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12 avril 2012 4 12 /04 /avril /2012 03:50

Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American author and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. HP Pavilion dv7-4057sf Battery

Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short story collections and two non-fiction works. Three novels, four collections of short stories and three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of these are considered classics of American literature. HP Pavilion dv7-4058ca Battery

Hemingway was raised in Oak Park, Illinois. After high school he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star, before leaving for the Italian front to enlist with the World War I ambulance drivers. In 1918, he was seriously wounded and returned home. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eb Battery

His wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. In 1922, he married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives. The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent, and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community. The Sun Also Rises, Hemingway's first novel, was published in 1926. HP Pavilion dv7-4060em Battery

After his 1927 divorce from Hadley Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer. They divorced after he returned from the Spanish Civil War where he had acted as a journalist, and after which he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940. They separated when he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II; during which he was present at the Normandy Landings and liberation of Paris. HP Pavilion dv7-4060si Battery

Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea in 1952, Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in a plane crash that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway had permanent residences in Key West, Florida, and Cuba during the 1930s and 1940s, but in 1959 he moved from Cuba toKetchum, Idaho, where he committed suicide in the summer of 1961. HP Pavilion dv7-4060us Battery

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago.[1] His father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway was a physician, and his mother, Grace Hall-Hemingway, was a musician. Both were well-educated and well-respected in the conservative community of Oak Park,[2] HP Pavilion dv7-4061nr Battery

a community about which resident Frank Lloyd Wright said ,"So many churches for so many good people to go to".[3] For a short period after their marriage,[4] Clarence and Grace Hemingway lived with Grace's father, Ernest Hall, who eventually became their first son's namesake.[noteHP Pavilion dv7-4063ca Battery

1] Later Hemingway would say he disliked his name, which he "associated with the naive, even foolish hero ofOscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest".[5] The family eventually moved into a seven-bedroom home in a respectable neighborhood with a music studio for Grace and a medical office for Clarence.[2]HP Pavilion dv7-4065dx Battery

 

Hemingway's mother frequently performed in concerts around the village. As an adult Hemingway professed to hate his mother, although biographer Michael S. Reynolds points out that Hemingway mirrored her energy and enthusiasm.[6] Her insistence that he learn to play the cello became a "source of conflict", but he later admitted the music lessons were useful to his writing, HP Pavilion dv7-4065ei Battery

as is evident in the "contrapuntal structure" of For Whom the Bell Tolls.[7] The family owned a summer home called Windemere on Walloon Lake, nearPetoskey, Michigan, where as a boy Hemingway learned to hunt, fish and camp in the woods and lakes of Northern Michigan. His early experiences in nature instilled a passion for outdoor adventure, and living in remote or isolated areas.[8]HP Pavilion dv7-4065ez Battery

 

Photograph of Hemingway family in 1905, from left: Marcelline, Sunny, Clarence, Grace, Ursula and Ernest

From 1913 until 1917, Hemingway attended Oak Park and River Forest High School where he took part in a number of sports, namely boxing, track and field, water polo, and football. HP Pavilion dv7-4065sf Battery

He excelled in English classes,[9] and performed in the school orchestra with his sister Marcelline for two years.[6] In his junior year, he took a journalism class, taught by Fannie Biggs, which was structured "as though the classroom were a newspaper office". HP Pavilion dv7-4065si Battery

The better writers in class submitted pieces to the The Trapeze, the school newspaper. Hemingway and Marcelline both had pieces submitted to The Trapeze; Hemingway's first piece, published in January 1916, was about a local performance by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.[10] HP Pavilion dv7-4066sf Battery

He continued to contribute to and to edit the Trapeze and theTabula (the school's newspaper and yearbook), for which he imitated the language of sportswriters, and used the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr.—a nod to Ring Lardner of theChicago Tribune whose byline was "Line O'Type".HP Pavilion dv7-4067sf Battery

Like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane,Theodore Dreiser and Sinclair Lewis, Hemingway was a journalist before becoming a novelist; after leaving high school he went to work for The Kansas City Star as a cub reporter.[11] HP Pavilion dv7-4070eb Battery

Although he stayed there for only six months he relied on the Star's style guideas a foundation for his writing: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative."[12]HP Pavilion dv7-4069wm Battery

WORLD WAR I

Early in 1918 Hemingway responded to a Red Cross recruitment effort in Kansas City and signed on to be an ambulance driver in Italy.[13] He left New York in May, and arrived in Paris as the city was under bombardment from German artillery.[14] HP Pavilion dv7-4070eo Battery

By June he was stationed at the Italian Front, and on his first day in Milan was sent to the scene of a munitions factory explosion where rescuers retrieved the shredded remains of female workers. He described the incident in his non-fiction book Death in the Afternoon: HP Pavilion dv7-4070er Battery

"I remember that after we searched quite thoroughly for the complete dead we collected fragments".[15] A few days later he was stationed at Fossalta di Piave. On July 8 he was seriously wounded by mortar fire, having just returned from the canteen to deliver chocolate and cigarettes to the men at the front line.[15] HP Pavilion dv7-4070ez Battery

Despite his wounds, Hemingway carried an Italian soldier to safety, for which he received the Italian Silver Medal of Bravery.[14] Still only 18, Hemingway said of the incident: "When you go to war as a boy you have a great illusion of immortality. Other people get killed; not you ... HP Pavilion dv7-4070sf Battery

Then when you are badly wounded the first time you lose that illusion and you know it can happen to you."[16] He sustained severe shrapnel wounds to both legs, underwent an immediate operation at a distribution center, spent five days at a field hospital before he was transferred for recuperation to the Red Cross hospital in Milan.[17]HP Pavilion dv7-4070us Battery

 He spent six months at the hospital where he met and formed a strong friendship with "Chink" Dorman-Smith that lasted for decades. While recuperating he fell in love for the first time of his life with Agnes von Kurowsky, a Red Cross nurse seven years his senior. By the time of his release and return to the United States in January 1919, HP Pavilion dv7-4071nr Battery

Agnes and Hemingway planned to marry within a few months in America. However in March she wrote that she had become engaged to an Italian officer. Biographer Jeffrey Meyers claims Hemingway was devastated by Agnes' rejection, and that he followed a pattern of abandoning a wife before she abandoned him in future relationships.[18]HP Pavilion dv7-4073ca Battery

 

TORONTO AND CHICAGO

Hemingway returned home early in 1919 to a time of readjustment. At not yet 20 years old, the war had created in him a maturity at odds with living at home without a job and the need for recuperation.[19] As Reynolds explains, "HP Pavilion dv7-4073nr Battery

Hemingway could not really tell his parents what he thought when he saw his bloody knee. He could not say how scared he was in another country with surgeons who could not tell him in English if his leg was coming off or not."[20] HP Pavilion dv7-4074ca Battery

In the summer he took a fishing and camping trip with high school friends,[16] and in September he spent a week alone in the back-country of Michigan'sUpper Peninsula. The trip became the inspiration for his short story "Big Two-Hearted River", in which the semi-autobiographical character Nick Adams takes to the country to find solitude after returning from war.[21] HP Pavilion dv7-4075sb Battery

A family friend offered him a job in Toronto and with nothing else to do he accepted. Late that year he began as a freelancer, staff writer and foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star Weekly. He returned to Michigan the following June,[19] and then moved to Chicago in September 1920 to live with friends, while still filing stories for the Toronto Star. HP Pavilion dv7-4075sf Battery

 

In Chicago he worked as an associate editor of the monthly journal Cooperative Commonwealth, where he met novelist Sherwood Anderson.[22] When St. Louis nativeHadley Richardson came to Chicago to visit the sister of Hemingway's roommate, he became infatuated and later claimed, "I knew she was the girl I was going to marry".[23]HP Pavilion dv7-4077cl Battery

Hadley was red-haired, with a "nurturing instinct", and eight years older than Hemingway.[23] Despite the difference in age, Hadley, who had grown up with an overprotective mother, seemed less mature than usual for a young woman her age.[24]HP Pavilion dv7-4078ca Battery

Bernice Kert, author of The Hemingway Women, claims Hadley was "evocative" of Agnes, but that Hadley had a childishness that Agnes lacked. The two corresponded for a few months, and then decided to marry and travel to Europe.[23] HP Pavilion dv7-4080er Battery

They wanted to visit Rome, but Sherwood Anderson convinced them to visit Paris instead, writing letters of introduction for the young couple.[25] They were married on September 3, 1921; two months later Hemingway was hired as foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star and the couple left for Paris. HP Pavilion dv7-4080sb Battery

Of Hemingway's marriage to Hadley, Meyers claims: "With Hadley, Hemingway achieved everything he had hoped for with Agnes: the love of a beautiful woman, a comfortable income, a life in Europe."[26]HP Pavilion dv7-4080ss Battery

 

PARIS

Carlos Baker, Hemingway's first biographer, believes that while Anderson suggested Paris because "the monetary exchange rate" made it an inexpensive place to live, more importantly it was where "the most interesting people in the world" lived. HP Pavilion dv7-4080us Battery

In Paris Hemingway met writers such as Gertrude Stein, James Joyce and Ezra Pound who "could help a young writer up the rungs of a career".[25] The Hemingway of the early Paris years was a "tall, handsome, muscular, broad-shouldered, brown-eyed, HP Pavilion dv7-4083cl Battery

rosy-cheeked, square-jawed, soft-voiced young man."[27] He and Hadley lived in a small walk-up at 74 rue du Cardinal Lemoine in the Latin Quarter, and he worked in a rented room in a nearby building.[25] Stein, who was the bastion of modernism in Paris,[28] HP Pavilion dv7-4085eb Battery

became Hemingway's mentor; she introduced him to the expatriate artists and writers of the Montparnasse Quarter, whom she referred to as the "Lost Generation"—a term Hemingway popularized with the publication of The Sun Also Rises.[29] HP Pavilion dv7-4085es Battery

A regular at Stein's salon, Hemingway met influential painters such as Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, and Juan Gris.[30] He eventually withdrew from Stein's influence and their relationship deteriorated into a literary quarrel that spanned decades.[31] HP Pavilion dv7-4085sf Battery

The American poet Ezra Pound met Hemingway by chance at Sylvia Beach's bookshop Shakespeare and Company in 1922. The two toured Italy in 1923 and lived on the same street in 1924.[27] They forged a strong friendship, and in Hemingway, HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl Battery

Pound recognized and fostered a young talent.[30] Pound introduced Hemingway to the Irish writer James Joyce, with whom Hemingway frequently embarked on "alcoholic sprees".[32]HP Pavilion dv7-4090ca Battery

 

During his first 20 months in Paris, Hemingway filed 88 stories for the Toronto Starnewspaper.[33] He covered the Greco-Turkish War, where he witnessed the burning ofSmyrna and wrote travel pieces such as "Tuna Fishing in Spain" and "Trout Fishing All Across Europe: HP Pavilion dv7-4090eb Battery

Spain Has the Best, Then Germany".[34] Hemingway was devastated on learning that Hadley had lost a suitcase filled with his manuscripts at the Gare de Lyon as she was traveling to Geneva to meet him in December 1922.[35] HP Pavilion dv7-4090es Battery

The following September, the couple returned to Toronto, where their son John Hadley Nicanor was born on October 10, 1923. During their absence Hemingway's first book, Three Stories and Ten Poems, was published. Two of the stories it contained were all that remained after the loss of the suitcase, and the third had been written the previous spring in Italy. HP Pavilion dv7-4090sf Battery

Within months a second volume, in our time (without capitals), was published. The small volume included six vignettes and a dozen stories Hemingway had written the previous summer during his first visit to Spain where he discovered the thrill of the corrida. He missed Paris, considered Toronto boring, and wanted to return to the life of a writer, rather than live the life of a journalist.[36]HP Pavilion dv7-4091sf Battery

 

Hemingway, Hadley and their son (nicknamed Bumby) returned to Paris in January 1924 and moved into a new apartment on the rue Nôtre-Dame des Champs.[36] Hemingway helped Ford Madox Ford edit the transatlantic review, which published works by Pound,John Dos Passos and Stein, as well as some of Hemingway's own early stories such as "Indian Camp".[37] HP Pavilion dv7-4095eb Battery

When In Our Time (with capital letters) was published in 1925, the dust jacket bore comments from Ford.[38][39] "Indian Camp" received considerable praise; Ford saw it as an important early story by a young writer,[40] HP Pavilion dv7-4100 Battery

and critics in the United States praised Hemingway for reinvigorating the short story genre with his crisp style and use of declarative sentences.[41] Six months earlier, Hemingway had met F. Scott Fitzgerald, and the pair formed a friendship of "admiration and hostility".[42] Fitzgerald had published The Great Gatsby the same year: Hemingway read it, liked it, and decided his next work had to be a novel.[43]HP Pavilion dv7-4105TX Battery

With his wife Hadley, Hemingway first visited the Festival of San Fermín in Pamplona, Spain in 1923, where he became fascinated by bullfighting.[44] The Hemingways returned to Pamplona in 1924 and a third time in June 1925; HP Pavilion dv7-4106TX Battery

that year they brought with them a group of American and British expatriates: Hemingway's Michigan boyhood friend Bill Smith, Stewart, Lady Duff Twysden (recently divorced), her lover Pat Guthrie, and Harold Loeb.[45] HP Pavilion dv7-4130sa Battery

A few days after the fiesta ended, on his birthday (21 July), he began to write the draft of what would become The Sun Also Rises, finishing eight weeks later.[46] A few months later, in December 1925, the Hemingways left to spend the winter in Schruns, HP Pavilion dv7-4131sa Battery

Austria, where Hemingway began revising the manuscript extensively. Pauline Pfeifferjoined them in January and against Hadley's advice urged him to sign a contract withScribner's. He left Austria for a quick trip to New York to meet with the publishers, and on his return, HP Pavilion dv7-4140ea Battery

during a stop in Paris, began an affair with Pauline, before returning to Schruns to finish the revisions in March.[47] The manuscript arrived in New York in April, he corrected the final proof in Paris in August 1926, and Scribner's published the novel in October.[46][48][49]HP Pavilion dv7-4142eo Battery

 

The Sun Also Rises epitomized the post-war expatriate generation,[50] received good reviews, and is "recognized as Hemingway's greatest work".[51] Hemingway himself later wrote to his editor Max Perkins that the "point of the book" was not so much about a generation being lost, but that "the earth abideth forever"; he believed the characters in The Sun Also Rises may have been "battered" but were not lost.[52]HP Pavilion dv7-4150ea Battery

 

Hemingway's marriage to Hadley deteriorated as he was working on The Sun Also Rises.[49] In the spring of 1926, Hadley became aware of his affair with Pauline Pfeiffer, who came to Pamplona with them that July.[53][54] HP Pavilion dv7-4170eo Battery

On their return to Paris, Hadley asked for a separation; in November she formally requested a divorce. They split their possessions while Hadley accepted Hemingway's offer of the proceeds from The Sun Also Rises.[55] The couple were divorced in January 1927, and Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer in May.[56]HP Pavilion dv7-4180ea Battery

 

Pfeiffer, who was from a wealthy Catholic Arkansas family, had moved to Paris to work forVogue magazine. Before their marriage Hemingway converted to Catholicism.[57] They honeymooned in Le Grau-du-Roi, where he contracted anthrax, and he planned his next collection of short stories,[58] HP Pavilion dv7-6000 Battery

Men Without Women, published in October 1927.[59] By the end of the year Pauline, who was pregnant, wanted to move back to America. John Dos Passos recommended Key West, and they left Paris in March 1928. That spring Hemingway suffered a severe injury in their Paris bathroom, HP Pavilion dv7-6000sg Battery

when he pulled a skylight down on his head thinking he was pulling on a toilet chain. This left him with a prominent forehead scar, which he carried for the rest of his life. When Hemingway was asked about the scar he was reluctant to answer.[60] After his departure from Paris, Hemingway "never again lived in a big city".[61]HP Pavilion dv7-6001sg Battery

KEY WEST AND THE CARIBBEAN

In the late spring Hemingway and Pauline traveled to Kansas City, where their son Patrickwas born on June 28, 1928. Pauline had a difficult delivery, which Hemingway fictionalized in A Farewell to Arms. After Patrick's birth, Pauline and Hemingway traveled to Wyoming, Massachusetts and New York.[62] HP Pavilion dv7-6001xx Battery

In the fall he was in New York with Bumby, about to board a train to Florida, when he received a cable telling him that his father had committed suicide.[note 2][63] HP Pavilion dv7-6004ea Battery

Hemingway was devastated, having earlier sent a letter to his father telling him not to worry about financial difficulties; the letter arrived minutes after the suicide. He realized how Hadley must have felt after her own father's suicide in 1903, and he commented, "I'll probably go the same way."[64]HP Pavilion dv7-6002sa Battery

 

Upon his return to Key West in December, Hemingway worked on the draft of A Farewell to Arms before leaving for France in January. He had finished it in August but delayed the revision. The serialization in Scribner's Magazine was scheduled to begin in May, HP Pavilion dv7-6004tx Battery

but as late as April, Hemingway was still working on the ending, which he may have rewritten as many as seventeen times. The completed novel was published on September 27.[65]Biographer James Mellow believes A Farewell to Arms established Hemingway's stature as a major American writer and displayed a level of complexity not apparent in The Sun Also Rises.[66] HP Pavilion dv7-6005sg Battery

In Spain during the summer of 1929, Hemingway researched his next work, Death in the Afternoon. He wanted to write a comprehensive treatise on bullfighting, explaining the toreros and corridas and complete with glossaries and appendices, because he believed bullfighting was "of great tragic interest, being literally of life and death."[67]HP Pavilion dv7-6005tx Battery

 

During the early 1930s Hemingway spent his winters in Key West and summers in Wyoming, where he found "the most beautiful country he had seen in the American West" and hunting that included deer, elk and grizzly bear.[68] HP Pavilion dv7-6006sg Battery

His third son, Gregory Hancock Hemingway, was born on November 12, 1931 in Kansas City.[69][note 3] Pauline's uncle bought the couple a house in Key West with a carriage house, the second floor of which was converted into a writing studio.[70]HP Pavilion dv7-6007sg Battery

 Its location across the street from the lighthouse made it easy for him to find after a long night of drinking. While in Key West Hemingway frequented the local bar Sloppy Joe's.[71] He invited friends—including Waldo Peirce, John Dos Passos, and Max Perkins[72]HP Pavilion dv7-6008eg Battery

to join him on fishing trips and on an all-male expedition to the Dry Tortugas. Meanwhile he continued to travel to Europe and to Cuba, and although he wrote of Key West in 1933, "We have a fine house here, and kids are all well," Mellow believes he "was plainly restless."[73]HP Pavilion dv7-6008sg Battery

 

In 1933 Hemingway and Pauline went on safari to East Africa. The 10-week trip provided material for Green Hills of Africa, as well as for the short stories "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" and "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber".[74] HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg Battery

The couple visitedMombasa, Nairobi, and Machakos in Kenya, then moved on to Tanganyika, where they hunted in the Serengeti, around Lake Manyara, and west and southeast of present-dayTarangire National Park. Their guide was the noted "white hunter" Philip Hope Percival, who had guided Theodore Roosevelt on his 1909 safari. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx Battery

During these travels Hemingway contracted amoebic dysentery that caused a prolapsed intestine, and he was evacuated by plane to Nairobi, an experience reflected in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro". On Hemingway’s return to Key West in early 1934, he began work on Green Hills of Africa, which he published in 1935 to mixed reviews.[75]HP Pavilion dv7-6012eg Battery

 

Hemingway bought a boat in 1934, named it the Pilar, and began sailing the Caribbean.[76]In 1935 he first arrived at Bimini, where he spent a considerable amount of time.[74] During this period he also worked on To Have and Have Not, published in 1937 while he was in Spain, the only novel he wrote during the 1930s.[77]HP Pavilion dv7-6012sg Battery

 

SPANISH CIVIL WAR AND WORLD WAR II

In 1937 Hemingway agreed to report on the Spanish Civil War for the North American Newspaper Alliance (NANA),[78] arriving in Spain in March with Dutch filmmaker Joris Ivens.[79] Ivens, who was filming The Spanish Earth, wanted Hemingway to replace John Dos Passos as screenwriter, HP Pavilion dv7-6012tx Battery

since Dos Passos had left the project when his friend José Robles was arrested and later executed.[80] The incident changed Dos Passos' opinion of the leftist republicans, creating a rift between him and Hemingway, who later spread a rumor that Dos Passos left Spain out of cowardice.[81]HP Pavilion dv7-6013eg Battery

 

Journalist and writer Martha Gellhorn, whom Hemingway had met in Key West the previous Christmas (1936), joined him in Spain. Like Hadley, Martha was a native of St. Louis, and like Pauline, she had worked for Vogue in Paris. Of Martha, Kert explains, "she never catered to him the way other women did."[82]HP Pavilion dv7-6013tx Battery

 Late in 1937, while in Madrid with Martha, Hemingway wrote his only play, The Fifth Column, as the city was being bombarded.[83] He returned to Key West for a few months, then back to Spain twice in 1938 where he was present at the Battle of the Ebro, the last republican stand, and was among the British and American journalists who were some of the last to leave the battle as they crossed the river.[84][85]HP Pavilion dv7-6014tx Battery

 

In the spring of 1939, Hemingway crossed to Cuba in his boat to live in the Hotel Ambos Mundos in Havana. This was the separation phase of a slow and painful split from Pauline, which had begun when Hemingway met Martha.[86] HP Pavilion dv7-6015eg Battery

Martha soon joined him in Cuba, and they almost immediately rented "Finca Vigia" ("Lookout Farm"), a 15-acre (61,000 m2) property 15 miles (24 km) from Havana. The attraction of the sea, the warm, deep, current of the Gulf Stream, the great blue river as Hemingway called it, where the fishing forsailfish, kingfish, swordfish and marlin was excellent, HP Pavilion dv7-6015sg Battery

was very great. Cojimar, east of Havana, became a regular haunt.[87] Pauline and the children left Hemingway that summer, after the family was reunited during a visit to Wyoming. After Hemingway's divorce from Pauline was finalized, he and Martha were married November 20, 1940, in Cheyenne, Wyoming.[88] HP Pavilion dv7-6025eg Battery

As he had after his divorce from Hadley, he changed locations, moving his primary summer residence to Ketchum, Idaho, just outside the newly built resort of Sun Valley, and his winter residence to Cuba.[89] Hemingway, who had been disgusted when a Parisian friend allowed his cats to eat from the table, "developed a passion for cats" in Cuba, keeping dozens of them on the property.[90]HP Pavilion dv7-6055ef Battery


 

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