensland, the driest period since 1885 was not from 1922 to 1938, but approximately from 1901 to 1910, when the average annual rainfall at Sydney was 20 percent below its long-term mean. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

There was a slight increase in rainfall from 1916 to 1934 and then a decline to 1901-1910 levels from 1936 to 1948, before a return to the pre-1900 "flood-dominated" climate regime occurred in 1949.[

In northwestern Australia, rainfall was moderate from 1885 to about 1925, IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

then declined from the late 1920s to the late 1960s (with very dry conditions during the 1950s), followed by rapid increases since then. In Darwin, six of the seven wettest wet seasons have occurred since 1995, and the major droughts that once affected the region frequently have virtually disappeared since 1971. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

According to the CSIRO and Garnaut Climate Change Review, climate change is expected to have numerous adverse effects on many species, regions, activities and much infrastructure and areas of the economy and public health in Australia. The Stern Report and Garnaut Review on balance expect these to outweigh the costs of mitigation. [34] DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

Sustained climate change could have drastic effects on the ecosystems of Australia. For example, rising ocean temperatures and continual erosion of the coasts from higher water levels will cause further bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef. Beyond that, ASUS F80S CPU Fan

Australia’s climate will become even harsher, with more powerful tropical cyclones and longer droughts.The impacts of climate change will vary significantly across Australia. The Australian Government appointed Climate Commission have prepared summary reports on the likely impacts of climate change for regions across Australia, HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

including: Queensland, NSW, Victoria and Tasmania.

According to the climate commission report in 2013 the extreme heatwaves, flooding and bush fires striking Australia have been intensified by climate change and will get worse in future in terms of their impacts on people, IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

property, communities and the environment. The summer of 2012/2013 included the hottest summer, hottest month and hottest day on record. The cost of the 2009 bushfires in Victoria was estimated at A$4.4bn (£3bn) and the Queensland floods of 2010/2011 cost over A$5bn. IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

The Australian Government released a detailed report on the impacts of climate change on coastal areas of Australia, finding that up to 247,600 houses are at risk from flooding from a sea-level rise of 1.1 metres. There were 39,000 buildings located within 110 metres of 'soft' erodible shorelines, at risk from accelerated erosion due to sea -level rise. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

In 2008 the Treasurer and the Minister for Climate Change and Water released a report that concluded the economy will grow with an emissions trading scheme in place.[41]

A report released in October 2009 by the Standing Committee on Climate Change, Water, Environment and the Arts, studying the effects of a 1m sea level rise, HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

quite possible within the next 30–60 years, concluded that around 700,000 properties around Australia, including 80,000 buildings, would be inundated, the collective value of these properties is estimated at $150billion.

In June 2008 it became known that an expert panel had warned of long term, DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

maybe irreversible, severe ecological damage for the whole Murray-Darling basin if it did not receive sufficient water by October of that year.[43] Water restrictions are currently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages resulting from drought.[44] HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

In 2004 paleontologist Tim Flannery predicted that unless it made drastic changes the city of Perth, Western Australia, could become the world’s first ghost metropolis - an abandoned city with no more water to sustain its population.

One of Australia's first national attempt to reduce emissions was the voluntary-based IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

initiative called the Greenhouse Challenge Program which began in 1995.[46]A collection of measures which focused on reducing the environmental impacts of the energy sector were released by Prime Minister John Howard on 20 November 1997 in a policy statement called Safeguarding Our Future: ASUS A8H CPU Fan

Australia's Response to Climate Change.[47] One measure was the establishment of the Australian Greenhouse Office, which was set up as the world's first dedicated greenhouse office in April 1998.[48]

After contributing to the development of, then signing but not ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

action to address climate change was coordinated through the Australian Greenhouse Office. The Australian Greenhouse Office released the National Greenhouse Strategy in 1998. The report recognised climate change was of global significance and that Australia had an international obligation to address the problem. HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

In 2000 the Senate Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Arts References Committee conducted an inquiry that produced The Heat is On: Australia's Greenhouse Future.

In 1998 the Australian Government, under Prime Minister John Howard, APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

established the Australian Greenhouse Office, which was then the world's first government agency dedicated to cutting greenhouse gas emissions.[50] Currently, the new Department of Climate Change under Minister Penny Wong is coordinating and leading climate policy in the Australian Government and aimed to have a national emissions trading scheme operating by 2010. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

However, on 27 April 2010, the Prime Minister Kevin Rudd announced that the Government has decided to delay the implementation of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) until the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (ending in 2012).[51] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The Government cited the lack of bipartisan support for the CPRS and slow international progress on climate action as the reasons for the decision.[52]

The delay of the implementation of the CPRS was strongly criticised by the Federal Opposition[53] and by community and grassroots action groups such asGetUp.[54] Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

The new government has committed to reducing Australia's greenhouse gas emissions by 60% by 2050, based on year 2000 levels but is awaiting a report from Professor Ross Garnaut, the Garnaut Climate Change Review, in mid-2008 before setting interim emission reduction targets for 2020.[dated infoSONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

Climate change is on the agenda for most environmental and social justice non-government organisations (NGOs) in Australia. There has also been significant action at a State Government level, although the Federal government was slow to act under the former prime minister, John Howard[HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

To reduce Australia's carbon emissions, the government of Julia Gillard introduced a carbon tax on 1 July 2012. It requires large businesses, defined as those emitting over 250,000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent annually, to purchase emissions permits. SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

The state of Victoria, in particular, has been proactive in pursuing reductions in GHG through a range of initiatives. Other states have also taken a more proactive stance than the federal government. One such initiative undertaken by the Victorian Government is the Greenhouse Challenge for Energy Policy package, HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

which aims to reduce Victorian emissions through a mandated renewable energy target. Initially, it aimed to have a 10 per cent share of Victoria’s energy consumption being produced by renewable technologies by 2010, with 1000 MWh being produced by wind energy by 2006; this target was not met. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

The government recently legislated to ensure that by 2016 electricity retailers in Victoria purchase 10 per cent of their energy from renewables. The State Government also made an election promise, at the 2006 election, to increase this to 20 per cent by 2020. By providing a market incentive for the development of renewables, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

the government helps foster the development of the renewable energy sector.

The Australian Youth Climate Coalition (AYCC) was founded in November 2006 by over 35 youth organisations including the Australian Student Environment Network, GetUp!, the United Nations Youth Association (UNYA) and OzGreen. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

The founding summit involved 65 young people aged 15–30 representing 30 different youth and youth-friendly organisations. The AYCC is a non-partisan, non-profit coalition with the aim of informing, inspiring and mobilising an entire generation in the struggle for climate justice and a clean energy future. Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

The coalition emerged to hold those in power to account by challenging the acutely poor leadership shown by the Australian government and the private sector to stop climate change. In February 2007, the AYCC organised its official launch where AYCC members delivered their declaration on climate change to members of the Australian Parliament around the country. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

Australian Student Environment Network (ASEN) is a non-profit, grassroots network of student activists from universities, TAFEs and secondary schools across Australia. The network aims to create a generation of change-agents actively working to achieve environmental and social justice within the Australian and world context. ASUS G2P CPU Fan

The network has a strong focus on equipping young people with organising and facilitation skills and provides first-hand campaigning experience in environmental advocacy and grassroots organising. Annually, the ASEN summer training camp brings together students for one week of facilitated skill sharing, workshopping, campaign planning and strategising. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

ASEN has multiple campaign foci including climate change, coal mining, green jobs, campus sustainability (energy/emissions & recycled paper), nuclear power, Gold and Uranium mining and the genocide of Indigenous peoples. In addition, DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

the network builds and lives-out alternative ideas and lifestyles through community projects such as Co-operatives (food, housing and transport), on-campus permaculture gardens and by investing in community supported agriculture.

The AYCC supports numerous projects by harnessing the knowledge, skills and experience of its coalition member groups. HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

In August 2007, the AYCC launched their federal election campaign "Adopt a Politician" providing young voters and non-voters a platform on which to engage with their local community on the issue and pressure their federal candidates to save their future by committing to better policies. Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

In October 2007, the AYCC and ASEN organised the largest gathering of young climate activists from around the country at the conference "Switched On" in the Blue Mountains west of Sydney. The conferenced aimed to facilitate critical thinking on climate change and its solutions, Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

share knowledge and skills for organising around climate change and provide support and networking opportunities for the growing youth climate movement in Australia.

In November 2007, youth delegates from the AYCC attended the Kyoto negotiations in Bali where they collaborated with other national youth networks and young climate HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

activists from around the world.SYCAN-the Sydney Youth Climate Action Network was founded at OzGreen's Youth Leading Australia Congress in 2009. SYCAN is working in local communities to reduce emissions through education and practical solutions. SYCAN is a non-profit, non-partisan group of youth volunteers. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

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